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1

Sulfate reducing bacteria in microbial mats: Changing paradigms, new discoveries  

E-print Network

: Sulfate-reducing bacteria; Biofilms; Carbonate precipitation; Lithification; Stromatolites; Microbial mats's 4.6 Ga history (Shen and Buick, 2004). Isotopic evidence indicates that sulfate reduction evolved

2

[Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds. PMID:21598657

Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

2011-01-01

3

Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

2011-03-15

4

Sulfate reducing bacteria in microbial mats: Changing paradigms, new discoveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have existed throughout much of Earth's history and remain major contributors to carbon cycling in modern systems. Despite their importance, misconceptions about SRB are prevalent. In particular, SRB are commonly thought to lack oxygen tolerance and to exist only in anoxic environments. Through the last two decades, researchers have discovered that SRB can, in fact, tolerate

L. K. Baumgartner; R. P. Reid; C. Dupraz; A. W. Decho; D. H. Buckley; J. R. Spear; K. M. Przekop; P. T. Visscher

2006-01-01

5

Complex Dielectric Properties of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can potentially enhance the remediation of heavy metals in the subsurface. Previous geophysical research has demonstrated the sensitivity of electrical measurements to SRB mediated mineral transformation in porous media. However, the inherent dielectric properties of SRB and their direct contribution to the electrical properties of porous media are poorly understood. We studied the complex dielectric properties of

Chi Zhang; Lee Slater; Camelia Prodan

2012-01-01

6

Remediation of acid mine drainage with sulfate reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed changes in dissolved metal concentrations and pH. Using synthetic acid mine drainage and combinations of inputs, students monitor their bioreactors for decreases in dissolved copper and iron concentrations.

Hauri, J.F.; Schaider, L.A. [Assumption College, Worcester, MA (USA)

2009-02-15

7

Activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in human periodontal pocket.  

PubMed

Samples of subgingival dental tissues were examined for the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Using enrichment cultures, SRBs were detected in 9 of 17 individuals. A pure culture of SRB was obtained from one sample collected from a patient with type IV periodontal disease. The characterization of this isolate showed that it belongs to the genus Desulfovibrio. The isolate used pyruvate, lactate, glucose, fructose, and ethanol as the sole source of carbon. However, the isolate was unable to use acetate and methanol as a carbon source, indicating it as an incomplete oxidizer unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of substrates. Apart from using sulfate as electron acceptor, the isolate also used thiosulfate and nitrate as an electron acceptor. It has the ability to use a variety of nitrogen sources, including ammonium chloride, nitrate, and glutamate. The optimum growth temperature of the isolate was 37 degrees C and the optimum pH for growth was 6.8. The SRB isolate contained the electron carrier desulfoviridin. The numbers of SRB in the mouth are assumed to be limited by sulfate. Potential sources of sulfate in the subgingival area include free sulfate in pocket fluid and glycosaminoglycans and sulfur-containing amino acids from periodontal tissues. PMID:12619823

Boopathy, R; Robichaux, M; LaFont, D; Howell, M

2002-12-01

8

SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are rooted in anoxic sediments that support high levels of microbial activity including utilization of sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor which is reduced to sulfide. Sulfate reduction in seagrass bed sediments is stimulated by input of organic carbon through the ...

9

Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in analyses of metabolites with benzene-grown cultures, suggesting an activation of benzene via carboxylation.

Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

2010-05-01

10

Distribution of Methanogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Near-Shore Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

The distribution of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria was examined in sediments from three sites off the coast of eastern Connecticut and five sites in Long Island Sound. Both bacterial groups were detected at all sites. Three distributional patterns were observed: (i) four sites exhibited methanogenic and sulfate-reducing populations which were restricted to the upper 10 to 20 cm, with a predominance of sulfate reducers; (ii) three sites in western Long Island Sound exhibited a methanogenic population most abundant in sediments deeper than those occupied by sulfate reducers; (iii) at one site that was influenced by fresh groundwater, methanogens and sulfate reducers were numerous within the same depths; however, the number of sulfate reducers varied vertically and temporally with sulfate concentrations. It was concluded that the distributions of abundant methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria were mutually exclusive. Methanogenic enrichments yielded all genera of methanogens except Methanosarcina, with the methanobacteria predominating. PMID:16345950

Hines, Mark E.; Buck, John D.

1982-01-01

11

Novel thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from a geothermally active underground mine in Japan.  

PubMed

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched from samples obtained from a geothermal underground mine in Japan. The enrichment cultures contained bacteria affiliated with the genera Desulfotomaculum, Thermanaeromonas, Thermincola, Thermovenabulum, Moorella, "Natronoanaerobium," and Clostridium. Two novel thermophilic sulfate-reducing strains, RL50JIII and RL80JIV, affiliated with the genera Desulfotomaculum and Thermanaeromonas, respectively, were isolated. PMID:16672530

Kaksonen, Anna H; Plumb, Jason J; Robertson, Wendy J; Spring, Stefan; Schumann, Peter; Franzmann, Peter D; Puhakka, Jaakko A

2006-05-01

12

Stable carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biogeochemical transformations occurring in the anoxic zones of stratified sedimentary microbial communities can profoundly influence the isotopic and organic signatures preserved in the fossil record. Accordingly, we have determined carbon isotope discrimination that is associated with both heterotrophic and lithotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). For heterotrophic-growth experiments, substrate consumption was monitored to completion. Sealed vessels containing SRB cultures were harvested at different time intervals, and delta(13)C values were determined for gaseous CO(2), organic substrates, and products such as biomass. For three of the four SRB, carbon isotope effects between the substrates, acetate or lactate and CO(2), and the cell biomass were small, ranging from 0 to 2 per thousand. However, for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the carbon incorporated into biomass was isotopically heavier than the available substrates by 8 to 9 per thousand. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of the available CO(2) and exhibited substantial discrimination (calculated as isotope fractionation factors [alpha]), as follows: for Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, alpha values ranged from 1.0100 to 1.0123; for Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, the alpha value was 0.0138, and for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the alpha value was 1.0310. Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO(2) resulted in biomass with a delta(13)C composition intermediate to that of the substrates. The extent of fractionation depended on which enzymatic pathways were used, the direction in which the pathways operated, and the growth rate, but fractionation was not dependent on the growth phase. To the extent that environmental conditions affect the availability of organic substrates (e.g., acetate) and reducing power (e.g., H(2)), ecological forces can also influence carbon isotope discrimination by SRB.

Londry, Kathleen L.; Des Marais, David J.

2003-01-01

13

Competitive reaction kinetics of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic model for the anaerobic filter (AF) that takes into account the mass fractions of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (fSRB) and methanogenic bacteria (MB) (fMB) and an inhibiting effect of H2S on bacterial groups is proposed. When the acetate-fed AFs were maintained at the low organic loading rate of 2.5kg COD\\/m3d, variations of the influent COD\\/SO42- ratio (0.5–3.0) does not

Hsin-Hsien Chou; Ju-Sheng Huang; Wen-Guang Chen; Reiko Ohara

2008-01-01

14

Use of sulfate reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment  

SciTech Connect

The environmental impacts caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) were first recorded in 1556 by Georgius Agricola. In the United States 10,000 miles of streams and 29,000 surface acres of impoundments are estimated to be seriously affected by AMD. Abandoned surface mines are estimated to contribute about 15% of the drainage, while active mines (40%) and shaft and drift mines (45%) contribute the remainder. AMD results when metal sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), come in contact with oxygen and water. Acid generation occurs when metal sulfide minerals are oxidized according to the Initiator Reaction: FeS{sub 2}(pyrite) + 3 1/2O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {yields} Fe{sup 2+} + 2SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} + 2H{sup +}. This reaction is one of many that results in increased metal mobility and increased acidity (lowered pH) of the mine water. The oxidation of ferrous sulfate is accelerated by bacterial action of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, a naturally occurring bacterium that at pH 3.5 or less, can rapidly accelerate the conversion of dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous iron) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric iron), and can act as an oxidant for the oxidation of pyrite. Ferric ions, as well as other metal ions, and the sulfuric acid have a deleterious influence on the biota of streams receiving AMD. The Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine, located in the Elliston Mining District of Powell County, Montana, was selected as the Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) technology demonstration site. The mine is situated on a patented claim on Deerlodge National Forest Land about 11 miles south of Elliston, Montana. This abandoned mining operation consists of a 250-foot shaft, four horizontal workings, and some stopping. The shaft is flooded with AMD to the 74-foot level and is discharging about 3 gallons per minute (gpm) at a pH of 3.0 from the adit associated with this level.

Powers, T.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

15

Two new arsenate\\/sulfate-reducing bacteria: mechanisms of arsenate reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sulfate-reducing bacteria, which also reduce arsenate, were isolated; both organisms oxidized lactate incompletely to\\u000a acetate. When using lactate as the electron donor, one of these organisms, Desulfomicrobium strain Ben-RB, rapidly reduced (doubling time = 8 h) 5.1 mM arsenate at the same time it reduced sulfate (9.6 mM). Sulfate\\u000a reduction was not inhibited by the presence of arsenate. Arsenate

J. M. Macy; J. M. Santini; B. V. Pauling; A. H. O’Neill; L. I. Sly

2000-01-01

16

A revised isotope fractionation model for dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sulfate reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction has been conceptually described by the widely accepted Rees model as related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of bacteria. The magnitude of isotope fractionation is determined by the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. Here we present a revision of Rees’ model for

Benjamin Brunner; Stefano M. Bernasconi

2005-01-01

17

A Revised Isotope Fractionation Model for Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction is related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of the bacteria. The magnitude of fractionation is dependent on the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. One of the most intriguing questions in sulfur isotope geochemistry stems from the observation that in natural environments, sulfides

B. Benjamin; S. M. Bernasconi

2004-01-01

18

Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Souring, the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), is a common problem during secondary oil recovery when water is injected to produce the remaining oil. SRB reduce sulfate in the injection water to sulfide, while oxidizing degradable organic electron do- nors present in the oil reservoir. The concentration of sulfate introduced depends on

Casey Hubert; Gerrit Voordouw

2007-01-01

19

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioremediation of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface necessitate an understanding of the metabolic capacities and interactions of the anaerobic microorganisms that are found there, including members of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Genetic ...

J. D. Wall

2009-01-01

20

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activities in Cyanobacterial Mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

PubMed Central

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 106 and 107 cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml?1 and showed sulfate reduction rates between 1,000 and 2,200 nmol ml?1 day?1, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 104 to 106 cells ml?1. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO2 from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO2 demand of the mat. PMID:9687455

Teske, Andreas; Ramsing, Niels B.; Habicht, Kirsten; Fukui, Manabu; Kuver, Jan; J?rgensen, Bo Barker; Cohen, Yehuda

1998-01-01

21

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 7} cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1}. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO{sub 2} from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO{sub 2} demand of the mat.

Teske, A.; Ramsing, N.B.; Habicht, K.; Kuever, J.; Joergensen, B.B. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Fukui, Manabu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Cohen, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-08-01

22

A Revised Isotope Fractionation Model for Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction is related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of the bacteria. The magnitude of fractionation is dependent on the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. One of the most intriguing questions in sulfur isotope geochemistry stems from the observation that in natural environments, sulfides are commonly depleted in 34S by -45\\permil to -70\\permil relative to sulfate whereas maximum sulfur isotope difference between produced sulfides and sulfate of around -46\\permil have been obtained in laboratory cultures. A maximum fractionation of 47\\permil was also predicted by the model of sulfate reduction introduced by Rees (1973). The Rees model is commonly accepted but since its introduction, new information about sulfate reduction and isotope fractionation processes has become available in the literature that demands an update of some of its assumptions. We present a improved model for bacterial sulfate reduction which includes revised fractionation factors for the sulfite-sulfide step, a multi-step reduction of sulfite to sulfide including reverse flows and an exchange flux of sulfide between the cell and ambient water. With this model we show that, contrary to the model of Rees (1973), isotope fractionations well in excess of -47\\permil are possible. Therefore, some of the large sulfur isotope fractionations observed in nature may be explained without the need of alternate pathways involving the oxidative sulfur cycle as proposed by Canfield and Thamdrup (1994). In particular, we speculate that large fractionations should occur under hypersulfidic conditions and substrate limitation. We obviously do not disregard the involvement of processes related to the oxidative cycle of sulfur in near-surface environments, but our model suggests that this is not a prerequisite condition to obtain large isotope fractionations. References: Canfield D. E. and Thamdrup B. (1994) Science, 266, 1973-1975. Rees (1973) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 1141-1162

Benjamin, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.

2004-12-01

23

Vertical distribution of major sulfate-reducing bacteria in a shallow eutrophic meromictic lake.  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated in a shallow, eutrophic, meromictic lake, Lake Harutori, located in a residential area of Kushiro, Japan. A steep chemocline, characterized by gradients of oxygen, sulfide and salinity, was found at a depth of 3.5-4.0m. The sulfide concentration at the bottom of the lake was high (up to a concentration of 10.7mM). Clone libraries were constructed using the aprA gene, which encodes adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase subunit A, in order to monitor sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the aprA clone libraries, the most abundant sequences were those from the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus (DSS) group. A primer set for a DSS group-specific 16S rRNA gene was used to construct another clone library, analysis of which revealed that the uncultured group of sulfate-reducing bacteria, SEEP SRB-1, accounted for nearly half of the obtained sequences. Quantification of the major bacterial groups by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that the DSS group accounted for 3.2-4.8% of the total bacterial community below the chemocline. The results suggested that the DSS group was one of the major groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria and that these presumably metabolically versatile bacteria might play an important role in sulfur cycling in Lake Harutori. PMID:25034383

Kubo, Kyoko; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2014-10-01

24

Activated sludge as substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage (AMD), characterized by high concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals and low pH, presents a potential hazard to the environment.Several treatment processes (chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and electrolytic recovery) are available, but these are often too expensive. Biological treatment of AMD, mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), seems promising. The objective of this study was to use activated sludge as a carbon source for the SRB and determine the most effective COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) for reducing sulfate. Such information would be useful for the application of the proposed two-stage system to AMD treatment. Since the aim of this study was to obtain sulfate reduction and to avoid methane production, it was decided to operate the digesters initially at low COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratios of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0.

Al-Ani, W.A.G.; Henry, J.G.; Prasad, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1996-11-01

25

Phylogenetic Characteristics of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria Having Ability to Reduce Polysulfide  

SciTech Connect

To find an efficient bacterium, which has the strong capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide from polysulfide as the waste of process generating hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide by photocatalytic reaction using sun light, is very important for constructing hydrogen producing system. 10 strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which can reduce polysulfide directly, have been isolated from various natural samples such as TCE contaminated soil, soil and sludge around hot spring environment, and the cooling tower of a geothermal plant. This study describes physiological and phylogenetic characterization of SRB which can reduce polysulfide. All of isolates had the ability to reduce polusulfide but these reduction rates were difference depend on isolates. Phylogetetically, all of isolates located difference position for general SRB including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, which is used standard strain in this study, so they do not belong to Proteobacteria. These have close relation to the genus Desulfotomaculum which can reduce elemental sulfur. It suggests that the ability of reducing elemental sulfur is important for reducing polysulfide to hydrogen sulfide.

Takahashi, Yui; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

2006-05-15

26

A revised isotope fractionation model for dissimilatory sulfate reduction in sulfate reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction has been conceptually described by the widely accepted Rees model as related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of bacteria. The magnitude of isotope fractionation is determined by the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. Here we present a revision of Rees' model for bacterial sulfate reduction that includes revised fractionation factors for the sulfite-sulfide step and incorporates new forward and reverse steps in the reduction of sulfite to sulfide, as well as exchange of sulfide between the cell and ambient water. With this model we show that in contrast to the Rees model, isotope fractionations well in excess of -46‰ are possible. Therefore, some of the large sulfur isotope fractionations observed in nature can be explained without the need of alternate pathways involving the oxidative sulfur cycle. We use this model to predict that large fractionations should occur under hypersulfidic conditions and where electron acceptor concentrations are limiting.

Brunner, Benjamin; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

2005-10-01

27

Treatment of acid mine drainage by sulfate reducing bacteria with iron in bench scale runs.  

PubMed

In order to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) effectively using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals, Fe(0) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. When AMD was treated by SRB and Fe(0) at 25 °C, more than 61% of sulfate was removed and the effluent pH was improved from 2.75 to 6.20 during the operation. Cu(2+) was removed effectively with the removal efficiency at 99%, while only 86% of Fe(2+) was removed during the AMD treatment, without conspicuous change of Mn(2+) in the effluent in the process. PMID:23182037

Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

2013-01-01

28

Comparative Analysis of Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Anoxic Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of methane in anoxic marine sediments is thought to be mediated by a consortium of meth- ane-consuming archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this study, we compared results of rRNA gene (rDNA) surveys and lipid analyses of archaea and bacteria associated with methane seep sediments from several different sites on the Californian continental margin. Two distinct archaeal lineages (ANME-1

V. J. Orphan; K.-U. Hinrichs; W. USSLER III; C. K. Paull; L. T. Taylor; S. P. Sylva; J. M. Hayes; E. F. Delong

2001-01-01

29

Role of sulfate?reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sulfate?reducing bacteria on corrosion of mild steel is reviewed, with special emphasis on the effects of biofilm structure and function, medium composition (dissolved oxygen and ferrous ion concentrations) and the physical and chemical properties of iron sulfides. A summary of different corrosion mechanisms is critically discussed, based on electrochemical and rate process analyses. A mechanism is proposed

Whonchee Lee; Zbigniew Lewandowski; Per H Nielsen; W Allan Hamilton

1995-01-01

30

Field Tests of ?In-Situ? Remediation of Groundwater From Dissolved Mercury Utilizing Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of biologically active filters have been conducted at groundwater mercury pollution site in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. The biofilters represented cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) immobilized on claydite imbedded in wells drilled down to basalt clay layer (14-17 ...

31

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE METALS BY STRONGLY MAGNETIC IRON SULFIDE NANOPARTICLES PRODUCED BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of a number of radioactive ions from solution by a strongly magnetic iron sulfide material was studied. The material was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a novel bioreactor. The uptake was rapid and loading on the adsorbent was high due to the high surface area of the adsorbent and because many of the ions were chemisorbed. The structural

J. H. P. Watson; I. W. Croudace; P. E. Warwick; P. A. B. James; J. M. Charnock; D. C. Ellwood

2001-01-01

32

DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD-BIOREACTORS USING THE BEST MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD-BIOREACTORS USING THE BEST MODEL Marek H. Zaluski1,3, Brian T. Park1, Diana R. Bless2 1 MSE Technology Applications; 200 Technology Way, Butte, Montana 59701, USA 2 U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinna...

33

Different K s values for hydrogen of methanogenic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria: An explanation for the apparent inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Marburg) and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus (AZ) are anaerobic sewage sludge bacteria which grow on H2 plus sulfate and H2 plus CO2 as sole energy sources, respectively. Their apparent Ks values for H2 were determined and found to be approximately 1 µM for the sulfate reducing bacterium and 6 µM for the methanogenic bacterium. In mixed cell suspensions of the

Jakob K. Kristjansson; Peter Schönheit; Rudolf K. Thauer

1982-01-01

34

Anaerobic degradation of methylmercaptan and dimethyl sulfide by newly isolated thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

The complete oxidation of methylmercaptan (MSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors was observed in enrichment cultures and dilution series using thermophilic fermentor sludge as the inoculum. Three new strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers were isolated in pure culture (strains MTS5, TDS2, and SDN4). Strain MTS5 grew on MSH and strain TDS2 grew on DMS whereas strain SDN4 grew on either MSH or DMS. The cellular growth yields were 2.57 g (dry weight)/mol of MSH for strain MTS5 and 6.02 g (dry weight)/mol of DMS for strain TDS2. All strains used sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate as electron acceptors, but only strain SDN4 used nitrate. DMS and MSH were oxidized to CO2 and sulfide with either sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate was stoichiometrically reduced to sulfide while nitrate was reduced to ammonium. All strains were motile rods, required biotin for growth, lacked desulfoviridin, had DNA with G+C contents of 48 to 57 mol% and probably belonged to the genus Desulfotomaculum. This is the first report of the oxidation of MSH and DMS by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:8074524

Tanimoto, Y; Bak, F

1994-07-01

35

Behavior of plutonium interacting with bentonite and sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The interactions between sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria and plutonium, with or without bentonite present, were investigated using distribution coefficients [Kd (ml/g)] as an index of the radionuclide behavior. Plutonium Kds for living bacteria varied within a large range, from 1,804 to 112,952, depending on the pH, while the Kds ranged from 1,180 to 5,931 for dead bacteria. In general, living bacteria had higher plutonium Kds than dead bacteria. Furthermore, the higher Kd values of 39,677 to 106,915 for living bacteria were obtained for a pH range between 6.83 and 8.25, while no visible pH effect was observed for dead bacteria. These Kd values were obtained using tracers for both {sup 236}Pu and {sup 239}Pu, which can check the experimental procedures and mass balance. Another comparison was conducted for plutonium Kd values of mixtures of living bacteria with bentonite and sterilized bacteria with bentonite. The range of Kd values for the non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite were 1,194 to 83,648 while Kd values for the sterilized bacteria with bentonite were from 624 to 17,236. Again, the Kd values for the living bacteria with bentonite were higher than those of sterilized bacteria with bentonite. In other words, the presence of living anaerobic bacteria with bentonite increased, by roughly 50 times, the Kd values of {sup 239}Pu when compared to the mixture of dead bacteria with bentonite. The results indicate that the effects of anaerobic bacteria within the engineered barrier system (in this case bentonite) will play a significant role in the behavior of plutonium in geologic repositories.

Kudo, A.; Zheng, J.; Cayer, I. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Fujikawa, Y. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Asano, H.; Arai, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Isogo, Yokohama (Japan); Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1997-12-31

36

Innovative, In Situ Use of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria to Remove Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unregulated heavy-metal mining in the West during the early to mid-1900s resulted in the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) at many locations. AMD is characterized by low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals. Results are presented that were gathered during on- going field-scale testing of an innovative technology, the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), designed to treat and

Marietta Canty; Randy Hiebert; Mary Ann Harrington-Baker; Diana Bless

37

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms by expressing the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and bactenecin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  To identify novel, less-toxic compounds capable of inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in suspension cultures were exposed to several antimicrobial peptides. The bacterial peptide antimicrobials gramicidin S,\\u000a gramicidin D, and polymyxin B as well as the cationic peptides indolicidin and bactenecin from bovine neutrophils decreased\\u000a the viability of both SRB by 90% after a 1-h exposure

A Jayaraman; F B Mansfeld; T K Wood

1999-01-01

38

Molecular phylogenetic and biogeochemical studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons by molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SOâ²⁻ reduction rates and geochemical parameters. Soâ²⁻ reduction was rapid in marsh sediments with rates up to 3.5 μmol ml⁻¹ day⁻¹. Rates increased greatly when plant

MARK E. HINES; ROBERT S. EVANS; S. G. Willis; J. N. Rooney-Varga; B. R. S. Genthner; S. Friedman; RICHARD DEVEREUX

1999-01-01

39

Competition between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria for H 2 under resting and growing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basis for the outcome of competition between sulfidogens and methanogens for H2 was examined by comparing the kinetic parameters of representatives of each group separately and in co-culture. Michaelis-Menten parameters (Vmax and Km) for four methanogens and five sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined from H2-depletion data. Further, Monod growth parameters (µmax, Ks, YH2) for Desulfovibrio sp. G11 and Methanospirillum hungatei

Joseph A. Robinson; James M. Tiedje

1984-01-01

40

Diversity and Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Groundwater at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(IV) plays a role in both natural attenu- ation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium

YUN-JUAN CHANG; AARON D. PEACOCK; PHILIP E. LONG; JOHN R. STEPHEN; JAMES P. MCKINLEY; SARAH J. MACNAUGHTON; A. K. M. A. Hussain; ARNOLD M. SAXTON; DAVID C. WHITE

2001-01-01

41

Reduction and precipitation of neptunium(V) by sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

SciTech Connect

Migration of neptunium, as NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, has been identified as a potentially important pathway for actinide release at nuclear waste repositories and existing sites of subsurface contamination. Reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) will likely reduce its volubility, resulting in lowered subsurface migration. The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to utilize Np(V) as an electron acceptor was investigated, because these bacteria are active in many anaerobic aquifers and are known to facilitate the reduction of metals and radionuclides. Pure and mixed cultures of SRB were able to precipitate neptunium during utilization of pyruvate, lactate, and hydrogen as electron donors in the presence and absence of sulfate. The neptunium in the precipitate was identified as Np(IV) using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. In mixed-culture studies, the addition of hydrogen to consortia grown by pyruvate fermentation stimulated neptunium reduction and precipitation. Experiments with pure cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, growing by lactate fermentation in the absence of sulfate or by sulfate reduction, confirm that the organism is active in neptunium reduction and precipitation. Based on our results, the activity of SRB in the subsurface may have a significant, and potentially beneficial, impact on actinide mobility by reducing neptunium volubility.

Banaszak, J. E.; Rittmann, B. E.; Reed, D. T.

1999-10-21

42

Physiology, phylogenetic relationships, and ecology of filamentous sulfate-reducing bacteria (genus desulfonema)  

PubMed

Microscopy of organic-rich, sulfidic sediment samples of marine and freshwater origin revealed filamentous, multicellular microorganisms with gliding motility. Many of these neither contained sulfur droplets such as the Beggiatoa species nor exhibited the autofluorescence of the chlorophyll-containing cyanobacteria. A frequently observed morphological type of filamentous microorganism was enriched under anoxic conditions in the dark with isobutyrate plus sulfate. Two strains of filamentous, gliding sulfate-reducing bacteria, Tokyo 01 and Jade 02, were isolated in pure cultures. Both isolates oxidized acetate and other aliphatic acids. Enzyme assays indicated that the terminal oxidation occurs via the anaerobic C(1) pathway (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway). The 16S rRNA genes of the new isolates and of the two formerly described filamentous species of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfonema limicola and Desulfonema magnum, were analyzed. All four strains were closely related to each other and affiliated with the delta-subclass of Proteobacteria. Another close relative was the unicellular Desulfococcus multivorans. Based on phylogenetic relationships and physiological properties, Strains Tokyo 01 and Jade 02 are assigned to a new species, Desulfonema ishimotoi. A new, fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probe targeted against 16S rRNA was designed so that that it hybridized specifically with whole cells of Desulfonema species. Filamentous bacteria that hybridized with the same probe were detected in sediment samples and in association with the filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thioploca in its natural habitat. We conclude that Desulfonema species constitute an ecologically significant fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria in organic-rich sediments and microbial mats. PMID:10525735

Fukui; Teske; Assmus; Muyzer; Widdel

1999-10-01

43

Long-term competition between sulfate reducing and methanogenic bacteria in UASB reactors treating volatile fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competition between acetate utilizing methane-producing bacteria (MB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied in mesophilic (30 C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors treating volatile fatty acids and sulfate. The UASB reactors treated a VFA mixture (with an acetate:propionate:butyrate ratio of 5:3:2 on COD basis) or acetate as the sole substrate at different COD:sulfate ratios. The outcome of the

F. Omil; P. Lens; A. Visser; L. W. Hulshoff Pol; G. Lettinga

1998-01-01

44

Sulfate- and Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria as Terrestrial Analogs for Microbial Life on Jupiter's Satellite Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have revealed Jupiter's moon Io to be the most volcanically active body of our Solar System. The Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS) detected extensive deposits of sulfur compounds, elemental sulfur and SO2 frost on the surface of Io. There are extreme temperature variations on Io's surface, ranging from -130 C to over 2000 C at the Pillan Patera volcanic vent. The active volcanoes, fumaroles, calderas, and lava lakes and vast sulfur deposits on this frozen moon indicate that analogs of sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria might inhabit Io. Hence Io may have great significance to Astrobiology. Earth's life forms that depend on sulfur respiration are members of two domains: Bacteria and Archaea. Two basic links of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of Earth have been studied: 1) the sulfur oxidizing process (occurring at aerobic conditions) and 2) the process of sulfur-reduction to hydrogen sulfide (anaerobic conditions). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (StRB) and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SrRB) are responsible for anaerobic reducing processes. At the present time the systematics of StRB include over 112 species distributed into 35 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. Moderately thermophilic and mesophilic SrRB belong to the Bacteria. The hyperthermophilic SrRB predominately belong to the domain Archaea and are included in the genera: Pyrodictium, Thermoproteus, Pyrobaculum, Thermophilum, Desulfurococcus, and Thermodiscus. The StRB and SrRB use a wide spectrum of substrates as electron donors for lithotrophic and heterotrophic type nutrition. The electron acceptors for the StRB include: sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfur, arsenate, dithionite, tetrathionate, sulfur monoxide, iron, nitrite, selenite, fumarate, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and chlorine-containing phenol compounds. The Sulfate- and Sulfur-reducing bacteria are widely distributed in anaerobic ecosystems, including extreme environments like hot springs, deepsea hydrothermal vents, soda and high salinity lakes, and cryo-environments. Furthermore, the StRB and SrRB have Astrobiological significance as these anaerobic extremophiles may represent the dominant relic life forms that inhabited our planet during the extensive volcanic activity in the Earth's early evolutionary period.

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

45

Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Guaymas Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2003-01-01

46

Influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria on alloy 625 and austenitic stainless steel weldments  

SciTech Connect

A series of welded austenitic stainless steel and alloy 625 clad specimens were exposed to natural lake water inoculated with a mixed culture of anaerobic organisms high in sulfate-reducing bacteria. Total exposure was 300 days. The water and bacteria were taken from an actual service water system. Electrochemical testing included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, monitoring of open-circuit potential (E{sub oc}), and zero resistance ammetry tests. Comparison of electrochemical and visual observations to sterile controls indicated electrochemical behavior of all materials in the test matrix was influenced by the bacteria. Polarization resistance and E{sub oc} values were reduced dramatically. Attack was along the fusion line of the weld. The magnitude of these effects followed a trend predicted by the pitting index for each material.

Enos, D.G.; Taylor, S.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

47

Kinetics of sulfate and hydrogen uptake by the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfobacterium sp. strain JSP and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. strain R1Ha3  

SciTech Connect

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are the main terminal processes in the anaerobic food chain. Both the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the methane-producing archaea (MPA) use acetate and hydrogen as substrates and, therefore, compete for common electron donors in sulfate-containing natural environments. Due to a higher affinity for the electron donors acetate and hydrogen, SRB outcompete MPA for these compounds whenever sulfate is present in sufficient concentrations. Half-saturation constants (K{sub m}), maximum uptake rates (V{sub max}), and threshold concentrations for sulfate and hydrogen were determined for two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an incubation system without headspace. K{sub m} values determined for the thermophilic SRB were similar to the constants described for mesophilic SRB isolated from environments with low sulfate concentrations.

Sonne-Hansen, J.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Biotechnology; Westermann, P. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of General Microbiology

1999-03-01

48

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Objective A: Electron transfer components necessary for uranium reduction. Objective B: Possible FNR-analog in the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Attempts to isolate FNR or FIKJ analogs from Desuflovibrio through the design of degenerate primers for amplification of portions of the genes has not been successful. In contrast, several amplicons have been generated for the genes encoding the regulators of two-component signal sequences. Since several global regulators fall into this class, we are attempting to obtain sufficient sequence information to indicate what metabolic pathways are affected by the regulators. Cloning and sequencing of two such amplicons has revealed that bona fide two-component regulators are present in Desulfovibrio.

Wall, Judy D.

1999-06-01

49

AFM study of the effect of metronidazole on surface structures of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

The effect of metronidazole (ME) on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in this paper. Topography images of SRB cell show that after exposure to ME individual cell shape is sharply modified. Topography and phase images of SRB cell wall show that after exposure to ME not only the roughness of the cell wall increases but also the physical performance of SRB surface is changed to be uniform. AFM frictional loops show that after exposure to ME, SRB surface friction is increased remarkably. PMID:16701623

Chen, Z Y; Guo, X P; Huang, J Y; Hong, Y L; Zhang, Q

2006-04-01

50

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the previous grant period were designed to explore the electron transport pathway employed by the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). More specifically experiments were designed to determine whether U(VI) reduction by members of the genus Desulfovibrio was mediated by a unique, dedicated reductase or occurred as a fortuitous reaction with a reductase naturally involved in alternative reduction processes. In addition, the regulation of the hierarchical expression of terminal electron acceptors (reductases) in the SRB was to be examined.

Wall, Judy D.

2001-06-01

51

D/H fractionation in lipids of facultative and obligate denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids has been shown to vary broadly in both cultured bacteria and in environmental samples. Culturing studies have indicated that this variability may primarily reflect metabolism; however, the limited number of organisms studied thus far prevents application of these trends to interpretation of environmental samples. Here we report D/H fractionations in anaerobic bacteria, including both facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms with a range of electron donors, acceptors, and metabolic pathways. Experiments using the metabolically flexible alphaproteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans probe particular central metabolic pathways using a range of terminal electron acceptors. While a large range of ?D values has been observed during aerobic metabolism, denitrifying cultures produce a more limited range in ?D values that are more similar to each other than the corresponding aerobic culture. Data from the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus indicate that chemolithoautotrophy and anaerobic heterotrophy can produce similar ?D values, and are similar between bacteria despite differing metabolic pathways. These results suggest that the fractionation of D/H depends both on the specific metabolic pathway and the electron acceptor. While this is not inconsistent with previous studies, it suggests the simple correspondence between ?D and metabolism previously understood from aerobic bacteria is not universally applicable.

Osburn, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.

2012-12-01

52

Kinetics of sulfate and hydrogen uptake by the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfobacterium sp. strain JSP and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. strain R1Ha3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are the main terminal processes in the anaerobic food chain. Both the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the methane-producing archaea (MPA) use acetate and hydrogen as substrates and, therefore, compete for common electron donors in sulfate-containing natural environments. Due to a higher affinity for the electron donors acetate and hydrogen, SRB outcompete MPA for these compounds

JACOB SONNE-HANSEN; B. K. Ahring; P. Westermann

1999-01-01

53

Growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria with sulfur as electron acceptor.  

PubMed

In addition to three new isolates, six strains of representative species of sulfate-reducing bacteria were tested for their capacity to use elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor for growth. There was good growth and sulfide production by strain Norway 4 and the three isolates, two of which had been enriched with sulfur flower and one isolated from a culture with green sulfur bacteria. Slow but definite growth was observed with Desulfovibrio gigas. The type of strains of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, D. vulgaris, and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans as well as Desulfomanoas pigra did not grow with sulfur. The four strains that grew well with sulfur flower were straight, nonsporulating rods and did not contain desulfoviridin. PMID:843165

Biebl, H; Pfennig

1977-02-01

54

Analyses of spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activity in aerobic wastewater biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}{minus}, NH{sub 2}{sup +}, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the toxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations. The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 {micro}m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S{degree}) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms, which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-11-01

55

Molecular Phylogenetic and Biogeochemical Studies of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora  

PubMed Central

The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons by molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO42? reduction rates and geochemical parameters. SO42? reduction was rapid in marsh sediments with rates up to 3.5 ?mol ml?1 day?1. Rates increased greatly when plant growth began in April and decreased again when plants flowered in late July. Results with nucleic acid probes revealed that SRB rRNA accounted for up to 43% of the rRNA from members of the domain Bacteria in marsh sediments, with the highest percentages occurring in bacteria physically associated with root surfaces. The relative abundance (RA) of SRB rRNA in whole-sediment samples compared to that of Bacteria rRNA did not vary greatly throughout the year, despite large temporal changes in SO42? reduction activity. However, the RA of root-associated SRB did increase from <10 to >30% when plants were actively growing. rRNA from members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae comprised the majority of the SRB rRNA at 3 to 34% of Bacteria rRNA, with Desulfobulbus spp. accounting for 1 to 16%. The RA of Desulfovibrio rRNA generally comprised from <1 to 3% of the Bacteria rRNA. The highest Desulfobacteriaceae RA in whole sediments was 26% and was found in the deepest sediment samples (6 to 8 cm). Culturable SRB abundance, determined by most-probable-number analyses, was high at >107 ml?1. Ethanol utilizers were most abundant, followed by acetate utilizers. The high numbers of culturable SRB and the high RA of SRB rRNA compared to that of Bacteria rRNA may be due to the release of SRB substrates in plant root exudates, creating a microbial food web that circumvents fermentation. PMID:10224021

Hines, Mark E.; Evans, Robert S.; Sharak Genthner, Barbara R.; Willis, Stephanie G.; Friedman, Stephanie; Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.; Devereux, Richard

1999-01-01

56

Styrene N-vinylpyrrolidone metal-nanocomposites as antibacterial coatings against Sulfate Reducing Bacteria.  

PubMed

Copolymer of styrene, and vinylpyrrolidone was prepared by various techniques. Different nanometals and nanometal oxides were added into the copolymer as antimicrobial agents against Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). The nanocomposite chemical structure was confirmed by using FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The biocidal action of these nanocomposites against the SRB was detected using sulfide determination method in Postgate medium B. The data indicated that the nanocomposites had an inhibitory effect on the growth of SRB and reduced the bacterial corrosion rate of mild steel coupons. The prepared nanocomposites have high inhibition efficiency when applied as coatings and show less efficiency when applied as solids or solution into SRB medium. The copolymer and its nanocomposites effectively reduced the total corrosion rate as determined by total weight loss method. PMID:23910315

Fathy, M; Badawi, A; Mazrouaa, A M; Mansour, N A; Ghazy, E A; Elsabee, M Z

2013-10-01

57

PHYLOGENETIC TREE OF 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES FROM SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN A SANDY MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Phylogenetic divergence among sulfate-reducing bacteria in an estuarine sediment sample was investigated by PCR amplification and comparison of partial 16S rDNA sequences. wenty unique 16S RDNA sequences were found, 12 from delta subclass bacteria based on overall sequence simila...

58

(The genetics and molecular biology of hydrogen metabolism in sulfate-reducing bacteria): Progress report  

SciTech Connect

In anaerobic digestors and natural environments, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play a pivotal role in methane generation, either providing hydrogen and acetate for methane formation or competing with the methanogens for those same substrates. The SRB are also the primary culprits in causing environmental metal corrosion costing millions of dollars each year and in producing poisonous sulfide sometimes costing lives. Key factors controlling the interactions of the SRB with other microorganisms in their environment are hydrogen metabolism and their tolerance of exposures to oxygen. The number of enzymes capable of producing or consuming hydrogen in the SRB and their physiological functions remain obscure. Our laboratory is developing the genetics and molecular biology of the SRB with the aim of examining the hydrogen metabolism. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 has been found to be amenable to classical genetic manipulation, antibiotic resistant mutants as well as mutants altered in sulfate and hydrogen metabolism have been isolated. Most excitingly, this strain has been found to produce a defective bacteriophage capable of generalized transduction. This strain as well as G100A have been found to be capable of genetic exchange with Escherichia coli via conjugation involving Q-incompatibility group plasmids. Detailed examination of the metabolic properties of these bacteria is now possible.

Not Available

1988-12-01

59

Corrosion of Iron by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: New Views of an Old Problem  

PubMed Central

About a century ago, researchers first recognized a connection between the activity of environmental microorganisms and cases of anaerobic iron corrosion. Since then, such microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has gained prominence and its technical and economic implications are now widely recognized. Under anoxic conditions (e.g., in oil and gas pipelines), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly considered the main culprits of MIC. This perception largely stems from three recurrent observations. First, anoxic sulfate-rich environments (e.g., anoxic seawater) are particularly corrosive. Second, SRB and their characteristic corrosion product iron sulfide are ubiquitously associated with anaerobic corrosion damage, and third, no other physiological group produces comparably severe corrosion damage in laboratory-grown pure cultures. However, there remain many open questions as to the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions to corrosion. On the one hand, SRB damage iron constructions indirectly through a corrosive chemical agent, hydrogen sulfide, formed by the organisms as a dissimilatory product from sulfate reduction with organic compounds or hydrogen (“chemical microbially influenced corrosion”; CMIC). On the other hand, certain SRB can also attack iron via withdrawal of electrons (“electrical microbially influenced corrosion”; EMIC), viz., directly by metabolic coupling. Corrosion of iron by SRB is typically associated with the formation of iron sulfides (FeS) which, paradoxically, may reduce corrosion in some cases while they increase it in others. This brief review traces the historical twists in the perception of SRB-induced corrosion, considering the presently most plausible explanations as well as possible early misconceptions in the understanding of severe corrosion in anoxic, sulfate-rich environments. PMID:24317078

Garrelfs, Julia

2014-01-01

60

Reduction of Hexavalent Uranium from Organic Complexes by Sulfate- and Iron-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The influence of organic-hexavalent-uranium [U(VI)] complexation on U(VI) reduction by a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and an iron-reducing bacterium (Shewanella alga) was evaluated. Four aliphatic ligands (acetate, malonate, oxalate, and citrate) and an aromatic ligand (tiron [4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid]) were used to study complexed-uranium bioavailability. The trends in uranium reduction varied with the nature and the amount of U(VI)-organic complex formed and the type of bacteria present. D. desulfuricans rapidly reduced uranium from a monodentate aliphatic (acetate) complex. However, reduction from multidentate aliphatic complexes (malonate, oxalate, and citrate) was slower. A decrease in the amount of organic-U(VI) complex in solution significantly increased the rate of reduction. S. alga reduced uranium more rapidly from multidentate aliphatic complexes than from monodentate aliphatic complexes. The rate of reduction decreased with a decrease in the amount of multidentate complexes present. Uranium from an aromatic (tiron) complex was readily available for reduction by D. desulfuricans, while an insignificant level of U(VI) from the tiron complex was reduced by S. alga. These results indicate that selection of bacteria for rapid uranium reduction will depend on the organic composition of waste streams. PMID:16535729

Ganesh, R.; Robinson, K. G.; Reed, G. D.; Sayler, G. S.

1997-01-01

61

In situ analysis of sulfate-reducing bacteria related to Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes in the chemocline of meromictic Lake Cadagno (Switzerland)  

SciTech Connect

Comparative sequence analysis of a 16S rRNA gene clone library from the chemocline of the meromictic Lake Cadagno (Switzerland) retrieved two clusters of sequences resembling sulfate-reducing bacteria within the family Desulfovibrionaceae. In situ hybridization showed that, similar to sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae, bacteria of one cluster with similarity values to the closest cultured relatives of between 92.6 and 93.1% resembled free cells or cells loosely attached to other cells or debris. Bacteria of the second cluster closely related to Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes DSM7269 with similarity values between 97.9 and 98.4% were generally associated with aggregates of different small-celled phototrophic sulfur bacteria, suggesting a potential interaction between the two groups of bacteria.

Tonolla, M.; Demarta, A.; Peduzzi, S.; Hahn, D.; Peduzzi, R.

2000-02-01

62

Evaluation of support materials for the immobilization of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the adhesion of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea on polyurethane foam (PU), vegetal carbon (VC), low-density polyethylene (PE) and alumina-based ceramics (CE). Anaerobic differential reactors fed with a sulfate-rich synthetic wastewater were used to evaluate the formation of a biofilm. The PU presented the highest specific biomass concentration throughout the experiment, achieving 872 mg TVS/g support, while 84 mg TVS/g support was the maximum value obtained for the other materials. FISH results showed that bacterial cells rather than archaeal cells were predominant on the biofilms. These cells, detected with EUB338 probe, accounted for 76.2% (+/-1.6%), 79.7% (+/-1.3%), 84.4% (+/-1.4%) and 60.2% (+/-1.0%) in PU, VC, PE and CE, respectively, of the 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells. From these percentages, 44.8% (+/-2.1%), 55.4% (+/-1.2%), 32.7% (+/-1.4%) and 18.1% (+/-1.1%), respectively, represented the SRB group. Archaeal cells, detected with ARC915 probe, accounted for 33.1% (+/-1.6%), 25.4% (+/-1.3%), 22.6% (+/-1.1%) and 41.9% (+/-1.0%) in PU, VC, PE and CE, respectively, of the DAPI-stained cells. Sulfate reduction efficiencies of 39% and 45% and mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 86% and 90% were achieved for PU and VC, respectively. The other two supports, PE and CE, provided mean COD removal efficiencies of 84% and 86%, respectively. However, no sulfate reduction was observed with these supports. PMID:16701621

Silva, A J; Hirasawa, J S; Varesche, M B; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

2006-04-01

63

New Family of Tungstate-Responsive Transcriptional Regulators in Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The trace elements molybdenum and tungsten are essential components of cofactors of many metalloenzymes. However, in sulfate-reducing bacteria, high concentrations of molybdate and tungstate oxyanions inhibit growth, thus requiring the tight regulation of their homeostasis. By a combination of bioinformatic and experimental techniques, we identified a novel regulator family, tungstate-responsive regulator (TunR), controlling the homeostasis of tungstate and molybdate in sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. The effector-sensing domains of these regulators are similar to those of the known molybdate-responsive regulator ModE, while their DNA-binding domains are homologous to XerC/XerD site-specific recombinases. Using a comparative genomics approach, we identified DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 40 TunR family members. Positional analysis of TunR sites and putative promoters allowed us to classify most TunR proteins into two groups: (i) activators of modABC genes encoding a high-affinity molybdenum and tungsten transporting system and (ii) repressors of genes for toluene sulfonate uptake (TSUP) family transporters. The activation of modA and modBC genes by TunR in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was confirmed in vivo, and we discovered that the activation was diminished in the presence of tungstate. A predicted 30-bp TunR-binding motif was confirmed by in vitro binding assays. A novel TunR family of bacterial transcriptional factors controls tungstate and molybdate homeostasis in sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We proposed that TunR proteins participate in protection of the cells from the inhibition by these oxyanions. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of a family of bacterial transcriptional factors evolved from site-specific recombinases. PMID:23913324

Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric G.; Zane, Grant M.; Siddartha, Kavya; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2013-01-01

64

Application Of Immobilized Sulfate Reducing Bacteria For Permeable Reactive Barriers In Abandoned Coal Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decline of the Korean coal industry has been drastic in production and consumption. This has been resulted mainly from the environmental concern and the collapse of commercial viability, which has eventually necessitated the government to implement the coal industry rationalization policies to reduce coal production and close down uneconomical mines. The overall drainage rates from abandoned coal mines reaches up to 80,000 ton/day. As a measure of controlling the acid mine drainage from abandoned coal mines, reactive materials in the pathways of drainage, designed to intercept and to transform the contaminants into environmentally acceptable forms can be applied at mines with small drainage rates. The main objective of this study is to design a permeable reactive barrier(PRB) to treat low flow and/or low contaminant loads of acid mine drainage. The PRB is comprised of immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria in hard beads and limestone to remove heavy metals and to raise the pH of AMD. A laboratory reactor was used to prepare a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria. The microbes were separated and mixed with biodegradable matrix to form spherical beads. In order to maintain the viability of micro-organisms for a prolonged period, substrates such as saw dust, polysaccharide or glycerol was supplemented for the beads preparation. The strength of beads fortified by powered limestone to control the permeability of PRB. Different mixtures of limestone and the immobilized beads were tested to determine hydraulic conductivity and AMD treatment capacities. The characteristics of the spherical beads at various pH of AMD was investigated.

Kim, K.; Hur, W.; Choi, S.; Min, K.; Baek, H.

2006-05-01

65

Method for studying stabilization of localized corrosion on carbon steel by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Initiation of a corrosion pit in plain carbon steel (CS) was simulated by preconditioning a small area and a larger concentric area as an anode and cathode, respectively. Preconditioning was achieved by applying a galvanic current between the electrodes. During this initial step, the effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on resulting polarization of this artificial galvanic cell was investigated. The previously conditioned electrodes then were left short-circuited, and the naturally flowing galvanic current was measured using a zero-resistance ammeter. In the presence of SRB biofilms, an active and naturally stable galvanic cell was achieved. In sterile conditions, the coupling current either was unstable or very low. This technique was aimed at studying risk factors linking bacterial contamination to the onset of rapid pitting corrosion.

Campaignolle, X. [Univ. de Bordeaux 1, Arcachon (France). Lab. d`Oceanographie Biologique; Crolet, J.L. [Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France)

1997-06-01

66

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria biofilm in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel due to a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm in seawater was studied. By atomic force microscopy, a layer of fish-scale-like biofilm was found to form as stainless steel coupons were exposed to the culture media with SRB, and this biofilm grew more and more compact. As a result, coupons' surface under the biofilm turned irregular less slowly than that exposed to the sterilized culture media. Then, physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the coverage of the biofilm as well as the relative irregularity of coupons' surface was also recorded by EIS spectra. Finally, anodic cyclic polarization results further demonstrated the protective property of the biofilm. Therefore, in estimation of SRB-implicated corrosion of stainless steel, not only the detrimental SRB metabolites but also the protective SRB biofilm as well should be taken into account.

Li, Fu-shao; An, Mao-zhong; Duan, Dong-xia

2012-08-01

67

Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2?, NO3?, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 ?m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 ?m), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate. PMID:10543829

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

68

Arsenic Thiolation and the Role of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from the Human Intestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic (As) toxicity is primarily based on its chemical speciation. Although inorganic and methylated As species are well characterized in terms of metabolism and formation in the human body, the origin of thiolated methylarsenicals is still unclear. Objectives: We sought to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the human gut are actively involved in the thiolation of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV). Methods: We incubated human fecal and colon microbiota in a batch incubator and in a dynamic gut simulator with a dose of 0.5 mg MMAV in the absence or presence of sodium molybdate, an SRB inhibitor. We monitored the conversion of MMAV into monomethyl monothioarsonate (MMMTAV) and other As species by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. We monitored the sulfate-reducing activity of the SRB by measuring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. We used molecular analysis to determine the dominant species of SRB responsible for As thiolation. Results: In the absence of sodium molybdate, the SRB activity—primarily derived from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (piger)—was specifically and proportionally correlated (p < 0.01) to MMAV conversion into MMMTAV. Inactivating the SRB with molybdate did not result in MMAV thiolation; however, we observed that the microbiota from a dynamic gut simulator were capable of demethylating 4% of the incubated MMAV into arsenous acid (iAsIII), the trivalent and more toxic form of arsenic acid (iAsV). Conclusion: We found that SRB of human gastrointestinal origin, through their ability to produce H2S, were necessary and sufficient to induce As thiolation. The toxicological consequences of this microbial As speciation change are not yet clear. However, given the efficient epithelial absorption of thiolated methylarsenicals, we conclude that the gut microbiome—and SRB activity in particular—should be incorporated into toxicokinetic analysis carried out after As exposure. Citation: DC.Rubin SS, Alava P, Zekker I, Du Laing G, Van de Wiele T. 2014. Arsenic thiolation and the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria from the human intestinal tract. Environ Health Perspect 122:817–822;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307759 PMID:24833621

Alava, Pradeep; Zekker, Ivar; Du Laing, Gijs

2014-01-01

69

Nitrogen Fixation By Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Coastal and Deep-Sea Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can greatly impact benthic nitrogen (N) cycling, by for instance inhibiting coupled denitrification-nitrification through the production of sulfide or by increasing the availability of fixed N in the sediment via dinitrogen (N2)-fixation. Here, we explored several coastal and deep-sea benthic habitats within the Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea, for the occurrence of N2-fixation mediated by SRB. A combination of different methods including microbial rate measurements of N2-fixation and sulfate reduction, geochemical analyses (porewater nutrient profiles, mass spectrometry), and molecular analyses (CARD-FISH, HISH-SIMS, "nested" PCR, and QPCR) were applied to quantify and identify the responsible processes and organisms, respectively. Furthermore, we looked deeper into the question of whether the observed nitrogenase activity was associated with the final incorporation of N into microbial biomass or whether the enzyme activity served another purpose. At the AGU Fall Meeting, we will present and compare data from numerous stations with different water depths, temperatures, and latitudes, as well as differences in key geochemical parameters, such as organic carbon content and oxygen availability. Current metabolic and molecular data indicate that N2-fixation is occurring in many of these benthic environments and that a large part of this activity may linked to SRB.

Bertics, V. J.; Löscher, C.; Salonen, I.; Schmitz-Streit, R.; Lavik, G.; Kuypers, M. M.; Treude, T.

2011-12-01

70

Importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in mercury methylation and demethylation in periphyton from Bolivian Amazon region.  

PubMed

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are important mercury methylators in sediments, but information on mercury methylators in other compartments is ambiguous. To investigate SRB involvement in methylation in Amazonian periphyton, the relationship between Hg methylation potential and SRB (Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae) abundance in Eichhornia crassipes and Polygonum densiflorum root associated periphyton was examined. Periphyton subsamples of each macrophyte were amended with electron donors (lactate, acetate and propionate) or inhibitors (molybdate) of sulfate reduction to create differences in SRB subgroup abundance, which was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene. Mercury methylation and demethylation potentials were determined by a stable isotope tracer technique using 200HgCl and CH3(202)HgCl, respectively. Relative abundance of Desulfobacteraceae (<0.01-12.5%) and Desulfovibrionaceae (0.01-6.8%) were both highly variable among samples and subsamples, but a significant linear relationship (p<0.05) was found between Desulfobacteraceae abundance and net methylmercury formation among treatments of the same macrophyte periphyton and among all P. densiflorum samples, suggesting that Desulfobacteraceae bacteria are the most important mercury methylators among SRB families. Yet, molybdate only partially inhibited mercury methylation potentials, suggesting the involvement of other microorganisms as well. The response of net methylmercury production to the different electron donors and molybdate was highly variable (3-1104 pg g(-1) in 12 h) among samples, as was the net formation in control samples (17-164 pg g(-1) in 12 h). This demonstrates the importance of community variability and complexity of microbial interactions for the overall methylmercury production in periphyton and their response to external stimulus. PMID:21074243

Achá, Darío; Hintelmann, Holger; Yee, Janet

2011-02-01

71

Removal of sulfate and heavy metals by sulfate reducing bacteria in short-term bench scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor runs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mildly acidic metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al and Mg), arsenic and sulfate contaminated waters were treated, over a 14 day period at 25°C, in a bench-scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor filled with silica sand and employing a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The activity of SRB increased the water pH from ?4.5 to 7.0, and enhanced the

Tony Jong; David L Parry

2003-01-01

72

Influence of gamma irradiation on the metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

When water is pumped into oil-bearing seams to increase oil production, the microorganisms in the injected water fall into favorable ecological conditions and, quickly adapting, form a biocenosis and begin to actively develop. Among the anaerobic microorganisms, the most hazardous from the corrosion viewpoint are the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which are the main producers of hydrogen sulfide as the product of anaerobic respiration. This paper reports on the effect of gamma rays on the metabolic study of SRB Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in the nutrient medium Postgate B. The radioactive source used is a /sup 60/CoK-125 unit with a power of 700 rad/sec. The required dose of gamma rays was calculated from the exposure times of samples with the test medium in the radiation zone o the isotope /sup 60/Co. The criterion characterizing the effectiveness of suppression of development of the bacteria is the concentration of biogenic hydrogen sulfide produced, as determined by iodometric titration.

Agaev, N.M.; Guseinov, M.M.; Smorodin, A.E.

1985-09-01

73

Immunological Cross-Reactivities of Adenosine-5?-Phosphosulfate Reductases from Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Crude extracts from 14 species of sulfate-reducing bacteria comprising the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfosarcina and from three species of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria were tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with polyclonal antisera to adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate reductase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G100A. The results showed that extracts from Desulfovibrio species were all highly cross-reactive, whereas extracts from the other sulfate-reducing genera showed significantly less cross-reaction. An exception was Desulfotomaculum orientis, which responded more like Desulfovibrio species than the other Desulfotomaculum strains tested. Extracts from colorless or photosynthetic sulfur bacteria were either unreactive or exhibited very low levels of reactivity with the antibodies to the enzyme from sulfate reducers. These results were confirmed by using partially purified enzymes from sulfate reducers and the most cross-reactive sulfide oxidizer, Thiobacillus denitrificans. Two types of monoclonal antibodies to adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate reductase were also isolated. One type reacted more variably with the enzymes of the sulfate reducers and poorly with the Thiobacillus enzyme, whereas the second reacted strongly with Desulfovibrio, Desulfotomaculum orientis, and Thiobacillus enzymes. Images PMID:16348440

Odom, J. Martin; Jessie, Karen; Knodel, Elinor; Emptage, Mark

1991-01-01

74

Phototropic sulfur and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the chemocline of meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Cadagno, a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the catchment area of a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the Piora Valley in the southern Alps of Switzerland, is characterized by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of sulfate, steep gradients of oxygen, sulfide and light and a turbidity maximum that correlates to large numbers of bacteria (up to 107

Mauro TONOLLA; Sandro PEDUZZI; Antonella DEMARTA; Raffaele PEDUZZI; Dittmar HAHN

75

Growth yields of green sulfur bacteria in mixed cultures with sulfur and sulfate reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Dry weight yields from mixed cultures ofProsthecochloris aestuarii orChlorobium limicola with the sulfur reducingDesulfuromonas acetoxidans were determined on different growth limiting amounts of acetate, ethanol or propanol. The obtained yields agreed well with values predicted from stoichiometric calculations. 2. From mixed cultures of twoChlorobium limicola strains withDesulfovibrio desulfuricans orD. gigas on ethanol as the growth limiting substrate, dry weight

Hanno Biebl; Norbert Pfennig

1978-01-01

76

Mercury removal, methylmercury formation, and sulfate-reducing bacteria profiles in wetland mesocosms.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale model was constructed to determine if a wetland treatment system (WTS) could effectively remove low-level mercury from an outfall located at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Site-specific hydrosoil was planted with giant bulrush, Scirpus californicus, and surface amended with gypsum (CaSO4) prior to investigating the biogeochemical dynamics of sediment-based sulfur and mercury speciation. On average, the pilot WTS decreased total mercury concentrations in the outfall stream by 50%. Transformation of mercury to a more "bioavailable" species, methylmercury, was also observed in the wetland treatment system. Methylmercury formation in the wetland was ascertained with respect to sediment biogeochemistry and S. californicus influences. Differences in sulfate-reduction rates (SRRs) were observed between mesocosms that received additional decomposing Scirpus matter and mesocosms that were permitted growth of the submerged macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus. Relative abundance measurements of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as characterized using oligonucleotide probes were also noticeably different between the two mesocosms. A positive correlation between increased sulfide, dissolved total mercury, and dissolved methylmercury concentrations was also observed in porewater. The data suggest that soluble mercury-sulfide complexes were formed and contributed, in part, to a slight increase in mercury solubility. Observed increases in methylmercury concentration also suggest that soluble mercury-sulfide complexes represent a significant source of mercury that is "available" for methylation. Finally, a volunteer macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus, is implicated as having contributed additional suspended particulate matter in surface water that subsequently reduced the pool of dissolved mercury while also providing an environment suitable for demethylation. PMID:11922066

King, Jeffrey K; Harmon, S Michele; Fu, Theresa T; Gladden, John B

2002-02-01

77

Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

2012-01-01

78

Environmental controls on iron?oxidising, sulfur?oxidising and sulfate?reducing bacteria in mine wastes, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic and modern tailings piles and waste dumps in east Otago (South Island) and the Coromandel Peninsula (North Island) of New Zealand encompass a wide range of physico?chemical environmental conditions, and host chemolitho(auto)trophs (iron? and sulfur?oxidising bacteria, IOB and SOB respectively) and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfide mineral grains are only marginally altered, even after up to 100 years of surficial

Debra A. Chappell; Dave Craw

2003-01-01

79

Oxidation of short-chain fatty acids by sulfate-reducing bacteria in freshwater and in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colony counts of acetate-, propionate- and l-lactate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine sediments were made. The vertical distribution of these organisms were equal for the three types considered. The highest numbers were found just beneath the border of aerobic and anaerobic layers.

Hendrikus J. Laanbroek; Norbert Pfennig

1981-01-01

80

Identification of distinct communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields by reverse sample genome probing.  

PubMed

Thirty-five different standards of sulfate-reducing bacteria, identified by reverse sample genome probing and defined as bacteria with genomes showing little or no cross-hybridization, were in part characterized by Southern blotting, using 16S rRNA and hydrogenase gene probes. Samples from 56 sites in seven different western Canadian oil field locations were collected and enriched for sulfate-reducing bacteria by using different liquid media containing one of the following carbon sources: lactate, ethanol, benzoate, decanoate, propionate, or acetate. DNA was isolated from the enrichments and probed by reverse sample genome probing using master filters containing denatured chromosomal DNAs from the 35 sulfate-reducing bacterial standards. Statistical analysis of the microbial compositions at 44 of the 56 sites indicated the presence of two distinct communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The discriminating factor between the two communities was the salt concentration of the production waters, which were either fresh water or saline. Of 34 standards detected, 10 were unique to the fresh water and 18 were unique to the saline oil field environment, while only 6 organisms were cultured from both communities. PMID:16348801

Voordouw, G; Voordouw, J K; Jack, T R; Foght, J; Fedorak, P M; Westlake, D W

1992-11-01

81

Tackling the minority: sulfate-reducing bacteria in an archaea-dominated subsurface biofilm  

PubMed Central

Archaea are usually minor components of a microbial community and dominated by a large and diverse bacterial population. In contrast, the SM1 Euryarchaeon dominates a sulfidic aquifer by forming subsurface biofilms that contain a very minor bacterial fraction (5%). These unique biofilms are delivered in high biomass to the spring outflow that provides an outstanding window to the subsurface. Despite previous attempts to understand its natural role, the metabolic capacities of the SM1 Euryarchaeon remain mysterious to date. In this study, we focused on the minor bacterial fraction in order to obtain insights into the ecological function of the biofilm. We link phylogenetic diversity information with the spatial distribution of chemical and metabolic compounds by combining three different state-of-the-art methods: PhyloChip G3 DNA microarray technology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy. The results of PhyloChip and FISH technologies provide evidence for selective enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which was confirmed by the detection of bacterial dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) genes via quantitative PCR and sequence-based analyses. We further established a differentiation of archaeal and bacterial cells by SR-FTIR based on typical lipid and carbohydrate signatures, which demonstrated a co-localization of organic sulfate, carbonated mineral and bacterial signatures in the biofilm. All these results strongly indicate an involvement of the SM1 euryarchaeal biofilm in the global cycles of sulfur and carbon and support the hypothesis that sulfidic springs are important habitats for Earth's energy cycles. Moreover, these investigations of a bacterial minority in an Archaea-dominated environment are a remarkable example of the great power of combining highly sensitive microarrays with label-free infrared imaging. PMID:23178669

Probst, Alexander J; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Birarda, Giovanni; Bechtel, Hans A; Piceno, Yvette M; Sonnleitner, Maria; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2013-01-01

82

Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI) was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) predominated and U(VI) reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III) was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30-40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III) would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III) availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

Barlett, M.; Zhuang, K.; Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D.

2012-03-01

83

Integrative analysis of the interactions between Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI) was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) predominated and U(VI) reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III) was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30-40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III) would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III) availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

Barlett, M.; Zhuang, K.; Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D. R.

2011-11-01

84

Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats  

PubMed Central

Past studies of hydrogen cycling in hypersaline microbial mats have shown an active nighttime cycle, with production largely from Cyanobacteria and consumption from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, the mechanisms and magnitude of hydrogen cycling have not been extensively studied. Two mats types near Guerrero Negro, Mexico—permanently submerged Microcoleus microbial mat (GN-S), and intertidal Lyngbya microbial mat (GN-I)—were used in microcosm diel manipulation experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), molybdate, ammonium addition, and physical disruption to understand the processes responsible for hydrogen cycling between mat microbes. Across microcosms, H2 production occurred under dark anoxic conditions with simultaneous production of a suite of organic acids. H2 production was not significantly affected by inhibition of nitrogen fixation, but rather appears to result from constitutive fermentation of photosynthetic storage products by oxygenic phototrophs. Comparison to accumulated glycogen and to CO2 flux indicated that, in the GN-I mat, fermentation released almost all of the carbon fixed via photosynthesis during the preceding day, primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenase transcripts predominated. Molybdate inhibition experiments indicated that SRBs from a wide distribution of DsrA phylotypes were responsible for H2 consumption. Incubation with 13C-acetate and NanoSIMS (secondary ion mass-spectrometry) indicated higher uptake in both Chloroflexi and SRBs relative to other filamentous bacteria. These manipulations and diel incubations confirm that Cyanobacteria were the main fermenters in Guerrero Negro mats and that the net flux of nighttime fermentation byproducts (not only hydrogen) was largely regulated by the interplay between Cyanobacteria, SRBs, and Chloroflexi. PMID:24616716

Lee, Jackson Z.; Burow, Luke C.; Woebken, Dagmar; Everroad, R. Craig; Kubo, Mike D.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Weber, Peter K.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Bebout, Brad M.; Hoehler, Tori M.

2013-01-01

85

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of new sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from oilfield samples.  

PubMed

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been investigated in an oilfield injection water system. Strain CW-01 was isolated from an oilfield and strain CW-04 was isolated from biofilm dirt of pipeline walls. The strains were facultative anaerobes, non-motile, Gram-positive, pole flagellum, and spore-forming curved rods. The growth was observed over the temperature range 20-70 degrees C. Strain CW-01 grew optimally at 37 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 3.0-11, optimal at pH 6.0. Strain CW-04 grew optimally at 48 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 3.0-10, optimal at pH 7.2. The strains grew at a very broad range of salt concentrations. Optimal growth was observed with 1.5 g/L NaCl for strain CW-01 and 0.7 g/L NaCl for strain CW-04. The strains showed most similarity in physiological characteristics, except for acetone and saccharose. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences allowed strains CW-01 and CW-04 to be classified into the genus Desulfotomaculum. The corrosion speciality of the strains had been comparatively investigated. Especially SRB's growth curve, bearable oxygen capability, drug fastness and corrosion rate had been analyzed. The results showed that it is difficult to prevent bacterial corrosion caused by these two strains. PMID:19526722

Chen, Wu; Xiang, Fu; Fu, Jie; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Zeng, Qingfu; Yu, Longjiang

2009-01-01

86

A novel sulfate-reducing bacteria detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been extensively studied in corrosion and environmental science. However, fast enumeration of SRB population is still a difficult task. This work presents a novel specific SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity. The hydrolytic activity of cysteine protease was inhibited by taking advantage of sulfide, the characteristic metabolic product of SRB, to attack active cysteine thiol group in cysteine protease catalytic sites. The active thiol S-sulfhydration process could be used for SRB detection, since the amount of sulfide accumulated in culture medium was highly related with initial bacterial concentration. The working conditions of cysteine protease have been optimized to obtain better detection capability, and the SRB detection performances have been evaluated in this work. The proposed SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity avoided the use of biological recognition elements. In addition, compared with the widely used most probable number (MPN) method which would take up to at least 15days to accomplish whole detection process, the method based on inhibition of papain activity could detect SRB in 2 days, with a detection limit of 5.21×10(2) cfu mL(-1). The detection time for SRB population quantitative analysis was greatly shortened. PMID:25127594

Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

2014-11-01

87

Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a plant using deep geothermal energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is a prerequisite to optimize plant reliability and economy. We investigated microbial, geochemical and mineralogical aspects of a geothermal groundwater system located in the Molasse Basin by fluid analysis. Fluids are characterized by temperatures ranging from 61°C to 103°C, salinities from 600 to 900 mg/l and a dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) between 6.4 to 19.3 mg C/l. The microbial population of fluid samples was analyzed by genetic fingerprinting techniques based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA- and dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes. Despite of the high temperatures, microbes were detected in all investigated fluids. Fingerprinting and DNA sequencing enabled a correlation to metabolic classes and biogeochemical processes. The analysis revealed a broad diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and mineral precipitation indicates that microorganisms could play an important role for the understanding of processes in engineered geothermal systems.

Alawi, Mashal; Lerm, Stephanie; Vetter, Alexandra; Wolfgramm, Markus; Seibt, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

2011-06-01

88

The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate- Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental results from methylation assays of sulfate-reducing bacteria with a pure culture, and through synchrotron-based characterization of mercury in simulated natural waters. Pure cultures of Desulfobulbus propionicus, a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of fermentative growth, were allowed to methylate a mercury isotopic tracer present at <100 ng/L and equilibrated with ~1 ?M aqueous sulfide and ~40 mg/L DOM. Fermentative growth conditions allowed control over ambient sulfide concentrations to favor the predicted dominance of dissolved HgS0. The DOM used was a hydrophobic fraction isolated from Florida Everglades surface water. Results showed that 5-10% of the mercury isotopic tracer was methylated in both DOM-amended and DOM-free cultures. In DOM-amended cultures, 10-20% greater cell growth was observed, suggesting an apparent slower rate of methylation in DOM-free cultures and a beneficial contribution of DOM to cell growth. We note that as much as ~10% of ambient mercury associated with DOM was also methylated, possibly explaining the observed difference in methylation rates in terms of dilution of the total bioavailable mercury pool for DOM-amended cultures. Our observations suggest that, in some cases, DOM- partitioned mercury is subject to microbial methylation at environmentally significant rates. The nature of mercury- sulfide-DOM interaction was investigated in separate experiments. No precipitation was observed in solutions containing DOM and equimolar Hg2+ and aqueous sulfide at concentrations supersaturated with respect to metacinnabar. The equilibrated Hg-S-DOM solution was loaded on hydrophobic chromatography resin and subjected to 100 ?M glutathione extraction. Spectra from DOM-partitioned mercury-sulfide exhibited high similarity to metacinnabar despite the absence of precipitation. Lower mercury concentrations and better resins are being tested in order to evaluate the role of DOM-associated nanoparticulate or colloidal metacinnabar in mercury bioavailability for methylation by SRB.

Moreau, J. W.; Roden, E. E.; Gerbig, C.; Kim, C. S.; Aiken, G. R.; Dewild, J. F.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2007-12-01

89

The effects of sulfate reducing bacteria on stainless steel and Ni-Cr-Mo alloy weldments  

SciTech Connect

Previous research in this laboratory demonstrated a direct correlation between alloy composition and corrosion susceptibility of stainless steel and Ni-Cr-Mo alloy weldments exposed to lake water augmented with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). It was shown that lake water containing an active SRB population reduced the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) on all alloys studied including those with 9% Mo. In addition, preliminary evidence indicated that edge preparation and weld heat input were also important parameters in determining corrosion performance. This prior research, however, looked at ``doctored`` weldments in which the thermal oxide in the heat affected zone was removed. The objectives of the research presented here are to further confirm these observations using as-received welds. The materials examined (listed in increasing alloy content) are 1/4 inch thick plates of 316L, 317L, AL6XN (6% Mo), alloy 625 clad steel, alloy 625, and alloy 686. Materials were welded using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) process in an argon purged environment. In addition, 317L was welded in air to test oxide effects. All samples were prepared for welding by grinding to a V-edge, except the 625 clad steel samples which were prepared using a J-edge. Electrochemical performance of welded samples was monitored in four glass cells which could each allow exposure of 8 samples to the same environment. Two cells contained lake water inoculated with SRS, and two cells contained sterilized lake water. The open circuit potential (E{sub oc}) and R{sub p} was used to correlate corrosion susceptibility and bacterial activity with alloy composition and welding parameters.

Petersen, T.A.; Taylor, S.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering

1995-10-01

90

[Rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria treating acid mine drainage].  

PubMed

The performance of three organic carbon sources was assessed in terms of sulfate reduction and main metal removal, by using sewage sludge as the source of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and adding rice straw and ethanol with equal quantity. Results indicated that sewage sludge which contained certain amount of alkaline material could neutralize acidity of acid mine drainage(AMD) on the first day of experiment, elevating pH value from the initial 2.5 to around 5.4-6.3 and achieving suitable pH condition for SRB growth. Sewage sludge contained fewer biodegradable organic substance, reactive mixture with single sewage sludge showed the lowest sulfate reduction (65.9%). When the single sewage sludge was supplemented with rice straw, SRB reducing sulfate was enhanced (79.2%), because the degradation rate of rice straw was accelerated by the specific bacteria in sewage sludge, providing relatively abundant carbon source for SRB. Control experiment with ethanol was most effective in promoting sulfate reduction (97.9%). Metal removal efficiency in all three reactors was as high as 99% for copper, early copper removal was mainly attributed to the adsorption capacity of sewage sludge prior to SRB acclimation. It is feasible for using rice straw and sewage sludge as carbon sources for SRB treating acid mine drainage at a low cost, this may have significant implication for in situ bioremediation of mine environment. PMID:21090305

Su, Yu; Wang, Jin; Peng, Shu-chuan; Yue, Zheng-bo; Chen, Tian-hu; Jin, Jie

2010-08-01

91

Improved methodology for bioremoval of black crusts on historical stone artworks by use of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

An improved methodology to remove black crusts from stone by using Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris ATCC 29579, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, is presented. The strain removed 98% of the sulfates of the crust in a 45-h treatment. Precipitation of black iron sulfide was avoided using filtration of a medium devoid of iron. Among three cell carriers, Carbogel proved to be superior to both sepiolite and Hydrobiogel-97, as it allowed an easy application of the bacteria, kept the system in a state where microbial activity was maintained, and allowed easy removal of the cells after the treatment. PMID:16672524

Cappitelli, Francesca; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Ranalli, Giancarlo; Mello, Emilio; Daffonchio, Daniele; Sorlini, Claudia

2006-05-01

92

Iron sulfides and sulfur species produced at hematite surfaces in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria^1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) hematite (a-Fe2O3) dissolution is affected and hydrogen sulfide, the product of sulfate reduction is released. As a consequence, ferrous ions are free to react with excess H2S to form insoluble iron sulfides. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate binding energies consistent with the iron sulfides having a pyrrhotite structure (Fe2p3\\/2 708.4 eV; S2p3\\/2 161.5

G. G. Geesey; Somkiet Techkarnjanaruk; Alice Dohnalkova; David E. McCready; Brent M. Peyton

2001-01-01

93

Mo enrichment in black shale and reduction of molybdate by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Cambrian Black shale in Zunyi area of Guizhou Province, Southern China contains significant amount of Mo, As, and sulfide minerals. Additionally, Mo and sulfides are closely associated with organic matter of kerogen. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show pyrite micro-crystals and Mo-As-S-bearing carbon (kerogen). High-resolution TEM image shows that Mo-rich areas are Mo-sulfide (molybdenite) layers that form poorly crystalline structures in organic carbon matrix. X-ray energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) indicate composition from the pyrite and the Mo-rich area. The black shale is very unique because of its high Mo concentration. One possible mechanism for enriching Mo from paleo-seawater is the involvement of SRB. Molybdate is an essential trace element required by biological systems including the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB); however, detrimental consequences may occur if molybdate is present in high concentrations in the environment. We followed the growth of Desulfovibrio gigas ATCC 19364, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, D. desulfuricans DSM 642, and D. desulfuricans DSM 27774 in media containing sub-lethal levels of molybdate and observed a red-brown color in the culture fluid. Spectral analysis of the culture fluid revealed absorption peaks at 467 nm, 395 nm and 314 nm and this color is proposed to be a molybdate-sulfide complex. Reduction of molybdate with the formation of molybdate disulfide occurs in the periplasm D. gigas and D. desulfuricans DSM 642. From these results we suggest that the occurrence of poorly crystalline Mo-sulfides in black shale may be a result from SRB reduction and selective enrichment of Mo in paleo-seawater. We suggest that similar SRB mechanism could cause the Mo enrichment in a ~ 2.5 billion years old late Archean McRae Shale, which is related to the great oxidation event of early earth atmosphere.

Xu, H.; Barton, L. L.

2010-12-01

94

Pyrrhotite: an Iron Sulfide Mineral Formed During Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria at a Hematite Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many bacteria are capable of respiring on sulfate and other oxidized forms of sulfur under anaerobic conditions. The hydrogen sulfide that is formed during dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) readily reacts with metals in the surrounding environment to form insoluble metal sulfides. Iron oxides are common substrata for colonization by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sedimentary aquatic systems as well as in subsurface environments. While numerous studies have characterized iron sulfides formed during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by suspended populations of these bacteria in the presence of soluble iron, not much is known about those formed in the presence of biofilm populations associated with solid phase iron, particularly crystalline forms such as hematite. Under the latter conditions, we have observed the formation of the iron sulfide pyrrhotite, typically present in very low abundance in sediments and ore deposits compared to pyrite. The formation of pyrrhotite over pyrite is favored at low redox potential and sulfide activity, conditions we hypothesize are achieved at an iron oxide surface colonized by biofilm-forming SRB. Higher levels of hydrogenase activity by hematite surface-associated SRB than suspended cell populations likely promotes the low redox potential that favors pyrrhotite formation. The tendency for SRB in nature to associate with mineral particle surfaces, including iron oxides, suggests that some pyrrotite may have originated through biotic reactions. A comparison of the fine structure of pyrrhotite formed through these biotic processes with that formed under abiotic processes may reveal differences that provide a signature for biotically-derived pyrrhotite in the biosphere.

Geesey, G.; Reardon, C.; Neal, A.

2008-12-01

95

Biomarkers of sulfate reducing bacteria from a variety of different aged samples including a modern microbial mat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most biomarkers present in sediments occur in only trace concentrations, trapped in kerogen or may be highly functionalised especially in recent sedimentary deposits making them difficult to chromatographically resolve, thus presenting considerable analytical challenges, especially for isotope studies. Innovative hydro (Hy) pyrolysis (Py) techniques are able to target or convert many of these compounds into free hydrocarbons more amenable to gas chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). HyPy has been applied to a modern layered smooth mat from Shark Bay, Western Australia. Saturate and aromatic fractions from different layers of the mat have been analysed by GC-MS and CSIA. After HyPy, an even-odd distribution of n-alkanes has been revealed as well as very long-chain n-alkanes up to n-C38. Stable carbon isotopic values of the n-alkanes indicated the presence of at least two bacterial communities. The short-chain n-alkanes were likely to be representative of a cyanobacteria community (?13C, C15-C23, - 18 to -25 %VPDB) while the carbon isotopic values of the long-chain n-alkanes supported the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria (?13C, C25-C33, - 30 to - 34 %VPDB). Long-chain fatty acids have been previously reported in sulfate reducing bacteria. It is hypothesised that this distribution and isotopic character representing sulfate reducing bacteria consortia may be preserved in the rock record. This hypothesis has been tested in Australian rocks: a Devonian carbonaceous concretion containing an exceptionally well preserved fossil invertebrate from the Canning Basin, Western Australia, a Paleoproterozoic sample (1.6 billion years old) from a lead-zinc ore deposit from the McArthur Basin, Northern Territories and a Paleoproterozoic chert (2.3 billion years old) from the Pilbara, Western Australia. Biomarkers of these samples showed a strong predominance of long-chain n-alkanes, up to n-C38 with an even-odd distribution of the n-alkanes. Stable carbon isotope values were highly depleted and were concordant with the values obtained in the modern mat for sulfate reducing bacteria. The general similarity in the n-alkane distributions of these samples point to a sulfate reducing bacteria consortia.

Pages, A.; Grice, K.; Lockhart, R.; Holman, A.; Melendez, I.; Van Kranendonk, M.; Jaraula, C.

2011-12-01

96

Enzymatic catalysis of mercury methylation by planktonic and biofilm cultures of sulfate- reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While biofilms are now known to be the predominant form of microbial growth in nature, little is known about their role in environmental mercury (Hg) methylation. Due to its long-range atmospheric transport, Hg contamination of food chains is a worldwide problem, impacting even pristine areas. Among different forms of mercury species, methylmercury (MeHg) is an extremely neurotoxic and biomagnification-prone compound that can lead to severely adverse health effects on wildlife and humans. Considerable studies have shown that in the aquatic environment the external supply of MeHg is not sufficient to account for MeHg accumulation in biota and in situ biological MeHg formation plays a critical role in determining the amount of MeHg in food webs; moreover, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been identified as the principal Hg-methylating organisms in nature. In a wide range of aquatic systems wetlands are considered important sites for Hg methylation mostly because of the environmental factors that promote microbial activity within, and biofilms are especially important in wetland ecosystems due to large amount of submerged surfaces. Although recent work has focused on the environmental factors that control MeHg production and the conditions that affect the availability of inorganic Hg to SRB, much remains to be understood about the biochemical mechanism of the Hg methylation process in SRB, especially in the biofilm-growth of these microbes. Data from our previous study with SRB strains isolated from a coastal wetland suggested that the specific Hg methylation rate found was approximately an order of magnitude higher in biofilm cells than in planktonic cells. In order to investigate possible reasons for this observed difference, and to test if this phenomenon is observed in other strains, we conducted chloroform, fluroacetate and molybdate inhibition assays in both complete and incomplete-oxidizing SRB species (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans M8, Desulfococcus sp. Desulfobactor sp. BG8) grown in planktonic and biofilm form, as the acetyl- coenzyme A pathway involved with cobalamin has been hypothesized to be the pathway for Hg methylation. The purpose of this study was to probe whether differences in the enzymatically catalyzed process caused differential methylation rates between the species and also between the different forms of culture growth. Any attempts to control the environmentally undesirable Hg methylation process would benefit from a better understanding of the biochemical mechanism involved.

Lin, C.; Kampalath, R.; Jay, J.

2007-12-01

97

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on steel with antimicrobial peptides generated in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

In batch and continuous fermentations, the reduction in corrosion of SAE 1018 mild steel and 304 stainless steel caused by\\u000a inhibition of the reference sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris by a protective, antimicrobial-producing Bacillus brevis biofilm was investigated. The presence of D. vulgaris produced a thick black precipitate on mild steel and a higher corrosion rate in batch cultures than

A. Jayaraman; P. J. Hallock; R. M. Carson; C.-C. Lee; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

1999-01-01

98

Iron Sulfides and Sulfur Species Produced at (001) Hematite Surfaces in the Presence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

In the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) hematite (a-Fe2O3) dissolution is affected and hydrogen sulfide, the product of sulfate reduction is released. As a consequence, ferrous ions are free to react with excess H2S to form insoluble iron sulfides. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate binding energies consistent with the iron sulfides having a pyrrhotite structure (Fe2p3/2 708.4 eV; S2p3/2 161.5 eV). Other sulfur species identified at the surface include sulfate, sulfite and polysulfides. X-ray diffraction suggests an unidentifiable crystal structure at the hematite surface develops within 3 months, HRTEM confirms the presence of a hexagonal structure again suggesting the formation of pyrrhotite. The identification of pyrrhotite is inconsistent with previous reports in which mackinawite and greigite were products of biological sulfate reduction (Rickard 1969; Herbert et al 1998). The apparent differences in stoiciometries may be related to the availability of Fe2+(aq.) at the mineral surface through respiratory iron reduction by subsurface bacteria. The significance of pyrrhotite and polysulfide production in relation to the S- and Fe-cycles and to trace metal bioavailability is discussed.

Neal, Andrew L.; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Dohnalkova, Alice; McCready, David E.; Peyton, Brent M.; Geesey, Gill G.

2001-01-01

99

Detection and Quantification of Functional Genes of Cellulose- Degrading, Fermentative, and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea?  

PubMed Central

Cellulose degradation, fermentation, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis are microbial processes that coexist in a variety of natural and engineered anaerobic environments. Compared to the study of 16S rRNA genes, the study of the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for these phylogenetically diverse functions is advantageous because it provides direct functional information. However, no methods are available for the broad quantification of these genes from uncultured microbes characteristic of complex environments. In this study, consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primers were designed and validated to amplify both sequenced and unsequenced glycoside hydrolase genes of cellulose-degrading bacteria, hydA genes of fermentative bacteria, dsrA genes of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and mcrA genes of methanogenic archaea. Specificity was verified in silico and by cloning and sequencing of PCR products obtained from an environmental sample characterized by the target functions. The primer pairs were further adapted to quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the method was demonstrated on samples obtained from two sulfate-reducing bioreactors treating mine drainage, one lignocellulose based and the other ethanol fed. As expected, the Q-PCR analysis revealed that the lignocellulose-based bioreactor contained higher numbers of cellulose degraders, fermenters, and methanogens, while the ethanol-fed bioreactor was enriched in sulfate reducers. The suite of primers developed represents a significant advance over prior work, which, for the most part, has targeted only pure cultures or has suffered from low specificity. Furthermore, ensuring the suitability of the primers for Q-PCR provided broad quantitative access to genes that drive critical anaerobic catalytic processes. PMID:20139321

Pereyra, L. P.; Hiibel, S. R.; Prieto Riquelme, M. V.; Reardon, K. F.; Pruden, A.

2010-01-01

100

Structure and reactivity of zinc sulfide precipitates formed in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biologically mediated formation of metal sulfide precipitates in anoxic sediments represents a potentially important mechanism for the sequestration of toxic metals. Current knowledge of the structure and reactivity of these biogenic metal sulfides is scarce, limiting the ability to effectively assess contaminant sequestration in, and remobilization from, these solids. In this study, SO4-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were grown for

Edward Peltier; Pavan Ilipilla; David Fowle

2011-01-01

101

Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina? †  

PubMed Central

Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were present. hNRB/NR-SOB from the genus Sulfurospirillum were found under all conditions. PMID:18502934

Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2008-01-01

102

Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.  

PubMed

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-?m-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-?-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. PMID:22414495

Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

2012-04-15

103

Comparison of Phylogenetic Relationships Based on Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles and Ribosomal RNA Sequence Similarities among Dissimilatory Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). Of these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarit...

L. L. Kohring, D. B. Ringelberg, R. Devereux, D. A. Stahl, M. W. Mittelman, D. C. White

1994-01-01

104

Desulfotomaculum spp. and related gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well-adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2) and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review. PMID:24348471

Aullo, Thomas; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Ollivier, Bernard; Magot, Michel

2013-01-01

105

Field-scale isotopic labeling of phospholipid fatty acids from acetate-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Isotopic labeling of biomarker molecules is a technique applied to link microbial community structure with activity. Previously, we successfully labeled phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) of suspended nitrate-reducing bacteria in an aquifer. However, the application of the method to low energy-yielding processes such as sulfate reduction, and extension of the analysis to attached communities remained to be studied. To test the feasibility of the latter application, an anoxic test solution of 500 l of groundwater with addition of 0.5 mM Br- as a conservative tracer, 1.1 mM SO4(2-), and 2.0 mM [2-13C]acetate was injected in the transition zone of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer where sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions prevailed. Thousand liters of test solution/groundwater mixture were extracted in a stepwise fashion after 2-46 h incubation. Computed apparent first-order rate coefficients were 0.31+/-0.04 day(-1) for acetate and 0.34+/-0.05 day(-1) for SO4(2-) consumption. The delta13C increased from -71.03 per thousand to +3352.50 per thousand in CH4 and from -16.15 per thousand to +32.13 per thousand in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). A mass balance suggested that 43% of the acetate-derived (13)C appeared in DIC and 57% appeared in CH4. Thus, acetate oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction and acetoclastic methanogenesis occurred simultaneously. The delta13C of PLFA increased on average by 27 per thousand in groundwater samples and 4 per thousand in sediment samples. Hence, both suspended and attached communities actively degraded acetate. The PLFA labeling patterns and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of sediment and groundwater samples suggested that the main sulfate-reducing bacteria degrading the acetate were Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans and Desulfobacter sp. in groundwater, and D. acetoxidans in sediment. PMID:16329868

Pombo, Silvina A; Kleikemper, Jutta; Schroth, Martin H; Zeyer, Josef

2005-01-01

106

Iron sulfides and sulfur species produced at hematite surfaces in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) hematite (?-Fe 2O 3) dissolution is affected potentially by a combination of enzymatic (hydrogenase) reduction and hydrogen sulfide oxidation. As a consequence, ferrous ions are free to react with excess H 2S to form insoluble ferrous sulfides. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate binding energies similar to ferrous sulfides having pyrrhotite-like structures (Fe2 p3/2 708.4 eV; S2 p3/2 161.5 eV). Other sulfur species identified at the surface include sulfate, sulfite and polysulfides. Thin film X-ray diffraction identifies a limited number of peaks, the principal one of which may be assigned to the hexagonal pyrrhotite (102) peak (d = 2.09 Å; 2? = 43.22°), at the hematite surface within 3 months exposure to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identifies the presence of a hexagonal structure associated with observed crystallites. Although none of the analytical techniques employed provide unequivocal evidence as to the nature of the ferrous sulfide formed in the presence of SRB at hematite surfaces, we conclude from the available evidence that a pyrrhotite stiochiometry and structure is the best description of the sulfides we observe. Such ferrous sulfide production is inconsistent with previous reports in which mackinawite and greigite were products of biological sulfate reduction (Rickard 1969a; Herbert et al., 1998; Benning et al., 1999). The apparent differences in stoichiometry may be related to sulfide activity at the mineral surface, controlled in part by H 2S autooxidation in the presence of iron oxides. Due to the relative stability of pyrrhotite at low temperatures, ferrous sulfide dissolution is likely to be reduced compared to the more commonly observed products of SRB activity. Additionally, biogenic pyrrhotite formation will also have implications for geomagnetic field behavior of sediments.

Neal, Andrew L.; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Dohnalkova, Alice; McCready, David; Peyton, Brent M.; Geesey, Gill G.

2001-01-01

107

Response of sulfate-reducing bacteria to an artificial oil-spill in a coastal marine sediment.  

PubMed

In situ mesocosm experiments using a calcareous sand flat from a coastal area of the island of Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea were performed in order to study the response of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to controlled crude oil contamination, or heavy contamination with naphthalene. Changes in the microbial community caused by the contamination were monitored by a combination of comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cultivation approaches and metabolic activity rates. Our results showed that crude oil and naphthalene negatively influenced the total microbial community as the natural increase in cell numbers due to the seasonal dynamics was attenuated. However, both contaminants enhanced the sulfate reduction rates, as well as the culturability of SRB. Our results suggested the presence of autochthonous deltaproteobacterial SRBs that were able to degrade crude oil or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene in anaerobic sediment layers. PMID:21414123

Suárez-Suárez, Ana; López-López, Arantxa; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Yarza, Pablo; Orfila, Alejandro; Terrados, Jorge; Arnds, Julia; Marqués, Silvia; Niemann, Helge; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Amann, Rudolf; Rosselló-Móra, Ramón

2011-06-01

108

Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

2013-11-01

109

[Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].  

PubMed

Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

2014-01-01

110

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments such as groundwater, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Because of the ability of Desulfovibrio to reduce radionuclides and metals through both enzymatic and chemical means, they have been proposed as a means to bioremediate heavy metal contaminated sites. Although classically thought of as strict anaerobes, Desulfovibrio species are surprisingly aerotolerant. Our objective is to understand the response of Desulfovibrio to oxidative stress so that we may more effectively utilize them in bioremediation of heavy metals in mixed aerobic-anaerobic environments. The enzymes superoxide dismutase, superoxide reductase, catalase, and rubrerythrin have been shown by others to be involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in Desulfovibrio. Some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can even reduce molecular oxygen to water via a membrane bound electron transport chain with the concomitant production of ATP, although their ability to grow with oxygen as the sole electron acceptor is still questioned.

Payne, Rayford B.; Ringbauer, Joseph A., Jr.; Wall, Judy D.

2006-04-05

111

Reduction of Cr(VI) by a Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB III)  

PubMed Central

A consortium of bacteria with tolerance to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (up to 2,500 ppm) and other toxic heavy metals has been obtained from metal-refinishing wastewaters in Chengdu, People's Republic of China. This consortium consists of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative rods and has the capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) as amorphous precipitates which are associated with the bacterial surfaces. An endospore-producing, gram-positive rod and a gram-negative rod accumulate the most metallic precipitates, and, over time, 80 to 95% of Cr can be removed from concentrations ranging from 50 to 2,000 ppm (0.96 to 38.45 mM). Kinetic studies revealed a first-order constant for Cr removal of 0.1518 h-1 for an initial concentration of 1,000 ppm (19.3 mM), and the sorption isothermal data could be interpreted by the Freundlich relationship. The sorption was not entirely due to a passive interaction with reactive sites on the bacterial surfaces since gamma-irradiated, killed cells could not immobilize as much metal. When U or Zn was added with the Cr, it was also removed and could even increase the total amount of Cr immobilized. The consortium was tolerant to small amounts of oxygen in the headspace of tubes, but active growth of the bacteria was a requirement for Cr immobilization through Cr(VI) reduction, resulting in the lowering of Eh. Our data suggest that the reduction was via H2S. This consortium has been named SRB III, and it may be useful for the bioremediation of fluid metal-refining wastes. Images PMID:16349253

Fude, Li; Harris, Bob; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Beveridge, Terry J.

1994-01-01

112

Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes  

SciTech Connect

A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

1999-03-01

113

Interrelations between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria in bottom deposits of a fresh-water lake. I. Field observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on the seasonal periodicity in bottom deposits of Lake Vechten indicated an ecological relationship between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Sulfate reducers are most abundant at depths of 0 to 2 cm in the mud at pS2- values of about 11 and redox potential values of-100 to-150 mV. Maximum number of methane producers are situated at depths of 3 to

Th. E. Cappenberg

1974-01-01

114

Isolation and characterization of aggregate-forming sulfate-reducing and purple sulfur bacteria from the chemocline of meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes was used to monitor enrichment cultures of yet uncultured populations of sulfate-reducing and small-celled purple sulfur bacteria found to associate into aggregates in the chemocline of meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, and to select potential isolates. Enrichment and isolation conditions resembled those of their nearest cultured relatives, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes and small-celled

Sandro Peduzzi; Mauro Tonolla; Dittmar Hahn

2003-01-01

115

Presence and expression of terminal oxygen reductases in strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from salt-marsh sediments.  

PubMed

In the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough genes were found encoding membrane terminal oxygen reductases of two types: a cytochrome c oxidase and a cytochrome bd oxidase, both enzymes are terminal oxidases typical of facultative or aerobic microorganisms (Heidelberg JF, et al., The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium D. vulgaris Hildenborough. Nat Biotechnol 2004; 22: 554-9). To apprehend the presence of both oxidases in other sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), several assays were performed on isolates recovered from salt-marsh sediments in Portugal, representative of the different phylogenetic groups identified. Hybridization and PCR experiments for DNA sequencing were performed on the chosen isolates. Primers were selected to amplify conserved regions of cytochrome c oxidases and cytochrome bd oxidases taking into consideration alignment of corresponding subunit I sequences. The results showed that both oxidase genes are present on the chromosome of several isolates characterized as Desulfovibrio. These genes were shown to be transcribed, as demonstrated by Reverse Transcriptase-PCR experiments on total RNA. In order to assess the relative contribution of each oxidase to oxygen consumption, oxygen uptake was measured for each isolate and further characterized by the effect of cyanide on oxygen consumption. It was concluded that cytochrome bd oxidase was the terminal membrane oxygen reductase allowing oxygen consumption. In addition, it was observed that isolates containing cytochrome bd oxidase had higher resistance to air exposure, suggesting an important role of this enzyme in survival to air exposure. The pattern for the presence of oxygen reductase genes was compared to the physiological pattern of substrate use, which was determined for each isolate. Salinity tolerance, pH and temperature growth of each isolate were also analyzed. PMID:18457966

Santana, Margarida

2008-06-01

116

New sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from Buryatian alkaline brackish lakes: description of Desulfonatronum buryatense sp. nov.  

PubMed

New strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from two alkaline brackish lakes located in the Siberian region of Russia, namely in the Southern Transbaikalia, Buriatia. The article presents data describing morphology, physiology, and biochemical characteristics of the isolated strains. These strains Ki4, Ki5, and Su2 were mesophilic and alkaliphilic with optimal growth at pH 8.9, 9.4, and 10.0, respectively. All isolated strains utilized lactate, formate, and ethanol in the presence of sulfate for growth and sulfidogenesis accompanied with formation of acetate and CO2. Strains Ki5 and Su2 were able to reduce Fe(III). The DNA G + C content in strains Ki4, Ki5 and Su2 was 56.3, 48.8 and 59.6 mol%, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, the new strains were clustered within the genus Desulfonatronum, and the closest relative D. lacustre Z-7951(T) (=DSM 10312(T)) showed 99.3-99.6 % similarity. DNA-DNA relatedness values of the strains Ki4, Ki5, and Su2 with D. lacustre Z-7951(T) were 89, 53, and 79 %, respectively. Polyphasic taxonomy data suggest that strain Ki5(T) is representative of the proposed novel species Desulfonatronum buryatense sp. nov. PMID:23881259

Ryzhmanova, Yana; Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Abashina, Tatyana; Ariskina, Elena; Troshina, Olga; Vainshtein, Mikhail; Shcherbakova, Victoria

2013-09-01

117

Diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade are the key alkane degraders at marine seeps.  

PubMed

Biogeochemical and microbiological data indicate that the anaerobic oxidation of non-methane hydrocarbons by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has an important role in carbon and sulfur cycling at marine seeps. Yet, little is known about the bacterial hydrocarbon degraders active in situ. Here, we provide the link between previous biogeochemical measurements and the cultivation of degraders by direct identification of SRB responsible for butane and dodecane degradation in complex on-site microbiota. Two contrasting seep sediments from Mediterranean Amon mud volcano and Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) were incubated with (13)C-labeled butane or dodecane under sulfate-reducing conditions and analyzed via complementary stable isotope probing (SIP) techniques. Using DNA- and rRNA-SIP, we identified four specialized clades of alkane oxidizers within Desulfobacteraceae to be distinctively active in oxidation of short- and long-chain alkanes. All clades belong to the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus (DSS) clade, substantiating the crucial role of these bacteria in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation at marine seeps. The identification of key enzymes of anaerobic alkane degradation, subsequent ?-oxidation and the reverse Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for complete substrate oxidation by protein-SIP further corroborated the importance of the DSS clade and indicated that biochemical pathways, analog to those discovered in the laboratory, are of great relevance for natural settings. The high diversity within identified subclades together with their capability to initiate alkane degradation and growth within days to weeks after substrate amendment suggest an overlooked potential of marine benthic microbiota to react to natural changes in seepage, as well as to massive hydrocarbon input, for example, as encountered during anthropogenic oil spills. PMID:24722631

Kleindienst, Sara; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Stagars, Marion; von Netzer, Frederick; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana; Peplies, Jörg; Amann, Rudolf; Musat, Florin; Lueders, Tillmann; Knittel, Katrin

2014-10-01

118

The search for sulfate-reducing bacteria in mat samples from the lost city hydrothermal field by molecular cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work is dedicated to searching for microorganisms of the domain Bacteria capable of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the samples of microbial mats from a carbonate chimney in the Lost City hydro-thermal\\u000a field. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes, the universal phylogenetic marker, and dsrAB, the functional marker for sulfate reduction, revealed phylotypes related to spore-forming Desulfotomaculum. No members of the

A. L. Gerasimchuk; A. A. Shatalov; A. L. Novikov; O. P. Butorova; N. V. Pimenov; A. Yu. Lein; A. S. Yanenko; O. V. Karnachuk

2010-01-01

119

Physiology, phylogenetic relationships, and ecology of filamentous sulfate-reducing bacteria (genus Desulfonema)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopy of organic-rich, sulfidic sediment samples of marine and freshwater origin revealed filamentous, multicellular\\u000a microorganisms with gliding motility. Many of these neither contained sulfur droplets such as the Beggiatoa species nor exhibited the autofluorescence of the chlorophyll-containing cyanobacteria. A frequently observed morphological\\u000a type of filamentous microorganism was enriched under anoxic conditions in the dark with isobutyrate plus sulfate. Two strains

Manabu Fukui; Andreas Teske; B. Aßmus; G. Muyzer; F. Widdel

1999-01-01

120

Modeling in-situ uranium(VI) bioreduction by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a travel-time based reactive transport model to simulate an in-situ bioremediation experiment for demonstrating enhanced bioreduction of uranium(VI). The model considers aquatic equilibrium chemistry of uranium and other groundwater constituents, uranium sorption and precipitation, and the microbial reduction of nitrate, sulfate and U(VI). Kinetic sorption\\/desorption of U(VI) is characterized by mass transfer between stagnant micro-pores and mobile flow

Jian Luo; Frank-Andreas Weber; Olaf A. Cirpka; Wei-Min Wu; Jennifer L. Nyman; Jack Carley; Philip M. Jardine; Craig S. Criddle; Peter K. Kitanidis

2007-01-01

121

Co-existence of physiologically similar sulfate-reducing bacteria in a full-scale sulfidogenic bioreactor fed with a single organic electron donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of culture-dependent and independent methods was used to study the co-existence of different sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria (SRB) in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating sulfate-rich wastewater. The wastewater was fed with ethanol\\u000a as an external electron donor. Twenty six strains of SRB were randomly picked and isolated from the highest serial dilution\\u000a that showed growth (i.e. 108). Repetitive

Shabir A. Dar; Alfons J. M. Stams; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2007-01-01

122

Acid-Tolerant Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Play a Major Role in Iron Cycling in Acidic Iron Rich Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change drives drying and acidification of many rivers and lakes. Abundant sedimentary iron in these systems oxidizes chemically and biologically to form iron-ox(yhydrox)ide crusts and "hardpans". Given generally high sulfate concentrations, the mobilization and cycling of iron in these environments can be strongly influenced by bacterial sulfate reduction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) induce reductive dissolution of oxidized iron phases by producing the reductant bisulfide as a metabolic product. These environmentally ubiquitous microbes also recycle much of the fixed carbon in sediment-hosted microbial mat communities. With prevalent drying, the buffering capacity for protons liberated from iron oxidation is exceeded, and the activity of sulfate-reducers is restricted to those species capable of tolerating low pH (and generally highly saline, i.e. sulfate-rich) conditions. These species will sustain the recycling of iron from more crystalline phases to more bioavailable species, as well as act as the only source of bisulfide for photosynthesizing microbial communities. The phylogeny and physiology of acid-tolerant SRB is therefore important to Fe, S and C cycling in iron-rich sedimentary environments, particularly those on a geochemical trajectory towards acidification. Previous studies have shown that these SRB species tend to be highly novel. We studied two distinct environments along a geochemical continuum towards acidification. In both settings, iron redox transformations exert a major, if not controlling, influence on reduction potential. An acidified, iron- rich tidal marsh receiving acid-mine drainage (San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) contained abundant textural evidence for reductive dissolution of Fe(III) in sediments with pH values varying from 2.4 - 3.8. From these sediments, full-length novel dsrAB gene sequences from acid-tolerant SRB were recovered, and sulfur isotope profiles reflected biological fractionation of sulfur under even the most acidic conditions. The dsrAB genes are related to other novel SRB lineages derived from acidic environments in previous reports, suggesting that these species have adapted to the acidity rather than colonized more circumneutral microenvironments. In an acidic hypersaline lake system in NW Victoria (Australia), previous studies suggested that pore water bisulfide derived from anoxic groundwater transported from distal locations. However, isolated potholes of oxic Fe(III)-rich springwater exhibited nearly a two-fold increase in conductivity and pH increase from 4.5 to 8.0 over time periods on the order of days; and biogeochemical and mineralogical observations were consistent with the presence of active acid- and halo-tolerant SRB. Furthermore, stratified active microbial mat communities, with zones of black FeS formation localized several millimeters below the sediment-air interface, were identified in cross-section from lakeshore sediments near groundwater discharge springs. Culture-independent and culture-based work to characterize the SRB population is ongoing at this site. We infer, from previous sulfur isotope tracer experiments at the lake, that overall sulfate reduction rates may be slow, but are nonetheless proceeding and contributing to the recycling of oxidized iron to a significant degree given the abundance of sulfate evidenced by widespread gypsum precipitation. We conclude from the two study-sites described above that acid-tolerant SRB species play an important role in the linked S, Fe and C cycles in acidifying, iron-rich environments, and their phylogenetic and physiological diversity should be further investigated.

Enright, K. A.; Moreau, J. W.

2008-12-01

123

Methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil sands fine tailings waste.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the large tailings pond (Mildred Lake Settling Basin) on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. lease near Fort McMurray, Alta., has gone methanogenic. Currently, about 60%-80% of the flux of gas across the surface of the tailings pond is methane. As well as adding to greenhouse gas emissions, the production of methane in the fine tailings zone of this and other settling basins may affect the performance of these settling basins and impact reclamation options. Enumeration studies found methanogens (10(5)-10(6) MPN/g) within the fine tailings zone of various oil sands waste settling basins. SRB were also present (10(4)-10(5) MPN/g) with elevated numbers when sulfate was available. The methanogenic population was robust, and sample storage up to 9 months at 4 degrees C did not cause the MPN values to change. Nor was the ability of the consortium to produce methane delayed or less efficient after storage. Under laboratory conditions, fine tailings samples released 0.10-0.25 mL CH4 (at STP)/mL fine tailings. The addition of sulfate inhibited methanogenesis by stimulating bacterial competition. PMID:11068680

Holowenko, F M; MacKinnon, M D; Fedorak, P M

2000-10-01

124

Oxidation of H 2 , organic compounds and inorganic sulfur compounds coupled to reduction of O 2 or nitrate by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of fourteen sulfate-reducing bacteria tested were able to carry out aerobic respiration with at least one of the following electron donors: H2, lactate, pyruvate, formate, acetate, butyrate, ethanol, sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfite. Generally, we did not obtain growth with O2 as electron acceptor. The bacteria were microaerophilic, since the respiration rates increased with decreasing O2 concentrations or ceased after repeated

Simone Dannenberg; Michael Kroder; Waltraud Dilling; Heribert Cypionka

1992-01-01

125

COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES AND RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES AMONG DISSIMILATORY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). f these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA direct...

126

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

127

Distinctive Oxidative Stress Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect

Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mM) was investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. Microarray data demonstrated that gene expression was extensively affected by H2O2 with the response peaking at 120 min after H2O2 treatment. Genes affected include those involved with energy production, sulfate reduction, ribosomal structure and translation, H2O2 scavenging, posttranslational modification and DNA repair as evidenced by gene coexpression networks generated via a random matrix-theory based approach. Data from this study support the hypothesis that both PerR and Fur play important roles in H2O2-induced oxidative stress response. First, both PerR and Fur regulon genes were significantly up-regulated. Second, predicted PerR regulon genes ahpC and rbr2 were derepressedin Delta PerR and Delta Fur mutants and induction of neither gene was observed in both Delta PerR and Delta Fur when challenged with peroxide, suggesting possible overlap of these regulons. Third, both Delta PerR and Delta Fur appeared to be more tolerant of H2O2 as measured by optical density. Forth, proteomics data suggested de-repression of Fur during the oxidative stress response. In terms of the intracellular enzymatic H2O2 scavenging, gene expression data suggested that Rdl and Rbr2 may play major roles in the detoxification of H2O2. In addition, induction of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin appeared to be independent of PerR and Fur. Considering all data together, D. vulgaris employed a distinctive stress resistance mechanism to defend against increased cellular H2O2, and the temporal gene expression changes were consistent with the slowdown of cell growth at the onset of oxidative stress.

Zhou, Aifen; He, Zhili; Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Bender, Kelly S.; Keasling, Jay D.; Stahl, David A.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

2009-01-01

128

Application Of Immobilized Sulfate Reducing Bacteria For Permeable Reactive Barriers In Abandoned Coal Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of the Korean coal industry has been drastic in production and consumption. This has been resulted mainly from the environmental concern and the collapse of commercial viability, which has eventually necessitated the government to implement the coal industry rationalization policies to reduce coal production and close down uneconomical mines. The overall drainage rates from abandoned coal mines reaches

K. Kim; W. Hur; S. Choi; K. Min; H. Baek

2006-01-01

129

Competitive interactions between Fe, Mn, and sulfate-reducing bacteria and biotic vs. abiotic reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese- and iron reduction in tidal sediments is coupled to the cycling of carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus. The reduction of manganese and iron oxides can either be directly coupled to organic matter oxidation (a biotic process) or driven by chemical (abiotic) oxidation of reduced compounds, such as sulfide. The relative contribution of these biogeochemical pathways to the cycling of iron

Y. van Lith; P. Regnier; P. van Cappellen

2003-01-01

130

Enzymatic Recovery of Elemental Palladium by Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Worldwide usage of platinum group metals is increasing, prompting new recovery technologies. Resting cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced soluble Pd2+ to elemental, cell-bound Pd0 supported by pyruvate, formate, or H2 as the electron donor without biochemical cofactors. Pd reduction was O2 insensitive, opening the way for recycling and recovery of Pd under oxic conditions. PMID:9797331

Lloyd, Jon R.; Yong, Ping; Macaskie, Lynne E.

1998-01-01

131

Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

This overarching aim of this project was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. The work reported herein was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM). Research at ASU, focused on the biogenesis aspects, examined the biogeochemical bases for iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium that is one of the most-studied strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A series of experimental studies were performed to investigate comprehensively important metabolic and environmental factors that affect the rates of sulfate reduction and iron-sulfide precipitation, the mineralogical characteristics of the iron sulfides, and how uranium is reduced or co-reduced by D. vulagaris. FeS production studies revealed that controlling the pH affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe1+xS). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe3S4) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3 mM. On the other hand, using solid Fe(III) (hydr)oxides as the iron source led to less productivity of FeS due to their slow and incomplete dissolution and scavenging of sulfide. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe2+, particularly during Fe(III) (hydr)oxide reductions, led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8(H2O)]. The U(VI) reduction studies revealed that D. vulgaris reduced U(VI) fastest when accumulating sulfide from concomitant sulfate reduction, since direct enzymatic and sulfide-based reductions of U(VI) occurred in parallel. The UO2 produced in presence of ferrous iron was poorly crystalline. At UM, laboratory-scale reactor studies were performed to assess the potential for the predominant abiotic reductants formed under sulfate reducing conditions (SRCs) to: (1) reduce U(VI) in contaminated groundwater sediments), and (2) inhibit the re-oxidation of U(IV) species, and in particular, uraninite (UO2(s)). Under SRCs, mackinawite and aqueous sulfide are the key reductants expected to form. To assess their potential for abiotic reduction of U(VI) species, a series of experiments were performed in which either FeS or S(-II) was added to solutions of U(VI), with the rates of conversion to U(IV) solids monitored as a function of pH, and carbonate and calcium concentration. In the presence of FeS and absence of oxygen or carbonate, U(IV) was completely reduced uraninite. S(-II) was also found to be an effective reductant of aqueous phase U(VI) species and produced uraninite, with the kinetics and extent of reduction depending on geochemical conditions. U(VI) reduction to uraninite was faster under higher S(-II) concentrations but was slowed by an increase in the dissolved Ca or carbonate concentration. Rapid reduction of U(VI) occurred at circumneutral pH but virtually no reduction occurred at pH 10.7. In general, dissolved Ca and carbonate slowed abiotic U(VI) reduction by forming stable Ca-U(VI)-carbonate soluble complexes that are resistant to reaction with aqueous sulfide. To investigate the stability of U(IV) against re-oxidation in the presence of iron sulfides by oxidants in simulated groundwater environments, and to develop a mechanistic understanding the controlling redox processes, continuously-mixed batch reactor (CMBR) and flow-through reactor (CMFR) studies were performed at UM. In these studies a series of experiments were conducted under various oxic groundwater conditions to examine the effectiveness of FeS as an oxygen scavenger to retard UO2 dissolution. The results indicate that FeS is an effective oxygen scavenger, and can lower the rate of oxidative dissolution of UO2 by over an order of magnitude compared to

Hayes, Kim F.; Bi, Yuqiang; Carpenter, Julian; Hyng, Sung Pil; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender; Davis, James A.

2014-01-01

132

Bacterial community structure and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria in a membrane aerated biofilm analyzed by microsensor and molecular techniques.  

PubMed

The activities and vertical spatial distribution of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in an oxygen (O2 )-based membrane aerated biofilm (MAB) were investigated using microsensor (O2 and H2 S) measurements and molecular techniques (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [PCR-DGGE] and fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]). The O2 concentration profile revealed that O2 penetrated from the bottom (substratum) of the gas permeable membrane, and was gradually consumed within the biofilm until it was completely depleted near the biofilm/bulk liquid interface, indicating oxic and anoxic zone in the MAB. The H2 S concentration profile showed that H2 S production was found in the upper 285?µm of the biofilm, indicating a high activity of SRB in this region. The results from DGGE of the PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) gene and FISH showed an uneven spatial distribution of SRB. The maximum SRB biomass was located in the upper biofilm. The information from the molecular analysis can be supplemented with that from microsensor measurements to better understand the microbial community and activity of SRB in the MAB. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2155-2162. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24890472

Liu, Hong; Tan, Shuying; Sheng, Zhiya; Liu, Yang; Yu, Tong

2014-11-01

133

Properties of Desulfovibrio carbinolicus sp. nov. and other sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from an anaerobic-purification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sulfate-reducing microorganisms were isolated from an anaerobic-purification plant. Four strains were classified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio sapovorans, Desulfobulbus propionicus, and Desulfovibrio sp. The D. sapovorans strain contained poly-..beta..-hydroxybutyrate granules and seemed to form extracellular vesicles. A fifth isolate, Desulfovibrio sp. strain EDK82, was a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, nonmotile, curved organism. It was able to oxidize several substrates, including methanol. Sulfate,

H. J. Nanninga; J. C. Gottschal

1987-01-01

134

Purification and characterization of a surfactin-like molecule produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 and its antagonistic effect against sulfate reducing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Bacillus sp. H2O-1, isolated from the connate water of a Brazilian reservoir, produces an antimicrobial substance (denoted as AMS H2O-1) that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, which are the major bacterial group responsible for biogenic souring and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. Thus, the use of AMS H2O-1 for sulfate reducing bacteria control in the petroleum industry is a promising alternative to chemical biocides. However, prior to the large-scale production of AMS H2O-1 for industrial applications, its chemical structure must be elucidated. This study also analyzed the changes in the wetting properties of different surfaces conditioned with AMS H2O-1 and demonstrated the effect of AMS H2O-1 on sulfate reducing bacteria cells. Results A lipopeptide mixture from AMS H2O-1 was partially purified on a silica gel column and identified via mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It comprises four major components that range in size from 1007 to 1049 Da. The lipid moiety contains linear and branched ?-hydroxy fatty acids that range in length from C13 to C16. The peptide moiety contains seven amino acids identified as Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cell membrane alteration of sulfate reducing bacteria after AMS H2O-1 treatment at the minimum inhibitory concentration (5 ?g/ml). Cytoplasmic electron dense inclusions were observed in treated cells but not in untreated cells. AMS H2O-1 enhanced the osmosis of sulfate reducing bacteria cells and caused the leakage of the intracellular contents. In addition, contact angle measurements indicated that different surfaces conditioned by AMS H2O-1 were less hydrophobic and more electron-donor than untreated surfaces. Conclusion AMS H2O-1 is a mixture of four surfactin-like homologues, and its biocidal activity and surfactant properties suggest that this compound may be a good candidate for sulfate reducing bacteria control. Thus, it is a potential alternative to the chemical biocides or surface coating agents currently used to prevent SRB growth in petroleum industries. PMID:23131170

2012-01-01

135

Community Structure, Cellular rRNA Content, and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Marine Arctic Sediments  

PubMed Central

The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of a marine Arctic sediment (Smeerenburgfjorden, Svalbard) was characterized by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and rRNA slot blot hybridization by using group- and genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. The SRB community was dominated by members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group. This group accounted for up to 73% of the SRB detected and up to 70% of the SRB rRNA detected. The predominance was shown to be a common feature for different stations along the coast of Svalbard. In a top-to-bottom approach we aimed to further resolve the composition of this large group of SRB by using probes for cultivated genera. While this approach failed, directed cloning of probe-targeted genes encoding 16S rRNA was successful and resulted in sequences which were all affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group. A group of clone sequences (group SVAL1) most closely related to Desulfosarcina variabilis (91.2% sequence similarity) was dominant and was shown to be most abundant in situ, accounting for up to 54.8% of the total SRB detected. A comparison of the two methods used for quantification showed that FISH and rRNA slot blot hybridization gave comparable results. Furthermore, a combination of the two methods allowed us to calculate specific cellular rRNA contents with respect to localization in the sediment profile. The rRNA contents of Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cells were highest in the first 5 mm of the sediment (0.9 and 1.4 fg, respectively) and decreased steeply with depth, indicating that maximal metabolic activity occurred close to the surface. Based on SRB cell numbers, cellular sulfate reduction rates were calculated. The rates were highest in the surface layer (0.14 fmol cell?1 day?1), decreased by a factor of 3 within the first 2 cm, and were relatively constant in deeper layers. PMID:10919825

Ravenschlag, Katrin; Sahm, Kerstin; Knoblauch, Christian; J?rgensen, Bo B.; Amann, Rudolf

2000-01-01

136

Anaerobic degradation of alkylbenzenes in crude oil. II. Changes of oil composition upon incubation with sulfate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Various alkylbenzenes in crude oils are degradable by several newly isolated sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing bacteria under strictly anoxic conditions. A mesophilic enrichment culture consisting of at least two different types of sulfate-reducing bacteria, depletes toluene, o- and m-xylene, o- and m-ethyltoluene, m-propyltoluene and m-cymene in crude oils at different rates. Experiments with different oils reveal that in general the degradation efficiency seems to depend not very strongly on the composition of the incubated oils. Results of our experiments with nitrate-reducing bacteria show that at least toluene, ethyltoluene and m-, p- and o-xylene in crude oils are biodegradable under denitrifying conditions. All organisms isolated so far exhibit a high substrate specifity. Up to now no indications for the alteration of other oil fractions, i.e. n-alkanes, biomarkers and PAH`s, could be observed with any of the bacteria used in this study. The possible role of alkylbenzene-degrading anaerobic bacteria in biodegradation of petroleums in natural environments will be discussed.

Wilkes, H.; Willsch, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Rabus, R.; Aeckersberg, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Marine Mikrobiologie, Bremen (Germany)] [and others

1996-10-01

137

Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.  

PubMed

Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 ?M and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

2010-10-01

138

Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach? †  

PubMed Central

Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 ?M and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

2010-01-01

139

A combined massively parallel sequencing indicator species approach revealed significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities  

SciTech Connect

Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has been mostly used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium (VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee, USA. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 {micro}M, and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner loop injection well towards the outer loop and down-gradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical created conditions. Castellaniella, and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity; while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. Abundance of these bacteria as well as the Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducer Geobacter correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to the electron donor addition and by the groundwater flow path. A false discovery rate approach was implemented to discard false positives by chance given the large amount of data compared.

Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Gentry, Terry [Texas A& M University; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Watson, David B [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A. [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee; Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2010-08-01

140

Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach  

SciTech Connect

Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 M and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Luo, Jian [Stanford University; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL

2010-10-01

141

Application of Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Fields  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 101 to 6 × 105 dsrB gene copies ml?1. DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

Nyyssonen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

2013-01-01

142

Molecular Scale Dissolved Organic Matter Interactions Impact Mercury Bioavailability for Uptake and Methylation by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical factors such as dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) type and abundance may play a major role in governing the bioavailability of aqueous Hg(II) for uptake and methylation by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). MeHg production correlates in some cases with predicted dominance of hydrophobic, neutrally-charged, aqueous HgS. This species is thought to interact strongly with DOM via hydrophobic attractions. Field and laboratory observations suggest that DOM promotes methylation. We therefore hypothesized that DOM isolates of differing (well-characterized) functional compositions (e.g., hydrophobic versus hydrophilic) could variably enhance bacterial methylation. Methylation assays using Desulfobulbus propionicus 1pr3 in fermentative growth were performed using a mercury isotope tracer applied at concentrations of roughly 100 ng/L. The tracer was pre-equilibrated with 5-10 uM aqueous sulfide and approximately 40 mg/L of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic DOM prior to inoculation. Results showed roughly 1-3% tracer methylation in both hydrophobic DOM+ and DOM- cultures. However, a similar amount of non- tracer (background) mercury associated with the hydrophobic DOM fraction was also methylated. Preliminary results suggested that pre-equilibration of the isotope tracer for up to one month with hydrophobic-fraction humic acids resulted in a roughly 2-3X increase in the quantity and rate of methylation, indicating an important role for aging on DOM in Hg bioavailability. Mercury-sulfide-DOM equilibration products were investigated with synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EXAFS) at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Hg L(III)-edge spectra from resin-concentrated Hg-S-DOM equilibration products exhibited high similarity to a metacinnabar-like conformation. Culturing and EXAFS results, taken together, suggest that nanophase metacinnabar, "packaged" in DOM, could have been the bioavailable form of Hg(II) in culturing experiments. Further experiments involving other DOM fractions, and new EXAFS investigations are ongoing, to explore further the mechanism of bacterial mercury methylation.

Moreau, J. W.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2008-12-01

143

Growth, natural relationships, cellular fatty acids and metabolic adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria that utilize long-chain alkanes under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural relationships, improvement of anaerobic growth on hydrocarbons, and properties that may provide clues to an understanding\\u000a of oxygen-independent alkane metabolism were studied with two mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains Hxd3 and Pnd3.\\u000a Strain Hxd3 had been formerly isolated from an oil tank; strain Pnd3 was isolated from marine sediment. Strains Hxd3 and Pnd3\\u000a grew under strictly anoxic conditions on n-alkanes

Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Friedrich Widdel

1998-01-01

144

Interrelations between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria in bottom deposits of a fresh-water lake. III. Experiments with 14 C-labeled substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological substrate relationship between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria in mud of Lake Vechten has been studied in experiments using 14C-labeled acetate and lactate as substrates. Fluoroacetate strongly inhibited the formation of 14CO2 from [U-14C]-acetate and ß-fluorolactate gave an inhibition of similar magnitude of the breakdown of [U-14C]-l-lactate to 14CO2 thus confirming earlier results on the specific action of these

Th. E. Cappenberg; R. A. Prins

1974-01-01

145

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris)

R. Zuo; D. Örnek; B. C. Syrett; R. M. Green; C.-H. Hsu; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

2004-01-01

146

UASB performance and electron competition between methane-producing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in treating sulfate-rich wastewater containing ethanol and acetate.  

PubMed

To find an appropriate method for sulfate-rich wastewater containing ethanol and acetate with COD/sulfate ratio of 1, a UASB reactor was operated for more than 180 days. The influences of HRT (hydraulic retention time) and OLR (organic loading rate) on organics and sulfate removal, gas production, and electrons utilization were investigated. The sludge activity and microorganism composition were also determined. The results indicated that this system removed more than 80% of COD and 30% of sulfate with HRT above 6h and OLR below 12.3 gCOD/L d. Further HRT decrease caused volatile fatty acids accumulation and performance deterioration. Except at HRT of 2h, COD and electron flow were mostly utilized by methane-producing archaea (MPA), and methane yield remained in the range of 0.18-0.24 LCH4/gCOD. Methane was mainly generated by Methanosaeta concilii GP6 with acetate as substrate, whereas sulfate was mainly reduced by incomplete-oxidizing Desulfovibrio species with ethanol as substrate. PMID:23597763

Jing, Zhaoqian; Hu, Yong; Niu, Qigui; Liu, Yuyu; Li, Yu-You; Wang, Xiaochang C

2013-06-01

147

Syntrophic growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria and colorless sulfur bacteria during oxygen limitation 1 Dedicated to the memory of Prof. Dr. R.A. Prins. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable co-cultures of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans PA2805 and the colorless sulfur bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus T5 were obtained in continuous cultures supplied with limiting amounts of lactate and oxygen while sulfate was present in excess. Neither species could grow in pure culture under these conditions. Desulfovibrio could grow only when the oxygen concentration was kept low by Thiobacillus. Zerovalent

Frank P van den Ende; Jutta Meier; Hans van Gemerden

1997-01-01

148

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more

Rongjun Zuo; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

149

Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of U by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

This four-year project’s overarching aim was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. As stated in this final report, significant progress was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM).

Rittman, Bruce; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender

2013-12-31

150

Effects of legacy nuclear waste on the compositional diversity and distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a terrestrial subsurface aquifer.  

PubMed

The impact of legacy nuclear waste on the compositional diversity and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a heavily contaminated subsurface aquifer was examined. dsrAB clone libraries were constructed and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis used to evaluate genetic variation between sampling wells. Principal component analysis identified nickel, nitrate, technetium, and organic carbon as the primary variables contributing to well-to-well geochemical variability, although comparative sequence analysis showed the sulfate-reducing bacteria community structure to be consistent throughout contaminated and uncontaminated regions of the aquifer. Only 3% of recovered dsrAB gene sequences showed apparent membership to the Deltaproteobacteria. The remainder of recovered sequences may represent novel, deep-branching lineages that, to our knowledge, do not presently contain any cultivated members; although corresponding phylotypes have recently been reported from several different marine ecosystems. These findings imply resiliency and adaptability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to extremes in environmental conditions, although the possibility for horizontal transfer of dsrAB is also discussed. PMID:16466381

Bagwell, Christopher E; Liu, Xuaduan; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong

2006-03-01

151

Bioaccumulation of gold by sulfate-reducing bacteria cultured in the presence of gold(I)-thiosulfate complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment, from the Driefontein Consolidated Gold Mine, Witwatersrand Basin, Republic of South Africa, was able to destabilize gold(I)-thiosulfate complex (Au(S2O3)23-) and precipitate elemental gold. The precipitation of gold was observed in the presence of active (live) SRB due to the formation and release of hydrogen sulfide as an end-product of metabolism, and occurred by three possible

Maggy Lengke; Gordon Southam

2006-01-01

152

Quantification of Tinto River Sediment Microbial Communities: Importance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Role in Attenuating Acid Mine Drainage  

PubMed Central

Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (<2%) at both sites, important differences were detected at the class and genus levels, reflecting differences in pH, redox potential, and heavy metal concentrations. At SN, where the pH and redox potential are similar to that of the water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (?210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo

2012-01-01

153

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.  

PubMed

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

2004-11-01

154

Biochemical studies on sulfate-reducing bacteria. XIV. Enzyme levels of adenylylsulfate reductase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, sulfite reductase, hydrogenase, and adenosine triphosphatase in cells grown on sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, strain Miyazaki, were grown on either sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate as the terminal electron acceptor. Better growth was observed on sulfite and less growth on thiosulfate than on sulfate. Enzyme levels of adenylylsulfate (APS) reductase [EC 1.8.99.2], reductant-activated inorganic pyrophosphatase [EC 3.6.1.1], sulfite reductase [EC 1.8.99.1] (desulfoviridin), hydrogenase [EC 1.12.2.1], and Mg2+-activated ATPase [EC 3.6.1.3] were compared in crude extracts of these cells at various stages of growth. 1) The specific activity of APS reductase in sulfite-grown cells was only one-fourth that in sulfate-grown cells throughout growth. Thiosulfate-grown cells had an activity intermediate between those of sulfate- and sulfite-grown cells. 2) Cells grown on sulfite had lower specific activity of reductant-activated inorganic pyrophosphatase than cells grown on sulfate or thiosulfate. 3) The specific activity of sulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) was highest in sulfite-grown cells. The sulfite medium gave the enzyme in high yield as well as with high specific activity. 4) The specific activities of hydrogenase and Mg2+-ATPase were not significantly altered by electron acceptors in the growth medium. PMID:175050

Kobayashi, K; Morisawa, Y; Ishituka, T; Ishimoto, M

1975-11-01

155

Volatile Fatty Acids andHydrogen asSubstrates forSulfate- Reducing Bacteria inAnaerobic Marine Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theaddition of20mM MoO2-(molybdate) toareduced marinesediment completely inhibited theSO-reduction activity byabout50nmolg-1h-'(wet sediment). Acetate accumulated ataconstant rateofabout25nmolg-1h-1 immediately afterMoO4- addition andgaveameasure ofthepreceding utilization rate ofacetate bytheSO4--reducing bacteria. Similarly, propionate andbutyrate (including isobutyrate) accumulated atconstant rates of3to7and2to4nmol g'h-1, respectively. TherateofH2accumulation wasvariable, andarange of0 to16nmolg-1h-'wasrecorded. Animmediate increase ofthemethanogenic activity by2to3nmolg-1h-1 wasapparently duetoarelease ofthecompetition forH2bytheabsence ofSO4-reduction. Ifpropionate andbutyrate were completely oxidized bytheSO4-reducing bacteria, thestoichiometry ofthe

JAN S; DORTE CHRISTENSEN

1981-01-01

156

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry.  

PubMed

The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance. Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited decline in SRB growth, reduction in production of sulfides, with consumption of sulfate. The observed effect seems more important in comparison with the effect caused by the tested biocide (THPS). Strain B21, a dominant facultative aerobic species, has salt growth requirement always above 5% (w/v) salts with optimal concentration of 10-15%. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B21 is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis DQ115802 (94.0% sequence similarity), Bacillus aidingensis DQ504377 (94.0%), and Bacillus salarius AY667494 (92.2%). Comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data plus physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain B21 may represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, named Bacillus sp. (EMBL, FR671419). The results of this study indicate the application potential of Bacillus strain B21 as a biocontrol agent to fight corrosion in the oil industry. PMID:20949304

Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Touzi, Abdelkader; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Pauss, André; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil

2011-03-01

157

Three-year survey of sulfate-reducing bacteria community structure in Carnoulès acid mine drainage (France), highly contaminated by arsenic.  

PubMed

A 3-year survey on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was conducted in the waters of the arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) located at Carnoulès (France) to determine the influence of environmental parameters on their community structure. The source (S5 station) exhibited most extreme conditions with pH lowering to ~1.2; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations reaching 6843, 29 593, and 638 mg L(-1), respectively. The conditions were less extreme at the downstream stations S1 (pH ~3.7; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations of 1114, 4207, and 167 mg L(-1), respectively) and COWG (pH ~3.4; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations of 854, 3134, and 110 mg L(-1), respectively). SRB community structures were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and library analyses based on dsrAB genes. The predominant dsrAB sequences detected were most similar to the family Desulfobulbaceae. Additionally, certain phylotypes could be related to spatio-temporal fluctuations of pH, iron, and arsenic species. For example, Desulfohalobiaceae-related sequences were detected at the most acidic sample (pH 1.4) with high iron and arsenic concentrations (6379 and 524 mg L(-1), respectively). New dsrAB sequences, with no isolated representatives, were found exclusively in COWG. This study gives new insights on SRB community dynamics in AMD systems. PMID:23057444

Giloteaux, Ludovic; Duran, Robert; Casiot, Corinne; Bruneel, Odile; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol

2013-03-01

158

Sulfonates as Terminal Electron Acceptors for Growth of Sulfite-Reducing Bacteria (Desulfitobacterium spp.) and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Effects of Inhibitors of Sulfidogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the ability of Desulfitobacterium spp. to utilize aliphatic sulfonates as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) for growth. Isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium hafniense resulted in acetate as well as sulfide accumulation in accordance with the expectation that the carbon portion of isethionate was oxidized to acetate and the sulfur was reduced to sulfide. The presence of a poly-

THOMAS J. LIE; WALTER GODCHAUX; EDWARD R. LEADBETTER

1999-01-01

159

Bioaccumulation of gold by sulfate-reducing bacteria cultured in the presence of gold(I)-thiosulfate complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment, from the Driefontein Consolidated Gold Mine, Witwatersrand Basin, Republic of South Africa, was able to destabilize gold(I)-thiosulfate complex (Au(SO)23-) and precipitate elemental gold. The precipitation of gold was observed in the presence of active (live) SRB due to the formation and release of hydrogen sulfide as an end-product of metabolism, and occurred by three possible mechanisms involving iron sulfide, localized reducing conditions, and metabolism. The presence of biogenic iron sulfide caused significant removal of gold from solutions by adsorption and reduction processes on the iron sulfide surfaces. The presence of gold nanoparticles within and immediately surrounding the bacterial cell envelope highlights the presence of localized reducing conditions produced by the bacterial electron transport chain via energy generating reactions within the cell. Specifically, the decrease in redox conditions caused by the release of hydrogen sulfide from the bacterial cells destabilized the Au(SO)23- solutions. The presence of gold as nanoparticles (<10 nm) inside a sub-population of SRB suggests that the reduction of gold was a part of metabolic process. In late stationary phase or death phase, gold nanoparticles that were initially precipitated inside the bacterial cells, were released from the cells and deposited in the bulk solution as addition of gold nanoparticles that already precipitated in the solution. Ultimately, the formation of micrometer-scale sub-octahedral and octahedral gold and spherical aggregates containing octahedral gold was observed.

Lengke, Maggy; Southam, Gordon

2006-07-01

160

Molecular analysis of deep subsurface Cretaceous rock indicates abundant Fe(III)- and S(zero)-reducing bacteria in a sulfate-rich environment.  

PubMed

A multilevel sampler (MLS) was emplaced in a borehole straddling anaerobic, sulfate-rich Cretaceous-era shale and sandstone rock formations approximately 200 m below ground surface at Cerro Negro, New Mexico. Sterile quartzite sand contained in chambers in the sampler allowed in situ colonization and recovery of nucleic acids for molecular analyses. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene cloning results indicated a homogeneously distributed bacterial community across the shale-sandstone interface. delta-Proteobacteria sequences were common at all depths, and were dominated by members of the Geobacteraceae family (Pelobacter, Desulphuromonas and Geobacter). Other members of this group are capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) and/or S degrees reduction, but not sulfate reduction. RNA hybridization data also suggested that Fe(III)-/S degrees -reducing bacteria were predominant. These findings are striking considering the lack of significant concentrations of these electron acceptors in this environment. The next most abundant bacterial group indicated was the sulfate reducers, including Desulfobacterium, Desulfocapsa and Desulfobulbus. Sequences related to fermenters, denitrifiers and acetogens were also recovered. The presence of a phylogenetically and functionally diverse microbial community in this deep subsurface environment likely reflects the complex nature of the primary energy and carbon sources, kerogen associated with the shale. PMID:16343329

Kovacik, William P; Takai, Ken; Mormile, Melanie R; McKinley, James P; Brockman, Fred J; Fredrickson, James K; Holben, William E

2006-01-01

161

Molecular analysis of deep subsurface Cretaceous rock indicates abundant Fe(III)- and S°-reducing bacteria in a sulfate-rich environment  

SciTech Connect

A multi-level sampler (MLS) was emplaced in a borehole straddling anaerobic, sulfate-rich Cretaceous-era shale and sandstone rock formations {approx}200 m below ground surface at Cerro Negro, New Mexico. Sterile quartzite sand contained in chambers in the sampler allowed in situ colonization and recovery of nucleic acids for molecular analyses. DGGE and 16S rRNA gene cloning results indicated a homogeneously distributed bacterial community across the shale/sandstone interface. ?-Proteobacteria sequences were common at all depths, and were dominated by members of the Geobacteraceae family (Pelobacter, Desulfuromonas, and Geobacter). Other members of this group are capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) and/or S0 reduction, but not sulfate reduction. RNA hybridization data also suggested that Fe(III)/S0 reducing bacteria were predominant. These findings are striking considering the lack of significant concentrations of these electron acceptors in this environment. The next most abundant bacterial group indicated was the sulfate reducers, including Desulfobacterium, Desulfocapsa and Desulfobulbus. Sequences related to fermenters, denitrifiers and acetogens were also recovered. The presence of a phylogenetically and functionally diverse microbial community in this deep subsurface environment likely reflects the complex nature of the primary energy and carbon sources, kerogen associated with the shale.

Kovacik, William P.; Takai, Ken; Mormile, Melanie R.; McKinley, James P.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Holben, William E.

2006-01-01

162

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Floating Macrophyte Rhizospheres from an Amazonian Floodplain Lake in Bolivia and Their Association with Hg Methylation  

PubMed Central

Five subgroups of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were detected by PCR in three macrophyte rhizospheres (Polygonum densiflorum, Hymenachne donacifolia, and Ludwigia helminthorriza) and three subgroups in Eichhornia crassipes from La Granja, a floodplain lake from the upper Madeira basin. The SRB community varied according to the macrophyte species but with different degrees of association with their roots. The rhizosphere of the C4 plant Polygonum densiflorum had higher frequencies of SRB subgroups as well as higher mercury methylation potentials (27.5 to 36.1%) and carbon (16.06 ± 5.40%), nitrogen (2.03 ± 0.64%), Hg (94.50 ± 6.86 ng Hg g?1), and methylmercury (8.25 ± 1.45 ng Hg g?1) contents than the rhizosphere of the C3 plant Eichhornia crassipes. Mercury methylation in Polygonum densiflorum and Eichhornia crassipes was reduced when SRB metabolism was inhibited by sodium molybdate. PMID:16269796

Acha, Dario; Iniguez, Volga; Roulet, Marc; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Luna, Ruddy; Alanoca, Lucia; Sanchez, Samanta

2005-01-01

163

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.  

PubMed

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

2004-04-01

164

The effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria on adsorption of 137Cs by soils from arid and tropical regions.  

PubMed

Soils from different climatic regions of Australia were studied to determine their adsorption of (137)Cs, and the effect of microbial sulfate reduction on this adsorption. The soils consisted of a surface and regolith samples from the site of a proposed low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in arid South Australia, and two red earth loam soils from an experimental plot in the tropical Northern Territory. The process of bacterial sulfate reduction substantially decreased the adsorption of (137)Cs to the arid and tropical soils, although extended incubation resulted in greater adsorption to the regolith sample. This could have implications for the mobility of radionuclides entering these soil ecosystems. PMID:15063544

Russell, Robert A; Holden, Peter J; Payne, Timothy E; McOrist, Gordon D

2004-01-01

165

Interaction between acetate fed sulfate reducers and methanogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

During anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewaters, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane producing bacteria (MPB) can compete for acetate as the common primary substrate. Since acetate is an intermediate of anaerobic degradation of complex wastes, the outcome of the competition between SRB and MPB can affect the treatment efficiency. The objective of this research was to determine the effects

S. K. Bhattacharya; V. Uberoi; M. M. Dronamraju

1996-01-01

166

Unexpected Population Distribution in a Microbial Mat Community: Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Localized to the Highly Oxic Chemocline in Contrast to a Eukaryotic Preference for Anoxia  

PubMed Central

The distribution and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and eukaryotes within the upper 4 mm of a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat community were characterized at high resolution with group-specific hybridization probes to quantify 16S rRNA extracted from 100-?m depth intervals. This revealed a preferential localization of SRB within the region defined by the oxygen chemocline. Among the different groups of SRB quantified, including members of the provisional families “Desulfovibrionaceae” and “Desulfobacteriaceae,” Desulfonema-like populations dominated and accounted for up to 30% of total rRNA extracted from certain depth intervals of the chemocline. These data suggest that recognized genera of SRB are not necessarily restricted by high levels of oxygen in this mat community and the possibility of significant sulfur cycling within the chemocline. In marked contrast, eukaryotic populations in this community demonstrated a preference for regions of anoxia. PMID:10508103

Minz, Dror; Fishbain, Susan; Green, Stefan J.; Muyzer, Gerard; Cohen, Yehuda; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Stahl, David A.

1999-01-01

167

A green triple biocide cocktail consisting of a biocide, EDDS and methanol for the mitigation of planktonic and sessile sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) cause souring and their biofilms are often the culprit in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC). The two most common green biocides for SRB treatment are tetrakis-hydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS) and glutaraldehyde. It is unlikely that there will be another equally effective green biocide in the market any time soon. This means more effective biocide treatment probably will rely on biocide cocktails. In this work a triple biocide cocktail consisting of glutaraldehyde or THPS, ethylenediaminedisuccinate (EDDS) and methanol was used to treat planktonic SRB and to remove established SRB biofilms. Desulfovibrio vulgaris (ATCC 7757), a corrosive SRB was used as an example in the tests. Laboratory results indicated that with the addition of 10-15% (v/v) methanol to the glutaraldehyde and EDDS double combination, mitigation of planktonic SRB growth in ATCC 1249 medium and a diluted medium turned from inhibition to a kill effect while the chelator dosage was cut from 2,000 to 1,000 ppm. Biofilm removal was achieved when 50 ppm glutaraldehyde combined with 15% methanol and 1,000 ppm EDDS was used. THPS showed similar effects when it was used to replace glutaraldehyde in the triple biocide cocktail to treat planktonic SRB. PMID:22806837

Wen, J; Xu, D; Gu, T; Raad, I

2012-02-01

168

A green biocide enhancer for the treatment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilms on carbon steel surfaces using glutaraldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally speaking, a much higher concentration of biocide is needed to treat biofilms compared to the dosage used to for planktonic bacteria. With increasing restrictions of environmental regulations and safety concerns on large-scale biocide uses such as oil field applications, it is highly desirable to make more effective use of biocides. In this paper a green biocide enhancer ethylenediaminedisuccinate (EDDS)

Jie Wen; Kaili Zhao; Tingyue Gu; Issam I. Raad

2009-01-01

169

Quantifying Heavy Metals Sequestration by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in an Acid Mine Drainage-Contaminated Natural Wetland  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century. PMID:23487496

Moreau, John W.; Fournelle, John H.; Banfield, Jillian F.

2013-01-01

170

Sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction by toluene-degrading bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria contribute considerably to the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in contaminated environments. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction was investigated in microcosm experiments with different cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria for various initial sulfate concentrations using toluene as the sole carbon source. Experiments were conducted with the marine strain Desulfobacula toluolica, the fresh water strain PRTOL1, and

Christof Bolliger; Martin H. Schroth; Stefano M. Bernasconi; Jutta Kleikemper; Josef Zeyer

2001-01-01

171

Identification of bacteria in enrichment cultures of sulfate reducers in the Cariaco Basin water column employing Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments  

PubMed Central

Background The Cariaco Basin is characterized by pronounced and predictable vertical layering of microbial communities dominated by reduced sulfur species at and below the redox transition zone. Marine water samples were collected in May, 2005 and 2006, at the sampling stations A (10°30? N, 64°40? W), B (10°40? N, 64°45? W) and D (10°43’N, 64°32’W) from different depths, including surface, redox interface, and anoxic zones. In order to enrich for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), water samples were inoculated into anaerobic media amended with lactate or acetate as carbon source. To analyze the composition of enrichment cultures, we performed DNA extraction, PCR-DGGE, and sequencing of selected bands. Results DGGE results indicate that many bacterial genera were present that are associated with the sulfur cycle, including Desulfovibrio spp., as well as heterotrophs belonging to Vibrio, Enterobacter, Shewanella, Fusobacterium, Marinifilum, Mariniliabilia, and Spirochaeta. These bacterial populations are related to sulfur coupling and carbon cycles in an environment of variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. Conclusions In our studies, we found an association of SRB-like Desulfovibrio with Vibrio species and other genera that have a previously defined relevant role in sulfur transformation and coupling of carbon and sulfur cycles in an environment where there are variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. This study provides new information about microbial species that were culturable on media for SRB at anaerobic conditions at several locations and water depths in the Cariaco Basin. PMID:23981583

2013-01-01

172

Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield ? 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine-grained black muds that are distinguishable from coarser pyrite cinders, and exhibit a noticeably strong sulfide odor. Aero- and halo-tolerant SRB were enriched from circumneutral pH cores, and we hypothesize that acido-tolerant SRB may also be present. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of whole community 16S rDNA extracted from each core shows an expected increase in diversity between acidic and circumneutal sediments, and clone libraries from both contaminated and uncontaminated marsh sediments are being compared to assess the impact of long-term contamination. References: Webb et al. 1998, J. Appl. Microbio., 84, 240-248; Moreau et al. 2003, Amer. Min., in review; URS Corp. 2001, Report 51.09967067.00.

Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

2003-12-01

173

Depth-related coupling relation between methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in a marine sediment core from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea.  

PubMed

The vertical distributions of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in the marine sediment core of DH-CL14 from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea, were investigated. To enumerate MOBs and SRBs, their specific genes of pmoA and apsA were quantified by a culture-independent molecular biological technique, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result shows that the pmoA gene copies per gram of sediments reached the maximum of 1,118,679 at the depth of 140-160 cm. Overall considering the detection precision, sample amount, measurement cost, and sensitivity to the seepage of methane from the oil/gas reservoirs or gas hydrates, we suggest that the depth of 140-160 cm may be the optimal sampling position for the marine microbial exploration of oils, gases, and gas hydrates in the Dongsha region. The data of the pmoA and apsA gene copies exhibit an evident coupling relation between MOBs and SRBs as illustrated in their vertical distributions in this sediment core, which may well be interpreted by a high sulfate concentration inhibiting methane production and further leading to the reduction of MOBs. In comparison with the numbers of the pmoA and apsA copies at the same sediment depth, we find out that there were two methane-oxidizing mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic oxidation in this sediment core, i.e., the aerobic oxidation with free oxygen dominantly occurred above the depth of 210-230 cm, while the anaerobic oxidation with the other electron acceptors such as sulfates and manganese-iron oxides happened below the depth of 210-230 cm. PMID:25064353

Xu, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Xi; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

2014-12-01

174

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: a comparative Study, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate

Hazen, Terry

175

Phylogeography of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria among Disturbed Sediments, Disclosed by Analysis of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB)  

PubMed Central

Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time. PMID:15691959

Perez-Jimenez, J. R.; Kerkhof, L. J.

2005-01-01

176

Methane production correlates positively with methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria and pore water acetate at an estuarine brackish-marsh landscape scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane production is influenced by the abundance of methanogens and the availability of terminal substrates. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) also play an important role in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. However, the relationships between methane production and methanogen populations, pore water terminal substrates in estuarine brackish marshes are poorly characterized, and even to our knowledge, no published research has explored the relationship between methane production rate and abundance of SRB and pore water dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration. We investigated methane production rate, abundances of methanogens and SRB, concentrations of pore water terminal substrates and electron acceptors at a brackish marsh landscape dominated by Phragmites australis, Cyperus malaccensis and Spatina alterniflora marshes zones in the Min River estuary. The average rates of methane production at a soil depth of 30 cm in the three marsh zones were 0.142, 0.058 and 0.067 ?g g-1 d-1, respectively. The abundance of both methanogens and SRB in the soil of the P. australis marsh with highest soil organic carbon content was higher than in the C. malaccensis and S. alterniflora marshes. The abundance of methanogens and SRB in the three soil layers was statistically indistinguishable. Mean pore water DMS concentrations at a soil depth of 30 cm under the S. alterniflora marsh were higher than those in the C. malaccensis and P. australis marshes. Methane production rate increased with the abundance of both methanogens and SRB across three marsh zones together at the landscape scale, and also increased with the concentration of pore water acetate, but did not correlate with concentrations of pore water DMS and dissolved CO2. Our results suggest that, provided that substrates are available in ample supply, methanogens can continue to produce methane regardless of whether SRB are prevalent in estuarine brackish marshes.

Tong, C.; She, C. X.; Jin, Y. F.; Yang, P.; Huang, J. F.

2013-11-01

177

Transformation of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon tetrachloride under sulfate reducing conditions was studied in an an aerobic packed-bed reactor. Carbon\\u000a tetrachloride, up to a concentration of 30 ?M, was completely converted. Chloroform and dichloromethane were the main transformation\\u000a products, but part of the carbon tetrachloride was also completely dechlorinated to unknown products. Gram-positive sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria were involved in the reductive dechlorination of

Jappe H. de Best; E. Salminen; Hans J. Doddema; Dick B. Janssen; Wim Harder

1997-01-01

178

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Accumulation in Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Identification of a Class III PHA Synthase (PhaEC) in Desulfococcus multivorans  

PubMed Central

Seven strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were tested for the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). During growth with benzoate Desulfonema magnum accumulated large amounts of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)]. Desulfosarcina variabilis (during growth with benzoate), Desulfobotulus sapovorans (during growth with caproate), and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum (during growth with caproate) accumulated poly(3HB) that accounted for 20 to 43% of cell dry matter. Desulfobotulus sapovorans and Desulfobacterium autotrophicum also synthesized copolyesters consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate when valerate was used as the growth substrate. Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfotalea psychrophila were the only SRB tested in which PHAs were not detected. When total DNA isolated from Desulfococcus multivorans and specific primers deduced from highly conserved regions of known PHA synthases (PhaC) were used, a PCR product homologous to the central region of class III PHA synthases was obtained. The complete pha locus of Desulfococcus multivorans was subsequently obtained by inverse PCR, and it contained adjacent phaEDm and phaCDm genes. PhaCDm and PhaEDm were composed of 371 and 306 amino acid residues and showed up to 49 or 23% amino acid identity to the corresponding subunits of other class III PHA synthases. Constructs of phaCDm alone (pBBRMCS-2::phaCDm) and of phaEDmCDm (pBBRMCS-2::phaEDmCDm) in various vectors were obtained and transferred to several strains of Escherichia coli, as well as to the PHA-negative mutants PHB?4 and GPp104 of Ralstonia eutropha and Pseudomonas putida, respectively. In cells of the recombinant strains harboring phaEDmCDm small but significant amounts (up to 1.7% of cell dry matter) of poly(3HB) and of PHA synthase activity (up to 1.5 U/mg protein) were detected. This indicated that the cloned genes encode functionally active proteins. Hybrid synthases consisting of PhaCDm and PhaE of Thiococcus pfennigii or Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 were also constructed and were shown to be functionally active. PMID:15294771

Hai, Tran; Lange, Daniela; Rabus, Ralf; Steinbuchel, Alexander

2004-01-01

179

Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor

Roel J. W. Meulepas; Christian G. Jagersma; Jarno Gieteling; Cees J. N. Buisman; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

2009-01-01

180

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

181

Sulfate Reducing Rate of SRB with Acetic, Propionic, n-Butyric Acids as Carbon Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the kind of short-chain volatile fatty acid, which is apt to be used by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB was feed with culture media used sodium lactate as carbon source. Sulfate reducing rate and different short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) utilization rate with SRB were studied. Sulfate variation curves were drawn and

Xiulan Song; Zhimin Zhang

2011-01-01

182

Mercury Methylation by Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

The Hg-methylating ability of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria in the genera Geobacter, Desulfuromonas, and Shewanella was examined. All of the Geobacter and Desulfuromonas strains tested methylated mercury while reducing Fe(III), nitrate, or fumarate. In contrast, none of the Shewanella strains produced methylmercury at higher levels than abiotic controls under similar culture conditions. Geobacter and Desulfuromonas are closely related to known Hg-methylating sulfate-reducing bacteria within the Deltaproteobacteria. PMID:17056699

Kerin, E. J.; Gilmour, C. C.; Roden, E.; Suzuki, M. T.; Coates, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

2006-01-01

183

The relationship between hydrogen metabolism, sulfate reduction and nitrogen fixation in sulfate reducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Hydrogenase and nitrogenase activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria allow their adaptation to different nutritional habits even under adverse conditions. These exceptional capabilities of adaptation are important factors in the understanding of their predominant role in problems related to anaerobic metal corrosion. Although the D2-H+ exchange reaction indicated thatDesulfovibrio desulfuricans strain Berre-Sol andDesulfovibrio gigas hydrogenases were reversible, the predominant activity in

Paul A. Lespinat; Yves M. Berlier; Guy D. Fauque; Rene Toci; Gerard Denariaz; Jean LeGall

1987-01-01

184

Bacteria of Porcine Skin, Xenografts, and Treatment with Neomycin Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Homogenized 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from pigs and bacteriologically evaluated to determine the efficacy of surgical scrub procedures and the subsequent treatment of tissue with 0.5% neomycin sulfate-sodium bisulfite (neomycin-bisulfite) as a decontaminating agent. The majority of the lots of porcine skin taken directly from animals for xenografts in the treatment of burns contained viable bacteria at the time of grafting although scrubbing procedures substantially reduced the skin bacteria. The porcine bacteria consisted primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci with most strains exhibiting caseinolytic and elastase activity. Staphylococci were the only abundant bacteria found in postscrub biopsies and in saline solutions used to wash the dermatome during its use. After an overnight exposure of grafting tissue soaked in neomycin-bisulfite, the spent neomycin-bisulfite solutions were tested for bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity by comparison to unused neomycin. All solutions tested were equal in bacteriostatic strength, but the bactericidal action of some spent solutions was decreased. Neomycin alone exerted a more lethal effect on sensitive bacteria than the neomycin-bisulfite solution. The desirability of having viable porcine skin for a xenograft necessitated using or discarding the tissue after storage in neomycin-bisulfite at 4 C for a maximum of 72 hr. Certain contaminating microorganisms were unaffected by antibiotic treatment, and the prolonged use of neomycin without bisulfite would have primarily eradicated only the porcine coagulase-negative staphylococci. Neither the presence of this group in grafting tissue nor their proteolytic activity had any observed adverse effect on xenografting success. Images PMID:4552886

Smith, Rodney F.; Evans, Barbara L.

1972-01-01

185

IN SITU RT-PCR WITH A SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM SEAGRASS ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacteria considered to be obligate anaerobes internally colonize roots of the submerged macrophyte Halodule wrightii. A sulfate reducing bacterium, Summer lac 1, was isolated on lactate from H. wrightii roots. The isolate has physiological characteristics typical of Desulfovibri...

186

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

1987-01-01

187

Reduction of Selenate to Selenide by Sulfate-Respiring Bacteria: Experiments with Cell Suspensions and Estuarine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Washed cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ?0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace quantities of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed. PMID:16347366

Zehr, Jonathan P.; Oremland, Ronald S.

1987-01-01

188

Uranium Immobilization by Sulfate-reducing Biofilms  

SciTech Connect

Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] was immobilized using biofilms of the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. The biofilms were grown in flat-plate continuous-flow reactors using lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. U(VI) was continuously fed into the reactor for 32 weeks at a concentration of 126 íM. During this time, the soluble U(VI) was removed (between 88 and 96% of feed) from solution and immobilized in the biofilms. The dynamics of U immobilization in the sulfate-reducing biofilms were quantified by estimating: (1) microbial activity in the SRB biofilm, defined as the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production rate and estimated from the H2S concentration profiles measured using microelectrodes across the biofilms; (2) concentration of dissolved U in the solution; and (3) the mass of U precipitated in the biofilm. Results suggest that U was immobilized in the biofilms as a result of two processes: (1) enzymatically and (2) chemically, by reacting with microbially generated H2S. Visual inspection showed that the dissolved sulfide species reacted with U(VI) to produce a black precipitate. Synchrotron-based U L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of U precipitated abiotically by sodium sulfide indicated that U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV). Selected-area electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic analysis of transmission electron microscope lattice-fringe images confirmed the structure of precipitated U as being that of uraninite.

Beyenal, Haluk; Sani, Rajesh K.; Peyton, Brent M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2004-04-01

189

Diversity of Sulfur Isotope Fractionations by Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with

JAN DETMERS; VOLKER BRUCHERT; KIRSTEN S. HABICHT; JAN KUEVER

2001-01-01

190

Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor system is used to grow and enrich the microorganisms mediating AOM coupled to SR. Four reactors were inoculated with sediment sampled in the Eckernförde Bay (Baltic Sea) and operated at a methane and sulfate loading rate of 4.8 L L(-1) day(-1) (196 mmol L(-1) day(-1)) and 3.0 mmol L(-1) day(-1). Two bioreactors were controlled at 15 degrees C and two at 30 degrees C, one reactor at 30 degrees C contained also anaerobic granular sludge. At 15 degrees C, the volumetric AOM and SR rates doubled approximately every 3.8 months. After 884 days, an enrichment culture was obtained with an AOM and SR rate of 1.0 mmol g(volatile suspended solids) (-1) day(-1) (286 micromol g(dry weight) (-1) day(-1)). No increase in AOM and SR was observed in the two bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C. The microbial community of one of the 15 degrees C reactors was analyzed. ANME-2a became the dominant archaea. This study showed that sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor is possible in well-mixed bioreactors and that the submerged-membrane bioreactor system is an excellent system to enrich slow-growing microorganisms, like methanotrophic archaea. PMID:19544305

Meulepas, Roel J W; Jagersma, Christian G; Gieteling, Jarno; Buisman, Cees J N; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L

2009-10-15

191

Structural and functional dynamics of sulfate-reducing populations in bacterial biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the combined application of microsensors and molecular techniques to investigate the development of sulfate reduction and of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in an aerobic bacterial biofilm. Microsensor measurements for oxygen showed that anaerobic zones developed in the biofilm within 1 week and that oxygen was depleted in the top 200 to 400 {micro}m during all stages of biofilm development. Sulfate reduction was first detected after 6 weeks of growth, although favorable conditions for growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were present from the first week. In situ hybridization with a 16S rRNA probe for SRB revealed that sulfate reducers were present in high numbers in all stages of development, both in the oxic and anoxic zones of the biofilm. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the genetic diversity of the microbial community increased during the development of the biofilm. Hybridization analysis of the DGGE profiles with taxon-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio were the main sulfate-reducing bacteria in all biofilm samples as well as in the bulk activated sludge. However, different Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were found in the 6th and 8th weeks of incubation, respectively, coinciding with the development of sulfate reduction. Their data indicate that not all SRB detected by molecular analysis were sulfidogenically active in the biofilm.

Santegoeds, C.M.; Ferdelman, T.G.; Muyzer, G.; Beer, D. de [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany)

1998-10-01

192

Structural and Functional Dynamics of Sulfate-Reducing Populations in Bacterial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

We describe the combined application of microsensors and molecular techniques to investigate the development of sulfate reduction and of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in an aerobic bacterial biofilm. Microsensor measurements for oxygen showed that anaerobic zones developed in the biofilm within 1 week and that oxygen was depleted in the top 200 to 400 ?m during all stages of biofilm development. Sulfate reduction was first detected after 6 weeks of growth, although favorable conditions for growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were present from the first week. In situ hybridization with a 16S rRNA probe for SRB revealed that sulfate reducers were present in high numbers (approximately 108 SRB/ml) in all stages of development, both in the oxic and anoxic zones of the biofilm. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the genetic diversity of the microbial community increased during the development of the biofilm. Hybridization analysis of the DGGE profiles with taxon-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio were the main sulfate-reducing bacteria in all biofilm samples as well as in the bulk activated sludge. However, different Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were found in the 6th and 8th weeks of incubation, respectively, coinciding with the development of sulfate reduction. Our data indicate that not all SRB detected by molecular analysis were sulfidogenically active in the biofilm. PMID:9758792

Santegoeds, Cecilia M.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Muyzer, Gerard; de Beer, Dirk

1998-01-01

193

Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Stratified Fjord (Mariager Fjord, Denmark) as Evaluated by Most-Probable- Number Counts and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfate-reducing bacterial populations of a stratified marine water column, Mariager Fjord, Denmark, were investigated by molecular and culture-dependent approaches in parallel. Denaturing gradient gel elec- trophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and DNA encoding rRNA (rDNA) isolated from the water column indicated specific bacterial populations in different water column layers and revealed a highly differ- entiatedpatternofrRNA-andrDNA-derivedPCRamplificates,probablyreflectingactiveandrestingbacterial populations. Hybridization of

ANDREAS TESKE; CATHRIN WAWER; GERARD MUYZER; ANDNIELS B. RAMSING

194

Phylogenetic analysis of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evolutionary relationships among strictly anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)- reducing bacteria obtained from a diversity of sedimentary environments were examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Members of the genera Geobacter, Desulfuromonas, Pelobacter, and Desulfuromusa formed a monophyletic group within the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. On the basis of their common ancestry and the shared ability to reduce Fe(III) and/or S0, we propose that this group be considered a single family, Geobacteraceae. Bootstrap analysis, characteristic nucleotides, and higher- order secondary structures support the division of Geobacteraceae into two subgroups, designated the Geobacter and Desulfuromonas clusters. The genus Desulfuromusa and Pelobacter acidigallici make up a distinct branch with the Desulfuromonas cluster. Several members of the family Geobacteraceae, none of which reduce sulfate, were found to contain the target sequences of probes that have been previously used to define the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacterium-like microorganisms. The recent isolations of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms distributed throughout the domain Bacteria suggest that development of 16S rRNA probes that would specifically target all Fe(III) reducers may not be feasible. However, all of the evidence suggests that if a 16S rRNA sequence falls within the family Geobacteraceae, then the organism has the capacity for Fe(III) reduction. The suggestion, based on geological evidence, that Fe(III) reduction was the first globally significant process for oxidizing organic matter back to carbon dioxide is consistent with the finding that acetate-oxidizing Fe(III) reducers are phylogenetically diverse.

Lonergan, D.J.; Jenter, H.L.; Coates, J.D.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Schmidt, T.M.; Lovley, D.R.

1996-01-01

195

Phylogenetic analysis of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary relationships among strictly anaerobic dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria obtained from a diversity of sedimentary environments were examined by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Members of the genera Geobacter, Desulfuromonas, Pelobacter, and Desulfuromusa formed a monophyletic group within the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. On the basis of their common ancestry and the shared ability to reduce Fe(III) and/or S0, we propose that this group be considered a single family, Geobacteraceae. Bootstrap analysis, characteristic nucleotides, and higher-order secondary structures support the division of Geobacteraceae into two subgroups, designated the Geobacter and Desulfuromonas clusters. The genus Desulfuromusa and Pelobacter acidigallici make up a distinct branch within the Desulfuromonas cluster. Several members of the family Geobacteraceae, none of which reduce sulfate, were found to contain the target sequences of probes that have been previously used to define the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacterium-like microorganisms. The recent isolations of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms distributed throughout the domain Bacteria suggest that development of 16S rRNA probes that would specifically target all Fe(III) reducers may not be feasible. However, all of the evidence suggests that if a 16S rRNA sequence falls within the family Geobacteraceae, then the organism has the capacity for Fe(III) reduction. The suggestion, based on geological evidence, that Fe(III) reduction was the first globally significant process for oxidizing organic matter back to carbon dioxide is consistent with the finding that acetate-oxidizing Fe(III) reducers are phylogenetically diverse. PMID:8636045

Lonergan, D J; Jenter, H L; Coates, J D; Phillips, E J; Schmidt, T M; Lovley, D R

1996-01-01

196

Electron transfer from sulfate-reducing becteria biofilm promoted by reduced graphene sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced graphene sheets (RGSs) mediate electron transfer between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and solid electrodes, and promote the development of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We have investigated RSG-promoted electron transfer between SRB and a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The RGSs were produced at high yield by a chemical sequence involving graphite oxidation, ultrasonic exfoliation of nanosheets, and N2H4 reduction. Cyclic voltammetric testing showed that the characteristic anodic peaks (around 0.3 V) might arise from the combination of bacterial membrane surface cytochrome c3 and the metabolic products of SRB. After 6 d, another anodic wave gradually increased to a maximum current peak and a third anodic signal became visible at around 0 V. The enhancements of two characteristic anodic peaks suggest that RSGs mediate electron-transfer kinetics between bacteria and the solid electrode. Manipulation of these recently-discovered electron-transport mechanisms will lead to significant advances in MFC engineering.

Wan, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Wang, Yi; Wu, Jiajia

2012-01-01

197

Preferential Reduction of the Thermodynamically Less Favorable Electron Acceptor, Sulfate, by a Nitrate-Reducing Strain of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774? †  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain 27774 is one of a relative small group of sulfate-reducing bacteria that can also grow with nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor, but how nitrate reduction is regulated in any sulfate-reducing bacterium is controversial. Strain 27774 grew more rapidly and to higher yields of biomass with nitrate than with sulfate or nitrite as the only electron acceptor. In the presence of both sulfate and nitrate, sulfate was used preferentially, even when cultures were continuously gassed with nitrogen and carbon dioxide to prevent sulfide inhibition of nitrate reduction. The napC transcription start site was identified 112 bases upstream of the first base of the translation start codon. Transcripts initiated at the napC promoter that were extended across the napM-napA boundary were detected by reverse transcription-PCR, confirming that the six nap genes can be cotranscribed as a single operon. Real-time PCR experiments confirmed that nap operon expression is regulated at the level of mRNA transcription by at least two mechanisms: nitrate induction and sulfate repression. We speculate that three almost perfect inverted-repeat sequences located upstream of the transcription start site might be binding sites for one or more proteins of the CRP/FNR family of transcription factors that mediate nitrate induction and sulfate repression of nitrate reduction by D. desulfuricans. PMID:19047345

Marietou, Angeliki; Griffiths, Lesley; Cole, Jeff

2009-01-01

198

Field and laboratory studies of methane oxidation in an anoxic marine sediment: Evidence for a methanogen-sulfate reducer consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory studies of anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, suggest that anaerobic methane oxidation is mediated by a consortium of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A seasonal survey of methane oxidation and COâ reduction rates indicates that methane production was confined to sulfate-depleted sediments at all times of year, while methane oxidation occurred in two modes. In

Tori M. Hoehler; Marc J. Alperin; Daniel B. Albert; Christopher S. Martens

1994-01-01

199

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown

Márcia Monteiro Machado Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio Oliveira de Mello; Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

2008-01-01

200

Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions  

PubMed Central

[(sup14)C]naphthalene and phenanthrene were oxidized to (sup14)CO(inf2) without a detectable lag under strict anaerobic conditions in sediments from San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., that were heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not in less contaminated sediments. Sulfate reduction was necessary for PAH oxidation. These results suggest that the self-purification capacity of PAH-contaminated sulfate-reducing environments may be greater than previously recognized. PMID:16535261

Coates, J. D.; Anderson, R. T.; Lovley, D. R.

1996-01-01

201

Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) from a copper mine in China which has very low-concentration heavy metal ions and high conductivity (2,800 ?s\\/cm), was attributed to the high concentration of many dissolved monovalent and divalent ions. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SBR) which has become an active research area in recent years were used to remove heavy metal ions and reclaim

Ting-Sheng Qiu; Chang-Ming Zhong; Yan-Ping Peng; Ping Wang

2010-01-01

202

The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a model organism for studying the energy metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and for understanding the economic impacts of SRB, including biocorrosion of metal infrastructure and bioremediation of toxic metal ions. The 3,570,858 base pair (bp) genome sequence reveals a network of novel c-type cytochromes, connecting multiple periplasmic hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases, as a key feature

Rekha Seshadri; Shelley A Haveman; Christopher L Hemme; Ian T Paulsen; James F Kolonay; Jonathan A Eisen; Barbara Methe; Lauren M Brinkac; Sean C Daugherty; Robert T Deboy; Robert J Dodson; A Scott Durkin; Ramana Madupu; William C Nelson; Steven A Sullivan; Derrick Fouts; Daniel H Haft; Jeremy Selengut; Jeremy D Peterson; Tanja M Davidsen; Nikhat Zafar; Liwei Zhou; Diana Radune; George Dimitrov; Mark Hance; Kevin Tran; Hoda Khouri; John Gill; Terry R Utterback; Tamara V Feldblyum; Judy D Wall; Gerrit Voordouw; Claire M Fraser; John F Heidelberg

2004-01-01

203

Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite.  

SciTech Connect

Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 wereused to reduce dissolved U(VI)and subsequently immobilize U(IV) in the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates. The biofilms were grown in three identically operated fixed bed reactors, filled with three types of minerals: one noncarbonate-bearing mineral(hematite) and two carbonate-bearing minerals (calcite and dolomite). The source of carbonates in the reactors filled with calcite and dolomite were the minerals, while in the reactor filled with hematite it was a 10 mM carbonate buffer, pH 7.2, which we added to the growth medium. Our five-month study demonstrated that the sulfate-reducing biofilms grown in all reactors were able to immobilize/reduce uranium efficiently, despite the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates.

Marsili, E.; Beyenal, Haluk; Di Palma, L.; Merli, C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2007-12-15

204

Anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum-contaminated harbor sediments under sulfate-reducing and artificially imposed iron-reducing conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential use of iron(III) oxide to stimulate in-situ hydrocarbon degradation in anaerobic petroleum-contaminated harbor sediments was investigated. Previous studies have indicated that Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) can oxidize some electron donors more effectively than sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB). In contrast to previous results in freshwater sediments, the addition of Fe(III) to marine sediments from San Diego Bay, CA did not switch the terminal electron-accepting process (TEAP) from sulfate reduction to Fe-(III) reduction. Addition of Fe(III) also did not stimulate anaerobic hydrocarbon oxidation. Exposure of the sediment to air [to reoxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III)] followed by anaerobic incubation of the sediments, resulted in Fe-(III) reduction as the TEAP, but contaminant degradation was not stimulated and in some instances was inhibited. The difference in the ability of FeRB to compete with the SRB in the different sediment treatments was related to relative population sizes. Although the addition of Fe(III) did not stimulate hydrocarbon degradation, the results presented here as well as other recent studies demonstrate that there may be significant anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions in harbor sediments.

Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lovley, D.R.

1996-01-01

205

Determination of kinetic coefficients for the simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contamination of groundwaters and surface waters near abandoned mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. Uranium usually exists in either the U(IV) or the U(VI) oxidation state. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is very mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain anaerobic microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reactions have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desulfovibrio desulficans bacteria during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the phase in which uranium exists after it has been reduced and precipitated from solution. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. Kinetic coefficients for substrate utilization and cell growth were calculated using the Monod equation. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days{sup {minus}1} while the half-velocity constant (K{sub s}) was 140 mg/l COD. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0.17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub d}) was calculated as 0.072 days{sup {minus}1}. After reduction, U(IV) Precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO{sub 2}) phase. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat.

Tucker, M.D.

1995-05-01

206

Characterization of sulfate-reducing granular sludge in the SANI(®) process.  

PubMed

Hong Kong practices seawater toilet flushing covering 80% of the population. A sulfur cycle-based biological nitrogen removal process, the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process, had been developed to close the loop between the hybrid water supply and saline sewage treatment. To enhance this novel process, granulation of a Sulfate-Reducing Up-flow Sludge Bed (SRUSB) reactor has recently been conducted for organic removal and provision of electron donors (sulfide) for subsequent autotrophic denitrification, with a view to minimizing footprint and maximizing operation resilience. This further study was focused on the biological and physicochemical characteristics of the granular sulfate-reducing sludge. A lab-scale SRUSB reactor seeded with anaerobic digester sludge was operated with synthetic saline sewage for 368 days. At 1 h nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 6.4 kg COD/m(3)-d organic loading rate, the SRUSB reactor achieved 90% COD and 75% sulfate removal efficiencies. Granular sludge was observed within 30 days, and became stable after 4 months of operation with diameters of 400-500 ?m, SVI5 of 30 ml/g, and extracellular polymeric substances of 23 mg carbohydrate/g VSS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that the granules were enriched with abundant sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as compared with the seeding sludge. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene in the sulfate-reducing granules on day 90 indicated that the microbial community consisted of a diverse SRB genera, namely Desulfobulbus (18.1%), Desulfobacter (13.6%), Desulfomicrobium (5.6%), Desulfosarcina (0.73%) and Desulfovibrio (0.6%), accounting for 38.6% of total operational taxonomic units at genera level, with no methanogens detected. The microbial population and physicochemical properties of the granules well explained the excellent performance of the granular SRUSB reactor. PMID:24200003

Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chui, Hokwong; Mackey, Hamish R; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guanghao

2013-12-01

207

Sulfate-reducing bacterial community structure and their contribution to carbon mineralization in a wastewater biofilm growing under microaerophilic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the contribution of SRB to carbon mineralization in a wastewater biofilm growing under microaerophilic conditions were investigated by combining molecular techniques, molybdate inhibition batch experiments, and microelectrode measurements. A 16S rDNA clone library of bacteria populations was constructed from the biofilm sample. The 102 clones analyzed were grouped into 53 operational taxonomic

S. Okabe; T. Ito; H. Satoh

2003-01-01

208

Bioremediation of coal contaminated soil under sulfate-reducing condition.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of coal-derived hydrocarbons, especially high molecular weight (HMW) components, under anaerobic conditions. For this purpose biodegradation experiments were performed, using specifically designed soil column bioreactors. For the experiment, coal-contaminated soil was prepared, which contains high molecular weight hydrocarbons at high concentration (approx. 55.5 mgC g-drysoil(-1)). The experiment was carried out in two different conditions: sulfate reducing (SR) condition (SO4(2-) = 10 mmol l(-1) in the liquid medium) and control condition (SO4(2-)<0.5 mmol l(-1)). Although no degradation was observed under the control condition, the resin fraction decreased to half (from 6,541 to 3,386 mgC g-soil(-1)) under SR condition, with the concomitant increase of two PAHs (phenanthrene and fluoranthene, 9 and 2.5 times, respectively). From these results, we could conclude that high molecular hydrocarbons were biodegradable and transformed to low molecular weight PAHs under the sulfate-reducing condition. Since these PAHs are known to be biologically degraded under aerobic condition, a serial combination of anaerobic (sulfate reducing) and then aerobic bioremediations could be effective and useful for the soil pollution by petroleum and/or coal derived hydrocarbons. PMID:16457179

Kuwano, Y; Shimizu, Y

2006-01-01

209

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation\\u000a as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a\\u000a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present\\u000a work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown

Márcia Monteiro Machado Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira Mello; Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

2008-01-01

210

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation\\u000a as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a\\u000a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present\\u000a work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown

Márcia Monteiro Machado Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira Mello; Antonio Carlos Augusto Costa

211

Bacteria that reduce content of heavy metals in plant  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to bacteria having a function of reducing the content of heavy metals in plants, a method for reducing the content of heavy metals in plants with the use of such bacteria, and a composition comprising, as an active ingredient, such bacteria.

2013-02-26

212

Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds. PMID:24008263

Im, A-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong Shik

2013-10-01

213

The genetic basis of energy conservation in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing bacteria play major roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles, but it remains unclear how reducing sulfate yields energy. To determine the genetic basis of energy conservation, we measured the fitness of thousands of pooled mutants of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 during growth in 12 different combinations of electron donors and acceptors. We show that ion pumping by the ferredoxin:NADH oxidoreductase Rnf is required whenever substrate-level phosphorylation is not possible. The uncharacterized complex Hdr/flox-1 (Dde_1207:13) is sometimes important alongside Rnf and may perform an electron bifurcation to generate more reduced ferredoxin from NADH to allow further ion pumping. Similarly, during the oxidation of malate or fumarate, the electron-bifurcating transhydrogenase NfnAB-2 (Dde_1250:1) is important and may generate reduced ferredoxin to allow additional ion pumping by Rnf. During formate oxidation, the periplasmic [NiFeSe] hydrogenase HysAB is required, which suggests that hydrogen forms in the periplasm, diffuses to the cytoplasm, and is used to reduce ferredoxin, thus providing a substrate for Rnf. During hydrogen utilization, the transmembrane electron transport complex Tmc is important and may move electrons from the periplasm into the cytoplasmic sulfite reduction pathway. Finally, mutants of many other putative electron carriers have no clear phenotype, which suggests that they are not important under our growth conditions, although we cannot rule out genetic redundancy. PMID:25400629

Price, Morgan N.; Ray, Jayashree; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Bauer, Stefan; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.

2014-01-01

214

Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio  

E-print Network

Because these genetic transformations result in a chromosometransformation methods and tools to confirm the geneticGenetic  Exchange   System  for  Desulfovibrio  vulgaris  Hildenborough  and  Its  Use  in  Generating  a  Strain   with  Increased  Transformation  

Chhabra, Swapnil R

2011-01-01

215

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA REACTIVE WALL DEMO  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts reported in this document focused on the demonstration of a passive technology that could be used for remediation of thousands of abandoned mines existing in the Western United States that emanate acid mine drainage (AMD). This passive remedial technology takes ad...

216

Successional Development of Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Populations and Their Activities in a Wastewater Biofilm Growing under Microaerophilic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization, microprofiles, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA fragments, and 16S rRNA gene cloning analysis was applied to inves- tigate successional development of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) community structure and in situ sulfide production activity within a biofilm growing under microaerophilic conditions (dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid was in the

Tsukasa Ito; Satoshi Okabe; Hisashi Satoh; Yoshimasa Watanabe

2002-01-01

217

Enrichment and characterization of sulfate reducing, naphthalene degrading microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PAH are widely distributed in the environment by accidental discharges during the transport, use and disposal of petroleum products, and during forest and grass fires. Caused by their hydrophobic nature, PAH basically accumulate in sediments from where they are slowly released into the groundwater. Although generally limited by the low water solubility of PAH, microbial degradation is one of the major mechanisms leading to the complete clean-up of PAH-contaminated sites. Whereas organisms and biochemical pathways responsible for the aerobic breakdown of PAH are well known, anaerobic PAH biodegradation is less understood; only a few anaerobic PAH degrading cultures have been described. We studied the anaerobic PAH degradation in a microcosm approach to enrich anaerobic PAH degraders. Anoxic groundwater and sediment samples were used as inoculum. Groundwater samples were purchased from the erstwhile gas works facility and a former wood impregnation site. In contrast, sources of sediment samples were a former coal refining area and an old fuel depot. Samples were incubated in anoxic mineral salt medium with naphthalene as sole carbon source and sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Grown cultures were characterized by feeding with 13C-labeled naphthalene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing using an Illumina® approach, and functional proteome analyses. Finally, six enrichment cultures able to degrade naphthalene under anoxic conditions were established. First results point to a dominance of identified sequences affiliated to the freshwater sulfate-reducing strain N47, which is a known anaerobic naphthalene degrader, in four out of the six enrichments. In those enrichments, peptides related to the pathway of anoxic naphthalene degradation in N47 were abundant. Overall the data underlines the importance of Desulfobacteria for natural attenuation of environmental contaminants. Understanding of diversity and physiology of anaerobic PAH degradation will contribute to remediation efforts of low-oxygen environments such as aquifers or river sediments.

Steffen, Kümmel; Florian-Alexander, Herbst; Márcia, Duarte; Dietmar, Pieper; Jana, Seifert; Bergen Martin, von; Hans-Hermann, Richnow; Carsten, Vogt

2014-05-01

218

Electrical potential source mechanisms in microbial induced sulfate reducing environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to compare self-potential (SP) signals resulting from possible 'geobattery' effects with electrodic potential signals based on a known galvanic cell (GC) effect in the presence of sulfide, we designed a column experiment using dual sensor Ag-AgCl electrodes. Water from the Langan River (Belfast, UK), known to contain a sulfate reducing microbial community, was obtained. Two experimental columns were packed with fine-grained glass beads. One column continuously circulated (closed loop) with autoclaved river water as a control, while the other retained biologically active natural river water. Six Ag-AgCl electrodes equally spaced along one side of each column, and three Ag-AgCl self potential electrodes (where the metal is in electrolytic contact with the column via a sterilized 1M KCl agar gel), were placed on the other side of each column. Electrical potential signals were continuously recorded with both sensor types. Induced polarization, electrical resistivity, temperature and aqueous geochemistry measurements (pH, Eh, and conductivity) were taken once daily. Over the 20 day experiment duration, darkening of the circulating fluid, biofilm formation and a sulfurous smell were observed in the biologically active column whereas no such color change (or smell) was observed for the control column. In the active column electrodic potential readings approached 570 mV whereas stable and small electrodic potential values (~8 mV) were detected in the control column.. Self potential signals were consistently only 1-8 mV in both columns. The experiment shows although electrodic potentials (at the electrode) are diagnostic of microbial driven sulfate reduction there is no measurable self potential (geobattery) effect associated with this microbial process.

Zhang, C.; Slater, L.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Singh, K.; Doherty, R.

2007-12-01

219

Dynamics of sulfate reduction and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in anaerobic paddy soil amended with rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of rice straw to soil is a common agricultural practice in rice cultivation. In anaerobic paddy soil, the complete\\u000a mineralization of organic matter to CH4 and CO2 is accomplished by the sequential reduction of nitrate, ferric iron, sulfate, and methanogenesis. In order to estimate the\\u000a temporal changes of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) as decomposers of organic matters, the effects of

Ji-Zheng He; Xin-Zhan Liu; Yong Zheng; Ju-Pei Shen; Li-Mei Zhang

2010-01-01

220

[Activity and structure of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal].  

PubMed

The rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the sediments of the Posol'skaya banka elevation in the southern part of Lake Baikal. SR rates varied from 1.2 to 1641 nmol/(dm3 day), with high rates (> 600 nmol/(dm3 day)) observed at both deep-water stations and in subsurface silts. Integral SR rates calculated for the uppermost 50 cm of the sediments were higher for gas-saturated and gas hydrate-bearing sediments than in those with low methane content. Enrichment SRB cultures were obtained in Widdel medium for freshwater SRB. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments from clone libraries obtained from the enrichments revealed the presence of SRB belonged to Desulfosporosinus genus, with D. lacus as the most closely related member (capable of sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate reduction), as well as members of the order Clostridiales. PMID:25423722

2014-01-01

221

Linking Microbial Ecology to Geochemistry in Sulfate Reducing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate reducing bioreactors (SRBRs) can serve as passive treatment systems for mining influenced waters (MIW). An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry and efficacy of SRBRs can be achieved by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques in both field and column settings. To this end, a spatial and temporal sequence of eight pilot-scale columns were analyzed employing a multidisciplinary approach using ICP-AES, next-generation sequencing, and SEM-EDX to explore the effects of variable substrate on community structure and performance (measured by Zn removal). All pilot scale reactors contained 30% limestone by mass, 7 of the 8 had variable amounts of woodchips, sawdust, and alfalfa hay, and an 8th column where the only carbon source was walnut shells. High throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from liquid in pilot-scale columns reveals, similarly to an analogous field system in Arizona, a dominance of Proteobacteria. However, after the first pore volume, performance differences between substrate permutations emerged, where columns containing exclusively walnut shells or sawdust exhibited a more effective startup and metal removal than did columns containing exclusively woodchips or alfalfa hay. SEM-EDX analysis revealed the initial formation of gypsum (CaSO4) precipitates regardless of substrate. Zn was observed in the presence of Ca, S, and O in some column samples, suggesting there was co-precipitation of Zn and CaSO4. This is congruent with micro-XAS analysis of field data suggesting iron sulfides were co-precipitating with gypsum. A SEM-EDX analysis from a subsequent sampling event (8 months into operation) indicated that precipitation may be shifting to ZnS and ZnCO3. Biplots employing Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) describe how diversity scales with performance and substrate selection, and how community shifts may result in differential performance and precipitation in response to selective pressure of bioreactor material on community composition. CCA of Shannon diversity data after one pore volume revealed that zinc removal, walnut shell content, and abundance of delta-Proteobacteria (sulfate reducing organisms) were all corresponding elements. However, after several pore volumes, the walnut shell column was no longer removing Zn as effectively, and community shifts were observed throughout the columns. Analysis of field and laboratory scale microbiological and geochemical shifts, in parallel, gives insight into key biogeochemical variables linked to the performance of passive remediation systems used for the treatment of contaminated MIW, while also providing further insight into metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D. M.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Almstrand, R.; Figueroa, L. A.; Sharp, J. H.

2013-12-01

222

Effects of biocides on gene expression in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.  

PubMed

Although sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) are often eradicated in oil and gas operations with biocides, such as glutaraldehyde (Glut), tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS), and benzalkonium chloride (BAC), their response to these agents is not well known. Whole genome microarrays of D. vulgaris treated with biocides well below the minimum inhibitory concentration showed that 256, 96, and 198 genes were responsive to Glut, THPS, and BAC, respectively, and that these three commonly used biocides affect the physiology of the cell quite differently. Glut induces expression of genes required to degrade or refold proteins inactivated by either chemical modification or heat shock, whereas BAC appears to target ribosomal structure. THPS appears to primarily affect energy metabolism of SRB. Mutants constructed for genes strongly up-regulated by Glut, were killed by Glut to a similar degree as the wild type. Hence, it is difficult to achieve increased sensitivity to this biocide by single gene mutations, because Glut affects so many targets. Our results increase understanding of the biocide's mode of action, allowing a more intelligent combination of mechanistically different agents. This can reduce stress on budgets for chemicals and on the environment. PMID:20437234

Lee, Meng-Hsin Phoebe; Caffrey, Sean M; Voordouw, Johanna K; Voordouw, Gerrit

2010-07-01

223

Complete genome sequence of the sulfate-reducing firmicute Desulfotomaculum ruminis type strain (DLT)  

SciTech Connect

Desulfotomaculum ruminis Campbell and Postgate 1965 is a member of the large genus Desulfotomaculum which contains 30 species and is contained in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it represents one of the few sulfate- reducing bacteria that have been isolated from the rumen. Here we describe the features of D. ruminis together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,969,014 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,901 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Desulfotomaculum to be pub- lished, and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2009.

Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Visser, Michael [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schaap, Peter J [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Plugge, Caroline M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Muyzer, Gerard [Universitate Amsterdam; Kuever, Jan [Bremen Institute for Materials Testing, Bremen, Germany; Pereira, Ines A. C. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal; Parshina, Sofiya N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland; Stams, Alfons J. M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

2012-01-01

224

Abiotic transformation of dinitrophenols under sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Dinitrophenols are hazardous chemicals commonly detected in the environment. Little is known about their fate under sulfate-reducing conditions (SRC) where H{sub 2}S level is elevated due to microbial activity. Dinitrophenols are susceptible to both biotic and abiotic transformation under SRC. The objectives of this research are to investigate dinitrophenol transformation using hydrogen sulfide as a reductant, and to determine factors that affect the abiotic transformation kinetics under SRC. Dinitrophenols studied were 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC), and 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (dinoseb). All three dinitrophenols were transformed through an ortho-nitroreduction pathway. In the presence of H{sub 2}S as the bulk reductant and a small amount of trace metals (10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} M), pseudo-first-order kinetics was observed. Addition of yeast extract (YE, 0.02%) enhanced dinoseb transformation rate significantly. An increase in HS concentration resulted in Michaelis-Menton type kinetics for dinoseb in the presence of trace metals and YE, suggesting that trace metals and YE functioned as electron mediators.

Gui, L.; Bouwer, E.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

225

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis of freshwater photosynthetic sulfur bacteria.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out using different bacterial strains of the photosynthetic sulfur bacteria Chlorobium, Thiocapsa, Thiocystis, and Chromatium cultured in the laboratory, and the natural blooms in two karstic lakes (Lake Cisó and Lake Vilar, NE Spain) where planktonic photosynthetic bacteria (purple and green sulfur bacteria) massively developed accounting for most of the microbial biomass. Several extraction, solubilization, and electrophoresis methods were tested to develop an optimal protocol for the best resolution of the SDS-PAGE. Protein composition from different water depths and at different times of the year was visualized within a molecular mass range between 100 and 15 kDa yielding up to 20 different protein bands. Protein banding patterns were reproducible and changed in time and with depth in agreement with changes in photosynthetic bacteria composition. When a taxonomically stable community was followed in time, differences were observed in the intensity but not in the composition of the SDS-PAGE banding pattern. Three environmental variables directly related to the activity of sulfur bacteria (light, oxygen, and sulfide concentrations) had a significant effect on protein banding patterns and explained 33% of the variance. Changes in natural protein profiles of the bacterial blooms agreed with changes in species composition and in the in situ metabolic state of the populations. PMID:20524118

Osuna, M Begoña; Casamayor, Emilio O

2011-01-01

226

The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds  

E-print Network

by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is an anaerobic process whereby reduced organic carbon is oxidized via the reduction of sulfate, which serves as a terminal electron acceptor (Fenchel and Blackburn 1979). The reduction of sulfate results in the release... by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is an anaerobic process whereby reduced organic carbon is oxidized via the reduction of sulfate, which serves as a terminal electron acceptor (Fenchel and Blackburn 1979). The reduction of sulfate results in the release...

Suplee, Michael Wayne

2012-06-07

227

Magnesium Sulfate Reduces Intra- and Postoperative Analgesic Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized, double-blind study with two parallel groups, we assessed the analgesic effect of periopera- tive magnesium sulfate administration in 46 ASA phys- ical status I or II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery with total IV anesthesia. The patients received either magnesium sulfate 50 mg\\/kg preoperatively and Smg*kg-i * hP ' intraoperatively or the same volume of isotonic sodium

Herbert Koinig; Thomas Wallner; Peter Marhofer; Harald Andel; Klaus Horauf; Nikolaus Mayer

1998-01-01

228

Uranium removal by sulfate reducing biofilms in the presence of carbonates  

SciTech Connect

Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] was immobilized in biofilms composed of the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. The biofilms were grown in two flat-plate, continuous-flow reactors using lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. The growth medium contained uranium U(VI) and the pH was maintained constant using bicarbonate buffer. The reactors were operated for 5 months, and during that time biofilm activity and uranium removal were evaluated. The efficiency of uranium removal strongly depended on the concentration of uranium in the influent, and was estimated to be 30.4% in the reactor supplied with 3 mg/L of U(VI) and 73.9% in the reactor supplied with 30 mg/L of U(VI). TEM and SAED analysis showed that uranium in both reactors accumulated mostly on microbial cell membranes and in the periplasmic space. The deposits had amorphous or poor nanocrystalline structures.

Marsili, E.; Beyenal, Haluk; Di Palma, L.; Merli, C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2005-12-01

229

Desulfofrigus sp. prevails in sulfate-reducing dilution cultures from sediments of the Benguela upwelling area.  

PubMed

Sediments of coastal upwelling areas are generally characterized by a high content of organic carbon that is mainly degraded via anaerobic microbial processes including sulfate reduction as a major terminal oxidation step. Despite the high importance of sulfate reduction in these sediments, the identity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has remained almost unknown. Here, we applied a cultivation-based approach using selective enrichment conditions to study the diversity and distribution of active SRB in sediments along a transect perpendicular to the continental slope off the coast of Namibia (Meteor-cruise M76/1). To promote growth of the most abundant SRB, dilution series were prepared and amended with hydrogen, acetate, or a mixture of monomers representing typical substrates for SRB. Growth of SRB could be detected in the presence of all electron donors and from sediment down to 4 m depth. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis and sequencing revealed the predominance of SRB related to psychrophiles in particular to the genus Desulfofrigus, which made up 1 % of the total microbial community, accounting for an absolute abundance of up to 4.8 × 10(7)  cells mL(-1) . In general, the abundance of cultured SRB changed with depth and between the different sampling sites and correlated with the content of organic carbon as previously reported. Growth of chemolithotrophic SRB in relatively high dilution steps and the enrichment of methanogens as well as acetogens from deeper sediment point to a competition between hydrogen-utilizing microbial processes and their biogeochemical significance in deep sediment layers of the Benguela upwelling area. PMID:23157459

Kraft, Beate; Engelen, Bert; Goldhammer, Tobias; Lin, Yu-Shih; Cypionka, Heribert; Könneke, Martin

2013-04-01

230

Complete genome sequence of the acetate-degrading sulfate reducer Desulfobacca acetoxidans type strain (ASRB2T)  

SciTech Connect

Desulfobacca acetoxidans Elferink et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Desulfobacca, which belongs to the family Syntrophaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. The species was first observed in a study on the competition of sulfate-reducers and acetoclastic methanogens for acetate in sludge. D. acetoxidans is considered to be the most abundant acetate-degrading sulfate reducer in sludge. It is of interest due to its isolated phylogenetic location in the 16S rRNA-based tree of life. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Syntrophaceae to be published and only the third genome sequence from a member of the order Syntrophobacterales. The 3,282,536 bp long genome with its 2,969 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

2011-01-01

231

Gene expression analysis of the mechanism of inhibition of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are inhibited by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) in the presence of nitrate. This inhibition has been attributed either to an increase in redox potential or to production of nitrite by the NR-SOB. Nitrite specifically inhibits the final step in the sulfate reduction pathway. When the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was added to mid-log phase cultures of the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough in the presence of nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited. Strain CVO reduced nitrate and oxidized sulfide, with transient production of nitrite. Sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris resumed once nitrite was depleted. A DNA macroarray with open reading frames encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism of D. vulgaris was used to study the effects of NR-SOB on gene expression. Shortly following addition of strain CVO, D. vulgaris genes for cytochrome c nitrite reductase and hybrid cluster proteins Hcp1 and Hcp2 were upregulated. Genes for sulfate reduction enzymes, except those for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, were downregulated. Genes for the membrane-bound electron transferring complexes QmoABC and DsrMKJOP were downregulated and unaffected, respectively, whereas direct addition of nitrite downregulated both operons. Overall the gene expression response of D. vulgaris upon exposure to strain CVO and nitrate resembled that observed upon direct addition of nitrite, indicating that inhibition of SRB is primarily due to nitrite production by NR-SOB. PMID:16104868

Haveman, Shelley A; Greene, E Anne; Voordouw, Gerrit

2005-09-01

232

Carboxylation and mineralization of m -cresol by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enrichment culture that anaerobically degradedm-cresol under sulfate-reducing conditions was obtained from an anoxic aquifer.m-Cresol removal by the culture was greatest when sulfate or thiosulfate served as electron acceptors; sulfite, nitrate, and CO2 were poor substitutes for sulfate. A14C-labeled carboxylated intermediate was detected when the culture was given14C-labeled bicarbonate and nonlabeledm-cresol or nonlabeled bicarbonate and14C-labeledm-cresol. Metabolism of the carboxylated intermediate

K. Ramanand; Joseph M. Suflita

1993-01-01

233

Identification of key components in the energy metabolism of the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus by transcriptome analyses  

PubMed Central

Energy conservation via the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is present in a diverse group of prokaryotes, but is most comprehensively studied in Deltaproteobacteria. In this study, whole-genome microarray analyses were used to provide a model of the energy metabolism of the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, based on comparative analysis of litoautotrophic growth with H2/CO2 and thiosulfate, and heterotrophic growth on lactate with sulfate or thiosulfate. Only 72 genes were expressed differentially between the cultures utilizing sulfate or thiosulfate, whereas 269 genes were affected by a shift in energy source. We identified co-located gene cluster encoding putative lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs; lldD, dld, lldEFG), also present in sulfate-reducing bacteria. These enzymes may take part in energy conservation in A. fulgidus by specifically linking lactate oxidation with APS reduction via the Qmo complex. High transcriptional levels of Fqo confirm an important role of F420H2, as well as a menaquinone-mediated electron transport chain, during heterotrophic growth. A putative periplasmic thiosulfate reductase was identified by specific up-regulation. Also, putative genes for transport of sulfate and sulfite are discussed. We present a model for hydrogen metabolism, based on the probable bifurcation reaction of the Mvh:Hdl hydrogenase, which may inhibit the utilization of Fdred for energy conservation. Energy conservation is probably facilitated via menaquinone to multiple membrane-bound heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) complexes and the DsrC protein—linking periplasmic hydrogenase (Vht) to the cytoplasmic reduction of sulfite. The ambiguous roles of genes corresponding to fatty acid metabolism induced during growth with H2 are discussed. Putative co-assimilation of organic acids is favored over a homologous secondary carbon fixation pathway, although both mechanisms may contribute to conserve the amount of Fdred needed during autotrophic growth with H2. PMID:24672515

Hocking, William P.; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Steen, Ida H.

2014-01-01

234

Indicators of Microbial Sulfate Reduction in Acidic Sulfide-Rich Mine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are thought to be actively involved in the cycling of sulfur in acidic mine tailings. However, most studies have used circumstantial evidence to assess microbial sulfate activity in such environments. In order to fully ascertain the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sulfur cycling in acidic mine tailings, we measured sulfate reduction rates, sulfur isotopic composition of

Tanmay Praharaj; Danielle Fortin

2004-01-01

235

An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance, but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries would be much more economical except they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with

Adam W. Stienecker; Thomas Stuart; Cyrus Ashtiani

2006-01-01

236

U(VI) Reduction in Sulfate-Reducing Subsurface Sediments Amended with Ethanol or Acetate  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted with subsurface sediments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the potential for reduction of U(VI) under sulfate-reducing conditions with either ethanol or acetate as the electron donor. The results showed extensive U(VI) reduction in sediments supplied with either electron donor, where geochemical and microbiological analyses demonstrated active sulfate reduction. PMID:23624470

Converse, Brandon J.; Wu, Tao; Findlay, Robert H.

2013-01-01

237

Biogeochemistry of a Field-Scale Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor Treating Mining Influenced Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidity, metal release, and toxicity may be environmental health concerns in areas influenced by mining. Mining influenced waters (MIW) can be remediated through the establishment of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors (SRBRs) as part of engineered passive treatment systems. The objective of our research is an enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry in SRBRs by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques. Bioreactor reactive substrate, settling pond water, and effluent (from the SRBR) were collected from a field scale SRBR in Arizona, which has been in operation for approximately 3 years. Schematically, the water passes through the SRBR; combines with flow that bypasses the SRBR into the and goes into the mixing pond, and finally is released as effluent to aerobic polishing cells. High throughput sequencing of extracted DNA revealed that Proteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (61%), settling pond (93%), and effluent (50%), with the next most abundant phylum in all samples (excluding uncultured organisms) being Bacteriodes (1-17%). However, at the superclass level, the three samples were more variable. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (35%), Betaproteobacteria in the settling pond (63%) and finally the effluent was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Helicobacteraceae) (43%). Diversity was most pronounced in association with the reactor matrix, and least diverse in the settling pond. Putative functional analysis revealed a modest presence of sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) (>5%) in both the matrix and settling pond but a much higher abundance (43%) of sulfur reducing bacteria in the effluent. Interestingly this effluent population was composed entirely of the family Helicobacteraceae (sulfur reduction II via polysulfide pathway). Other putative functions of interest include metal reduction in the matrix (3%) and effluent (3%), as well as polysaccharide degradation, which was largely abundant in all samples (21-38%). Acid digests and micro-focused X-ray fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy revealed precipitation heterogeneities exist between surface samples taken near the front of the influent pipe (west) and downstream (east). Zinc was disproportionately immobilized at the front of the reactor (~10-fold higher), while a higher portion (~3-fold) of iron precipitates was observed downstream. Microfocused XAS further revealed matrix heterogeneities consisting of clusters of stellar shaped sulfur / iron precipitates. An enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry of SRBRs has applications in passive remediation of contaminated MIW and an interdisciplinary understanding of metal immobilization at the microbe-mineral interface.

Drennan, D.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Webb, S.; Sharp, J. O.

2012-12-01

238

Microbial diversity and community structure of a highly active anaerobic methane-oxidizing sulfate-reducing enrichment.  

PubMed

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important methane sink in the ocean but the microbes responsible for AOM are as yet resilient to cultivation. Here we describe the microbial analysis of an enrichment obtained in a novel submerged-membrane bioreactor system and capable of high-rate AOM (286 mumol g(dry weight)(-1) day(-1)) coupled to sulfate reduction. By constructing a clone library with subsequent sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization, we showed that the responsible methanotrophs belong to the ANME-2a subgroup of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea, and that sulfate reduction is most likely performed by sulfate-reducing bacteria commonly found in association with other ANME-related archaea in marine sediments. Another relevant portion of the bacterial sequences can be clustered within the order of Flavobacteriales but their role remains to be elucidated. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed that the ANME-2a cells occur as single cells without close contact to the bacterial syntrophic partner. Incubation with (13)C-labelled methane showed substantial incorporation of (13)C label in the bacterial C(16) fatty acids (bacterial; 20%, 44% and 49%) and in archaeal lipids, archaeol and hydroxyl-archaeol (21% and 20% respectively). The obtained data confirm that both archaea and bacteria are responsible for the anaerobic methane oxidation in a bioreactor enrichment inoculated with Eckernförde bay sediment. PMID:19703218

Jagersma, G Christian; Meulepas, Roel J W; Heikamp-de Jong, Ineke; Gieteling, Jarno; Klimiuk, Adam; Schouten, Stefan; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M

2009-12-01

239

Anaerobic degradation of halogenated phenols by sulfate-reducing consortia.  

PubMed Central

Sulfidogenic consortia enriched from an estuarine sediment were maintained on either 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorophenol as the only source of carbon and energy for over 5 years. The enrichment culture on 4-chlorophenol was the most active and this consortium was selected for further characterization. Utilization of chlorophenol resulted in sulfate depletion corresponding to the values expected for complete mineralization to CO2. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol was coupled to sulfate reduction, since substrate utilization was dependent on sulfidogenesis and chlorophenol loss did not proceed in the absence of sulfate. Other sulfur oxyanions, sulfite or thiosulfate, also served as electron acceptors for chlorophenol utilization, while carbonate, nitrate, and fumarate did not. The sulfidogenic consortium utilized phenol, 4-bromophenol, and 4-iodophenol in addition to 4-chlorophenol. 4-Fluorophenol, however, did not serve as a substrate. 4-Bromo- and 4-iodophenol were degraded with stoichiometric release of halide, and 4-[14C]bromophenol was mineralized, with 90% of the radiolabel recovered as CO2. PMID:7747970

Haggblom, M M; Young, L Y

1995-01-01

240

Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)  

SciTech Connect

Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

2012-01-01

241

Molecular assessment of the sensitivity of sulfate-reducing microbial communities remediating mine drainage to aerobic stress.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing permeable reactive zones (SR-PRZs) are microbially-driven anaerobic systems designed for the removal of heavy metals and sulfate in mine drainage. Environmental perturbations, such as oxygen exposure, may adversely affect system stability and long-term performance. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of two successive aerobic stress events on the performance and microbial community composition of duplicate laboratory-scale lignocellulosic SR-PRZs operated using the following microbial community management strategies: biostimulation with ethanol or carboxymethylcellulose; bioaugmentation with sulfate-reducing or cellulose-degrading enrichments; inoculation with dairy manure only; and no inoculation. A functional gene-based approach employing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting genes of sulfate-reducing (dsrA), cellulose-degrading (cel5, cel48), fermentative (hydA), and methanogenic (mcrA) microbes was applied. In terms of performance (i.e., sulfate removal), biostimulation with ethanol was the only strategy that clearly had an effect (positive) following exposure to oxygen. In terms of microbial community composition, significant shifts were observed over the course of the experiment. Results suggest that exposure to oxygen more strongly influenced microbial community shifts than the different microbial community management strategies. Sensitivity to oxygen exposure varied among different populations and was particularly pronounced for fermentative bacteria. Although the community structure remained altered after exposure, system performance recovered, indicating that SR-PRZ microbial communities were functionally redundant. Results suggest that pre-exposure to oxygen might be a more effective strategy to improve the resilience of SR-PRZ microbial communities relative to bioaugmentation or biostimulation. PMID:23863381

Lefèvre, Emilie; Pereyra, Luciana P; Hiibel, Sage R; Perrault, Elizabeth M; De Long, Susan K; Reardon, Kenneth F; Pruden, Amy

2013-09-15

242

Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers.  

PubMed

Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that the transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate-reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations. PMID:21764959

Miletto, M; Williams, K H; N'Guessan, A L; Lovley, D R

2011-09-01

243

Molecular Analysis of the Metabolic Rates of Discrete Subsurface Populations of Sulfate Reducers?  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that the transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate-reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations. PMID:21764959

Miletto, M.; Williams, K. H.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Lovley, D. R.

2011-01-01

244

Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers  

SciTech Connect

Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations.

Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

2011-04-01

245

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS  

E-print Network

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS*, DONALD E. CANFIELD**, and KIRSTEN S. HABICHT** ABSTRACT. Multiple sulfur isotope measurements of sulfur disproportionation indicate that different types of metabolic processes impart differ- ent multiple isotope

Kaufman, Alan Jay

246

Desulfosporosinus lacus sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from pristine freshwater lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from pristine sediments of Lake Stechlin, Germany. This strain, STP12T, was found to contain predominantly c-type cytochromes and to reduce sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate using lactate as an electron donor. Although STP12T could not utilize elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, it could support growth by dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction. In a comparison of 16S

S. Ramamoorthy; H. Sass; H. Langner; P. Schumann; R. M. Kroppenstedt; S. Spring; J. Overmann; R. F. Rosenzweig

2006-01-01

247

Benzene oxidation under sulfate-reducing conditions in columns simulating in situ conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of benzene under sulfate-reducing conditions was examined in column and batch experiments under close to in\\u000a situ conditions. Mass balances and degradation rates for benzene oxidation were determined in four sand and four lava granules\\u000a filled columns percolated with groundwater from an anoxic benzene-contaminated aquifer. The stoichiometry of oxidized benzene,\\u000a produced hydrogen carbonate and reduced sulfate correlated well

Carsten Vogt; Stefan Gödeke; Hanns-Christian Treutler; Holger Weiß; Mario Schirmer; Hans-Hermann Richnow

2007-01-01

248

Microbial reduction of structural iron in interstratified illite-smectite minerals by a sulfate-reducing bacterium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks and could coexist with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in anoxic environments, however, the interactions of clay minerals and SRB are not well understood. The objective of this study was to understand the reduction rate and capacity of structural Fe(III) in dioctahedral clay minerals by a mesophilic SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the potential role in catalyzing smectite illitization. Bioreduction experiments were performed in batch systems, where four different clay minerals (nontronite NAu-2, mixed-layer illite-smectite RAr-1 and ISCz-1, and illite IMt-1) were exposed to D. vulgaris in a non-growth medium with and without anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and sulfate. Our results demonstrated that D. vulgaris was able to reduce structural Fe(III) in these clay minerals, and AQDS enhanced the reduction rate and extent. In the presence of AQDS, sulfate had little effect on Fe(III) bioreduction. In the absence of AQDS, sulfate increased the reduction rate and capacity, suggesting that sulfide produced during sulfate reduction reacted with the phyllosilicate Fe(III). The extent of bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals was positively correlated with the percentage of smectite and mineral surface area of these minerals. X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed formation of illite after bioreduction. These data collectively showed that D. vulgaris could promote smectite illitization through reduction of structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Liu, D.; Dong, H.; Bishop, M.E.; Zhang, J.; Wang, H.; Xie, S.; Wang, S.; Huang, L.; Eberl, D.D.

2012-01-01

249

Microbial reduction of structural iron in interstratified illite-smectite minerals by a sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed

Clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks and could coexist with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in anoxic environments, however, the interactions of clay minerals and SRB are not well understood. The objective of this study was to understand the reduction rate and capacity of structural Fe(III) in dioctahedral clay minerals by a mesophilic SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the potential role in catalyzing smectite illitization. Bioreduction experiments were performed in batch systems, where four different clay minerals (nontronite NAu-2, mixed-layer illite-smectite RAr-1 and ISCz-1, and illite IMt-1) were exposed to D. vulgaris in a non-growth medium with and without anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and sulfate. Our results demonstrated that D. vulgaris was able to reduce structural Fe(III) in these clay minerals, and AQDS enhanced the reduction rate and extent. In the presence of AQDS, sulfate had little effect on Fe(III) bioreduction. In the absence of AQDS, sulfate increased the reduction rate and capacity, suggesting that sulfide produced during sulfate reduction reacted with the phyllosilicate Fe(III). The extent of bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals was positively correlated with the percentage of smectite and mineral surface area of these minerals. X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed formation of illite after bioreduction. These data collectively showed that D. vulgaris could promote smectite illitization through reduction of structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. PMID:22074236

Liu, D; Dong, H; Bishop, M E; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Xie, S; Wang, S; Huang, L; Eberl, D D

2012-03-01

250

The Isolation and Cultivation of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY : There are many strains and perhaps several species of sulphate-reducing bacteria. They may be isolated by using a variety of media over a wide range of temperature. Crude cultures are readily obtained, but isolation of absolutely pure cultures is usually difficult. Considerable simplification in procedure may sometimes be effected by including 3 yo Na,SO, .7H,O in the media

K. R. BUTLIN; MARY E. ADAMS; MARGARET THOMAS

1949-01-01

251

Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

2009-04-01

252

The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a model organism for studying the energy metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and for understanding the economic impacts of SRB, including biocorrosion of metal infrastructure and bioremediation of toxic metal ions. The 3,570,858 base pair (bp) genome sequence reveals a network of novel c-type cytochromes, connecting multiple periplasmic hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases, as a key feature of its energy metabolism. The relative arrangement of genes encoding enzymes for energy transduction, together with inferred cellular location of the enzymes, provides a basis for proposing an expansion to the 'hydrogen-cycling' model for increasing energy efficiency in this bacterium. Plasmid-encoded functions include modification of cell surface components, nitrogen fixation and a type-III protein secretion system. This genome sequence represents a substantial step toward the elucidation of pathways for reduction (and bioremediation) of pollutants such as uranium and chromium and offers a new starting point for defining this organism's complex anaerobic respiration. PMID:15077118

Heidelberg, John F; Seshadri, Rekha; Haveman, Shelley A; Hemme, Christopher L; Paulsen, Ian T; Kolonay, James F; Eisen, Jonathan A; Ward, Naomi; Methe, Barbara; Brinkac, Lauren M; Daugherty, Sean C; Deboy, Robert T; Dodson, Robert J; Durkin, A Scott; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, William C; Sullivan, Steven A; Fouts, Derrick; Haft, Daniel H; Selengut, Jeremy; Peterson, Jeremy D; Davidsen, Tanja M; Zafar, Nikhat; Zhou, Liwei; Radune, Diana; Dimitrov, George; Hance, Mark; Tran, Kevin; Khouri, Hoda; Gill, John; Utterback, Terry R; Feldblyum, Tamara V; Wall, Judy D; Voordouw, Gerrit; Fraser, Claire M

2004-05-01

253

A new anaerobic, sporing, acetate-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfotomaculum (emend.) acetoxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strictly anaerobic, polarly flagellated, sporing, acetate-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from anaerobic fresh or sea water mud samples. The oxidation of acetate to CO2 is stoichiometrically linked to the formation of H2S from sulfate. Ethanol, butanol and butyrate are also used. Hydrogen, lactate or pyruvate are not used as electron donors; organic substances are not fermented. A cytochrome

Friedrich Widdel; Norbert Pfennig

1977-01-01

254

Niosome encapsulated of vincristine sulfate: improved anticancer activity with reduced toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

Nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) are promising drug carriers for anticancer drugs. Niosome encapsulated vincristine sulfate prepared by transmembrane pH gradient drug uptake process (remote loading method) was evaluated for toxicity and antitumour activity after administration to tumour bearing mice. The toxicity of vincristine sulfate was reduced after niosome encapsulation and anticancer activity improved, which may be due to better delivery of vincristine at the tumour site. PMID:8069596

Parthasarathi, G; Udupa, N; Umadevi, P; Pillai, G K

1994-01-01

255

Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had ?18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in ?18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that biocompetitive exclusion was the major process. The results demonstrate that stable isotope data can contribute unique information for understanding complex microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems, and offer important information for the management of H 2S problems in oil reservoirs and elsewhere.

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

2009-07-01

256

Biomolecular and Isotopic Signatures Related to Cr(VI) Reduction by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from the Hanford 100H Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium contamination of groundwater is widespread within the Dept. of Energy (DOE) complex. At DOE's Hanford 100H area, we have conducted Cr bioremediation (in situ reductive immobilization) studies involving injection of a lactate-containing polymer, and have observed sequential use of the dissolved electron acceptors present in groundwater (namely, oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate). Sulfate-reducing bacteria are of particular interest for chromate reduction because they can reduce Cr(VI) enzymatically (e.g., using cytochrome c3 or thioredoxin reductase) and abiotically with hydrogen sulfide, the end product of their respiration. In this poster, we use studies of a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Hanford 100H aquifer, Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain RCH1, to explore (a) isotopic signatures that might allow us to distinguish between enzymatic and sulfide-mediated Cr(VI) reduction and (b) biomolecular signatures (gene or transcript copy number of diagnostic genes) that might be used as proxies of in situ metabolic rates. In order to differentiate between the mechanisms of Cr reduction by sulfate reducers, we analyzed the isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by strain RCH1. Cell suspension studies of strain RCH1 demonstrated that Cr(VI) reduction could occur in the presence of lactate (electron donor) alone or with both lactate and sulfate. Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of lactate and sulfate was 25-30% more rapid than enzymatic Cr reduction when only lactate was added, suggesting that biogenic hydrogen sulfide increases the specific rate of Cr(VI) reduction beyond purely enzymatic activity. Cr isotopic measurements showed different fractionation behavior for the lactate-only and lactate+sulfate systems, with fractionation (epsilon) values of 2.3 and 1.66 per mil, respectively. In order to determine whether gene or transcript copy number for diagnostic sulfate and chromate reduction genes could serve as proxies to estimate in situ metabolic rates, chemostat studies were conducted with strain RCH1. Genes assayed by qPCR and RT-qPCR included aprB (APS reductase, beta subunit), dsrA (dissimilatory sulfite reductase, alpha subunit), cyc3 (cytochrome c3), and trxB (thioredoxin reductase). Strong linear relationships were observed between sulfate reduction rates and the gene and transcript copy numbers of all of the targeted genes. These results suggest that use of gene and transcript copy numbers in groundwater samples may be a useful approach for estimating in situ metabolic rates of sulfate-reducing bacteria during Cr bioremediation.

Han, R.; Qin, L.; Geller, J. T.; Chakraborty, R.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

2011-12-01

257

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Acid Sulfate Soils and Their Beneficial Effects on Rice Growth  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmolc kg?1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

2014-01-01

258

A Member of the Delta Subgroup of Proteobacteria from a Pyogenic Liver Abscess Is a Typical Sulfate Reducer of the Genus Desulfovibrio  

PubMed Central

Strain FH26001/95 (ATCC 700045) was previously isolated from a pyogenic liver abscess from a human. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that this strain is related to members of the delta subgroup of the proteobacteria, within a cluster of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio spp.) and non-sulfate-reducing bacteria (Bilophila wadsworthia and Lawsonia spp.). The phenotype of strain FH26001/95 was found to be typical of members of the genus Desulfovibrio. Growth and substrate transformations were possible at oxygen concentrations of 2 to 5% (vol/vol) but not at oxygen concentrations of 21% (vol/vol) in air. Its isolation from an infection in a human suggests that some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can be considered opportunistic pathogens. PMID:11158153

Schoenborn, Liesbeth; Abdollahi, Hamid; Tee, Wee; Dyall-Smith, Michael; Janssen, Peter H.

2001-01-01

259

In situ BTEX biotransformation under intrinsic and nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Controlled amounts of BTEX compounds added to slugs of treated ground water were released into a gasoline-contaminated aquifer at Seal Beach (CA). In a series of studies, the slugs 470 to 1,700 L in volume were released into the aquifer. To evaluate nitrate-reducing and sulfate-reducing conditions, the injectate was also deionized and augmented with 200-300 {mu}g/L BTEX, nitrate or sulfate, and background electrolytes. Under intrinsic conditions, transformation appeared to be limited to slow removal of toluene and m,p-xylene. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and o-xylene were transformed without a lag in less than 4, 6, and 70 days, respectively. Under sulfate-reducing conditions, toluene, m-xylene and o-xylene were completely transformed in less than 50 days, and ethylbenzene was removed in 60 days. Benzene was slowly removed, but the mechanism of removal could not be ascertained.

Reinhard, M.; Shang, S.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Orwin, E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

260

Simple organic electron donors support diverse sulfate-reducing communities in fluidized-bed reactors treating acidic metal- and sulfate-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial diversity of lactate- and ethanol-utilizing sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) communities was investigated with culture-independent methods. The FBRs were fed for 500 days with synthetic mineral processing wastewater containing sulfate, zinc and iron with hydraulic retention time of 16–24 h. Sodium lactate or ethanol was used as electron donor for microbial sulfate reduction. For microbial characterization, 16S rRNA gene clone

Anna H Kaksonen; Jason J Plumb; Peter D Franzmann; Jaakko A Puhakka

2004-01-01

261

In situ BTEX biotransformation under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

In situ anaerobic biotransformation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene) was investigated under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. Controlled amounts of BTEX compounds added to slugs of treated groundwater were released into a gasoline-contaminated aquifer at Seal Beach, CA. In a series of studies, the slugs, 470-1700 L in volume, were released into the aquifer through a multi-port injection/extraction well and were subsequently withdrawn over a 2-3 month period. To evaluate unamended in situ conditions, the injectate was treated with granular activated carbon (GAC) and augmented with bromide as a tracer. To evaluate nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions, the injectate was also deionized and augmented with 200-300 {mu}g/L BTEX, nitrate or sulfate, and background electrolytes. Under unamended conditions, transformation appeared to be limited to the slow removal of toluene and m,p-xylene (i.e. sum of m+p-xylene). Under nitrate-reducing conditions, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were transformed without a lag phase in less than 10 days, and o-xylene was transformed in 72 days. Under sulfate-reducing conditions, toluene, m-xylene and o-xylene were completely transformed in less then 50 days, and ethylbenzene was removed in 60 days. Benzene appeared to be removed under sulfate-reducing conditions, but the trend was pronounced only at some levels. 47 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Reinhard, M.; Shang, S.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Orwin, E.; Hopkins, G.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); LeBron, C.A. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

1997-01-01

262

Roles of HynAB and Ech, the Only Two Hydrogenases Found in the Model Sulfate Reducer Desulfovibrio gigas  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing bacteria are characterized by a high number of hydrogenases, which have been proposed to contribute to the overall energy metabolism of the cell, but exactly in what role is not clear. Desulfovibrio spp. can produce or consume H2 when growing on organic or inorganic substrates in the presence or absence of sulfate. Because of the presence of only two hydrogenases encoded in its genome, the periplasmic HynAB and cytoplasmic Ech hydrogenases, Desulfovibrio gigas is an excellent model organism for investigation of the specific function of each of these enzymes during growth. In this study, we analyzed the physiological response to the deletion of the genes that encode the two hydrogenases in D. gigas, through the generation of ?echBC and ?hynAB single mutant strains. These strains were analyzed for the ability to grow on different substrates, such as lactate, pyruvate, and hydrogen, under respiratory and fermentative conditions. Furthermore, the expression of both hydrogenase genes in the three strains studied was assessed through quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The results demonstrate that neither hydrogenase is essential for growth on lactate-sulfate, indicating that hydrogen cycling is not indispensable. In addition, the periplasmic HynAB enzyme has a bifunctional activity and is required for growth on H2 or by fermentation of pyruvate. Therefore, this enzyme seems to play a dominant role in D. gigas hydrogen metabolism. PMID:23974026

Morais-Silva, Fabio O.; Santos, Catia I.; Rodrigues, Rute

2013-01-01

263

Isolation and identification of bacteria responsible for simultaneous anaerobic ammonium and sulfate removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a novel biological reaction, in which ammonium is oxidized with sulfate\\u000a as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions. Ammonium and sulfate are cosmopolitan chemical species which are an integral\\u000a part of the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles. A detailed exploration of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is\\u000a quite practical. In this work, a bacterial strain named

Jing Cai; JianXiang Jiang; Ping Zheng

2010-01-01

264

Microbial mineralization of ethene under sulfate-reducing conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A limited investigation of the potential for anaerobic ethylene biodegradation under SO4-reducing conditions was performed. Microorganisms indigenous to a lake-bed sediment completely mineralized [1,2-14C] ethylene to 14CO2 when incubated under SO4-reducing conditions. Reliance on ethylene and/or ethane accumulation as a quantitative indicator of complete reductive dechlorination of chloroethylene contaminants may not be warranted. SO4 addition stimulated SO4 reduction as indicated by decreasing SO4 concentrations (> 40% decrease) and production of dissolved sulfide (880 ??M). SO4 amendment completely suppressed the production of ethane and methane. The concomitant absence of ethane and methane production under SO4-amended conditions was consistent with previous conclusions that reduction of ethylene to ethane occurred under methanogenic conditions. A lack of ethylene accumulation under SO4-reducing conditions may reflect insignificant reductive dechlorination of vinyl chloride or efficient anaerobic mineralization of ethylene to CO2.

Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

2002-01-01

265

Magnesium Sulfate Only Slightly Reduces the Shivering Threshold in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypothermia may be an effective treatment for stroke or acute myocardial infarction; however, it provokes vigorous shivering, which causes potentially dangerous hemodynamic responses and prevents further hypothermia. Magnesium is an attractive antishivering agent because it is used for treatment of postoperative shivering and provides protection against ischemic injury in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that magnesium reduces the threshold (triggering core temperature) and gain of shivering without substantial sedation or muscle weakness. Methods: We studied nine healthy male volunteers (18-40 yr) on two randomly assigned treatment days: 1) Control and 2) Magnesium (80 mg·kg-1 followed by infusion at 2 g·h-1). Lactated Ringer's solution (4°C) was infused via a central venous catheter over a period of approximately 2 hours to decrease tympanic membrane temperature ?1.5°C·h-1. A significant and persistent increase in oxygen consumption identified the threshold. The gain of shivering was determined by the slope of oxygen consumption vs. core temperature regression. Sedation was evaluated using verbal rating score (VRS, 0-10) and bispectral index of the EEG (BIS). Peripheral muscle strength was evaluated using dynamometry and spirometry. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA; P<0.05 was statistically significant. Results: Magnesium reduced the shivering threshold (36.3±0.4 [mean±SD] vs. 36.6±0.3°C, P=0.040). It did not affect the gain of shivering (Control: 437±289, Magnesium: 573±370 ml·min-1·°C-1, P=0.344). The magnesium bolus did not produce significant sedation or appreciably reduce muscle strength. Conclusions: Magnesium significantly reduced the shivering threshold; however, due to the modest absolute reduction, this finding is considered to be clinically unimportant for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:15749735

Wadhwa, Anupama; Sengupta, Papiya; Durrani, Jaleel; Akca, Ozan; Lenhardt, Rainer; Sessler, Daniel I.

2005-01-01

266

A modified chromium-reducible sulfur method for reduced inorganic sulfur: optimum reaction time for acid sulfate soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction times for 16 acid sulfate soil materials analysed using a modified chromium-reducible sulfur method varied between 10 and 15 min, regardless of whether the samples had been dried and ground prior to analysis or were analysed without pretreatment. The reaction time for a ground ({\\\\textless}63 mm) pyritic rock sample was 20 min. An optimum reaction time of 20 min

L. A. Sullivan; R. T. Bush; D. M. McConchie

2000-01-01

267

Genome sequence of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas: a comparative analysis within the Desulfovibrio genus.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio gigas is a model organism of sulfate-reducing bacteria of which energy metabolism and stress response have been extensively studied. The complete genomic context of this organism was however, not yet available. The sequencing of the D. gigas genome provides insights into the integrated network of energy conserving complexes and structures present in this bacterium. Comparison with genomes of other Desulfovibrio spp. reveals the presence of two different CRISPR/Cas systems in D. gigas. Phylogenetic analysis using conserved protein sequences (encoded by rpoB and gyrB) indicates two main groups of Desulfovibrio spp, being D. gigas more closely related to D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans strains. Gene duplications were found such as those encoding fumarate reductase, formate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. Complexes not yet described within Desulfovibrio genus were identified: Mnh complex, a v-type ATP-synthase as well as genes encoding the MinCDE system that could be responsible for the larger size of D. gigas when compared to other members of the genus. A low number of hydrogenases and the absence of the codh/acs and pfl genes, both present in D. vulgaris strains, indicate that intermediate cycling mechanisms may contribute substantially less to the energy gain in D. gigas compared to other Desulfovibrio spp. This might be compensated by the presence of other unique genomic arrangements of complexes such as the Rnf and the Hdr/Flox, or by the presence of NAD(P)H related complexes, like the Nuo, NfnAB or Mnh. PMID:25055974

Morais-Silva, Fabio O; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; Pimentel, Catarina; Santos, Catia I; Clemente, Carla; Varela-Raposo, Ana; Resende, Daniela M; da Silva, Sofia M; de Oliveira, Luciana Márcia; Matos, Marcia; Costa, Daniela A; Flores, Orfeu; Ruiz, Jerónimo C; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

2014-08-01

268

Prokaryotic Community Structure and Sulfate Reducer Activity in Water from High-Temperature Oil Reservoirs with and without Nitrate Treatment? †  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. One strategy to control SRP activity is the addition of nitrate to the injection water. Production waters from two adjacent, hot (80°C) oil reservoirs, one with and one without nitrate treatment, were compared for prokaryotic community structure and activity of SRP. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed higher prokaryotic abundance but lower diversity for the nitrate-treated field. The 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from both fields were dominated by sequences affiliated with Firmicutes (Bacteria) and Thermococcales (Archaea). Potential heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Deferribacterales) were exclusively found at the nitrate-treated field, possibly stimulated by nitrate addition. Quantitative PCR of dsrAB genes revealed that archaeal SRP (Archaeoglobus) dominated the SRP communities, but with lower relative abundance at the nitrate-treated site. Bacterial SRP were found in only low abundance at both sites and were nearly exclusively affiliated with thermophilic genera (Desulfacinum and Desulfotomaculum). Despite the high abundance of archaeal SRP, no archaeal SRP activity was detected in [35S]sulfate incubations at 80°C. Sulfate reduction was found at 60°C in samples from the untreated field and accompanied by the growth of thermophilic bacterial SRP in batch cultures. Samples from the nitrate-treated field generally lacked SRP activity. These results indicate that (i) Archaeoglobus can be a major player in hot oil reservoirs, and (ii) nitrate may act in souring control—not only by inhibiting SRP, but also by changing the overall community structure, including the stimulation of competitive nitrate reducers. PMID:19801479

Gittel, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

2009-01-01

269

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

270

The use of seaweed and sugarcane bagasse for the biological treatment of metal-contaminated waters under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests. PMID:18401756

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Oliveira Mello, Luiz Antonio; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

2008-03-01

271

Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an n-alkane- and n-alkene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed

A novel marine sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain CV2803T, which is able to oxidize aliphatic hydrocarbons, was isolated from a hydrocarbon-polluted marine sediment (Gulf of Fos, France). The cells were rod-shaped and slightly curved, measuring 0.6x2.2-5.5 microm. Strain CV2803T stained Gram-negative and was non-motile and non-spore-forming. Optimum growth occurred in the presence of 24 g NaCl l(-1), at pH 7.5 and at a temperature between 28 and 35 degrees C. Strain CV2803T oxidized alkanes (from C13 to C18) and alkenes (from C7 to C23). The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. Comparative sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene and those of other sulfate-reducing bacteria, together with its phenotypic properties, indicated that strain CV2803T was a member of a distinct cluster that contained unnamed species. Therefore, strain CV2803T (=DSM 15576T=ATCC BAA-743T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species in a new genus, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:14742462

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Matheron, Robert; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Joulian, Catherine; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

2004-01-01

272

Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors System  

EPA Science Inventory

The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena, MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fo...

273

Microbial Activity In The Peerless Jenny King Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor System (Presentation)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Peerless Jenny King treatment system is a series of four sulfate reducing bioreactor cells installed to treat acid mine drainage in the Upper Tenmile Creek Superfund Site located in the Rimini Mining District, near Helena MT. The system consists of a wetland pretreatment fol...

274

Seasonal composition and activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities in seagrass bed sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) play a key role in the carbon and nutrient cycles of coastal marine, vegetated ecosystems, but the interactions of SRP communities with aquatic plants remain little studied. The abundance, activity, and community composition of SRP was studied i...

275

Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium  

E-print Network

Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium on bacterial MMHg production in natural systems. #12;Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production­fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding

276

A Mathematical Process Model for Cadmium Precipitation by Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) biofilms were grown in a flowcell in which the biofilm was grown on a fixed area of support which was supplied with recirculating medium of defined composition, volume and circulation rate. Utilization rates for substrates, production rates for products and material mass-balances for substrates and Cd were determined and a mathematical model constructed based on theoretical considerations

Christopher White; John S. Dennis; Geoffrey M. Gadd

2003-01-01

277

Genome sequence of Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2, a marine sulfate reducer oxidizing organic carbon completely to carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the metabolically versatile Desulfobacteriaceae are abundant in marine sediments and contribute to the global carbon cycle by complete oxidation of organic compounds. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2 is the first member of this ecophysiologically important group with a now available genome sequence. With 5.6 megabasepairs (Mbp) the genome of Db. autotrophicum HRM2 is about 2 Mbp larger than the sequenced genomes of other sulfate reducers (SRB). A high number of genome plasticity elements (> 100 transposon-related genes), several regions of GC discontinuity and a high number of repetitive elements (132 paralogous genes Mbp(-1)) point to a different genome evolution when comparing with Desulfovibrio spp. The metabolic versatility of Db. autotrophicum HRM2 is reflected in the presence of genes for the degradation of a variety of organic compounds including long-chain fatty acids and for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, which enables the organism to completely oxidize acetyl-CoA to CO(2) but also to grow chemolithoautotrophically. The presence of more than 250 proteins of the sensory/regulatory protein families should enable Db. autotrophicum HRM2 to efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions. Genes encoding periplasmic or cytoplasmic hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases have been detected as well as genes for the transmembrane TpII-c(3), Hme and Rnf complexes. Genes for subunits A, B, C and D as well as for the proposed novel subunits L and F of the heterodisulfide reductases are present. This enzyme is involved in energy conservation in methanoarchaea and it is speculated that it exhibits a similar function in the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in Db. autotrophicum HRM2. PMID:19187283

Strittmatter, Axel W; Liesegang, Heiko; Rabus, Ralf; Decker, Iwona; Amann, Judith; Andres, Sönke; Henne, Anke; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Martinez-Arias, Rosa; Bartels, Daniela; Goesmann, Alexander; Krause, Lutz; Pühler, Alfred; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Richter, Michael; Schüler, Margarete; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Meyerdierks, Anke; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Amann, Rudolf

2009-05-01

278

Extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria: Their implications for possible life in extraterrestrial environments  

SciTech Connect

Iron reduction is believed to be an early form of respiration and iron-reducing bacteria might have evolved very early on Earth. To support this hypothesis, the authors began to search for both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria because iron-reducing capacity may be a widely distributed trait if ancestral microorganisms include extremophilic iron-reducing bacteria. To date, they have obtained thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing and magnetite-forming enrichment cultures from geologically and hydrologically isolated, millions of years-old deep terrestrial subsurface samples. Three dominant bacteria were identified based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetical analysis indicated that these bacteria were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanoliticus. Two pure thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria have been isolated and characterized from these enrichments, they also are able to degrade cellulose and xylan. Geological evidence indicated that these bacteria were separated from modern organisms for about 200 million years, and they are the oldest isolated bacteria available now. Evolutionary sequence analysis showed that the 16S rRNA genes evolved extremely slowly in these bacteria. In addition, the authors have obtained about 30 psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria in samples from Siberia and Alaska permafrost soils, Pacific marine sediments and Hawaii deep sea water. These bacteria were also able to reduce other heavy metals. The isolation of both thermophilic and psychrophilic iron-reducing bacteria from surface and subsurface environments has significant implications for microbial evolution and for studying the origin of life in extraterrestrial environments.

Zhou, J.; Liu, S.V.; Zhang, C.; Palumbo, A.V.; Phelps, T.J.

1998-06-01

279

Modification of Lignins by Growing Cells of the Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobe Desulfovibrio desulfuricans†  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was grown on medium supplemented with either Kraft lignin or lignosulfonate. Only lignosulfonate contributed to the growth of D. desulfuricans cells, by replacing sulfate, a natural electron acceptor for this microorganism. Kraft lignin added to the culture medium could not substitute for lactate or sulfate, both necessary culture medium components. However, it was found to enhance the viability of D. desulfuricans cells. When changes occurring in lignin during growth of Desulfovibrio cultures were monitored, it was found that both lignin preparations could be partially depolymerized. Spectrophotometric and elemental analysis of biologically treated lignins suggested that both the polyphenolic backbone and lignin functional groups were affected by D. desulfuricans. After treatment, a twofold increase in the sulfur content of Kraft lignin and a minor decrease (14%) in the sulfur content of lignosulfonate were observed. After biological treatment, Kraft lignin and lignosulfonate both bound larger quantities of heavy metals. PMID:16348007

Ziomek, E.; Williams, R. E.

1989-01-01

280

Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms.  

PubMed

Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC(50) values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC(50) values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8). PMID:20388582

García-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B; Poggi, Héctor; Meraz, Mónica

2010-07-15

281

A F 420 -dependent NADP reductase in the extremely thermophilic sulfate-reducing Archaeoglobus fulgidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a sulfate-reducing Archaeon with a growth temperature optimum of 83°C, uses the 5-deazaflavin coenzyme F420 rather than pyridine nucleotides in catabolic redox processes. The organism does, however, require reduced pyridine nuclcotides for biosynthetic purposes. We describe here that the Archaeon contains a coenzyme F420-dependent NADP reductase which links anabolism to catabolism. The highly thermostable enzyme was purfied 3600-fold

Jasper Kunow; Beatrix Sehwtirer; Karl O. Stetter; Rudolf K. Thauer

1993-01-01

282

Enhanced transformation of diphenylarsinic acid in soil under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is known to be the major contaminant in soils where diphenylchloroarsine and diphenylcyanoarsine were abandoned after World Wars I and II. In this study, experimental model studies were performed to elucidate key factors regulating the transformation of DPAA under anaerobic soil conditions. The elimination of DPAA in Gleysol soils (Qiqihar and Shindori soils) was more rapid than in Mollisol and Regosol soils (Heihe and Ikarashi soils, respectively) during a 5-week incubation. No clear relationship between decreasing rates of DPAA concentrations and soil Eh values was found. The Ikarashi soil showed the slowest decrease in DPAA concentrations among the four soils, but the transformation of DPAA was notably enhanced by addition of exogenous sulfate together with acetate, cellulose or rice straw. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, resulted in the stagnation of DPAA transformation, suggesting that indigenous sulfate reducers play a role in DPAA transformation under anaerobic conditions. Arsenate, phenylarsonic acid, phenylmethylarsinic acid, diphenylmethylarsine oxide and three unknown compounds were detected as metabolites of DPAA. This is the first study to reveal enhancement of DPAA transformation under sulfate-reducing conditions. PMID:23069334

Guan, Ling; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

2012-11-30

283

Evidence of the activity of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in nonsulfidogenic tropical mobile muds.  

PubMed

In spite of the nonsulfidic conditions and abundant reactive iron(III) commonly found in mobile tropical deltaic muds, genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) were successfully amplified from the upper approximately 1 m of coastal deposits sampled along French Guiana and in the Gulf of Papua. The dsr sequences retrieved were highly diverse, were generally represented in both study regions and fell into six large phylogenetic groupings: Deltaproteobacteria, Thermodesulfovibrio groups, Firmicutes and three groups without known cultured representatives. The spatial and temporal distribution of dsr sequences strongly supports the contention that the sulfate-reducing prokaryote communities in mobile mud environments are cosmopolitan and stable over a period of years. The decrease in the (35)SO(4) (2-) tracer demonstrates that, despite abundant reactive sedimentary iron(III) ( approximately 350-400 mumol g(-1)), the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes present are active, with the highest levels of sulfide being generated in the upper zones of the cores (0-30 cm). Both the time course of the (35)S-sulfide tracer activity and the lack of reduced sulfur in sediments demonstrate virtually complete anaerobic loss of solid phase sulfides. We propose a pathway of organic matter oxidation involving at least 5-25% of the remineralized carbon, wherein sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes is cyclically oxidized biotically or abiotically by metal oxides. PMID:16867136

Madrid, Vanessa M; Aller, Robert C; Aller, Josephine Y; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

2006-08-01

284

Examining Deep Subsurface Sulfate Reducing Bacterial Diversity to Test Spatial and Temporal Biogeography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we take advantage of the isolation and scale of the deep marine subsurface to examine microbial biogeography. Unlike other environments, deep marine subsurface provides a unique opportunity to study biogeography across four dimensions. These samples are not only isolated by linear space on a global scale, but they are also temporally isolated by, in some cases, tens of millions of years. Through the support of multiple Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expeditions, we characterized the metabolically active fraction of the subsurface microbial community by targeting and sequencing 16S rRNA gene transcripts (RNA-based analysis). By characterizing the metabolically active fraction, we described lineages that were currently under selective environmental pressure and not relic lineages that may have become dormant or dead at some point in the past. This study was narrowed from the total diversity obtained to provide a detailed examination of the distribution and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB); a functional group highly important to and ubiquitous in marine systems. The biogeochemical importance of this functional group, compounded with defined clades makes it a valuable and feasible target for a global biogeography study. SRB lineages from the deep subsurface were compared to contemporary lineages collected from multiple shallow sediment sites that had been extracted and sequenced using the same techniques. The SRB sequences acquired from our databases were clustered using 97% sequence similarity and analyzed using a suite of diversity and statistical tools. The geochemical conditions of the sediments sampled were considered when analyzing the resulting dendrograms and datasets. As hypothesized, lineages from the deep subsurface phylogenetically grouped together. However, similarities were detected to lineages from the shallow modern sediments, suggesting novel lineages may have evolved at a slow rate due to predicted lengthened life cycles within energy starved subsurface environments. An additional explanation is that diversity may be more conservative over long time scales due to consistent, basic geochemical requirements for SRB metabolic activity. This study will be expanded to include additional SRB sequences collected using similar methods to avoid potential procedural biases.

Mills, H. J.; Reese, B. K.

2013-12-01

285

Genome-Assisted Analysis of Dissimilatory Metal-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Whole genome sequence for Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens has provided numerous new biological insights into the function of these model dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Many of the discoveries, including the identification of a high number of c-type cytochromes in both organisms, have been the result of comparative genomic analyses including several that were experimentally confirmed. Genome sequence has also aided the identification of genes important for the reduction of metal ions and other electron acceptors utilized by these organisms during anaerobic growth by facilitating the identification of genes disrupted by random insertions. Technologies for assaying global expression patterns for genes (mRNA) and proteins have also been enabled by the availability of genome sequence but their application has been limited mainly to the analysis of the role of global regulatory genes and to identifying genes expressed or repressed in response to specific electron acceptors. It is anticipated that details regarding the mechanisms of metal ion respiration, and metabolism in general, will eventually be revealed by comprehensive, systems-level analyses enabled by functional genomic analyses.

Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

2005-06-01

286

Ubiquity and Diversity of Dissimilatory (Per)chlorate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Environmental contamination with compounds containing oxyanions of chlorine, such as perchlorate or chlorate [(per)chlorate] or chlorine dioxide, has been a constantly growing problem over the last 100 years. Although the fact that microbes reduce these compounds has been recognized for more than 50 years, only six organisms which can obtain energy for growth by this metabolic process have been described. As part of a study to investigate the diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms involved in the microbial reduction of (per)chlorate, we enumerated the (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (ClRB) in very diverse environments, including pristine and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, aquatic sediments, paper mill waste sludges, and farm animal waste lagoons. In all of the environments tested, the acetate-oxidizing ClRB represented a significant population, whose size ranged from 2.31 × 103 to 2.4 × 106 cells per g of sample. In addition, we isolated 13 ClRB from these environments. All of these organisms could grow anaerobically by coupling complete oxidation of acetate to reduction of (per)chlorate. Chloride was the sole end product of this reductive metabolism. All of the isolates could also use oxygen as a sole electron acceptor, and most, but not all, could use nitrate. The alternative electron donors included simple volatile fatty acids, such as propionate, butyrate, or valerate, as well as simple organic acids, such as lactate or pyruvate. Oxidized-minus-reduced difference spectra of washed whole-cell suspensions of the isolates had absorbance maxima close to 425, 525, and 550 nm, which are characteristic of type c cytochromes. In addition, washed cell suspensions of all of the ClRB isolates could dismutate chlorite, an intermediate in the reductive metabolism of (per)chlorate, into chloride and molecular oxygen. Chlorite dismutation was a result of the activity of a single enzyme which in pure form had a specific activity of approximately 1,928 ?mol of chlorite per mg of protein per min. Analyses of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the organisms indicated that they all belonged to the alpha, beta, or gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria. Several were closely related to members of previously described genera that are not recognized for the ability to reduce (per)chlorate, such as the genera Pseudomonas and Azospirllum. However, many were not closely related to any previously described organism and represented new genera within the Proteobacteria. The results of this study significantly increase the limited number of microbial isolates that are known to be capable of dissimilatory (per)chlorate reduction and demonstrate the hitherto unrecognized phylogenetic diversity and ubiquity of the microorganisms that exhibit this type of metabolism. PMID:10583970

Coates, John D.; Michaelidou, Urania; Bruce, Royce A.; O'Connor, Susan M.; Crespi, Jill N.; Achenbach, Laurie A.

1999-01-01

287

Isolation and Characterization of a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium That Anaerobically Degrades Alkanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, AK-01, was isolated from an estuarine sediment with a history of chronic petroleum contamination. The bacterium is a short, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, gram-negative rod. It is mesophilic and grows optimally at pH 6.9 to 7.0 and at an NaCl concentration of 1%. Formate, fatty acids (C4 to C16) and hydrogen were readily utilized as electron donors.

CHI MING SO; L. Y. YOUNG

1999-01-01

288

Anaerobic Degradation and Transformation of p Toluidine by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfobacula toluolica  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The ability of the strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacula toluolica (strain Tol2) to cometabolically degrade p-toluidine (p-methylaniline) while using toluene as the primary source of carbon and energy has been studied. This organism has been shown\\u000a to modify and degrade toluidine in dense cell suspensions when no other source of carbon and energy is added. The metabolism\\u000a led to

Tim Raber; Thomas Gorontzy; Magarete Kleinschmidt; Klaus Steinbach; Karl-Heinz Blotevogel

1998-01-01

289

Molecular characterization of a sulfate-reducing consortium which mineralizes benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stable and sediment-free, benzene mineralizing, sulfate-reducing culture that resisted repeated attempts at isolation was examined using molecular approaches such as traditional cloning and sequencing and a direct PCR fingerprinting method for 16S rRNA genes. Despite the culture's long exposure to benzene as the only carbon and energy source (over 3 years) and repeated dilutions of the original enrichment, this

Craig D Phelps; Lee J Kerkhof; Lily Y Young

1998-01-01

290

Effect of ferrous ion availability on growth of a corroding sulfate-reducing bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental conditions controlling growth and metabolic activity of the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB), Desulfovibrio gabonensis DSM 10636 which had been previously isolated from a corroded oil pipe, was investigated in a homogenous culture. The culture was conducted continuously in order to get steady-state conditions for growth. Several factors, such as stirring conditions, and the flow rate of N2 injection into headspace

Rémy Marchal; Bernard Chaussepied; Michel Warzywoda

2001-01-01

291

PIMLUCK KIJJANAPANICH SULFATE REDUCTION  

E-print Network

Metals from Acid Mine Drainage 37 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Material and Methods 39 3.2.1 Acid mine drainage (AMD) 39 3.2.2 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculums 40 3.2.3 Organic substrates 40 3 Reduction in Gypsiferous Mine Soils from Nakhon Si Tham

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms in Wetlands - Fameless Actors in Carbon Cycling and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point toward the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change. PMID:22403575

Pester, Michael; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Friedrich, Michael W.; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

2012-01-01

293

Sulfate-reducing microorganisms in wetlands - fameless actors in carbon cycling and climate change.  

PubMed

Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36-50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point toward the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change. PMID:22403575

Pester, Michael; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Friedrich, Michael W; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

2012-01-01

294

Extracellular Metabolites of Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacteria as Substrates for Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and sulfate reduction was studied in an experimental system with liquid paraffin used as a source of organic compounds inoculated with silt taken from a reservoir. Pseudomonads dominated in the hydrocarbon-oxidizing silt bacteriocenosis. However, Rodococcusand Arthrobacteria amounted to no more than 3%. Arthrobacteria dominated the microbial association formed in the paraffin film of

T. V. Koronelli; T. I. Komarova; O. V. Porshneva; L. F. Tkebuchava

2001-01-01

295

Isolation and characterization of a novel toluene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed Central

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from fuel-contaminated subsurface soil, strain PRTOL1, mineralizes toluene as the sole electron donor and carbon source under strictly anaerobic conditions. The mineralization of 80% of toluene carbon to CO2 was demonstrated in experiments with [ring-U-14C]toluene; 15% of toluene carbon was converted to biomass and nonvolatile metabolic by-products, primarily the former. The observed stoichiometric ratio of moles of sulfate consumed per mole of toluene consumed was consistent with the theoretical ratio for mineralization of toluene coupled with the reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. Strain PRTOL1 also transforms o- and p-xylene to metabolic products when grown with toluene. However, xylene transformation by PRTOL1 is slow relative to toluene degradation and cannot be sustained over time. Stable isotope-labeled substrates were used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the by-products of toluene and xylene metabolism. The predominant by-products from toluene, o-xylene, and p-xylene were benzylsuccinic acid, (2-methylbenzyl)succinic acid, and 4-methylbenzoic acid (or p-toluic acid), respectively. Metabolic by-products accounted for nearly all of the o-xylene consumed. Enzyme assays indicated that acetyl coenzyme A oxidation proceeded via the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. Compared with the only other reported toluene-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain PRTOL1 is distinct in that it has a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence and was derived from a freshwater rather than marine environment. PMID:8919780

Beller, H R; Spormann, A M; Sharma, P K; Cole, J R; Reinhard, M

1996-01-01

296

Reclassification of the sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus as Desulfovibrio oxamicus sp. nov., comb. nov.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus (type strain, DSM 1925(T)) was found to use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor, the latter being reduced to ammonium. Phylogenetic studies indicated that strain DSM 1925(T) was distantly related to the type strain of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (95.4 % similarity of the small-subunit rRNA gene) and had as its closest phylogenetic relatives two other nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, namely Desulfovibrio termitidis (99.4 % similarity) and Desulfovibrio longreachensis (98.4 % similarity). Additional experiments were conducted to characterize better strain DSM 1925(T). This strain incompletely oxidized lactate and ethanol to acetate. It also oxidized butanol, pyruvate and citrate, but not glucose, fructose, acetate, propionate, butyrate, methanol, glycerol or peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 37 degrees C (range 16-50 degrees C) and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 0.1 % (range 0-5 %). Because of significant genotypic and phenotypic differences from Desulfovibrio termitidis and Desulfovibrio longreachensis, reclassification of Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus as Desulfovibrio oxamicus sp. nov., comb. nov., is proposed. The type strain is strain Monticello 2(T) (=DSM 1925(T)=NCIMB 9442(T)=ATCC 33405(T)). PMID:16825618

López-Cortés, Alejandro; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Fauque, Guy; Joulian, Catherine; Ollivier, Bernard

2006-07-01

297

Desulfovibrio arcticus sp. nov., a psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium from a cryopeg.  

PubMed

A psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated B15(T), was isolated from supercooled water brine from within permafrost of the Varandey Peninsula, on the southern coast of the Barents Sea. Cells were Gram-negative, motile vibrions (3.0-4.0×0.4-0.5 µm) with a single polar flagellum. The isolate was positive for desulfoviridin as a bisulfite reductase. Strain B15(T) grew at -2 to 28 °C (optimum 24 °C) and with 0-2.0% NaCl (optimum 0.2%). The isolate used H(2) plus acetate, formate, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate and choline as electron donors and used sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, DMSO and Fe(3+) as electron acceptors. Pyruvate and lactate were not fermented in the absence of sulfate. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 55.2 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Desulfovibrio. Its closest relatives were Desulfovibrio idahonensis CY1(T) (98.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Desulfovibrio mexicanus Lup1(T) (96.5%). On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Desulfovibrio arcticus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is B15(T) (=VKM B-2367(T)=DSM 21064(T)). PMID:21317277

Pecheritsyna, Svetlana A; Rivkina, Elizaveta M; Akimov, Vladimir N; Shcherbakova, Viktoria A

2012-01-01

298

The First Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of a Deep-Sea Sulfate Reducer: Insights into the Piezophilic Lifestyle of Desulfovibrio piezophilus  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30T is a piezophilic anaerobe that was isolated from wood falls in the Mediterranean deep-sea. D. piezophilus represents a unique model for studying the adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria to hydrostatic pressure. Here, we report the 3.6 Mbp genome sequence of this piezophilic bacterium. An analysis of the genome revealed the presence of seven genomic islands as well as gene clusters that are most likely linked to life at a high hydrostatic pressure. Comparative genomics and differential proteomics identified the transport of solutes and amino acids as well as amino acid metabolism as major cellular processes for the adaptation of this bacterium to hydrostatic pressure. In addition, the proteome profiles showed that the abundance of key enzymes that are involved in sulfate reduction was dependent on hydrostatic pressure. A comparative analysis of orthologs from the non-piezophilic marine bacterium D. salexigens and D. piezophilus identified aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, asparagine, serine and tyrosine as the amino acids preferentially replaced by arginine, histidine, alanine and threonine in the piezophilic strain. This work reveals the adaptation strategies developed by a sulfate reducer to a deep-sea lifestyle. PMID:23383081

Pradel, Nathalie; Ji, Boyang; Gimenez, Gregory; Talla, Emmanuel; Lenoble, Patricia; Garel, Marc; Tamburini, Christian; Fourquet, Patrick; Lebrun, Regine; Bertin, Philippe; Denis, Yann; Pophillat, Matthieu; Barbe, Valerie; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain

2013-01-01

299

Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors.  

PubMed

Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4(2-) ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009(®). A rapid response and high sulfide increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller sulfide increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the pS response showed a time-varying behavior due to sulfide accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high sulfide concentrations (>200 mg/L). PMID:24361702

Villa-Gomez, D K; Cassidy, J; Keesman, K J; Sampaio, R; Lens, P N L

2014-03-01

300

Microbial Corrosion in Linepipe Steel Under the Influence of a Sulfate-Reducing Consortium Isolated from an Oil Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates microbiologically influenced corrosion of API 5L X52 linepipe steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The SRB consortium used in this study was cultivated from a sour oil well in Louisiana, USA. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the mixed bacterial consortium contained three phylotypes: members of Proteobacteria ( Desulfomicrobium sp.), Firmicutes ( Clostridium sp.), and Bacteroidetes ( Anaerophaga sp.). The biofilm and the pits that developed with time were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) and open circuit potential (OCP) were used to analyze the corrosion behavior. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the physicoelectric interactions between the electrode, biofilm and solution interfaces. The results confirmed that extensive localized corrosion activity of SRB is due to a formed biofilm in conjunction with a porous iron sulfide layer on the metal surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed semiconductive corrosion products predominantly composed of a mixture of siderite (FeCO3), iron sulfide (Fe x S y ), and iron (III) oxide-hydroxide (FeOOH) constituents in the corrosion products for the system exposed to the SRB consortium.

AlAbbas, Faisal M.; Williamson, Charles; Bhola, Shaily M.; Spear, John R.; Olson, David L.; Mishra, Brajendra; Kakpovbia, Anthony E.

2013-11-01

301

Controls on stable sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in Arctic sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotope fractionation experiments during bacterial sulfate reduction were performed with recently isolated strains of cold-adapted sulfate-reducing bacteria from Arctic marine sediments with year-round temperatures below 2°C. The bacteria represent quantitatively important members of a high-latitude anaerobic microbial community. In the experiments, cell-specific sulfate reduction rates decreased with decreasing temperature and were only slightly higher than the inferred cell-specific sulfate

Volker Brüchert; Christian Knoblauch; Bo Barker Jørgensen

2001-01-01

302

Anaerobic degradation of m-cresol in anoxic aquifer slurries: Carboxylation reactions in a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic biodegradation of m-cresol was observed in anoxic aquifer slurries kept under both sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing but not methanogenic conditions. More than 85% of the parent substrate (300 {mu}M) was consumed in less than 6 days in slurries kept under the former two conditions. No appreciable loss of the compound from the corresponding autoclaved controls was measurable. A bacterial consortium was enriched from the slurries for its ability to metabolize m-cresol under sulfate-reducing conditions. Metabolism in this enrichment culture was inhibited in the presence of oxygen or molybdate (500{mu}M) and in the absence of sulfate but was unaffected by bromoethanesulfanic acid. The consortium consumed 3.63 mol of sulfate per mol of m-cresol degraded. This stoichiometry is about 87% of that theoretically expected and suggests that m-cresol was largely mineralized. Resting-cell experiments demonstrated that the degradation of m-cresol proceeded only in the presence of bicarbonate. 4-Hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid and acetate were detected as transient intermediates. Thus, the parent substrate was initially carboxylated as the primary degradative event. The sulfate-reducing consortium could also decarboxylate p- but not m-hydroxybenzoate to near stoichiometric amounts of phenol, but this reaction was not sulfate dependent. The presence of p-hydroxybenzoate in the medium temporarily inhibits m-cresol metabolism such that the former compound was metabolized prior to the latter and phenol was degraded in a sequential manner.

Ramanand, K.; Suflita, J.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (USA))

1991-06-01

303

Desulfobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov., a new psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium and descriptions of its physiological response to temperature changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychrotrolerant acetate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain akvbT) was isolated from sediment from the northern part of The North Sea with annual temperature fluctuations between 8 and 14 °C.\\u000a Of the various substrates tested, strain akvbT grew exclusively by the oxidation of acetate coupled to the reduction of sulfate. The cells were motile, thick rods with\\u000a round ends and grew in dense

Irene H. Tarpgaard; Antje Boetius; Kai Finster

2006-01-01

304

Anaerobic biodegradation of long-chain n-alkanes under sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

The ability of anaerobic microorganisms to degrade a wide variety of crude oil components was investigated using chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments as the source of inoculum. When sulfate reduction was the predominant electron-accepting process, gas chromatographic analysis revealed almost complete n-alkane removal (C{sub 15}-C{sub 34}) from a weathered oil within 201 d of incubation. No alteration of the oil was detected in sterile control incubations or when nitrate served as an alternate electron acceptor. The amount of sulfate reduced in the oil-amended nonsterile incubations was more than enough to account for the complete mineralization of the n-alkane fraction of the oil; no loss of this anion was observed in sterile control incubations. The mineralization of the alkanes was confirmed using {sup 14}C-14,15-octacosane (C{sub 28}H{sub 58}), with 97% of the radioactivity recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. These findings extend the range of hydrocarbons known to be amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. Moreover, the rapid and extensive alteration in the n-alkanes can no longer be considered a defining characteristic of aerobic oil biodegradation processes alone.

Caldwell, M.E.; Suflita, J.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology] [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Garrett, R.M.; Prince, R.C. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)] [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

1998-07-15

305

Biodegradation of munitions compounds by a sulfate reducing bacterial enrichment culture  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of several munitions compounds was studied. The compounds included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. All of the compounds studied were degraded by the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment culture. The SRB culture did not use the munitions compounds as their sole source of carbon. However, all the munitions compounds tested served as the sole source of nitrogen for the SRB culture. Degradation of munitions compounds was achieved by a co-metabolic process. The SRB culture used a variety of carbon sources including pyruvate, ethanol, formate, lactate, and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}. The SRB culture was an incomplete oxidizer, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates to CO{sub 2} as the sole product, and it did not use acetate or methanol as a carbon source. In addition to serving as nitrogen sources, the munitions compounds also served as electron acceptors in the absence of sulfate. A soil slurry experiment with 5% and 10% munitions compounds-contaminated soil showed that the contaminant TNT was metabolized by the SRB culture in the presence of pyruvate as electron donor. This culture may be useful in decontaminating munitions compounds-contaminated soil and water under anaerobic conditions.

Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-08-01

306

An Improved Enzyme Assay for Molybdenum-Reducing Activity in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdenum-reducing activity in the heterotrophic bacteria is a phenomenon that has been reported for more than 100 years.\\u000a In the presence of molybdenum in the growth media, bacterial colonies turn to blue. The enzyme(s) responsible for the reduction\\u000a of molybdenum to molybdenum blue in these bacteria has never been purified. In our quest to purify the molybdenum-reducing\\u000a enzyme, we have devised

M. Y. Shukor; M. F. A. Rahman; N. A. Shamaan; C. H. Lee; M. I. A. Karim; M. A. Syed

2008-01-01

307

A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation  

PubMed Central

A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized. PMID:19841718

Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Gu, Xiaojie; Zhao, Chenyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zeping

2009-01-01

308

Thermodesulfatator atlanticus sp. nov.,1 a novel thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a Mid-Atlantic2  

E-print Network

-reducing bacterium isolated from a Mid-Atlantic2 Ridge hydrothermal vent3 4 Karine Alain1 , Anne Postec1 , Elodie and sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain AT1325T , was24 isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent of phylo-phenetic features, we propose a novel species, Thermodesulfatator atlanticus sp. nov.38 The type

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Exposure to common food additive carrageenan leads to reduced sulfatase activity and increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The commonly used food additive carrageenan, including lambda (?), kappa (?) and iota (?) forms, is composed of galactose disaccharides linked in alpha-1,3 and beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds with up to three sulfate groups per disaccharide residue. Carrageenan closely resembles the endogenous galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and keratan sulfate. However, these GAGs have beta-1,3 and beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds, in contrast to the unusual alpha-1,3 glycosidic bond in carrageenan. Since sulfatase activity is inhibited by sulfate, and carrageenan is so highly sulfated, we tested the effect of carrageenan exposure on sulfatase activity in human intestinal and mammary epithelial cell lines and found that carrageenan exposure significantly reduced the activity of sulfatases, including N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, galactose-6-sulfatase, iduronate sulfatase, steroid sulfatase, arylsulfatase A, SULF-1,2, and heparan sulfamidase. Consistent with the inhibition of sulfatase activity, following exposure to carrageenan, GAG content increased significantly and showed marked differences in disaccharide composition. Specific changes in CS disaccharides included increases in di-sulfated disaccharide components of CSD (2S6S) and CS-E (4S6S), with declines in CS-A (4S) and CS-C (6S). Specific changes in heparin-heparan sulfate disaccharides included increases in 6S disaccharides, as well as increases in NS and 2S6S disaccharides. Study results suggest that carrageenan inhibition of sulfatase activity leads to re-distribution of the cellular GAG composition with increase in di-sulfated CS and with potential consequences for cell structure and function. PMID:22410212

Yang, Bo; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Linhardt, Robert; Tobacman, Joanne

2012-01-01

310

Exposure to common food additive carrageenan leads to reduced sulfatase activity and increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The commonly used food additive carrageenan, including lambda (?), kappa (?) and iota (?) forms, is composed of galactose disaccharides linked in alpha-1,3 and beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds with up to three sulfate groups per disaccharide residue. Carrageenan closely resembles the endogenous galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and keratan sulfate. However, these GAGs have beta-1,3 and beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds, in contrast to the unusual alpha-1,3 glycosidic bond in carrageenan. Since sulfatase activity is inhibited by sulfate, and carrageenan is so highly sulfated, we tested the effect of carrageenan exposure on sulfatase activity in human intestinal and mammary epithelial cell lines and found that carrageenan exposure significantly reduced the activity of sulfatases, including N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, galactose-6-sulfatase, iduronate sulfatase, steroid sulfatase, arylsulfatase A, SULF-1,2, and heparan sulfamidase. Consistent with the inhibition of sulfatase activity, following exposure to carrageenan, GAG content increased significantly and showed marked differences in disaccharide composition. Specific changes in CS disaccharides included increases in di-sulfated disaccharide components of CSD (2S6S) and CS-E (4S6S), with declines in CS-A (4S) and CS-C (6S). Specific changes in heparin-heparan sulfate disaccharides included increases in 6S disaccharides, as well as increases in NS and 2S6S disaccharides. Study results suggest that carrageenan inhibition of sulfatase activity leads to re-distribution of the cellular GAG composition with increase in di-sulfated CS and with potential consequences for cell structure and function. PMID:22410212

Yang, Bo; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Linhardt, Robert; Tobacman, Joanne

2012-06-01

311

Effect of fumarate reducing bacteria on in vitro rumen fermentation, methane mitigation and microbial diversity.  

PubMed

The metabolic pathways involved in hydrogen (H(2)) production, utilization and the activity of methanogens are the important factors that should be considered in controlling methane (CH(4)) emissions by ruminants. H(2) as one of the major substrate for CH(4) production is therefore should be controlled. One of the strategies on reducing CH(4) is through the use of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms such as fumarate reducing bacteria. This study determined the effect of fumarate reducing bacteria, Mitsuokella jalaludinii, supplementation on in vitro rumen fermentation, CH(4) production, diversity and quantity. M. jalaludinii significantly reduced CH(4) at 48 and 72 h of incubation and significantly increased succinate at 24 h. Although not significantly different, propionate was found to be highest in treatment containing M. jalaludinii at 12 and 48 h of incubation. These results suggest that supplementation of fumarate reducing bacteria to ruminal fermentation reduces CH(4) production and quantity, increases succinate and changes the rumen microbial diversity. PMID:24500476

Mamuad, Lovelia; Kim, Seon Ho; Jeong, Chang Dae; Choi, Yeon Jae; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Sang-Suk

2014-02-01

312

Function of periplasmic hydrogenases in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.  

PubMed

The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough possesses four periplasmic hydrogenases to facilitate the oxidation of molecular hydrogen. These include an [Fe] hydrogenase, an [NiFeSe] hydrogenase, and two [NiFe] hydrogenases encoded by the hyd, hys, hyn1, and hyn2 genes, respectively. In order to understand their cellular functions, we have compared the growth rates of existing (hyd and hyn1) and newly constructed (hys and hyn-1 hyd) mutants to those of the wild type in defined media in which lactate or hydrogen at either 5 or 50% (vol/vol) was used as the sole electron donor for sulfate reduction. Only strains missing the [Fe] hydrogenase were significantly affected during growth with lactate or with 50% (vol/vol) hydrogen as the sole electron donor. When the cells were grown at low (5% [vol/vol]) hydrogen concentrations, those missing the [NiFeSe] hydrogenase suffered the greatest impairment. The growth rate data correlated strongly with gene expression results obtained from microarray hybridizations and real-time PCR using mRNA extracted from cells grown under the three conditions. Expression of the hys genes followed the order 5% hydrogen>50% hydrogen>lactate, whereas expression of the hyd genes followed the reverse order. These results suggest that growth with lactate and 50% hydrogen is associated with high intracellular hydrogen concentrations, which are best captured by the higher activity, lower affinity [Fe] hydrogenase. In contrast, growth with 5% hydrogen is associated with a low intracellular hydrogen concentration, requiring the lower activity, higher affinity [NiFeSe] hydrogenase. PMID:17601789

Caffrey, Sean M; Park, Hyung-Soo; Voordouw, Johanna K; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit

2007-09-01

313

Two distinct heterodisulfide reductase-like enzymes in the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus profundus.  

PubMed

Heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) is a unique disulfide reductase that plays a key role in the energy metabolism of methanogenic archaea. Two types of Hdr have been identified and characterized from distantly related methanogens. Here we show that the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus profundus cultivated on H2/sulfate forms enzymes related to both types of Hdr. From the membrane fraction of A. profundus, a two-subunit enzyme (HmeCD) composed of a b-type cytochrome and a hydrophilic iron-sulfur protein was isolated. The amino-terminal sequences of these subunits revealed high sequence identities to subunits HmeC and HmeD of the Hme complex from A. fulgidus. HmeC and HmeD in turn are closely related to subunits HdrE and HdrD of Hdr from Methanosarcina spp. From the soluble fraction of A. profundus a six-subunit enzyme complex (Mvh:Hdl) containing Ni, iron-sulfur clusters and FAD was isolated. Via amino-terminal sequencing, the encoding genes were identified in the genome of the closely related species A. fulgidus in which these genes are clustered. They encode a three-subunit [NiFe] hydrogenase with high sequence identity to the F420-nonreducing hydrogenase from Methanothermobacter spp. while the remaining three polypeptides are related to the three-subunit heterodisulfide reductase from Methanothermobacter spp. The oxidized enzyme exhibited an unusual EPR spectrum with gxyz = 2.014, 1.939 and 1.895 similar to that observed for oxidized Hme and Hdr. Upon reduction with H2 this signal was no longer detectable. PMID:15009189

Mander, Gerd J; Pierik, Antonio J; Huber, Harald; Hedderich, Reiner

2004-03-01

314

Desulfonatronum Thiodismutans sp. nov., a Novel Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-reducing Bacterium Capable of Lithoautotrophic Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain MLF1(sup T), was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrio-shaped cells were observed, which were 0.6-0.7 x 1.2-2.7 microns in size, motile by a single polar flagellum and occurred singly, in pairs or as short spirilla. Growth was observed at 15-48 C (optimum, 37 C), > 1-7 % NaCI, w/v (optimum, 3%) and pH 8.0-10.0 (optimum, 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires a high concentration of carbonate in the growth medium and is obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. As electron donors, strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate and ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The novel isolate is a lithoheterotroph and a facultative lithoautotroph that is able to grow on hydrogen without an organic source of carbon. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The DNA G+C content is 63.0 mol% (HPLC). DNA-DNA hybridization with the most closely related species, Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(sup T), exhibited 51 % homology. Also, the genome size (1.6 x 10(exp 9) Da) and T(sub m) value of the genomic DNA (71 +/- 2 C) for strain MLF1(sup T) were significantly different from the genome size (2.1 x 10(exp 9) Da) and T(sub m) value (63 +/- 2 C) for Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(sup T). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered to be a novel species of the genus Desulfonatronum, for which the name Desulfonatronum thiodismutans sp. nov. is proposed (the type strain is MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSM 14708(sup T)).

Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B.; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul

2003-01-01

315

Electronic detection of bacteria using holey reduced graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Carbon nanomaterials have been widely explored for diverse biosensing applications including bacterial detection. However, covalent functionalization of these materials can lead to the destruction of attractive electronic properties. To this end, we utilized a new graphene derivative, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), functionalized with Magainin I to produce a broad-spectrum bacterial probe. Unlike related carbon nanomaterials, hRGO retains the necessary electronic properties while providing the high percentage of available oxygen moieties required for effective covalent functionalization. PMID:24581028

Chen, Yanan; Michael, Zachary P; Kotchey, Gregg P; Zhao, Yong; Star, Alexander

2014-03-26

316

EFFECT OF BACTERIAL SULFATE REDUCTION ON IRON-CORROSION SCALES  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natura...

317

Seasonal oscillation of microbial iron and sulfate reduction in saltmarsh sediments (Sapelo Island, GA, USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in anaerobic respiration pathways were investigated at three saltmarsh sites using chemical data, sulfate reduction rate measurements, enumerations of culturable populations of anaerobic iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB), and quantification of in situ 16S rRNA hybridization signals targeted for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediments followed seasonal changes in temperature and primary production of the saltmarsh, with

Carla M. Koretsky; Charles M. Moore; Kristine L. Lowe; Christof Meile; Thomas J. DiChristina; Philippe Van Cappellen

2003-01-01

318

Effects of temperature on anaerobic decomposition of high-molecular weight organic matter under sulfate-reducing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most sedimentary mineralization occurs along coasts under anaerobic conditions. In the absence of oxygen, high-molecular weight organic matter in marine sediments is gradually decomposed by hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. Because of the different responses of the respective steps to temperature, degradation may be specifically slowed or stopped in certain step. To evaluate the effect of temperature on cellobiose degradation, culture experiments were performed at six different temperatures (3 °C, 8 °C, 13 °C, 18 °C, 23 °C, and 28 °C) under sulfate-reducing conditions. This study measured the concentrations of sulfide, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic acids during that degradation. Degradation patterns were divided into three temperature groups: 3 °C, 8/13 °C, and 18/23/28 °C. The decrease in DOC proceeded in two steps, except at 3 °C. The length of the stagnant phase separating these two steps differed greatly between temperatures of 8/13 °C and 18/23/28 °C. In the first step, organic carbon was consumed by hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. In the second step, acetate accumulated during the first step was oxidized by sulfate reduction. Bacterial communities in the cultures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); the major differences among the three temperature groups were attributed to shifts in acetate-using sulfate reducers of the genus Desulfobacter. This suggests that temperature characteristics of dominant acetate oxidizers are important factors in determining the response of carbon flow in coastal marine sediments in relation to the changes in temperature.

Matsui, Takato; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2013-03-01

319

Recovery of Humic-Reducing Bacteria from a Diversity of Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate which microorganisms might be responsible for microbial reduction of humic substances in sedimentary environments, humic-reducing bacteria were isolated from a variety of sediment types. These included lake sediments, pristine and contaminated wetland sediments, and marine sediments. In each of the sediment types, all of the humic reducers recovered with acetate as the electron donor and the humic substance

JOHN D. COATES; DEBRA J. ELLIS; ELIZABETH L. BLUNT-HARRIS; CATHERINE V. GAW; ERIC E. RODEN; DEREK R. LOVLEY

1998-01-01

320

High abundance and diversity of iron-reducing bacteria in wet tropical forest soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In wet tropical forests, warm and damp conditions promote rapid oxygen consumption in soils that contain high concentrations of iron oxides. Ferric iron is often the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for bacteria in soil during frequent periods of oxygen depletion. Highly-weathered soils of the wet tropics are likely to support large populations of Fe(III) reducing microorganisms whose activity is consequential to soil mineralogy and geochemistry. We studied the diversity and abundance of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria along a 700 m elevation gradient with variable soil redox conditions in northeast Puerto Rico. Culturable iron-reducers were enumerated, isolated and identified using five different media that contained poorly-crystalline Fe(III) oxides as the terminal electron acceptor. Entire soil microbial communities were characterized along the gradient using high-density 16S rRNA gene microarrays capable of detecting 9000 different bacterial and archaeal taxa and assessing changes in their spatial abundance. Fe(III)-reducing bacteria spanned the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and included many previously unidentified Fe(III) reducers. Populations of culturable iron reducers numbered 108 to 1010 bacteria per gram soil, some of the highest numbers found in any soils or sediments, and population size increased significantly with elevation. These bacteria were dominated by both unclassified alpha- and gamma proteobacteria not previously known to reduce iron, in addition to delta-proteobacteria, such as the family Geobacteraceae, that are well-known Fe(III) reducers. The activity of this group of bacteria can affect biogeochemical cycles that are linked to iron and fundamental to tropical forest productivity, including phosphorus and carbon cycling.

Dubinsky, E. A.; Brodie, E. L.; Andersen, G. L.; Silver, W. L.; Firestone, M. K.

2005-12-01

321

Abundance and community structure of sulfate reducing prokaryotes in a paddy soil of southern China under different fertilization regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooded rice paddy soils represent a typical anaerobic freshwater habitat of microorganisms. The abundance and community structure of sulfate reducing prokaryotes (SRP) were investigated in order to understand their response to different fertilization practices in rice paddy, including control without fertilizers (CT) and arrangements of different chemical fertilizers of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K): N, NP, NK and

Xin-Zhan Liu; Li-Mei Zhang; James I. Prosser; Ji-Zheng He

2009-01-01

322

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in hypersaline coastal pans: Activity across a salinity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of salinity on the metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in five highly saline to hypersaline coastal pans was studied using a radioactive tracer (35SO42-) technique. We recorded sulfate reduction at in situ porewater salinities of up to 422. Furthermore, enumeration of sulfate reduction rates in whole core incubations conducted under in situ conditions suggested a high variability in

Donovan Porter; Alakendra N. Roychoudhury; Donald Cowan

2007-01-01

323

Effect of Molybdate and Cell Growth on S-Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria contribute considerably to the degradation of organic matter in sewage contaminated soils, particularly below leaking sewers. Molybdate as a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction is known to be present in sewage. Its influence on sulfur isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction was explored in batch experiments with pure cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and with natural populations enriched from sewage-contaminated

Andrea Stögbauer; Supavadee Koydon; Zsolt Berner; Josef Winter; Doris Stüben

2004-01-01

324

Desulfocarbo indianensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a benzoate-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from water extracted from a coal bed.  

PubMed

A novel, strictly anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain SCBM(T), was isolated from water extracted from a coal bed in Indiana, USA. The isolate was characterized by a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. Cells of strain SCBM(T) were vibrio-shaped, polarly flagellated, Gram-negative, motile, oxidase-negative and weakly catalase-positive. Growth of strain SCBM(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 300 mM. However, no growth was observed when 1 M or more NaCl was present. Growth was observed at 16-37 °C, with optimal growth at 30 °C. The optimum pH for growth was 7, although growth was observed from pH 6.5 to 8. The doubling time under optimal growth conditions (30 °C, pH 7, 2.5 mM benzoate, 14 mM sulfate) was 2.7 days. Bicarbonate, HEPES, PIPES and MES were effective buffers for growth of strain SCBM(T), but citrate inhibited growth. When sulfate was provided as the electron acceptor, strain SCBM(T) grew autotrophically with hydrogen as the electron donor and heterotrophically on benzoate, formate, acetate, pyruvate, butyrate, fumarate, succinate and palmitate. None of the substrates tested supported fermentative growth. Thiosulfate and sulfate were used as electron acceptors coupled to benzoate oxidation, but sulfite, elemental sulfur, DMSO, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, nitrate, nitrite, ferric citrate, hydrous iron oxide and oxygen were not. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 62.5?mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?7c. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed strain SCBM(T) into a distinct lineage within the class Deltaproteobacteria. The closest, cultivated phylogenetic relative of strain SCBM(T) was Desulfarculus baarsii DSM 2075(T), with only 91.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic analyses, strain SCBM(T) represents a novel genus and species of sulfate-reducing bacteria, for which the name Desulfocarbo indianensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfocarbo indianensis is SCBM(T) (?=?DSM 28127(T)?=?JCM 19826(T)). Desulfocarbo is the second genus of the order Desulfarculales. PMID:24876241

An, Thuy T; Picardal, Flynn W

2014-08-01

325

Mercury removal, methylmercury formation, and sulfate-reducing bacteria profiles in wetland mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale model was constructed to determine if a wetland treatment system (WTS) could effectively remove low-level mercury from an outfall located at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Site-specific hydrosoil was planted with giant bulrush, Scirpus californicus, and surface amended with gypsum (CaSO4) prior to investigating the biogeochemical dynamics of sediment-based sulfur and mercury speciation. On average, the

Jeffrey K King; S. Michele Harmon; Theresa T Fu; John B Gladden

2002-01-01

326

Influence of some essential environmental factors on the reductive precipitation of uranium by sulfate reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

aligns with steady Ca : Mg ratio on cation diagram. The arsenic content in the water is more than 0.2 mg\\/L and the highest value reaches up to 0.52 mg\\/L. Drilling data show that Holocene sediments are divided into three zones on the basis of their color appearances; brown, grey and dark gray zones. The strata from 2m to 9-14m

Zhengji Yi; Kaixuan Tan; Aili Tan; Zhenxun Yu; Yanshi Xie

2006-01-01

327

INNOVATIVE, IN SITU TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid generation in abandoned mines is a widespread problem. There are a numberous quantity of abandoned mines in the west which have no power source, have limited physical accessibility and have limited remediation funds available. Acid is produced chemically, through pyritic min...

328

The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental

J. W. Moreau; E. E. Roden; C. Gerbig; C. S. Kim; G. R. Aiken; J. F. Dewild; D. P. Krabbenhoft

2007-01-01

329

Effects of marine sulfate-reducing bacteria on the electrochemical behavior of galvanic cells  

E-print Network

-free Bentonite 36 'i'able 6-B . fects o" . . ternal Besistanco on ". alvanic Current 36 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 noculated;e. !tonite: "alvanic Cu~nt-Cell Resistance Data Bsalcsr Cells: pH and Eb Data oxidation potentials of r~d Steel KLectrodss... is given below. Eacteriolo, ical Peptone Teast Subtract Sodium state (60, . solution) K2HP04. 3II20 i'e (. 'I 4) 2(004) 2 ~ 6020 '?;gS04 7 H20 . Ascorbic Ac'd . . 1. 00 g 1. 00 4. 2o g 0. 262$ 0. 3100 g 0. 4075 -" 0. 0600 g Agar-agar (i...

Bradley, William Gordon

2012-06-07

330

Anaerobic degradation of m-cresol in anoxic aquifer slurries: Carboxylation reactions in a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic biodegradation of m-cresol was observed in anoxic aquifer slurries kept under both sulfate-reducing and nitrate-reducing but not methanogenic conditions. More than 85% of the parent substrate (300 μM) was consumed in less than 6 days in slurries kept under the former two conditions. No appreciable loss of the compound from the corresponding autoclaved controls was measurable. A bacterial

K. Ramanand; JOSEPH M. SUFLITA

1991-01-01

331

COMPARISON OF HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN PCE-DEHALOGENATING AND SULFATE-REDUCING ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary transformation pathway for PCE in anoxic environments is through sequential reductive dehalogenation, and information concerning dehalogenation processes that occur in environments containing alternative electron acceptors (sulfate) is limited. Hydrogen is postulated ...

332

Transformation of non-oxygenated, homocyclic aromatic compounds by aquifer microorganisms under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

A mixed methanogenic culture was enriched from creosote-contaminated sediment that used toluene or o-xylene as sole source of carbon and energy. The adaptation periods before the onset of measurable degradation were long (120-255 days). Both toluene and o-xylene were completely degraded to stoichiometric amounts of methane, carbon dioxide and biomass. The enriched methanogenic cultures could not degrade benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene or ethylbenzene. The doubling times were 6 days and 10 days for the cultures growing on toluene or o-xylene, respectively. Toluene and o-xylene were toxic and inhibited degradation as initial concentrations increased. The presence of preferred substrates including glucose, methanol, and acetate inhibited toluene degradation. Isotope trapping and simultaneous adaptation experiments provided evidence that toluene was degraded via both methyl and ring hydroxylation. A mixed sulfate-reducing culture was enriched from gasoline-contaminated sediment that used toluene and all three isomers of xylene as sole sources of carbon and energy. The adaptation period before the onset of measurable degradation by the sulfate-reducing cultures was followed sequentially by m-, p-, and o-xylene. The doubling time for the sulfate-reducing cultures growing on toluene or xylenes was about 20 days. The build up of sulfide as a result of sulfate-reduction appeared to inhibit degradation. Benzoate was detected as a transient intermediate and benzylsuccinate accumulated in sulfate-reducing cultures fed toluene. Benzene degradation was not initially observed. However, after all other carbon sources were exhausted benzene was eventually completely mineralized to carbon dioxide under strictly anaerobic conditions. The rates of degradation were very slow, and were influenced by the initial benzene concentration and by the presence of other carbon sources that could be degraded preferentially over benzene.

Edwards, E.A.

1993-01-01

333

Composition, Reactivity, and Regulations of Extracellular Metal-Reducing Structures (Bacterial Nanowires) Produced by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

This research proposal seeks to describe the composition and function of electrically conductive appendages known as bacterial nanowires. This project targets bacterial nanowires produced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria Shewanella and Geobacter. Specifically, this project will investigate the role of these structures in the reductive transformation of iron oxides as solid phase electron acceptors, as well as uranium as a dissolved electron acceptor that forms nanocrystalline particles of uraninite upon reduction.

Scholten, Johannes

2006-06-01

334

Metagenomic Analysis of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in the Oral Cavity: Implications for Nitric Oxide Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

Hyde, Embriette R.; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Bryan, Nathan S.

2014-01-01

335

Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 106 acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm?3 in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments. PMID:22572639

Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

2012-01-01

336

Changing Microspatial Patterns of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms (SRM) during Cycling of Marine Stromatolite Mats  

PubMed Central

Microspatial arrangements of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in surface microbial mats (~1.5 mm) forming open marine stromatolites were investigated. Previous research revealed three different mat types associated with these stromatolites, each with a unique petrographic signature. Here we focused on comparing “non-lithifying” (Type-1) and “lithifying” (Type-2) mats. Our results revealed three major trends: (1) Molecular typing using the dsrA probe revealed a shift in the SRM community composition between Type-1 and Type-2 mats. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to confocal scanning-laser microscopy (CSLM)-based image analyses, and 35SO4 2?-silver foil patterns showed that SRM were present in surfaces of both mat types, but in significantly (p < 0.05) higher abundances in Type-2 mats. Over 85% of SRM cells in the top 0.5 mm of Type-2 mats were contained in a dense 130 ?m thick horizontal layer comprised of clusters of varying sizes; (2) Microspatial mapping revealed that locations of SRM and CaCO3 precipitation were significantly correlated (p < 0.05); (3) Extracts from Type-2 mats contained acylhomoserine-lactones (C4-, C6-, oxo-C6 C7-, C8-, C10-, C12-, C14-AHLs) involved in cell-cell communication. Similar AHLs were produced by SRM mat-isolates. These trends suggest that development of a microspatially-organized SRM community is closely-associated with the hallmark transition of stromatolite surface mats from a non-lithifying to a lithifying state. PMID:24413754

Petrisor, Alexandru I.; Szyjka, Sandra; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Visscher, Pieter T.; Norman, Robert Sean; Decho, Alan W.

2014-01-01

337

Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: Involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with 14CH3HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominating estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demethylation were mainly 14CO2 as well as lesser amounts of 14CH4. Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some 14CO2 produced from 14CH3HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only 14CH4, while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both 14CH4 and 14CO2. Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of 14CH4 from 14CH3HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of 14CO2 and 14CH4 when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the 14CH3HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. However, aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments as well as anaerobic demethylation in all sediments studied produced primarily carbon dioxide. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates.

Oremland, R. S.; Culbertson, C. W.; Winfrey, M. R.

1991-01-01

338

Function of Periplasmic Hydrogenases in the Sulfate-ReducingBacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough possesses four periplasmic hydrogenases to facilitate theoxidation of molecular hydrogen. These include an [Fe]hydrogenase, an[NiFeSe]hydrogenase, and two [NiFe]hydrogenases encoded by the hyd,hys, hyn1, and hyn2 genes, respectively. In order to understand theircellular functions, we have compared the growth rates of existing (hydand hyn1) and newly constructed (hys and hyn-1 hyd) mutants to those ofthe wild type in defined media in which lactate or hydrogen at either 5or 50 percent (vol/vol) was used as the sole electron donor for sulfatereduction. Only strains missing the [Fe]hydrogenase were significantlyaffected during growth with lactate or with 50 percent (vol/vol) hydrogenas the sole electron donor. When the cells were grown at low (5 percent[vol/vol]) hydrogen concentrations, those missing the [NiFeSe]hydrogenase suffered the greatest impairment. The growth rate datacorrelated strongly with gene expression results obtained from microarrayhybridizations and real-time PCR using mRNA extracted from cells grownunder the three conditions. Expression of the hys genes followed theorder 5 percent hydrogen>50 percent hydrogen>lactate, whereasexpression of the hyd genes followed the reverse order. These resultssuggest that growth with lactate and 50 percent hydrogen is associatedwith high intracellular hydrogen concentrations, which are best capturedby the higher activity, lower affinity [Fe]hydrogenase. In contrast,growth with 5 percent hydrogen is associated with a low intracellularhydrogen concentration, requiring the lower activity, higher affinity[NiFeSe]hydrogenase.

Caffrey, Sean M.; Park, Hyung-Soo; Voordouw, Johanna K.; He,Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit

2007-09-24

339

Reactive Iron and Iron-Reducing Bacteria in Louisiana Continental Shelf Sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers release sediments containing 15 x 106 t of iron onto the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) each year. Iron oxides reaching the seafloor may be utilized as electron acceptors by iron-reducing bacteria for organic matter oxidation or become r...

340

The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their proven usefulness in agriculture, they possess potential in solving environmental problems. Some examples are highlighted. PGPB may prevent soil erosion in arid zones by improving growth of desert plants in reforestation programs; in turn, this reduces dust pollution. PGPB supports restoration of mangrove ecosystems that

Luz E. de-Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Yoav Bashan

341

Electric current generation by sulfur-reducing bacteria in microbial-anode fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur - reducing bacteria are a part of normal microflora of natural environment. Their main function is supporting of reductive stage of sulfur cycle by hydrogen sulfide production in the process of dissimilative sulfur-reduction. At the same time these bacteria completely oxidize organic compounds with CO2 and H2O formation. It was shown that they are able to generate electric current in the two chamber microbial-anode fuel cell (MAFC) by interaction between these two processes. Microbial-anode fuel cell on the basis of sulfur- and ferric iron-reducing Desulfuromonas acetoxidans bacteria has been constructed. It has been shown that the amount of electricity generation by investigated bacteria is influenced by the concentrations of carbon source (lactate) and ferric iron chloride. The maximal obtained electric current and potential difference between electrodes equaled respectively 0.28-0.29 mA and 0.19-0.2 V per 0.3 l of bacterial suspension with 0.4 g/l of initial biomass that was grown under the influence of 0.45 mM of FeCl3 and 3 g/l of sodium lactate as primal carbon source. It has also been shown that these bacteria are resistant to different concentrations of silver ions.

Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

2012-10-01

342

ACETOGENIC AND SULPHATE-REDUCING BACTERIA INHABITING THE RHIZOPLANE AND DEEP CORTEX CELLS OF THE SEAGRASS HALODULE WRIGHTII  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent declines in sea grass distribution underscore the importance of understanding microbial community structure-function relationships in sea grass rhizosphere that might affect the viability of these plants. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses showed that sulfate-reducing bacter...

343

Plutonium(V\\/VI) Reduction by the Metal-Reducing Bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to reduce Pu(VI) and Pu(V). Cell suspensions of both bacteria reduced oxidized Pu (a mixture of Pu(VI) and Pu(V)) to Pu(IV). The rate of plutonium reduction was similar to the rate of U(VI) reduction obtained under similar conditions for each bacteria. The rates of Pu(VI)

Gary A. Icopini; Joe G. Lack; Larry E. Hersman; Mary P. Neu; Hakim Boukhalfa

2009-01-01

344

Bidirectional sulfate diffusion in saline-lake sediments: evidence from Devils Lake, northeast North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical and isotopic gradients in pore water in Devils Lake indicate that maximum rates of sulfate reduction occur between 1 and 3 cm depth in the bottom sediments. The abundance of electron acceptors enables sulfate-reducing bacteria to outcompete methanogenic bacteria for organic material and thereby suppress methane production. Suppression of methanogenesis may be widespread in sulfate-rich lakes and wetlands and may limit methane fluxes from these water bodies to the atmostphere. -from Author

Komor, S. C.

1992-01-01

345

Characterization and reactivity assessment of organic substrates for sulphate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD), which contains high concentrations of sulphate and dissolved metals, is a serious environmental problem. It can be treated in situ by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), but effectiveness of the treatment process depends on the organic substrate chosen to supply the bacteria’s carbon source. Six natural organic materials were characterized in order to investigate how well these

Gerald J. Zagury; Viktors I. Kulnieks; Carmen M. Neculita

2006-01-01

346

Can microbially-generated hydrogen sulfide account for the rates of U(VI) reduction by a sulfate-reducing bacterium?  

SciTech Connect

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated soil and groundwater is attractive because a diverse range of microbial and abiotic processes reduce soluble and mobile U(VI) to sparingly soluble and immobile U(IV). Often these processes are linked. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), for example, enzymatically reduce U(VI) to U(IV), but they also produce hydrogen sulfide that can itself reduce U(VI). This study evaluated the relative importance of these processes for Desulfovibrio aerotolerans, a SRB isolated from a U(VI)-contaminated site. For the conditions evaluated, the observed rate of SRB-mediated U(VI) reduction can be explained by the abiotic reaction of U(VI) with the microbially-generated H{sub 2}S. The presence of trace ferrous iron appeared to enhance the extent of hydrogen sulfide-mediated U(VI) reduction at 5 mM bicarbonate, but had no clear effect at 15 mM. During the hydrogen sulfide-mediated reduction of U(VI), a floc formed containing uranium and sulfur. U(VI) sequestered in the floc was not available for further reduction.

Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn [Stanford University; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Ortiz, Monica E [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [ORNL

2010-01-01

347

Performance of Pilot-Scale Sulfate-Reducing Bioreactors Treating Acidic Saline Water Under Semi-Arid Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater drains used to manage saline watertables in the semi-arid zone of south-western Australia can discharge acidic\\u000a saline water with high concentrations of metals to waterways. Mitigating the acidity impacts of the waters requires sulfate-reducing\\u000a bioreactors capable of functioning under semi-arid conditions with limited source materials. Two simple pilot-scale bioreactor\\u000a designs using straw and sheep manure mixtures were evaluated over

Brad P. Degens

348

Characterization of a Sulfate- and U(VI)-Reducing Enrichment from Area 3 of the Oak Ridge Field Research Center  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a sulfate-reducing enrichment from the location of the Oak Ridge FRC Area 3 field experiment; (2) assess the capacity of the enrichment community for U(VI) reduction; (3) characterize the metabolic activity of the enrichment community; (4) kinetically model microbial growth and U(VI) reduction by the enrichment; and (5) investigate the enrichment's community structure.

Nyman, Jennifer L.; Gentile, Margaret; Criddle, Craig

2005-04-18

349

Anaerobic n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain CV2803T  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon atoms (C even) when it was grown on a C-even

Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Vincent Grossi; Danielle Raphel; Robert Matheron; Agnes Hirschler-Rea

2005-01-01

350

Comparison of reduced volume versus four liters sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solutions for colonoscopy colon cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colonoscopy cleansing, a reduced volume lavage regimen with 2 L sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution (SF-ELS, NuLYTELY, Braintree Laboratories, Braintree, MA) plus 20 mg p.o. bisacodyl (Half Lytely, Braintree Laboratories) was compared with standard 4 L SF-ELS lavage for safety and efficacy.METHODS:At two centers, 200 patients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications were randomized

Jack A. DiPalma; Bruce G. Wolff; Alan Meagher; Mark v B. Cleveland

2003-01-01

351

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in organic-rich sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction by natural populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated in the cyanobacterial microbial mats of Solar Lake, Sinai and the sediments of Løgten Lagoon sulfuretum, Denmark. Fractionation was measured at different sediment depths, sulfate concentrations, and incubation temperatures. Rates of sulfate reduction varied between 0.1 and 37 ?mol cm?3d?1, with the highest rates among the highest

Kirsten S. Habicht; Donald E. Canfield

1997-01-01

352

Advances In Biotreatment of Acid Mine Drainage and Biorecovery of Metals: 2. Membrane Bioreactor System for Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte,

Henry H. Tabak; Rakesh Govind

2003-01-01

353

Enumeration and Relative Importance of Acetylene-Reducing (Nitrogen-Fixing) Bacteria in a Delaware Salt Marsh  

PubMed Central

Three groups of N2-fixing bacteria were enumerated from the top 1 cm of the surface in four vegetational areas in a Delaware salt marsh. The results over the 9-month sampling period showed that there were no discernible seasonal patterns for any of the groups enumerated (Azotobacter sp., Clostridium sp., and Desulfovibrio sp.). Azotobacter sp. was present in numbers of 107 per g of dry mud, whereas the two anaerobic fixers were present in much lower numbers (103 to 104 per g of dry mud). There were no differences in the numbers of each group among the different vegetational areas, indicating that there was a heterogeneous population of N2 fixers present. Additional studies indicate that the activity of sulfate reducers (Desulfovibrio sp.) may account for as much as 50% of the total observed acetylene reduction activity. Oxygen was found to exert little effect on the observed acetylene reduction activity, indicating that stable aerobic and anaerobic microenvironments exist in the surface layer of marsh sediments. PMID:16345564

Dicker, Howard J.; Smith, David W.

1980-01-01

354

Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria formed extensive biofilms or flocs that contained U and V in the exopolymer, but excluded these metals from the bacteria. This suggests a specific mechanism to inhibit metal sorption to cell wall components. The example illustrates the interplay between bacteria and minerals under conditions that model oligotrophic survival, and provides insight on U mobilization from common uranium ore minerals.

Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

2011-12-01

355

Toward a rigorous network of protein-protein interactions of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect

Protein–protein interactions offer an insight into cellular processes beyond what may be obtained by the quantitative functional genomics tools of proteomics and transcriptomics. The aforementioned tools have been extensively applied to study E. coli and other aerobes and more recently to study the stress response behavior of Desulfovibrio 5 vulgaris Hildenborough, a model anaerobe and sulfate reducer. In this paper we present the first attempt to identify protein-protein interactions in an obligate anaerobic bacterium. We used suicide vector-assisted chromosomal modification of 12 open reading frames encoded by this sulfate reducer to append an eight amino acid affinity tag to the carboxy-terminus of the chosen proteins. Three biological replicates of the 10 ‘pulled-down’ proteins were separated and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Replicate agreement ranged between 35% and 69%. An interaction network among 12 bait and 90 prey proteins was reconstructed based on 134 bait-prey interactions computationally identified to be of high confidence. We discuss the biological significance of several unique metabolic features of D. vulgaris revealed by this protein-protein interaction data 15 and protein modifications that were observed. These include the distinct role of the putative carbon monoxide-induced hydrogenase, unique electron transfer routes associated with different oxidoreductases, and the possible role of methylation in regulating sulfate reduction.

Chhabra, S.R.; Joachimiak, M.P.; Petzold, C.J.; Zane, G.M.; Price, M.N.; Gaucher, S.; Reveco, S.A.; Fok, V.; Johanson, A.R.; Batth, T.S.; Singer, M.; Chandonia, J.M.; Joyner, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Singh, A.K.; Keasling, J.D.

2011-05-01

356

A sulfate-reducing bacterium that can detoxify U(VI) and obtain energy via nitrate reduction.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain UFZ B 490, which was isolated from a uranium dump and is closely related to Desulfovibrio vulgaris oxamicus(T) (DSM 1925(T)), is able to detoxify U(VI) in aqueous media. In experiments reported here, U(VI) was used as an electron acceptor and lactate as electron donor. The reduction of soluble U(VI) to solid U(IV) (uraninite) did not provide energy for growth of strain UFZ B 490. However, the isolate is able to grow when supplied with nitrate as sole electron acceptor and nitrogen source, using lactate as a source of carbon and energy. In comparative studies, the strains Desulfovibrio vulgaris oxamicus(T) (DSM 1925(T)) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris vulgaris(T) (DSM 644(T)), as well as the isolate, all utilized 0.6 mol lactate per mol U(VI) reduced. Strains UFZ B 490 and Desulfovibrio vulgaris oxamicus(T) (DSM 1925(T)) were found to consume 2.4 mol lactate per mol nitrate reduced, but Desulfovibrio vulgaris vulgaris(T) (DSM 644(T)) did not display dissimilatory nitrate reduction. In further experiments it was found that strain UFZ B 490 preferred sulfate as electron acceptor in the presence of both sulfate and nitrate, irrespective of whether it had been precultivated on sulfate or nitrate. PMID:12872316

Pietzsch, Katja; Babel, Wolfgang

2003-01-01

357

[Phylogenetic diversity of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in paddy soil].  

PubMed

Microorganism-mediated dissimilatory Fe (III) reduction is recognized as the dominant mechanism for Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) in non-sulfidogenic anaerobic environments, but the microorganisms involved, especially in paddy soil, are still poorly understood. In this paper, an enrichment culture was conducted to study the phylogenetic diversity of Fe (III)-reducing bacteria in paddy soil, with acetate or hydrogen as the electron donor and with ferrihydrite or goethite as the electron acceptor, and by the methods of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technology and 16S rRNA genes cloning and sequencing. No matter what the electron donor and electron acceptor were supplemented, the most abundant microorganisms were Geobacter and Clostridiales, and Rhodocyclaceae were also abundant, when acetate was supplemented as electron donor, which suggested that besides Geobacter, Clostridiales and Rhodocyclaceae could be also the important Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in paddy soil. PMID:22263478

Li, Hui-juan; Peng, Jing-jing

2011-10-01

358

Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage by Sulphate-reducing Bacteria Using Low Cost Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a laboratory-scale investigation concerning the use of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in a semi-continuous\\u000a process, where column packed-bed type bioreactors were used for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). The use of different\\u000a materials as solid matrices was tested and the performance of the bioremediation processes was discussed in terms of sulphate\\u000a and metals removal and acid

M. C. Costa; M. Martins; C. Jesus; J. C. Duarte

2008-01-01

359

Inhibition of methanogenesis by sulphate reducing bacteria competing for transferred hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methanogenic bacterial consortium was obtained after inoculation of benzoate medium under N2\\/CO2 atmosphere with intertidal sediment. A hydrogen donating organotroph andMethanococcus mazei were isolated from this enrichment. H2-utilising sulphate reducing bacteria were isolated under H2\\/CO2 in the absence of organic electron donors. TheMethanococcus was able to produce methane in yeast extract medium under N2\\/CO2 if the H2 donating organism

Jeremy W. Abram; David B. Nedwell

1978-01-01

360

Anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by new types of sulphate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

MANY crude oil constituents are biodegradable in the presence of oxygen; however, a substantial anaerobic degradation has never been demonstrated1,2. An unusually low content of n-alkanes in oils of certain deposits is commonly attributed to selective utilization of these hydrocarbons by aerobic microorganisms3,4. On the other hand, oil wells and production fluids were shown to harbour anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria5-8, but

Petra Rueter; Ralf Rabus; Heinz Wilkest; Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Holger W. Jannasch; Friedrich Widdel

1994-01-01

361

Isolation, identification and characterization of highly tellurite-resistant, tellurite-reducing bacteria from Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tellurium oxyanion, tellurite, is extremely noxious to most living organisms. Its toxicity has been mainly related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as to an unbalancing of the thiol:redox buffering system. Nevertheless, a few bacteria are capable of thriving at high tellurite concentrations. One mechanism of resistance is the enzymatic and non-enzymatic reduction of tellurite to the less toxic elemental tellurium. This reduction generates nano- to micrometric tellurium crystals that display different shapes and sizes. To date, a very limited number of highly tellurite-resistant and tellurite-reducing bacterial species are available from international culture collections. In this work, we decided to look for tellurite-reducing bacteria from an extreme environment, Antarctica. This environment exhibits a combination of several extreme factors such as high UV-radiation and desiccation and freezing conditions that impact directly on the local biodiversity. Since, as does, all these factors induce ROS formation, we hypothesized that Antarctic bacteria could also exhibit tellurite-resistance. In this context, we isolated 123 tellurite-resistant bacteria, and characterized six new tellurite-resistant and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains from samples collected in Antarctica. These strains were identified according to their 16S rRNA gene sequence as Staphylococcus hameolyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Pseudomonas lini, and two strains of Psychrobacter immobilis. The isolates display tellurite-resistance about 35- to 500-fold higher than Escherichia coli (Te-sensitive organism), and a high level of tellurite reduction which might be interesting for an application in the field of bioremediation or nanoparticle biosynthesis.

Arenas, Felipe A.; Pugin, Benoit; Henríquez, Nicole A.; Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio A.; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo A.; Pozo, María F.; Muñoz, Claudia M.; Chasteen, Thomas G.; Pérez-Donoso, José M.; Vásquez, Claudio C.

2014-03-01

362

A preliminary study on sulfate reduction bacteria behaviors in groundwater by sulfur and carbon isotopes: a case study in Jiaozuo City, China.  

PubMed

Inorganic pollutants in groundwater, such as sulfate and nitrate, have been a serious problem in China for decades. These pollutants are difficult to be removed because of their high solubility and ease of transport in subsurface environment. It had been found that microorganism could be one of the most feasible methods for inorganic pollutant elimination. During the process of degradation, some microorganisms can utilize sulfur and nitrogen in sulfate and nitrate forms, respectively, as energy sources. Meanwhile, significant variations of sulfur stable isotope ratios happened. Therefore sulfur isotope can be used as a good indicator for pollutant degradation and microbial activities. Shallow groundwater (SGW), deep groundwater (DGW), and surface water (SFW) were investigated in alluvial plain in Jiaozuo City, China. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicated that K(+), Na(+), and HCO3 (-) were dominant ions in DGW, Mg(2+) and HCO3 (-) were dominant ions in SGW, and Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-) were dominant in SFW except for LR sample. A wide variation of ? (34)SSO4 values ranging from + 7.3 to +23.6 ‰ had been observed for all water samples, with a mean value of +20.7, +12.6 and +10.0 ‰ for DGW, SGW, and SFW respectively. At the same time, ? (13)C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from -12.4 to -5.7 ‰, with a mean value of -7.5, -9.0, and -9.6 ‰ for DGW, SGW, and SFW, respectively. The microbial degradation processes resulted in significant sulfur isotope fractionations in DGW. Organic carbon was utilized by bacteria and transferred into inorganic carbon, leading to negative fractionation of carbon isotopes. Thus the variations in stable isotope ratios of sulfur and carbon in groundwater can be used as good indicators for understanding of the relationship between bacteria behaviors and sulfate degradation. PMID:25150982

Zhang, Dong; Liu, Congqiang

2014-12-01

363

Desulfosporosinus burensis sp. nov., a spore-forming, mesophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a deep clay environment.  

PubMed

A novel anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming, curved rod-shaped, mesophilic and sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from pore water collected in a borehole at -490 m in Bure (France). This strain, designated BSREI1(T), grew at temperatures between 5 °C and 30 °C (optimum 25 °C) and at a pH between 6 and 8 (optimum 7). It did not require NaCl for growth, but tolerated it up to 1.5?% NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain BSREI1(T) used crotonate, formate, lactate, pyruvate, fructose, glycerol and yeast extract as electron donors in the presence of sulfate. The sole quinone was MK-7. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 43.3 mol%. Strain BSREI1(T) had the type strains of Desulfosporosinus lacus (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.83?%), Desulfosporosinus meridiei (96.31?%) and Desulfosporosinus hippei (96.16?%) as its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain BSREI1(T) is proposed as a representative of a novel species of the genus Desulfosporosinus, Desulfosporosinus burensis sp. nov.; the type strain is BSREI1(T) (?=?DSM 24089(T)?=?JCM 17380(T)). PMID:22544786

Mayeux, Bruno; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Bartoli-Joseph, Manon; Casalot, Laurie; Vinsot, Agnès; Labat, Marc

2013-02-01

364

Methanogenic and Other Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria in Desert Soil and Other Oxic Soils  

PubMed Central

Strictly anaerobic bacteria such as methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, and homoacetogenic bacteria could be enriched from all five oxic soils tested. The number of cells was lower than that in typical anoxic habitats. Spores did not always dominate the population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In all soils, the methanogenic population displayed a long lag phase after anoxic conditions were imposed before methane production began. PMID:16535011

Peters, V.; Conrad, R.

1995-01-01

365

THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-,M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, m-, orp-cresol. GC/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds ...

366

Bioleaching of arsenic in contaminated soil using metal-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the extraction of arsenic in the contaminated soil collected from an old smelting site in Korea was carried out using metal-reducing bacteria. Two types of batch-type experiments, biostimulation and bioaugmentation, were conducted for 28 days under anaerobic conditions. The biostimulation experiments were performed through activation of indigenous bacteria by supply with glucose or lactate as a carbon source. The contaminated, autoclaved soil was inoculated with metal-reducing bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and S. algae BrY, in the bioaugmentation experiments. The results indicated that the maximum concentration of the extracted As was 11.2 mg/L at 4 days from the onset of the experiment when 20 mM glucose was supplied and the extraction efficiency of As ranged 60~63% in the biostimulation experiments. In the case of bioaugmentation, the highest dissolved As concentration was 24.4 mg/L at 2 days, though it dramatically decreased over time through re-adsorption onto soil particles. After both treatments, mode of As occurrence in the soil appeared to be changed to readily extractable fractions. This novel technique of bioleaching may be practically applied for remediation of As-contaminated soil after determination of optimum operational conditions such as operation time and proper carbon source and its concentration.

Lee, So-Ra; Lee, Jong-Un; Chon, Hyo-Taek

2014-05-01

367

Desulfovirgula thermocuniculi gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic sulfate-reducer isolated from a geothermal underground mine in Japan.  

PubMed

A thermophilic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, designated RL80JIV(T), was isolated from a geothermally active underground mine in Japan. Cells were rod-shaped and motile. The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 61-80 degrees C (optimum at 69-72 degrees C) and pH 6.4-7.9 (optimum at pH 6.8-7.3), and the strain tolerated up to 0.5 % NaCl. Strain RL80JIV(T) utilized sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors. Electron donors utilized were H(2) in the presence of CO(2), and carboxylic acids. Fermentative growth occurred on lactate and pyruvate. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7. Major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and C(16 : 0). Strain RL80JIV(T) was found to be affiliated with the thiosulfate-reducer Thermanaeromonas toyohensis DSM 14490(T) (90.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and with the sulfate-reducer Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum DSM 10259(T) (90.0 % similarity). Strain RL80JIV(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfovirgula thermocuniculi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfovirgula thermocuniculi is RL80JIV(T) (=DSM 16036(T)=JCM 13928(T)). PMID:17220449

Kaksonen, Anna H; Spring, Stefan; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Puhakka, Jaakko A

2007-01-01

368

Recovery of Humic-Reducing Bacteria from a Diversity of Environments  

PubMed Central

To evaluate which microorganisms might be responsible for microbial reduction of humic substances in sedimentary environments, humic-reducing bacteria were isolated from a variety of sediment types. These included lake sediments, pristine and contaminated wetland sediments, and marine sediments. In each of the sediment types, all of the humic reducers recovered with acetate as the electron donor and the humic substance analog, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), as the electron acceptor were members of the family Geobacteraceae. This was true whether the AQDS-reducing bacteria were enriched prior to isolation on solid media or were recovered from the highest positive dilutions of sediments in liquid media. All of the isolates tested not only conserved energy to support growth from acetate oxidation coupled to AQDS reduction but also could oxidize acetate with highly purified soil humic acids as the sole electron acceptor. All of the isolates tested were also able to grow with Fe(III) serving as the sole electron acceptor. This is consistent with previous studies that have suggested that the capacity for Fe(III) reduction is a common feature of all members of the Geobacteraceae. These studies demonstrate that the potential for microbial humic substance reduction can be found in a wide variety of sediment types and suggest that Geobacteraceae species might be important humic-reducing organisms in sediments. PMID:9546186

Coates, John D.; Ellis, Debra J.; Blunt-Harris, Elizabeth L.; Gaw, Catherine V.; Roden, Eric E.; Lovley, Derek R.

1998-01-01

369

Rapid and efficient synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets using N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate as a reducing agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass production of soluble graphene still remains a challenge, although several methodologies have been proposed. Here we report a rapid and efficient method for the synthesis of soluble graphene nanosheets (GNSs) with long-term dispersion stability in both aqueous and common organic solvents. Within only 12 min at 95?°C, exfoliated graphite oxide in ammonia solution (pH 10) was reduced to soluble GNSs using N-methyl-p-aminophenol sulfate (metol) as a reducing agent without external stabilizers. The prepared GNSs were characterized by different techniques and a comparison of metol and hydrazine hydrate as reducing agents was made. The results indicated that, with the advantages of being rapid, efficient, inexpensive and relatively environmentally friendly, the reduction of graphite oxide into soluble GNSs by metol is a promising substitute for hydrazine hydrate in the mass production of soluble GNSs.

Wang, Xialie; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhanpeng; Tan, Yi; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Ping

2012-12-01

370

Direct and Fe(II)-Mediated Reduction of Technetium by Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens reduced and precipitated Tc(VII) by two mechanisms. Washed cell suspensions coupled the oxidation of hydrogen to enzymatic reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), leading to the precipitation of TcO2 at the periphery of the cell. An indirect, Fe(II)-mediated mechanism was also identified. Acetate, although not utilized efficiently as an electron donor for direct cell-mediated reduction of technetium, supported the reduction of Fe(III), and the Fe(II) formed was able to transfer electrons abiotically to Tc(VII). Tc(VII) reduction was comparatively inefficient via this indirect mechanism when soluble Fe(III) citrate was supplied to the cultures but was enhanced in the presence of solid Fe(III) oxide. The rate of Tc(VII) reduction was optimal, however, when Fe(III) oxide reduction was stimulated by the addition of the humic analog and electron shuttle anthaquinone-2,6-disulfonate, leading to the rapid formation of the Fe(II)-bearing mineral magnetite. Under these conditions, Tc(VII) was reduced and precipitated abiotically on the nanocrystals of biogenic magnetite as TcO2 and was removed from solution to concentrations below the limit of detection by scintillation counting. Cultures of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria enriched from radionuclide-contaminated sediment using Fe(III) oxide as an electron acceptor in the presence of 25 ?M Tc(VII) contained a single Geobacter sp. detected by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and were also able to reduce and precipitate the radionuclide via biogenic magnetite. Fe(III) reduction was stimulated in aquifer material, resulting in the formation of Fe(II)-containing minerals that were able to reduce and precipitate Tc(VII). These results suggest that Fe(III)-reducing bacteria may play an important role in immobilizing technetium in sediments via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:10966385

Lloyd, J. R.; Sole, V. A.; Van Praagh, C. V. G.; Lovley, D. R.

2000-01-01

371

Pathways and microbiology of thiosulfate transformations and sulfate reduction in a marine sediment (Kattegat, Denmark)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductive and oxidative pathways of the sulfur cycle were studied in a marine sediment by parallel radiotracer experiments with ³⁵SOâ{sup 2 -}, Hâ³⁵S, and ³⁵SâOâ²⁻ injected into undisturbed sediment cores. The distributions of viable populations of sulfate- and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and of thiosulfate-disproportionating bacteria were concurrently determined. Sulfate reduction occurred both in the reducing sediment layers, and in oxidized and

B. B. Joergensen; F. Bak

1991-01-01

372

Arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria associated with arsenic-rich groundwater in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Drinking highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease in Taiwan, but microorganisms that potentially control arsenic mobility in the subsurface remain unstudied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing microbial community that exists in highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Taiwan. We cultured and identified arsenic-transforming bacteria, analyzed arsenic resistance and transformation, and determined the presence of genetic markers for arsenic transformation. In total, 11 arsenic-transforming bacterial strains with different colony morphologies and varying arsenic transformation abilities were isolated, including 10 facultative anaerobic arsenate-reducing bacteria and one strictly aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium. All of the isolates exhibited high levels of arsenic resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic ranging from 2 to 200 mM. Strain AR-11 was able to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate at concentrations relevant to environmental groundwater samples without the addition of any electron donors or acceptors. We provide evidence that arsenic-reduction activity may be conferred by the ars operon(s) that were not amplified by the designed primers currently in use. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis grouped the isolates into the following genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Psychrobacter, Vibrio, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Bosea. Among these genera, we present the first report of the genus Psychrobacter being involved in arsenic reduction. Our results further support the hypothesis that bacteria capable of either oxidizing arsenite or reducing arsenate coexist and are ubiquitous in arsenic-contaminated groundwater. PMID:21216490

Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Hsiao, Sung-Yun; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Chang, Fi-John

2011-04-01

373

Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control  

PubMed Central

Circulating nitrate (NO3?), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO2?) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in “setting” blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p < 0.001) and plasma nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2–3 .5 mm Hg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r2 = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:23183324

Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M.A.; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

2013-01-01

374

Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-? was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-?-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. PMID:24161588

Shiba, Takahiro; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

2014-01-15

375

Application of molecular techniques to evaluate the methanogenic archaea and anaerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen with different COD:sulfate ratios in a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

In this paper, the microbial characteristics of the granular sludge in the presence of oxygen (3.0+/-0.7 mg O2 l(-1)) were analyzed using molecular biology techniques. The granules were provided by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) operated over 469 days and fed with synthetic substrate. Ethanol and sulfate were added to obtain different COD/SO4(2-) ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6). The results of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses showed that archaeal cells, detected by the ARC915 probe, accounted for 77%, 84%, and 75% in the COD/SO(4)(2-) ratios (3.0, 2.0, and 1.6, respectively). Methanosaeta sp. was the predominant acetoclastic archaea observed by optical microscopy and FISH analyses, and confirmed by sequencing of the excised bands of the DGGE gel with a similarity of 96%. The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (similarity of 99%) was verified by sequencing of the DGGE band. Others identified microorganism were similar to Shewanella sp. and Desulfitobacterium hafniense, with similarities of 95% and 99%, respectively. These results confirmed that the presence of oxygen did not severely affect the metabolism of microorganisms that are commonly considered strictly anaerobic. We obtained mean efficiencies of organic matter conversion and sulfate reducing higher than 74%. PMID:18634895

Hirasawa, Julia Sumiko; Sarti, Arnaldo; Del Aguila, Nora Katia Saavedra; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

2008-10-01

376

Roles of thermophilic thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the biocorrosion of oil pipelines  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic sulfide-producing microorganisms from an oil pipeline network were enumerated with different sulfur oxyanions as electron acceptors at 55°C. Most-probable number (MPN) analysis showed that thiosulfate-reducing bacteria were the most numerous sulfidogenic microorganisms in pipeline inspection gauge (PIG) scrapings. Thiosulfate-reducing and methanogenic enrichments were obtained from the MPN cultures that were able to use yeast extract as the electron donor. Molecular analysis revealed that both enrichments harbored the same dominant bacterium, which belonged to the genus Anaerobaculum. The dominant archaeon in the methanogenic enrichment was affiliated with the genus Methanothermobacter. With yeast extract as the electron donor, the general corrosion rate by the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment (8.43 ± 1.40 milli-inch per year, abbreviated as mpy) was about 5.5 times greater than the abiotic control (1.49 ± 0.15 mpy), while the comparable measures for the methanogenic culture were 2.03 ± 0.49 mpy and 0.62 ± 0.07 mpy, respectively. Total iron analysis in the cultures largely accounted for the mass loss of iron measured in the weight loss determinations. Profilometry analysis of polished steel coupons incubated in the presence of the thiosulfate-reducing enrichment revealed 59 pits over an area of 71.16 mm2, while only 6 pits were evident in the corresponding methanogenic incubations. The results show the importance of thiosulfate-utilizing, sulfide-producing fermentative bacteria such as Anaerobaculum sp. in the corrosion of carbon steel, but also suggest that Anaerobaculum sp. are of far less concern when growing syntrophically with methanogens. PMID:24639674

Liang, Renxing; Grizzle, Robert S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; McInerney, Michael J.; Suflita, Joseph M.

2014-01-01

377

Rapid Discrimination of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Liquid Samples by Using NaOH-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solution and Flow Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI), and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation) for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. Conclusions/Significance Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history of UTIs. The method may be easily applied in order to obtain additional information for clinical prescriptions from bacteriuria. PMID:23077549

Wada, Atsushi; Kono, Mari; Kawauchi, Sawako; Takagi, Yuri; Morikawa, Takashi; Funakoshi, Kunihiro

2012-01-01

378

Towards a rigorous network of protein-protein interactions of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.  

PubMed

Protein-protein interactions offer an insight into cellular processes beyond what may be obtained by the quantitative functional genomics tools of proteomics and transcriptomics. The aforementioned tools have been extensively applied to study Escherichia coli and other aerobes and more recently to study the stress response behavior of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a model obligate anaerobe and sulfate reducer and the subject of this study. Here we carried out affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry to reconstruct an interaction network among 12 chromosomally encoded bait and 90 prey proteins based on 134 bait-prey interactions identified to be of high confidence. Protein-protein interaction data are often plagued by the lack of adequate controls and replication analyses necessary to assess confidence in the results, including identification of potential false positives. We addressed these issues through the use of biological replication, exponentially modified protein abundance indices, results from an experimental negative control, and a statistical test to assign confidence to each putative interacting pair applicable to small interaction data studies. We discuss the biological significance of metabolic features of D. vulgaris revealed by these protein-protein interaction data and the observed protein modifications. These include the distinct role of the putative carbon monoxide-induced hydrogenase, unique electron transfer routes associated with different oxidoreductases, and the possible role of methylation in regulating sulfate reduction. PMID:21738675

Chhabra, Swapnil R; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Petzold, Christopher J; Zane, Grant M; Price, Morgan N; Reveco, Sonia A; Fok, Veronica; Johanson, Alyssa R; Batth, Tanveer S; Singer, Mary; Chandonia, John-Marc; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Wall, Judy D; Singh, Anup K; Keasling, Jay D

2011-01-01

379

Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15T was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70 90 C and an optimum of 83 C. Optimal pH was around 6.5 7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15T was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15T representing the type strain.

Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Gibson, Robert [NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research; Green, Stefan [University of Illinois, Chicago; Hopmans, Ellen [NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research; Schouten, Stefan [NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research; van der Meer, Marcel T. J. [NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research; Shields, John [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; S. Damste, Jaap S. [NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2013-01-01

380

Anaerobic oxidation of long-chain n-alkanes by the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus.  

PubMed

The thermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain VC-16 (DSM 4304), which is known to oxidize fatty acids and n-alkenes, was shown to oxidize saturated hydrocarbons (n-alkanes in the range C10-C21) with thiosulfate or sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. The amount of n-hexadecane degradation observed was in stoichiometric agreement with the theoretically expected amount of thiosulfate reduction. One of the pathways used by anaerobic microorganisms to activate alkanes is addition to fumarate that involves alkylsuccinate synthase as a key enzyme. A search for genes encoding homologous enzymes in A. fulgidus identified the pflD gene (locus-tag AF1449) that was previously annotated as a pyruvate formate lyase. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this gene is of bacterial origin and was likely acquired by A. fulgidus from a bacterial donor through a horizontal gene transfer. Based on three-dimensional modeling of the corresponding protein and molecular dynamic simulations, we hypothesize an alkylsuccinate synthase activity for this gene product. The pflD gene expression was upregulated during the growth of A. fulgidus on an n-alkane (C16) compared with growth on a fatty acid. Our results suggest that anaerobic alkane degradation in A. fulgidus may involve the gene pflD in alkane activation through addition to fumarate. These findings highlight the possible importance of hydrocarbon oxidation at high temperatures by A. fulgidus in hydrothermal vents and the deep biosphere. PMID:24763368

Khelifi, Nadia; Amin Ali, Oulfat; Roche, Philippe; Grossi, Vincent; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Valette, Odile; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

2014-11-01

381

Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov.: A New Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate reducing bacterium strain MLF1(sup T) was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrion cells, motile by singular polar flagellum, with sizes 0.5 - 0.6x 1.2 - 2.0 micron occurred singly, in pairs or short spirilla. Growth was observed over the temperature range of +15 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range is greater than 1 - 7 %, wt/vol (optimum 3 %, wt/vol) and pH range 7.8 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.0 - 9.4). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high carbonate concentration in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase negative. As electron donors strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate, ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The sole end product of growth on formate was H2S. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Na2MoO4 inhibits growth of strain MLF1(sup T). The sum of G+C in DNA is 63.1 mol% (by HPLC method). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Desulfonatronum; and the name Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov., is proposed (type strain MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSMZ 14708(sup T).

Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

382

Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park.  

PubMed

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated OPF15(T) was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The phylogeny of 16S rRNA and functional genes (dsrAB) placed the organism within the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. The organism displayed hyperthermophilic temperature requirements for growth with a range of 70-90 °C and an optimum of 83 °C. Optimal pH was around 6.5-7.0 and the organism required the presence of H2 or formate as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. Electron acceptors supporting growth included sulfate, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur. Lactate, acetate, pyruvate, benzoate, oleic acid, and ethanol did not serve as electron donors. Membrane lipid analysis revealed diacyl glycerols and acyl/ether glycerols which ranged from C14:0 to C20:0. Alkyl chains present in acyl/ether and diether glycerol lipids ranged from C16:0 to C18:0. Straight, iso- and anteiso-configurations were found for all lipid types. The presence of OPF15(T) was also shown to increase cellulose consumption during co-cultivation with Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, a fermentative, cellulolytic extreme thermophile isolated from the same environment. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic, and structural analyses, Thermodesulfobacterium geofontis sp. nov. is proposed as a new species with OPF15(T) representing the type strain. PMID:23345010

Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D; Gibson, Robert A; Green, Stefan J; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; van der Meer, Marcel T J; Shields, John P; Damsté, Jaap S S; Elkins, James G

2013-03-01

383

Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions: Effect of Amended Goethite on Microbial Community Composition and Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need for a better understanding of the biogeochemical dynamics involved in microbial U(VI) reduction due to an increasing interest in using biostimulation via electron donor addition as a means to remediate uranium contaminated sites. U(VI) reduction has been observed to be maximized during iron reducing conditions and to decrease upon commencement of sulfate reducing conditions. There are many unknowns regarding the impact of iron/sulfate biogeochemistry on U(VI) reduction. This includes Fe(III) availability as well as the microbial community changes, including the activity of iron-reducers during the uranium biostimulation period even after the onset of sulfate reduction. Up-flow column experiments were conducted with Old Rifle site sediments containing Fe-oxides, Fe-clays, and sulfate rich groundwater. Half of the columns had sediment that was augmented with small amounts of small-particle 57Fe-goethite to track continuously minute goethite changes, and to study the effects of increased Fe(III) levels on the overall biostimulation dynamics. The addition of the 57Fe-goethite did not delay the onset of sulfate reduction, but slightly suppressed the overall rate of sulfate reduction and hence acetate utilization, it did not affect the bacterial numbers of Geobacter-like species throughout the experiment, but did lower the numbers of sulfate reducers in the sediments. 57Fe-Mössbauer analyses (a 57Fe-specific technique) confirmed that there was bioavailable iron present after the onset of sulfate reduction and that iron was still being reduced during sulfate reduction. Addition of the 57Fe-goethite to the sediment had a noticeable effect on the overall composition of the microbial population. 16S rRNA analyses of biostimulated sediment using TRFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) showed that Geobacter sp. (a known Fe-reducer) was still active and replicating during the period of significant sulfate reduction. DNA fingerprints of the sediment-attached microbial communities were dominated by 5 TRFs, that comprised 25-57% of the total profile.

Moon, Hee Sun; McGuinness, L.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Komlos, John; Kerkhoff, Lee; Long, Philip E.; Jaffe, Peter R.

2010-07-01

384

Hexagonal Platelet-like Magnetite as a Biosignature of Thermophilic Iron-Reducing Bacteria and Its Applications to the Exploration of the Modern Deep, Hot Biosphere and the Emergence of Iron-Reducing Bacteria in Early Precambrian Oceans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria are able to enzymatically reduce ferric iron and couple to the oxidation of organic carbon. This mechanism induces the mineralization of fine magnetite crystals characterized by a wide distribution in size and irregular morphologies that are indistinguishable from authigenic magnetite. Thermoanaerobacter are thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria that predominantly inhabit terrestrial hot springs or deep crusts and have the capacity to transform amorphous ferric iron into magnetite with a size up to 120?nm. In this study, I first characterize the formation of hexagonal platelet-like magnetite of a few hundred nanometers in cultures of Thermoanaerobacter spp. strain TOR39. Biogenic magnetite with such large crystal sizes and unique morphology has never been observed in abiotic or biotic processes and thus can be considered as a potential biosignature for thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria. The unique crystallographic features and strong ferrimagnetic properties of these crystals allow easy and rapid screening for the previous presence of iron-reducing bacteria in deep terrestrial crustal samples that are unsuitable for biological detection methods and, also, the search for biogenic magnetite in banded iron formations that deposited only in the first 2 billion years of Earth with evidence of life. Key Words: Biosignatures—Magnetite—Iron-reducing bacteria—Deep subsurface biosphere—Banded iron formation. Astrobiology 12, 1100–1108. PMID:23145573

2012-01-01

385

Sulfate Reduction Potential in Sediments in the Norilsk Mining Area, Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the distribution and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in tailings and sediments impacted by effluents from mining and smelting operations in the Norilsk area in northern Siberia. The Norilsk mining complex involves three smelter operations, a hydrometallurgical plant, and extensive tailings areas located in the permafrost zone. Sulfate reduction rates measured with a

Olia V. Karnachuk; Nikolay V. Pimenov; Sandjar K. Yusupov; Yulia A. Frank; Anna H. Kaksonen; Jaakko A. Puhakka; Mikhail V. Ivanov; E. Börje Lindström; Olli H. Tuovinen

2005-01-01

386

Anaerobic 1-Alkene Metabolism by the Alkane- and Alkene-Degrading Sulfate Reducer Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain CV2803T?  

PubMed Central

The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T, known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd number) (C-odd) when it was grown on C-odd 1-alkenes. Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 6- to 10-week incubations allowed the identification of saturated 2- and 4-ethyl-, 2- and 4-methyl-, and monounsaturated 4-methyl-branched fatty acids with chain lengths that correlated with those of the 1-alkene. The growth of D. aliphaticivorans on (per)deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of the anaerobic transformation of these alkenes into the corresponding 1-alcohols and into linear as well as 10- and 4-methyl-branched fatty acids. Experiments performed with [13C]bicarbonate indicated that the initial activation of 1-alkene by the addition of inorganic carbon does not occur. These results demonstrate that D. aliphaticivorans metabolizes 1-alkene by the oxidation of the double bond at C-1 and by the subterminal addition of organic carbon at both ends of the molecule [C-2 and C-(?-1)]. The detection of ethyl-branched fatty acids from unlabeled 1-alkenes further suggests that carbon addition also occurs at C-3. Alkylsuccinates were not observed as potential initial intermediates in alkene metabolism. Based on our observations, the first pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in an anaerobic bacterium are proposed. Those pathways indicate that diverse initial reactions of 1-alkene activation can occur simultaneously in the same strain of sulfate-reducing bacterium. PMID:17965214

Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Meou, Alain; Raphel, Danielle; Garzino, Frederic; Hirschler-Rea, Agnes

2007-01-01

387

Anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism by the alkane- and alkene-degrading sulfate reducer Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803T.  

PubMed

The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain CV2803(T), known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd number) (C-odd) when it was grown on C-odd 1-alkenes. Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 6- to 10-week incubations allowed the identification of saturated 2- and 4-ethyl-, 2- and 4-methyl-, and monounsaturated 4-methyl-branched fatty acids with chain lengths that correlated with those of the 1-alkene. The growth of D. aliphaticivorans on (per)deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of the anaerobic transformation of these alkenes into the corresponding 1-alcohols and into linear as well as 10- and 4-methyl-branched fatty acids. Experiments performed with [(13)C]bicarbonate indicated that the initial activation of 1-alkene by the addition of inorganic carbon does not occur. These results demonstrate that D. aliphaticivorans metabolizes 1-alkene by the oxidation of the double bond at C-1 and by the subterminal addition of organic carbon at both ends of the molecule [C-2 and C-(omega-1)]. The detection of ethyl-branched fatty acids from unlabeled 1-alkenes further suggests that carbon addition also occurs at C-3. Alkylsuccinates were not observed as potential initial intermediates in alkene metabolism. Based on our observations, the first pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in an anaerobic bacterium are proposed. Those pathways indicate that diverse initial reactions of 1-alkene activation can occur simultaneously in the same strain of sulfate-reducing bacterium. PMID:17965214

Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Méou, Alain; Raphel, Danielle; Garzino, Frédéric; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès

2007-12-01

388

Hydrogen and acetate cycling in two sulfate-reducing sediments: Buzzards Bay and Town Cove, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular hydrogen and acetate are believed to be key intermediates in the anaerobic remineralization of organic carbon. The authors have made measurements of the cycling of both these compounds in two marine sediments: the bioturbated sediments of Buzzards Bay, Mass., and the much more reducing sediments of Town Cove, Orleans, Mass. Hydrogen concentrations are similar in these environments (from less

P. C. Novelli; A. R. Michelson; M. I. Scranton; G. T. Banta; J. E. Hobbie; R. W. Howarth

1988-01-01

389

Iron Additions Reduce Sulfate Reduction Rates and Improve Seagrass Growth on Organic-Enriched Carbonate Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrate, through experimental iron additions to a Mediterranean seagrass meadow, that iron plays a pivotal role in seagrass systems on carbonate sediments, directly through its role as a limiting nutrient, and indirectly by stimulating phosphorus recycling through the activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase and by buffering the development of reduced conditions in sediments. Iron additions were performed

Marianne Holmer; Carlos M. Duarte; Nuria Marbá

2005-01-01

390

Hydrogen and acetate cycling in two sulfate-reducing sediments: Buzzards Bay and Town Cove, Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular hydrogen and acetate are believed to be key intermediates in the anaerobic remineralization of organic carbon. We have made measurements of the cycling of both these compounds in two marine sediments: the bioturbated sediments of Buzzards Bay, Mass., and the much more reducing sediments of Town Cove, Orleans, Mass. Hydrogen concentrations are similar in these environments (from less than

P. C. Novelli; A. R. Michelson; M. I. Scranton; G. T. Banta; J. E. Hobbie; R. W. Howarth

1988-01-01

391

Influence of EPS isolated from thermophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria on carbon steel corrosion.  

PubMed

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were isolated by centrifugation of thermophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) grown in API-RP38 culture medium. The protein and polysaccharide fractions were quantified and the highest concentrations were extracted from a 14-day old culture. The effect of EPS on carbon steel corrosion was investigated by electrochemical techniques. At 30°C, a small amount of EPS in 3% NaCl solution inhibited corrosion, whilst excessive amounts of EPS facilitated corrosion. In addition, the inhibition efficiency of EPS decreased with temperature due to thermal desorption of the EPS. The results suggest that adsorbed EPS layers could be beneficial to anti-corrosion by hindering the reduction of oxygen. However, the accumulation of an EPS film could stimulate the anodic dissolution of the underlying steel by chelation of Fe2+ ions. PMID:21604218

Dong, Ze Hua; Liu, Tao; Liu, Hong Fang

2011-05-01

392

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate Mercuric Sulfides  

E-print Network

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate bacteria that methylate Hg(II). In sediment porewater, Hg(II) associates with sulfides and natural organic intermediates of heterogeneous mineral precipitation. Here, we exposed two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria