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1

Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter. Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10–200??M, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the ?-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life. In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

Plugge, Caroline M.; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

2011-01-01

2

Iron availability in mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Postgate's medium C was found to be unsuitable for quantitative studies of mixed microbial cultures containing sulfate-reducing bacteria. Equilibrium calculations of iron concentration, along with the experimental observations show that precipitation of iron occurs in Postgate's medium, despite the presence of citrate and yeast extract. The often ascribed inhibitory effect of sulfide on the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria may be largely due to the reduced availability of iron, as a result of the precipitation of ferrous sulfide. Because it is essential to clearly define the growth limiting nutrient when carrying out quantitative bacterial growth studies, yeast extract should be excluded from the culture medium. Single-phase, exponential growth was observed for mixed cultures containing sulfate-reducing bacteria, using a chemically defined medium that incorporated the metal complexing agent EDTA. When carrying out quantitative kinetic studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria, a chemically defined medium incorporating EDTA is recommended.

Hauser, J.Y.; Holder, G.A.

1986-01-01

3

Reduction of molybdate by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdate is an essential trace element required by biological systems including the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB);\\u000a however, detrimental consequences may occur if molybdate is present in high concentrations in the environment. While molybdate\\u000a is a structural analog of sulfate and inhibits sulfate respiration of SRB, little information is available concerning the\\u000a effect of molybdate on pure cultures. We followed the

Keka C. Biswas; Nicole A. Woodards; Huifang Xu; Larry L. Barton

2009-01-01

4

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in human periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontitis is the major cause of the loss of teeth among adults. A mixture of bacteria then settles under the gingiva, and is implicated in the degradation of tooth-supporting tissue. In the deepening lesion, or pocket, the adjacent bone is degraded too, which will eventually lead to the loss of the tooth. Professor van der Hoeven has shown 6 years

P. S. Langendijk Genevaux

2001-01-01

5

THE USE OF SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA TO REMOVE SULFATE FROM IRON MINING TAILINGS WATER1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of various substrates to support sulfate reducing bacteria and remove sulfate from iron mining tailings basin water in northern Minnesota. The tailings water has a pH of around 7.5, 800 mg\\/L of sulfate and low levels of iron and trace metals. Although sulfate was removed in all columns, overall removal rates

Paul Eger; Tom Moe; John Engesser

6

Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

2009-01-01

7

Isotope fractionation by natural populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction was explored for natural populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria. High fractionations of 30‰ to 40‰ were produced when the natural population metabolized with indigenous organic substrate at environmental temperatures of 15°C to 25°C. Fractionations were unaffected by changes in sulfate concentration between 2 mM and 28 mM. After the natural substrate was exhausted, the sulfate-reducing bacterial population metabolized, in turn, with acetate, ethanol, and lactate. The high fractionations encountered with natural substrate were only reproduced when the amended substrate was supplied at concentrations limiting the activity of the sulfate-reducing population. Higher, nonlimiting concentrations of amended substrate produced lower fractionations of 16‰ to 21% at 25°C. The natural sulfate-reducing population, therefore, probably experienced substrate limitation while utilizing the natural substrate. At the low temperature of 5°C fractionations with amended substrate ranged from 8‰ to 14‰ and were lower than expected based on the normal relationship between rates of sulfate reduction and the extent of isotope fractionation. The processes likely acting to control the magnitude of isotope fractionation are discussed.

Canfield, D. E.

2001-04-01

8

Influence of oxygen on sulfate reduction and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambivalent relations of sulfate-reducing bacteria to molecular O2 have been studied with ten freshwater and marine strains. Generally, O2 was reduced prior to sulfur compounds and suppressed the reduction of sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate to sulfide. Three strains slowly formed sulfide at O2 concentrations of below 15 µM (6% air saturation). In homogeneously aerated cultures, two out of seven

Christoph Marschall; Peter Frenzel; Heribert Cypionka

1993-01-01

9

Corrosion control in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Impressed current and magnesium anode-type cathodic protection usually provide appreciable protection to the buried and underground telephone plant. However, in the laboratory, a medium containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) strongly reduces the output current from the magnesium anode. This explains the lack of success with magnesium anodes in the field where the ratio of protected surface area to current output is orders of magnitude higher than in the laboratory test. Low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) additive to the solution provide minimal protection. However, high concentrations and/or aeration can eliminate the high concentration of SRB in the aqueous medium.

Schick, G. (Bellcore, Morristown, NJ (US))

1990-07-01

10

Biochemistry, physiology and biotechnology of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Chemolithotrophic bacteria that use sulfate as terminal electron acceptor (sulfate-reducing bacteria) constitute a unique physiological group of microorganisms that couple anaerobic electron transport to ATP synthesis. These bacteria (220 species of 60 genera) can use a large variety of compounds as electron donors and to mediate electron flow they have a vast array of proteins with redox active metal groups. This chapter deals with the distribution in the environment and the major physiological and metabolic characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). This chapter presents our current knowledge of soluble electron transfer proteins and transmembrane redox complexes that are playing an essential role in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio. Environmentally important activities displayed by SRB are a consequence of the unique electron transport components or the production of high levels of H(2)S. The capability of SRB to utilize hydrocarbons in pure cultures and consortia has resulted in using these bacteria for bioremediation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds in contaminated soils. Specific strains of SRB are capable of reducing 3-chlorobenzoate, chloroethenes, or nitroaromatic compounds and this has resulted in proposals to use SRB for bioremediation of environments containing trinitrotoluene and polychloroethenes. Since SRB have displayed dissimilatory reduction of U(VI) and Cr(VI), several biotechnology procedures have been proposed for using SRB in bioremediation of toxic metals. Additional non-specific metal reductase activity has resulted in using SRB for recovery of precious metals (e.g. platinum, palladium and gold) from waste streams. Since bacterially produced sulfide contributes to the souring of oil fields, corrosion of concrete, and discoloration of stonework is a serious problem, there is considerable interest in controlling the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB. The production of biosulfide by SRB has led to immobilization of toxic metals and reduction of textile dyes, although the process remains unresolved, SRB play a role in anaerobic methane oxidation which not only contributes to carbon cycle activities but also depletes an important industrial energy reserve. PMID:19426853

Barton, Larry L; Fauque, Guy D

2009-01-01

11

Reduction of molybdate by sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Molybdate is an essential trace element required by biological systems including the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB); however, detrimental consequences may occur if molybdate is present in high concentrations in the environment. While molybdate is a structural analog of sulfate and inhibits sulfate respiration of SRB, little information is available concerning the effect of molybdate on pure cultures. We followed the growth of Desulfovibrio gigas ATCC 19364, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 642, and D. desulfuricans DSM 27774 in media containing sub-lethal levels of molybdate and observed a red-brown color in the culture fluid. Spectral analysis of the culture fluid revealed absorption peaks at 467, 395 and 314 nm and this color is proposed to be a molybdate-sulfide complex. Reduction of molybdate with the formation of molybdate disulfide occurs in the periplasm D. gigas and D. desulfuricans DSM 642. From these results we suggest that the occurrence of poorly crystalline Mo-sulfides in black shale may be a result from SRB reduction and selective enrichment of Mo in paleo-seawater. PMID:19130259

Biswas, Keka C; Woodards, Nicole A; Xu, Huifang; Barton, Larry L

2009-01-07

12

SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN THE SEAGRASS RHIZOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

Seagrasses are rooted in anoxic sediments that support high levels of microbial activity including utilization of sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor which is reduced to sulfide. Sulfate reduction in seagrass bed sediments is stimulated by input of organic carbon through the ...

13

Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in analyses of metabolites with benzene-grown cultures, suggesting an activation of benzene via carboxylation.

Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

2010-05-01

14

Distribution of Methanogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Near-Shore Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

The distribution of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria was examined in sediments from three sites off the coast of eastern Connecticut and five sites in Long Island Sound. Both bacterial groups were detected at all sites. Three distributional patterns were observed: (i) four sites exhibited methanogenic and sulfate-reducing populations which were restricted to the upper 10 to 20 cm, with a predominance of sulfate reducers; (ii) three sites in western Long Island Sound exhibited a methanogenic population most abundant in sediments deeper than those occupied by sulfate reducers; (iii) at one site that was influenced by fresh groundwater, methanogens and sulfate reducers were numerous within the same depths; however, the number of sulfate reducers varied vertically and temporally with sulfate concentrations. It was concluded that the distributions of abundant methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria were mutually exclusive. Methanogenic enrichments yielded all genera of methanogens except Methanosarcina, with the methanobacteria predominating.

Hines, Mark E.; Buck, John D.

1982-01-01

15

Sulfate?reducing and methanogenic bacteria from deep aquifers in montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic sulfate?reducing and methanogenic bacteria were detected in deep (1200 to 1800 m) ground waters from geologic units that make up the Madison Formation, which underlies a large portion of the northern Great Plains. Some sulfate?reducing bacteria were isolated and tentatively identified as Desulfotomaculum nigrificans. These organisms probably produce the hydrogen sulfide that is in the ground water. Direct microscopic

G. J. Olson; W. S. Dockins; G. A. McFeters; W. P. Iverson

1981-01-01

16

Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biogeochemical transformations occurring in the anoxic zones of stratified sedimentary microbial communities can profoundly influence the isotopic and organic signatures preserved in the fossil record. Accordingly, we have determined carbon isotope discrimination that is associated with both heterotrophic and lithotrophic growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). For heterotrophic-growth experiments, substrate consumption was monitored to completion. Sealed vessels containing SRB cultures were harvested at different time intervals, and ?13C values were determined for gaseous CO2, organic substrates, and products such as biomass. For three of the four SRB, carbon isotope effects between the substrates, acetate or lactate and CO2, and the cell biomass were small, ranging from 0 to 2‰. However, for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the carbon incorporated into biomass was isotopically heavier than the available substrates by 8 to 9‰. SRB grown lithoautotrophically consumed less than 3% of the available CO2 and exhibited substantial discrimination (calculated as isotope fractionation factors [?]), as follows: for Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, ? values ranged from 1.0100 to 1.0123; for Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, the ? value was 0.0138, and for Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, the ? value was 1.0310. Mixotrophic growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on acetate and CO2 resulted in biomass with a ?13C composition intermediate to that of the substrates. The extent of fractionation depended on which enzymatic pathways were used, the direction in which the pathways operated, and the growth rate, but fractionation was not dependent on the growth phase. To the extent that environmental conditions affect the availability of organic substrates (e.g., acetate) and reducing power (e.g., H2), ecological forces can also influence carbon isotope discrimination by SRB.

Londry, Kathleen L.; Des Marais, David J.

2003-01-01

17

Effects of lead upon the actions of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rice rhizosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbe–mineral interactions play an important role in affecting geochemical transformations of heavy metals in the soil environment. The formation of metal sulfide, which is mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) through contributing to sulfate reduction is an important pathway for heavy metal stabilization in anoxic soil. In oxic rice rhizospheres, there are abundant sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) which can enhance sulfur

Huirong Lin; Jiyan Shi; Xinai Chen; Jianjun Yang; Yingxu Chen; Yidong Zhao; Tiandou Hu

2010-01-01

18

Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Souring, the undesirable production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in oil reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), is a common problem during secondary oil recovery when water is injected to produce the remaining oil. SRB reduce sulfate in the injection water to sulfide, while oxidizing degradable organic electron do- nors present in the oil reservoir. The concentration of sulfate introduced depends on

Casey Hubert; Gerrit Voordouw

2007-01-01

19

Scanning Auger Microprobe analysis of corrosion products associated with sulfate reducing bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Scanning Auger Microprobe analysis was performed on the corrosion products of an austenitic AISI type 304 SS after a potentiostatic polarization of one volt for ten minutes in a modified Postgate's C media containing sulfate reducing bacteria. The corro...

R. A. Sadowski G. Chen C. R. Clayton J. R. Kearns J. B. Gillow

1995-01-01

20

Survival of sulfate reducing bacteria at different water activities in compacted bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-lived radioactive waste will be buried several hundred meters below ground in metal canisters surrounded by a buffer of compacted bentonite. Sulfate-reducing bacteria present in the bentonite may induce canister corrosion by production of hydrogen sulfide. Here we show that survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in bentonite depends on the availability of water and that compacting a high quality bentonite to

Mehrdad Motamedi; Ola Karland; Karsten Pedersen

1996-01-01

21

Reductive Dissolution of Iron Oxides and Iron-Rich Clays Enhanced by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron oxides and iron-rich clays are abundant in low-temperature sedimentary environments where sulfate-reducing bacteria are also present. This study summarizes our research on reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite, magnetite, and a nontronite clay by Desulfovibrio spp. strain G-20 and strain G-11. The goal was twofold: (1) to understand the enzymatic processes of iron reduction by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) using

C. L. Zhang

2003-01-01

22

Ethanol utilization by sulfate-reducing bacteria: an experimental and modeling study.  

PubMed

A mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria containing the species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used to study sulfate-reduction stoichiometry and kinetics using ethanol as the carbon source. Growth yield was lower, and kinetics were slower, for ethanol compared to lactate. Ethanol was converted into acetate and no significant carbon dioxide production was observed. A mathematical model for growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria on ethanol was developed, and simulations of the growth experiments on ethanol were carried out using the model. The pH variation due to sulfate reduction, and hydrogen sulfide production and removal by nitrogen sparging, were examined. The modeling study is distinct from earlier models for systems using sulfate-reducing bacteria in that it considers growth on ethanol, and analyzes pH variations due to the product-formation reactions. PMID:11042550

Nagpal, S; Chuichulcherm, S; Livingston, A; Peeva, L

2000-12-01

23

Community Size and Metabolic Rates of Psychrophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Arctic Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

The numbers of sulfate reducers in two Arctic sediments with in situ temperatures of 2.6 and ?1.7°C were determined. Most-probable-number counts were higher at 10°C than at 20°C, indicating the predominance of a psychrophilic community. Mean specific sulfate reduction rates of 19 isolated psychrophiles were compared to corresponding rates of 9 marine, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results indicate that, as a physiological adaptation to the permanently cold Arctic environment, psychrophilic sulfate reducers have considerably higher specific metabolic rates than their mesophilic counterparts at similarly low temperatures.

Knoblauch, Christian; J?rgensen, Bo Barker; Harder, Jens

1999-01-01

24

Planktonic nitrate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in some western Canadian oil field waters.  

PubMed

Oil fields that use water flooding to enhance oil recovery may become sour because of the production of H(2)S from the reduction of sulfate by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The addition of nitrate to produced waters can stimulate the activities of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and control sulfide production. Many previous studies have focused on chemolithotrophic bacteria that can use thiosulfate or sulfide as energy sources while reducing nitrate. Little attention has been given to heterotrophic NRB in oil field waters. Three different media were used in this study to enumerate various types of planktonic NRB present in waters from five oil fields in western Canada. The numbers of planktonic SRB and bacteria capable of growth under aerobic conditions were also determined. In general, microbial numbers in the produced waters were very low (<10 ml x (-1)) in samples taken near or at wellheads. However, the numbers increased in the aboveground facilities. No thiosulfate-oxidizing NRB were detected in the oil field waters, but other types of NRB were detected in 16 of 18 produced water samples. The numbers of heterotrophic NRB were equal to or greater than the number of sulfide-oxidizing, chemolithotrophic NRB in 12 of 15 samples. These results showed that each of the oil fields contained NRB, which might be stimulated by nitrate amendment to control H(2)S production by SRB. PMID:12161775

Eckford, R E; Fedorak, P M

2002-08-01

25

Novel Processes for Anaerobic Sulfate Production from Elemental Sulfur by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum, Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+?SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O?SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

Lovley, Derek R.; Phillips, Elizabeth J. P.

1994-01-01

26

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 7} cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}, both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found in variable densities of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1}. A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration, and aggregate formation were the most conspicuous adaptations of Solar Lake sulfate-reducing bacteria to the mat matrix and to diurnal oxygen stress. A comparison of sulfate reduction rates within the mat and previously published photosynthesis rates showed that CO{sub 2} from sulfate reduction in the upper 5 mm accounted for 7 to 8% of the total photosynthetic CO{sub 2} demand of the mat.

Teske, A.; Ramsing, N.B.; Habicht, K.; Kuever, J.; Joergensen, B.B. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Fukui, Manabu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Cohen, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

1998-08-01

27

A Revised Isotope Fractionation Model for Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction is related to the stepwise reduction of sulfate to sulfide within the cells of the bacteria. The magnitude of fractionation is dependent on the interplay between different reduction steps in a chain of reactions. One of the most intriguing questions in sulfur isotope geochemistry stems from the observation that in natural environments, sulfides are commonly depleted in 34S by -45\\permil to -70\\permil relative to sulfate whereas maximum sulfur isotope difference between produced sulfides and sulfate of around -46\\permil have been obtained in laboratory cultures. A maximum fractionation of 47\\permil was also predicted by the model of sulfate reduction introduced by Rees (1973). The Rees model is commonly accepted but since its introduction, new information about sulfate reduction and isotope fractionation processes has become available in the literature that demands an update of some of its assumptions. We present a improved model for bacterial sulfate reduction which includes revised fractionation factors for the sulfite-sulfide step, a multi-step reduction of sulfite to sulfide including reverse flows and an exchange flux of sulfide between the cell and ambient water. With this model we show that, contrary to the model of Rees (1973), isotope fractionations well in excess of -47\\permil are possible. Therefore, some of the large sulfur isotope fractionations observed in nature may be explained without the need of alternate pathways involving the oxidative sulfur cycle as proposed by Canfield and Thamdrup (1994). In particular, we speculate that large fractionations should occur under hypersulfidic conditions and substrate limitation. We obviously do not disregard the involvement of processes related to the oxidative cycle of sulfur in near-surface environments, but our model suggests that this is not a prerequisite condition to obtain large isotope fractionations. References: Canfield D. E. and Thamdrup B. (1994) Science, 266, 1973-1975. Rees (1973) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 37, 1141-1162

Benjamin, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.

2004-12-01

28

Separation and concentration of hazardous metals from aqueous solutions using sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The removal of metals from aqueous solutions using sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated. The sulfate-reducing bacteria utilized consisted of a consortium isolated from oil well brine. The consortium was capable of using lactate as a carbon and energy source and producing significant quantities of sulfide which reacted with solubilized metals to form insoluble metal sulfides. After formation, the metal sulfides were removed from solution via filtration. A variety of solubilized metals including lead, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, and chromium were removed from solution using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Removal efficiencies varied from metal to metal with lead exhibiting the highest levels of removal and chromium the lowest. 13 refs., 9 figs.

Apel, W.A.; Wiebe, M.R.; Dugan, P.R.

1990-01-01

29

Quantifying sulfate reducing bacteria in microbiologically influenced corrosion. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Iron-oxidizing, sulfur-oxidizing, iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing, acid producing, slime-producing, ammonium-producing, and hydrogen-producing bacteria in addition to other physiological groups have been implicated in the corrosion of metals and alloys. However, the most widely recognized and most easily detected bacteria in most corrosion processes are the bacteria that reduce sulfate to sulfide that are collectively called sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB constitute a physiological-ecological assemblage of morphologically very different types of anaerobic bacteria that have in common the capacity to reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide in dissimilatory energy-conserving reactions. Hydrogen sulfide can react with metals to produce metal sulfides as corrosion products. Most techniques for the evaluation of SRB populations are related to their potential to cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Standard practices for evaluating the contribution of SRB to corrosion processes depend on the detection and quantification of SRB using culturing techniques that enumerate organisms or quantify intrinsic characteristics of SRB including enzymes and antibodies. Mineralogy of metal sulfides and sulfur isotope fractionation can also be used to verify the involvement of SRB in corrosion. This paper will review standard practices and innovative techniques for detecting and quantifying SRB.

Little, B.; Wagner, P.

1992-11-01

30

Anaerobic degradation of 1,3-propanediol by sulfate-reducing and by fermenting bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of strictly anaerobic Gram-negative, non-sporeforming, motile bacteria were enriched and isolated from freshwater sediments with 1,3-propanediol as sole energy and carbon source. Strain OttPdl was a sulfate-reducing bacterium which grew also with lactate, ethanol, propanol, butanol, 1,4-butanediol, formate or hydrogen plus CO2, the latter only in the presence of acetate. In the absence of sulfate, most of these

Beatrix Oppenberg; Bernhard Schink

1990-01-01

31

Organic Substrates in Bioremediation of Acidic Saline Drainage Waters by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep drains used to manage shallow saline water tables in the Western Australian agricultural region discharge acidic, saline\\u000a drainage water with high concentrations of metals. The activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria can treat these waters by generating\\u000a alkalinity in the form of bicarbonate and by generating sulfide, which removes metals from solution as sulfide precipitates.\\u000a Bacterial sulfate reduction was strongly influenced

Talitha C. Santini; Brad P. Degens; Andrew W. Rate

2010-01-01

32

Phylogenetic Characteristics of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria Having Ability to Reduce Polysulfide  

SciTech Connect

To find an efficient bacterium, which has the strong capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide from polysulfide as the waste of process generating hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide by photocatalytic reaction using sun light, is very important for constructing hydrogen producing system. 10 strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which can reduce polysulfide directly, have been isolated from various natural samples such as TCE contaminated soil, soil and sludge around hot spring environment, and the cooling tower of a geothermal plant. This study describes physiological and phylogenetic characterization of SRB which can reduce polysulfide. All of isolates had the ability to reduce polusulfide but these reduction rates were difference depend on isolates. Phylogetetically, all of isolates located difference position for general SRB including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, which is used standard strain in this study, so they do not belong to Proteobacteria. These have close relation to the genus Desulfotomaculum which can reduce elemental sulfur. It suggests that the ability of reducing elemental sulfur is important for reducing polysulfide to hydrogen sulfide.

Takahashi, Yui; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

2006-05-15

33

Comparative Analysis of Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Anoxic Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of methane in anoxic marine sediments is thought to be mediated by a consortium of meth- ane-consuming archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this study, we compared results of rRNA gene (rDNA) surveys and lipid analyses of archaea and bacteria associated with methane seep sediments from several different sites on the Californian continental margin. Two distinct archaeal lineages (ANME-1

V. J. Orphan; K.-U. Hinrichs; W. USSLER III; C. K. Paull; L. T. Taylor; S. P. Sylva; J. M. Hayes; E. F. Delong

2001-01-01

34

Enumeration of H 2-utilizing methanogenic archaea, acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria from human feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal specimens from 19 healthy humans were used to enumerate H2-utilizing microbial populations of methanogenic archaea (MA), acetogenic bacteria (AB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Eight subjects were methane (CH4) excretors (CH4 +) and 11 non CH4-excretors (CH4 ?), based on breath methane concentrations. The mean ± S.E. of the logarithm of MA per gram wet weight feces were 8.8 ±

J. Doré; P. Pochart; A. Bernalier; I. Goderel; B. Morvan; J. C. Rambaud

1995-01-01

35

Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

Boopathy, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1994-06-01

36

Diversity, activity, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline nad hypersaline soda lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in sediment samples and enrichment cultures from a range of (hyper)saline soda lakes of the

Mirjam Foti; Dimitry Y. Sorokin; Bart Lomans; Marc Mussman; Elena E. Zacharova; Nikolay V. Pimenov; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2007-01-01

37

Importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in mercury methylation and demethylation in periphyton from Bolivian Amazon region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are important mercury methylators in sediments, but information on mercury methylators in other compartments is ambiguous. To investigate SRB involvement in methylation in Amazonian periphyton, the relationship between Hg methylation potential and SRB (Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae) abundance in Eichhornia crassipes and Polygonum densiflorum root associated periphyton was examined. Periphyton subsamples of each macrophyte were amended

Darío Achá; Holger Hintelmann; Janet Yee

2011-01-01

38

Role of sulfate?reducing bacteria in corrosion of mild steel: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sulfate?reducing bacteria on corrosion of mild steel is reviewed, with special emphasis on the effects of biofilm structure and function, medium composition (dissolved oxygen and ferrous ion concentrations) and the physical and chemical properties of iron sulfides. A summary of different corrosion mechanisms is critically discussed, based on electrochemical and rate process analyses. A mechanism is proposed

Whonchee Lee; Zbigniew Lewandowski; Per H Nielsen; W Allan Hamilton

1995-01-01

39

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Principal Methylators of Mercury in Anoxic Estuarine Sediment †  

PubMed Central

Substrate-electron acceptor combinations and specific metabolic inhibitors were applied to anoxic saltmarsh sediment spiked with mercuric ions (Hg2+) in an effort to identify, by a direct approach, the microorganisms responsible for the synthesis of hazardous monomethylmercury. 2-Bromoethane sulfonate (30 mM), a specific inhibitor of methanogens, increased monomethylmercury synthesis, whereas sodium molybdate (20 mM), a specific inhibitor of sulfate reducers, decreased Hg2+ methylation by more than 95%. Anaerobic enrichment and isolation procedures yielded a Desulfovibrio desulfuricans culture that vigorously methylated Hg2+ in culture solution and also in samples of presterilized sediment. The Hg2+ methylation activity of sulfate reducers is fully expressed only when sulfate is limiting and fermentable organic substrates are available. To date, sulfate reducers have not been suspected of Hg2+ methylation. Identification of these bacteria as the principal methylators of Hg2+ in anoxic sediments raises questions about the environmental relevance of previous pure culture-based methylation work.

Compeau, G. C.; Bartha, R.

1985-01-01

40

Growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria with solid-phase electron acceptors.  

PubMed

Hannebachite (CaSO3 x 0.5H2O), gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O), anglesite (PbSO4), and barite (BaSO4) were tested as electron acceptors for sulfate-reducing bacteria with lactate as the electron donor. Hannebachite and gypsum are commonly associated with flue gas desulfurization products, and anglesite is a weathering product found in lead mines. Barite was included as the most insoluble sulfate. Growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria was monitored by protein and sulfide (dissolved H2S and HS-) measurements. Biogenic sulfide formation occurred with all four solid phases, and protein data confirmed that bacteria grew under these electron acceptor conditions. Sulfide formation from gypsum was almost comparable in rate and quantity to that produced from soluble sulfate salt (Na2SO4); hannebachite reduction to sulfide was not as fast. Anglesite as the electron acceptor was also reduced to sulfide in the solution phase and galena (PbS) was detected in solids retrieved from spent cultures. Barite as the electron acceptor supported the least amount of growth and H2S formation. The results demonstrate that low-solubility crystalline phases can be biologically reactive under reducing conditions. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that galena precipitation through sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria serves as a lead enrichment mechanism, thereby also alleviating the potential toxicity of lead. In view of the role of acidophilic thiobacilli in the oxidation of sulfides, the present work accentuates the role of anaerobic and aerobic microbes in the biogeochemical cycling of solid-phase sulfates and sulfides. PMID:11954795

Karnachuk, O V; Kurochkina, S Y; Tuovinen, O H

2002-01-30

41

Microbial activity of iron-reducing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria isolated from mine tailings in the presence of various electron donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial activity of anaerobic bacteria, especially iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB), in sulfidic mine tailings is still poorly understood. Both IRB and SRB require strict anaerobic conditions and simple organic electron donors, such as acetate, lactate, formate, etc. In addition, both processes generate alkalinity. IRB can reduce various forms of Fe(III)-oxides and generate large concentrations of

J. P Rioux; D. Fortin

42

Activity and Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer  

PubMed Central

Microbial sulfate reduction is an important metabolic activity in petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated aquifers. We quantified carbon source-enhanced microbial SO42? reduction in a PHC-contaminated aquifer by using single-well push-pull tests and related the consumption of sulfate and added carbon sources to the presence of certain genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We also used molecular methods to assess suspended SRB diversity. In four consecutive tests, we injected anoxic test solutions (1,000 liters) containing bromide as a conservative tracer, sulfate, and either propionate, butyrate, lactate, or acetate as reactants into an existing monitoring well. After an initial incubation period, 1,000 liters of test solution-groundwater mixture was extracted from the same well. Average total test duration was 71 h. We measured concentrations of bromide, sulfate, and carbon sources in native groundwater as well as in injection and extraction phase samples and characterized the SRB population by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Enhanced sulfate reduction concomitant with carbon source degradation was observed in all tests. Computed first-order rate coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 0.32 day?1 for sulfate reduction and from 0.13 to 0.60 day?1 for carbon source degradation. Sulfur isotope fractionation in unconsumed sulfate indicated that sulfate reduction was microbially mediated. Enhancement of sulfate reduction due to carbon source additions in all tests and variability of rate coefficients suggested the presence of specific SRB genera and a high diversity of SRB. We confirmed this by using FISH and DGGE. A large fraction of suspended bacteria hybridized with SRB-targeting probes SRB385 plus SRB385-Db (11 to 24% of total cells). FISH results showed that the activity of these bacteria was enhanced by addition of sulfate and carbon sources during push-pull tests. However, DGGE profiles indicated that the bacterial community structure of the dominant species did not change during the tests. Thus, the combination of push-pull tests with molecular methods provided valuable insights into microbial processes, activities, and diversity in the sulfate-reducing zone of a PHC-contaminated aquifer.

Kleikemper, Jutta; Schroth, Martin H.; Sigler, William V.; Schmucki, Martina; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Zeyer, Josef

2002-01-01

43

The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form\\u000a one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed\\u000a at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial

Yu-Jie Chang; Yi-Tang Chang; Chun-Hsiung Hung

2008-01-01

44

Anaerobic degradation of methylmercaptan and dimethyl sulfide by newly isolated thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The complete oxidation of methylmercaptan (MSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors was observed in enrichment cultures and dilution series using thermophilic fermentor sludge as the inoculum. Three new strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers were isolated in pure culture (strains MTS5, TDS2, and SDN4). Strain MTS5 grew on MSH and strain TDS2 grew on DMS whereas strain SDN4 grew on either MSH or DMS. The cellular growth yields were 2.57 g (dry weight)/mol of MSH for strain MTS5 and 6.02 g (dry weight)/mol of DMS for strain TDS2. All strains used sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate as electron acceptors, but only strain SDN4 used nitrate. DMS and MSH were oxidized to CO2 and sulfide with either sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate was stoichiometrically reduced to sulfide while nitrate was reduced to ammonium. All strains were motile rods, required biotin for growth, lacked desulfoviridin, had DNA with G+C contents of 48 to 57 mol% and probably belonged to the genus Desulfotomaculum. This is the first report of the oxidation of MSH and DMS by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Images

Tanimoto, Y; Bak, F

1994-01-01

45

Characterization of metabolic performance of methanogenic granules treating brewery wastewater: role of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Granules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system treating a brewery wastewater that contained mainly ethanol, propionate, and acetate as carbon sources and sulfate (0.6 to 1.0 mM) were characterized for their physical and chemical properties, metabolic performance on various substrates, and microbial composition. Transmission electron microscopic examination showed that at least three types of microcolonies existed inside the granules. One type consisted of Methanothrix-like rods with low levels of Methanobacterium-like rods; two other types appeared to be associations between syntrophic-like acetogens and Methanobacterium-like organisms. The granules were observed to be have numerous vents or channels on the surface that extended into the interior portions of the granules that may be involved in release of gas formed within the granules. The maximum substrate conversion rates (millimoles per gram of volatile suspended solids per day) at 35 degrees C in the absence of sulfate were 45.1, 8.04, 4.14, and 5.75 for ethanol, acetate, propionate, and glucose, respectively. The maximum methane production rates (millimoles per gram of volatile suspended solids per day) from H2-CO2 and formate were essentially equal for intact granules (13.7 and 13.5) and for physically disrupted granules (42 and 37). During syntrophic ethanol conversion, both hydrogen and formate were formed by the granules. The concentrations of these two intermediates were maintained at a thermodynamic equilibrium, indicating that both are intermediate metabolites in degradation. Formate accumulated and was then consumed during methanogenesis from H2-CO2. Higher concentrations of formate accumulated in the absence of sulfate than in the presence of sulfate. The addition of sulfate (8 to 9 mM) increased the maximum substrate degradation rates for propionate and ethanol by 27 and 12%, respectively. In the presence of this level of sulfate, sulfate-reducing bacteria did not play a significant role in the metabolism of H2, formate, and acetate, but ethanol and propionate were converted via sulfate reduction by approximately 28 and 60%, respectively. In the presence of 2.0 mM molybdate, syntrophic propionate and ethanol conversion by the granules was inhibited by 97 and 29%, respectively. The data show that in this granular microbial consortium, methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria did not compete for common substrates. Syntrophic propionate and ethanol conversion was likely performed primarily by sulfate-reducing bacteria, while H2, formate, and acetate were consumed primarily by methanogens. Images

Wu, W M; Hickey, R F; Zeikus, J G

1991-01-01

46

Bioremediation of copper-containing wastewater by sulfate reducing bacteria coupled with iron.  

PubMed

In order to treat copper-containing wastewater effectively using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron (Fe(0)) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. The SRB system and the SRB + Fe(0) system were operated under continuous operation. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the SRB + Fe(0) system was twice as much as that of the SRB system with the sulfate loading rate at 125  mg L(-1) h(-1). The effect of COD/SO4(2-) on sulfate reduction indicates an enhanced activity of SRB by adding Fe(0). 99% of total sulfate was deducted in both systems at pH 4.0-7.0, and temperature slightly influenced the removal of sulfate in the SRB + Fe(0) system. In the copper-containing wastewater treatment, the SRB + Fe(0) system shows a better performance since sulfate removal in this system was higher than the SRB system, and the removal ratio of Cu(2+) was held above 95% in SRB + Fe(0) system at all influent Cu(2+) concentrations. PMID:23981707

Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

2013-08-26

47

Formation of Sphalerite (ZnS) Deposits in Natural Biofilms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product

Matthias Labrenz; Gregory K. Druschel; Tamara Thomsen-Ebert; Benjamin Gilbert; Susan A. Welch; Kenneth M. Kemner; Graham A. Logan; Roger E. Summons; Gelsomina De Stasio; Philip L. Bond; Barry Lai; Shelly D. Kelly; Jillian F. Banfield; Diversions Scuba

2000-01-01

48

Innovative, In Situ Use of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria to Remove Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unregulated heavy-metal mining in the West during the early to mid-1900s resulted in the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) at many locations. AMD is characterized by low pH and high concentrations of heavy metals. Results are presented that were gathered during on- going field-scale testing of an innovative technology, the use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), designed to treat and

Marietta Canty; Randy Hiebert; Mary Ann Harrington-Baker; Diana Bless

49

Molecular Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from Two Different Continental Margin Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the natural diversity and distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria along a natural carbon gradient extending down the shelf-slope transition zone of the eastern Pacific continental margin. Dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene sequences (dsrAB) were PCR amplified and cloned from five different sampling sites, each at a discrete depth, from two different margin systems, one off the Pacific coast of

Xueduan Liu; Christopher E. Bagwell; Liyou Wu; Allan H. Devol; Jizhong Zhou

2003-01-01

50

Diversity and Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Groundwater at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(IV) plays a role in both natural attenu- ation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium

YUN-JUAN CHANG; AARON D. PEACOCK; PHILIP E. LONG; JOHN R. STEPHEN; JAMES P. MCKINLEY; SARAH J. MACNAUGHTON; A. K. M. A. Hussain; ARNOLD M. SAXTON; DAVID C. WHITE

2001-01-01

51

Long-term surveillance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance and seasonal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), in general, and of extreme halophilic SRB (belonging to Desulfocella halophila) in particular, were examined in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds over a forty one month period. Industrial wastewater was sampled and the presence of SRB was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with a set of primers designed to amplify

Eitan Ben-Dov; Ariel Kushmaro; Asher Brenner

2009-01-01

52

Treatment by sulfate-reducing bacteria of Chessy acid-mine drainage and metals recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid-mine drainage can contain high concentrations of heavy metals and release of these contaminants into the environment is generally avoided by lime neutralization. However, this classical treatment is expensive and generates large amounts of residual sludge. The selective precipitation of metals using H2S produced biologically by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been proposed as an alternative process. Here, we report on experiments

S Foucher; F Battaglia-Brunet; I Ignatiadis; D Morin

2001-01-01

53

Corrosion behavior of some transition metals and 4340 steel metals exposed to sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Microbial colonization of metals (zirconium, chromium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and type 4340 steel [UNS G43400]) and susceptibility of these metals to microbiologically influenced corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated. Environmental scanning electron microscopy characterization after 12 months and 21 months showed patchy biofilms on all metals except tungsten. Weight loss after 24 months for zirconium and niobium were either nonexistent or negligible, indicating that these metals did not experience MIC under the test conditions.

Natishan, P.M.; Jones-Meehan, J.; Loeb, G.I.; Little, B.J.; Ray, R.; Beard, M.

1999-11-01

54

Competition between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria for H 2 under resting and growing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basis for the outcome of competition between sulfidogens and methanogens for H2 was examined by comparing the kinetic parameters of representatives of each group separately and in co-culture. Michaelis-Menten parameters (Vmax and Km) for four methanogens and five sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined from H2-depletion data. Further, Monod growth parameters (µmax, Ks, YH2) for Desulfovibrio sp. G11 and Methanospirillum hungatei

Joseph A. Robinson; James M. Tiedje

1984-01-01

55

Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(TV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium

Yun-Juan Chang; A D. Peacock; Philip E. Long; John R. Stephen; James P. McKinley; Sarah J. Mcnaughton; A K M A. Hussain; A M. Saxton; D C. White

2000-01-01

56

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms by expressing the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and bactenecin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  To identify novel, less-toxic compounds capable of inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in suspension cultures were exposed to several antimicrobial peptides. The bacterial peptide antimicrobials gramicidin S,\\u000a gramicidin D, and polymyxin B as well as the cationic peptides indolicidin and bactenecin from bovine neutrophils decreased\\u000a the viability of both SRB by 90% after a 1-h exposure

A Jayaraman; F B Mansfeld; T K Wood

1999-01-01

57

Spore-forming thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from North Sea oil field waters  

SciTech Connect

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C{sub 4} through C{sub 6}) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed.

Rosnes, J.T.; Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1991-08-01

58

Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images

Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1991-01-01

59

A Cultured Greigite-Producing Magnetotactic Bacterium in a Novel Group of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotactic bacteria contain magnetosomes—intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)—that cause the bacteria to swim along geomagnetic field lines. We isolated a greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium from a brackish spring in Death Valley National Park, California, USA, strain BW-1, that is able to biomineralize greigite and magnetite depending on culture conditions. A phylogenetic comparison of BW-1 and similar uncultured greigite- and/or magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria from freshwater to hypersaline habitats shows that these organisms represent a previously unknown group of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Deltaproteobacteria. Genomic analysis of BW-1 reveals the presence of two different magnetosome gene clusters, suggesting that one may be responsible for greigite biomineralization and the other for magnetite.

Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Menguy, Nicolas; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Pósfai, Mihály; Prozorov, Tanya; Pignol, David; Frankel, Richard B.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

2011-12-01

60

A cultured greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium in a novel group of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria contain magnetosomes--intracellular, membrane-bounded, magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or greigite (Fe(3)S(4))--that cause the bacteria to swim along geomagnetic field lines. We isolated a greigite-producing magnetotactic bacterium from a brackish spring in Death Valley National Park, California, USA, strain BW-1, that is able to biomineralize greigite and magnetite depending on culture conditions. A phylogenetic comparison of BW-1 and similar uncultured greigite- and/or magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria from freshwater to hypersaline habitats shows that these organisms represent a previously unknown group of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Deltaproteobacteria. Genomic analysis of BW-1 reveals the presence of two different magnetosome gene clusters, suggesting that one may be responsible for greigite biomineralization and the other for magnetite. PMID:22194580

Lefèvre, Christopher T; Menguy, Nicolas; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Pósfai, Mihály; Prozorov, Tanya; Pignol, David; Frankel, Richard B; Bazylinski, Dennis A

2011-12-23

61

Molecular Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Guaymas Basin†  

PubMed Central

The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

2003-01-01

62

Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.  

PubMed

Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

2007-02-16

63

Influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria on alloy 625 and austenitic stainless steel weldments  

SciTech Connect

A series of welded austenitic stainless steel and alloy 625 clad specimens were exposed to natural lake water inoculated with a mixed culture of anaerobic organisms high in sulfate-reducing bacteria. Total exposure was 300 days. The water and bacteria were taken from an actual service water system. Electrochemical testing included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, monitoring of open-circuit potential (E{sub oc}), and zero resistance ammetry tests. Comparison of electrochemical and visual observations to sterile controls indicated electrochemical behavior of all materials in the test matrix was influenced by the bacteria. Polarization resistance and E{sub oc} values were reduced dramatically. Attack was along the fusion line of the weld. The magnitude of these effects followed a trend predicted by the pitting index for each material.

Enos, D.G.; Taylor, S.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

64

Effects of Hydrostatic Pressures on Anaerobic Corrosion of Various Metals and Alloys by Sulfate-Reducing Marine Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anaerobic enrichment cultures from the Caribbean Sea and the Black Sea have yielded certain strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria capable of producing a high rate of corrosion on mild steel under marine culture conditions. These sulfate-reducing cultures w...

C. A. Willingham H. L. Quinby

1971-01-01

65

Kinetics of sulfate and hydrogen uptake by the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfobacterium sp. strain JSP and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. strain R1Ha3  

SciTech Connect

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are the main terminal processes in the anaerobic food chain. Both the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the methane-producing archaea (MPA) use acetate and hydrogen as substrates and, therefore, compete for common electron donors in sulfate-containing natural environments. Due to a higher affinity for the electron donors acetate and hydrogen, SRB outcompete MPA for these compounds whenever sulfate is present in sufficient concentrations. Half-saturation constants (K{sub m}), maximum uptake rates (V{sub max}), and threshold concentrations for sulfate and hydrogen were determined for two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an incubation system without headspace. K{sub m} values determined for the thermophilic SRB were similar to the constants described for mesophilic SRB isolated from environments with low sulfate concentrations.

Sonne-Hansen, J.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Biotechnology; Westermann, P. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of General Microbiology

1999-03-01

66

Comparative Analysis of Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Anoxic Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of methane in anoxic marine sediments is thought to be mediated by a consortium of methane-consuming archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this study, we compared results of rRNA gene (rDNA) surveys and lipid analyses of archaea and bacteria associated with methane seep sediments from several different sites on the Californian continental margin. Two distinct archaeal lineages (ANME-1 and ANME-2), peripherally related to the order Methanosarcinales, were consistently associated with methane seep marine sediments. The same sediments contained abundant 13C-depleted archaeal lipids, indicating that one or both of these archaeal groups are members of anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia. 13C-depleted lipids and the signature 16S rDNAs for these archaeal groups were absent in nearby control sediments. Concurrent surveys of bacterial rDNAs revealed a predominance of ?-proteobacteria, in particular, close relatives of Desulfosarcina variabilis. Biomarker analyses of the same sediments showed bacterial fatty acids with strong 13C depletion that are likely products of these sulfate-reducing bacteria. Consistent with these observations, whole-cell fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed aggregations of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate-reducing Desulfosarcina and Desulfococcus species. Additionally, the presence of abundant 13C-depleted ether lipids, presumed to be of bacterial origin but unrelated to ether lipids of members of the order Desulfosarcinales, suggests the participation of additional bacterial groups in the methane-oxidizing process. Although the Desulfosarcinales and ANME-2 consortia appear to participate in the anaerobic oxidation of methane in marine sediments, our data suggest that other bacteria and archaea are also involved in methane oxidation in these environments.

Orphan, V. J.; Hinrichs, K.-U.; Ussler, W.; Paull, C. K.; Taylor, L. T.; Sylva, S. P.; Hayes, J. M.; Delong, E. F.

2001-01-01

67

Diversity, activity, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline and hypersaline soda lakes.  

PubMed

Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in sediment samples and enrichment cultures from a range of (hyper)saline soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe in southeastern Siberia in Russia. For this purpose, a polyphasic approach was used, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of dsr gene fragments, sulfate reduction rate measurements, serial dilutions, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Comparative sequence analysis revealed the presence of several novel clusters of SRB, mostly affiliated with members of the order Desulfovibrionales and family Desulfobacteraceae. We detected sulfate reducers and observed substantial sulfate reducing rates (between 12 and 423 micromol/dm(3) day(-1)) for most lakes, even at a salinity of 475 g/liter. Enrichments were obtained at salt saturating conditions (4 M Na(+)), using H(2) or volatile fatty acids as electron donors, and an extremely halophilic SRB, strain ASO3-1, was isolated. Furthermore, a high dsr gene copy number of 10(8) cells per ml was detected in a hypersaline lake by qPCR. Our results indicate the presence of diverse and active SRB communities in these extreme ecosystems. PMID:17308191

Foti, Mirjam; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Lomans, Bart; Mussman, Marc; Zacharova, Elena E; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

2007-02-16

68

Diversity, Activity, and Abundance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Saline and Hypersaline Soda Lakes?  

PubMed Central

Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in sediment samples and enrichment cultures from a range of (hyper)saline soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe in southeastern Siberia in Russia. For this purpose, a polyphasic approach was used, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of dsr gene fragments, sulfate reduction rate measurements, serial dilutions, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Comparative sequence analysis revealed the presence of several novel clusters of SRB, mostly affiliated with members of the order Desulfovibrionales and family Desulfobacteraceae. We detected sulfate reducers and observed substantial sulfate reducing rates (between 12 and 423 ?mol/dm3 day?1) for most lakes, even at a salinity of 475 g/liter. Enrichments were obtained at salt saturating conditions (4 M Na+), using H2 or volatile fatty acids as electron donors, and an extremely halophilic SRB, strain ASO3-1, was isolated. Furthermore, a high dsr gene copy number of 108 cells per ml was detected in a hypersaline lake by qPCR. Our results indicate the presence of diverse and active SRB communities in these extreme ecosystems.

Foti, Mirjam; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Lomans, Bart; Mussman, Marc; Zacharova, Elena E.; Pimenov, Nikolay V.; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

2007-01-01

69

Isolation of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from Sediments Above the Deep-Subseafloor Aquifer  

PubMed Central

On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a large part of the deep-subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from sediments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301). The sediments comprise three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone, and a second (?140?m thick) sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. In order to identify and characterize sulfate-reducing bacteria, enrichment cultures from different sediment layers were set up, analyzed by molecular screening, and used for isolating pure cultures. The initial enrichments harbored specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp., and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were isolated only from the top layers (1.3–9.1?meters below seafloor, mbsf), while several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and a relative of Desulfotignum balticum were obtained from near-basement sediments (240–262?mbsf). Physiological tests on three selected strains affiliated to Dv. aespoeensis, Dv. indonesiensis, and Desulfotignum balticum indicated that all reduce sulfate with a limited number of short-chain n-alcohols or fatty acids and were able to ferment either ethanol, pyruvate, or betaine. All three isolates shared the capacity of growing chemolithotrophically with H2 as sole electron donor. Strain P23, affiliating with Dv. indonesiensis, even grew autotrophically in the absence of any organic compounds. Thus, H2 might be an essential electron donor in the deep-subseafloor where the availability of organic substrates is limited. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from the seafloor hundreds of meters above.

Fichtel, Katja; Mathes, Falko; Konneke, Martin; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

2011-01-01

70

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Release Barium and Radium from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Oil-Field Barite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing

2001-01-01

71

Enrichment and isolation of acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from Tinto River sediments.  

PubMed

Although some acidophilic and alkaliphilic species have been described recently, most of the known sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) grow optimally at neutral pH. In this study, sulfate reduction was studied with sediment samples from the extremely acidic Tinto River basin. Stable enrichments of SRB were obtained at pH?4 with glycerol, methanol and hydrogen; at pH?4.5 with lactate and at pH?5.5 with succinate as substrates. Inhibition of sulfate reduction by organic acids below their pKa was observed. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that fermentative bacteria (Paludibacter spp., Oscillibacter spp.) and SRB (Thermodesulfobium spp., Desulfosporosinus spp., Desulfitobacterium spp., Desulfotomaculum spp.) were co-enriched. By repeated serial dilutions and streaking on agar plates, four strains of SRB belonging to the Firmicutes phylum were obtained. Two of them show 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Desulfosporosinus acidophilus, and a third one with Desulfosporosinus orientis. Another isolate has just 93% rRNA gene sequence similarity with the Desulfosporosinus/Desulfitobacterium cluster and might represent a novel species within a novel genus. One of the Desulfosporosinus strains was further investigated showing maximum growth at pH?5.5, and a pH-dependent inhibitory effect of organic acids and sulfide. PMID:24115617

Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Stams, Alfons J M; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

2013-05-06

72

Microbial control of the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

A sulfide-resistant ctrain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium or in Berea sandstone cores. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. These data suggest that strain F would be effective in controlling sulfide production in oil reservoirs and other environments. PMID:18592547

Montgomery, A D; McLnerney, M J; Sublette, K L

1990-03-01

73

Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.  

PubMed

In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S. PMID:21135024

Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

2010-12-06

74

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the previous grant period were designed to explore the electron transport pathway employed by the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). More specifically experiments were designed to determine whether U(VI) reduction by members of the genus Desulfovibrio was mediated by a unique, dedicated reductase or occurred as a fortuitous reaction with a reductase naturally involved in alternative reduction processes. In addition, the regulation of the hierarchical expression of terminal electron acceptors (reductases) in the SRB was to be examined.

Wall, Judy D.

2001-06-01

75

Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquen Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3

Aleksandr A. Grigoryan; Sabrina L. Cornish; Brenton Buziak; Shiping Lin; Adriana Cavallaro; Joseph J. Arensdorf; Gerrit Voordouw

2008-01-01

76

Effects of salt marsh invasion by Spartina alterniflora on sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Yangtze River estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how plant invasion affects sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) responsible for sulfate reduction, we conducted a comparative study of diversity and composition of SRB in rhizosphere soils of invasive exotic species (Spartina alterniflora) and two native species (Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter) on Jiuduansha Island located in the Yangtze River estuary, China. Throughout the growing season, profiles of DGGE fingerprints

Ming Nie; Meng Wang; Bo Li

2009-01-01

77

Kinetics of sulfate and hydrogen uptake by the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfobacterium sp. strain JSP and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. strain R1Ha3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are the main terminal processes in the anaerobic food chain. Both the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the methane-producing archaea (MPA) use acetate and hydrogen as substrates and, therefore, compete for common electron donors in sulfate-containing natural environments. Due to a higher affinity for the electron donors acetate and hydrogen, SRB outcompete MPA for these compounds

JACOB SONNE-HANSEN; B. K. Ahring; P. Westermann

1999-01-01

78

Sulfate-reducing bacteria are common members of bacterial communities in Altamira Cave (Spain).  

PubMed

The conservation of paleolithic paintings such as those in Altamira Cave (Spain) is a primary objective. Recent molecular studies have shown the existence of unknown microbial communities in this cave including anaerobic microorganisms on cave walls. Herein, we analyzed an anaerobic microbial group, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), from Altamira Cave with potential negative effects on painting conservation. In the present work, the communities of bacteria and SRB were studied through PCR-DGGE analysis. Data suggest that SRB communities represent a significant, highly diverse bacterial group in Altamira Cave. These findings represent a first report on this physiological group on caves with paleolithic paintings and their potential biodegradation consequences. Expanding our knowledge on microbial communities in Altamira Cave is a priority to design appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:19027143

Portillo, M Carmen; Gonzalez, Juan M

2008-11-22

79

Analyses of spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activity in aerobic wastewater biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}{minus}, NH{sub 2}{sup +}, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the toxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations. The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 {micro}m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S{degree}) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms, which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-11-01

80

Molecular Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria from Two Different Continental Margin Habitats  

PubMed Central

This study examined the natural diversity and distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria along a natural carbon gradient extending down the shelf-slope transition zone of the eastern Pacific continental margin. Dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene sequences (dsrAB) were PCR amplified and cloned from five different sampling sites, each at a discrete depth, from two different margin systems, one off the Pacific coast of Mexico and another off the coast of Washington State. A total of 1,762 clones were recovered and evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The majority of the gene sequences recovered showed site and depth restricted distributions; however, a limited number of gene sequences were widely distributed within and between the margin systems. Cluster analysis identified 175 unique RFLP patterns, and nucleotide sequences were determined for corresponding clones. Several different continental margin DsrA sequences clustered with those from formally characterized taxa belonging to the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (Desulfobulbus propionicus, Desulfosarcina variabilis) and the Bacillus-Clostridium (Desulfotomaculum putei) divisions, although the majority of the recovered sequences were phylogenetically divergent relative to all of the other DsrA sequences available for comparison. This study revealed extensive new genetic diversity among sulfate-reducing bacteria in continental margin sedimentary habitats, which appears to be tightly coupled to slope depth, specifically carbon bioavailability.

Liu, Xueduan; Bagwell, Christopher E.; Wu, Liyou; Devol, Allan H.; Zhou, Jizhong

2003-01-01

81

Molecular Phylogenetic and Biogeochemical Studies of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora  

PubMed Central

The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons by molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO42? reduction rates and geochemical parameters. SO42? reduction was rapid in marsh sediments with rates up to 3.5 ?mol ml?1 day?1. Rates increased greatly when plant growth began in April and decreased again when plants flowered in late July. Results with nucleic acid probes revealed that SRB rRNA accounted for up to 43% of the rRNA from members of the domain Bacteria in marsh sediments, with the highest percentages occurring in bacteria physically associated with root surfaces. The relative abundance (RA) of SRB rRNA in whole-sediment samples compared to that of Bacteria rRNA did not vary greatly throughout the year, despite large temporal changes in SO42? reduction activity. However, the RA of root-associated SRB did increase from <10 to >30% when plants were actively growing. rRNA from members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae comprised the majority of the SRB rRNA at 3 to 34% of Bacteria rRNA, with Desulfobulbus spp. accounting for 1 to 16%. The RA of Desulfovibrio rRNA generally comprised from <1 to 3% of the Bacteria rRNA. The highest Desulfobacteriaceae RA in whole sediments was 26% and was found in the deepest sediment samples (6 to 8 cm). Culturable SRB abundance, determined by most-probable-number analyses, was high at >107 ml?1. Ethanol utilizers were most abundant, followed by acetate utilizers. The high numbers of culturable SRB and the high RA of SRB rRNA compared to that of Bacteria rRNA may be due to the release of SRB substrates in plant root exudates, creating a microbial food web that circumvents fermentation.

Hines, Mark E.; Evans, Robert S.; Sharak Genthner, Barbara R.; Willis, Stephanie G.; Friedman, Stephanie; Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.; Devereux, Richard

1999-01-01

82

PHYLOGENETIC TREE OF 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES FROM SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN A SANDY MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Phylogenetic divergence among sulfate-reducing bacteria in an estuarine sediment sample was investigated by PCR amplification and comparison of partial 16S rDNA sequences. wenty unique 16S RDNA sequences were found, 12 from delta subclass bacteria based on overall sequence simila...

83

Cadmium Accumulation and DNA Homology with Metal Resistance Genes in Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Cadmium resistance (0.1 to 1.0 mM) was studied in four pure and one mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The growth of the bacteria was monitored with respect to carbon source (lactate) oxidation and sulfate reduction in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Two strains Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926 and Desulfococcus multivorans DSM 2059 showed the highest resistance to cadmium (0.5 mM). Transmission electron microscopy of the two strains showed intracellular and periplasmic accumulation of cadmium. Dot blot DNA hybridization using the probes for the smtAB, cadAC, and cadD genes indicated the presence of similar genetic determinants of heavy metal resistance in the SRB tested. DNA sequencing of the amplified DNA showed strong nucleotide homology in all the SRB strains with the known smtAB genes encoding synechococcal metallothioneins. Protein homology with the known heavy metal-translocating ATPases was also detected in the cloned amplified DNA of Desulfomicrobium norvegicum I1 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926, suggesting the presence of multiple genetic mechanisms of metal resistance in the two strains.

Naz, Naghma; Young, Hilary K.; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Gadd, Geoffrey M.

2005-01-01

84

(The genetics and molecular biology of hydrogen metabolism in sulfate-reducing bacteria): Progress report  

SciTech Connect

In anaerobic digestors and natural environments, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play a pivotal role in methane generation, either providing hydrogen and acetate for methane formation or competing with the methanogens for those same substrates. The SRB are also the primary culprits in causing environmental metal corrosion costing millions of dollars each year and in producing poisonous sulfide sometimes costing lives. Key factors controlling the interactions of the SRB with other microorganisms in their environment are hydrogen metabolism and their tolerance of exposures to oxygen. The number of enzymes capable of producing or consuming hydrogen in the SRB and their physiological functions remain obscure. Our laboratory is developing the genetics and molecular biology of the SRB with the aim of examining the hydrogen metabolism. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 has been found to be amenable to classical genetic manipulation, antibiotic resistant mutants as well as mutants altered in sulfate and hydrogen metabolism have been isolated. Most excitingly, this strain has been found to produce a defective bacteriophage capable of generalized transduction. This strain as well as G100A have been found to be capable of genetic exchange with Escherichia coli via conjugation involving Q-incompatibility group plasmids. Detailed examination of the metabolic properties of these bacteria is now possible.

Not Available

1988-12-01

85

Reduction of Hexavalent Uranium from Organic Complexes by Sulfate- and Iron-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The influence of organic-hexavalent-uranium [U(VI)] complexation on U(VI) reduction by a sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and an iron-reducing bacterium (Shewanella alga) was evaluated. Four aliphatic ligands (acetate, malonate, oxalate, and citrate) and an aromatic ligand (tiron [4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid]) were used to study complexed-uranium bioavailability. The trends in uranium reduction varied with the nature and the amount of U(VI)-organic complex formed and the type of bacteria present. D. desulfuricans rapidly reduced uranium from a monodentate aliphatic (acetate) complex. However, reduction from multidentate aliphatic complexes (malonate, oxalate, and citrate) was slower. A decrease in the amount of organic-U(VI) complex in solution significantly increased the rate of reduction. S. alga reduced uranium more rapidly from multidentate aliphatic complexes than from monodentate aliphatic complexes. The rate of reduction decreased with a decrease in the amount of multidentate complexes present. Uranium from an aromatic (tiron) complex was readily available for reduction by D. desulfuricans, while an insignificant level of U(VI) from the tiron complex was reduced by S. alga. These results indicate that selection of bacteria for rapid uranium reduction will depend on the organic composition of waste streams.

Ganesh, R.; Robinson, K. G.; Reed, G. D.; Sayler, G. S.

1997-01-01

86

Sulfonates as Terminal Electron Acceptors for Growth of Sulfite-Reducing Bacteria (Desulfitobacterium spp.) and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Effects of Inhibitors of Sulfidogenesis  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of Desulfitobacterium spp. to utilize aliphatic sulfonates as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) for growth. Isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium hafniense resulted in acetate as well as sulfide accumulation in accordance with the expectation that the carbon portion of isethionate was oxidized to acetate and the sulfur was reduced to sulfide. The presence of a polypeptide, approximately 97 kDa, was evident in isethionate-grown cells of Desulfitobacterium hafniense, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1, and the two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)—Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1 (T. J. Lie, J. R. Leadbetter, and E. R. Leadbetter, Geomicrobiol. J. 15:135–149, 1998) and Desulfomicrobium norvegicum; this polypeptide was not detected when these bacteria were grown on TEA other than isethionate, suggesting involvement in its metabolism. The sulfate analogs molybdate and tungstate, effective in inhibiting sulfate reduction by SRB, were examined for their effects on sulfonate reduction. Molybdate effectively inhibited sulfonate reduction by strain IC1 and selectively inhibited isethionate (but not cysteate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1. Desulfitobacterium hafniense, however, grew with both isethionate and cysteate in the presence of molybdate. In contrast, tungstate only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium spp. Similarly, another inhibitor of sulfate reduction, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, effectively inhibited sulfate reduction by SRB but only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium hafniense.

Lie, Thomas J.; Godchaux, Walter; Leadbetter, Edward R.

1999-01-01

87

Bioremediation of acid mine water using facultatively methylotrophic metal-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial process is proposed for the decontamination of acid uranium mine water high in sulfates and metals. Sulfate reducers are suitable for such a process. Anaerobic reduction of sulfate results in the formation of H2S which leads to an increase in pH and the precipitation of the metals. As cheap an readily available carbon and energy source methanol was

Barbara C. Hard; S. Friedrich; W. Babel

1997-01-01

88

Dehalogenation of lindane (?-hexachlorocyclohexane) by anaerobic bacteria from marine sediments and by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediments from around burrows of Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a tribromopyrrole-producing marine hemichordate, were used to develop anaerobic enrichment cultures supplemented with lindane and a mixture of short chain fatty acids. These enrichments consumed lindane and both monochlorobenzene and benzene were detected as transformation products. Cultures transferred to sediment-free media containing citrate, lactate, yeast extract and sulfate also dehalogenated lindane. Lindane

Alfred W. Boyle; Max M. Häggblom; Lily Y. Young

1999-01-01

89

The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial product (ORC) was evaluated as a means of inhibiting SRB in laboratory batch columns. Different concentrations of MgO2 were added in the columns when black sulfide sediment had appeared in the columns. The experimental results showed that MgO2 is able to inhibit biogenic sulfide. The number of SRB, the sulfide concentration and the sulfate reducing rate (SRR) were decreased. ORCtrade mark as an additive was able to decrease more effectively the concentration of sulfide in water and the SRB-control effect was maintained over a longer time period when ORCtrade mark was used. The level of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), which has a linear relationship to the sulfide/sulfate ratio, is a good indicator of SRB activity. As determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), most SRB growth was inhibited under increasing amounts of added MgO2. The concentration of sulfide reflected the abundance of the SRB. Utilization of organic matter greater than the theoretical SRB utilization rate indicated that facultative heterotrophs became dominant after MgO2 was added. The results of this study could supply the useful information for further study on evaluating the solution to biocorrosion problems in practical situations. PMID:18712535

Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Hung, Chun-Hsiung

2008-08-20

90

Formation of Fe-sulfides in cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to synthesize Fe-sulfides produced with sulfate-reducing bacteria under experimental laboratory conditions. Fe-sulfides were precipitated with biologically produced sulfide in cultures growing at 22, 45, and 60 degrees C for up to 16 weeks. Abiotic controls were prepared by reacting liquid media with Na(2)S solutions. Precipitates were collected anaerobically, freeze-dried and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Additional analyses included total Fe and S content, magnetic susceptibility, specific surface area, and scanning electron microscopy. Mackinawite (FeS) and greigite (Fe(3)S(4)) were the dominant iron sulfide phases formed in sulfate-reducing bacterial cultures. An increase in the incubation temperature from 22 to 60 degrees C enhanced the crystallinity of the Fe-sulfides. Generally, greigite was more prevalent in abiotic samples and mackinawite in biogenic materials. Pyrite (FeS(2)) was also found in abiotic precipitates. Abiotic samples had a higher magnetic susceptibility because of the greigite and displayed improved crystallinity compared to biotic materials. PMID:19962824

Gramp, Jonathan P; Bigham, Jerry M; Jones, F Sandy; Tuovinen, Olli H

2009-11-10

91

Formation sphalerite (ZnS) deposits in natural biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

SciTech Connect

Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product results from buffering of sulfide concentrations at low values by sphalerite precipitation. These results show how microbes control metal concentrations in groundwater- and wetland-based remediation systems and suggest biological routes for formation of some low-temperature ZnS deposits.

Labrenz, M.; Druschel, G. K.; Thomsen-Ebert, T.; Gilbert, B.; Welch, S. A.; Kemner, K. M.; Logan, G. A.; Summons, R. E.; De Stasio, G.; Bond, P. L.; Lai, B.; Kelly, S. D.; Banfield, J. F.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Australian Geological Survey Organisation; Diversions Scuba

2000-12-01

92

Method for studying stabilization of localized corrosion on carbon steel by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Initiation of a corrosion pit in plain carbon steel (CS) was simulated by preconditioning a small area and a larger concentric area as an anode and cathode, respectively. Preconditioning was achieved by applying a galvanic current between the electrodes. During this initial step, the effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on resulting polarization of this artificial galvanic cell was investigated. The previously conditioned electrodes then were left short-circuited, and the naturally flowing galvanic current was measured using a zero-resistance ammeter. In the presence of SRB biofilms, an active and naturally stable galvanic cell was achieved. In sterile conditions, the coupling current either was unstable or very low. This technique was aimed at studying risk factors linking bacterial contamination to the onset of rapid pitting corrosion.

Campaignolle, X. [Univ. de Bordeaux 1, Arcachon (France). Lab. d`Oceanographie Biologique; Crolet, J.L. [Elf Aquitaine, Pau (France)

1997-06-01

93

Molecular phylogenetic and biogeochemical studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora  

SciTech Connect

The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons by molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction rates and geochemical parameters. So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction was rapid in marsh sediments with rates up to 3.5 {micro}mol ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}. Rates increased greatly when plant growth began in April and decreased again when plants flowered in late July. Results with nucleic acid probes revealed that SRB rRNA accounted for up to 43% of the rRNA from members of the domain Bacteria in marsh sediments, with the highest percentages occurring in bacteria physically associated with root surfaces. The relative abundance (RA) of SRB rRNA in whole-sediment samples compared to that of Bacteria rRNA did not vary greatly throughout the year, despite large temporal changes in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction activity. However, the RA of root-associated SRB did increase from < 10 to > 30% when plants were actively growing. rRNA from members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae comprised the majority of the SRB rRNA at 3 to 34% of Bacteria rRNA, with Desulfobulbus spp. accounting for 1 to 16%. The RA of Desulfovibrio rRNA generally comprised from < 1 to 3% of the Bacteria rRNA. The highest Desulfobacteriaceae RA in whole sediments was 26% and was found in the deepest sediment samples (6 to 8 cm). Culturable SRB abundance, determined by most-probable-number analyses, was high at > 10{sup 7} ml{sup {minus}1}. Ethanol utilizers were most abundant, followed by acetate utilizers. The high numbers of culturable SRB and the high RA of SRB rRNA compared to that of Bacteria rRNA may be due to the release of SRB substrates in plant root exudates, creating a microbial food web that circumvents fermentation.

Hines, M.E. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Evans, R.S.; Willis, S.G.; Rooney-Varga, J.N. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space; Genthner, B.R.S. [Univ. of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States). Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation; Friedman, S.; Devereux, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.

1999-05-01

94

Non-Sulfate-Reducing, Syntrophic Bacteria Affiliated with Desulfotomaculum Cluster I Are Widely Distributed in Methanogenic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical perception of members of the gram-positive Desulfotomaculum cluster I as sulfate-reducing bacteria was recently challenged by the isolation of new representatives lacking the ability for anaerobic sulfate respiration. For example, the two described syntrophic propionate-oxidizing species of the genus Pelotomacu- lum form the novel Desulfotomaculum subcluster Ih. In the present study, we applied a polyphasic approach by using

Hiroyuki Imachi; Yuji Sekiguchi; Yoichi Kamagata; Alexander Loy; Yan-Ling Qiu; Philip Hugenholtz; Nobutada Kimura; Michael Wagner; Akiyoshi Ohashi; Hideki Harada

2006-01-01

95

Diversity and Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Permanently Frozen Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permanently frozen freshwater Lake Fryxell, located in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, exhibits an ideal geochemistry for microbial sulfate reduction. To investigate the population of sulfate-reducing bacteria in Lake Fryxell, both 16S rRNA gene and metabolic primer sets targeting the dsrA gene for the dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit were employed to analyze environmental DNA obtained from the water

Elizabeth A. Karr; W. Matthew Sattley; Melissa R. Rice; Deborah O. Jung; Michael T. Madigan; Laurie A. Achenbach

2005-01-01

96

Importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in mercury methylation and demethylation in periphyton from Bolivian Amazon region.  

PubMed

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are important mercury methylators in sediments, but information on mercury methylators in other compartments is ambiguous. To investigate SRB involvement in methylation in Amazonian periphyton, the relationship between Hg methylation potential and SRB (Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae) abundance in Eichhornia crassipes and Polygonum densiflorum root associated periphyton was examined. Periphyton subsamples of each macrophyte were amended with electron donors (lactate, acetate and propionate) or inhibitors (molybdate) of sulfate reduction to create differences in SRB subgroup abundance, which was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with primers specific for the 16S rRNA gene. Mercury methylation and demethylation potentials were determined by a stable isotope tracer technique using 200HgCl and CH3(202)HgCl, respectively. Relative abundance of Desulfobacteraceae (<0.01-12.5%) and Desulfovibrionaceae (0.01-6.8%) were both highly variable among samples and subsamples, but a significant linear relationship (p<0.05) was found between Desulfobacteraceae abundance and net methylmercury formation among treatments of the same macrophyte periphyton and among all P. densiflorum samples, suggesting that Desulfobacteraceae bacteria are the most important mercury methylators among SRB families. Yet, molybdate only partially inhibited mercury methylation potentials, suggesting the involvement of other microorganisms as well. The response of net methylmercury production to the different electron donors and molybdate was highly variable (3-1104 pg g(-1) in 12 h) among samples, as was the net formation in control samples (17-164 pg g(-1) in 12 h). This demonstrates the importance of community variability and complexity of microbial interactions for the overall methylmercury production in periphyton and their response to external stimulus. PMID:21074243

Achá, Darío; Hintelmann, Holger; Yee, Janet

2010-11-11

97

Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing and Methanogenic Bacteria in Anaerobic Aggregates Determined by Microsensor and Molecular Analyses  

PubMed Central

Using molecular techniques and microsensors for H2S and CH4, we studied the population structure of and the activity distribution in anaerobic aggregates. The aggregates originated from three different types of reactors: a methanogenic reactor, a methanogenic-sulfidogenic reactor, and a sulfidogenic reactor. Microsensor measurements in methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates revealed that the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (2 to 3 mmol of S2? m?3 s?1 or 2 × 10?9 mmol s?1 per aggregate) was located in a surface layer of 50 to 100 ?m thick. The sulfidogenic aggregates contained a wider sulfate-reducing zone (the first 200 to 300 ?m from the aggregate surface) with a higher activity (1 to 6 mmol of S2? m?3 s?1 or 7 × 10?9 mol s?1 per aggregate). The methanogenic aggregates did not show significant sulfate-reducing activity. Methanogenic activity in the methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates (1 to 2 mmol of CH4 m?3 s?1 or 10?9 mmol s?1 per aggregate) and the methanogenic aggregates (2 to 4 mmol of CH4 m?3 s?1 or 5 × 10?9 mmol s?1 per aggregate) was located more inward, starting at ca. 100 ?m from the aggregate surface. The methanogenic activity was not affected by 10 mM sulfate during a 1-day incubation. The sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities were independent of the type of electron donor (acetate, propionate, ethanol, or H2), but the substrates were metabolized in different zones. The localization of the populations corresponded to the microsensor data. A distinct layered structure was found in the methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates, with sulfate-reducing bacteria in the outer 50 to 100 ?m, methanogens in the inner part, and Eubacteria spp. (partly syntrophic bacteria) filling the gap between sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria. In methanogenic aggregates, few sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected, while methanogens were found in the core. In the sulfidogenic aggregates, sulfate-reducing bacteria were present in the outer 300 ?m, and methanogens were distributed over the inner part in clusters with syntrophic bacteria.

Santegoeds, Cecilia M.; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Hesselink, Gijs; Zopfi, Jakob; Lens, Piet; Muyzer, Gerard; de Beer, Dirk

1999-01-01

98

Metabolism of Trimethylamine, Choline, and Glycine Betaine by Sulfate-Reducing and Methanogenic Bacteria in Marine Sediments †  

PubMed Central

The response of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction to trimethylamine, choline, and glycine betaine was examined in surface sediments from the intertidal region of Lowes Cove, Maine. Addition of these substrates markedly stimulated methanogenesis in the presence of active sulfate reduction, whereas addition of other substrates, including glucose, acetate, and glycine, had no effect on methane production. Sulfate reduction was stimulated simultaneously with methanogenesis by the various quaternary amines and all other substrates examined. Incubation of exogenous trimethylamine, choline, or glycine betaine with either bromoethane sulfonic acid or sodium molybdate was used to establish pathways of degradation of the substrates. Methanogenesis dominated the metabolism of trimethylamine, although limited nonmethanogenic activity, perhaps by sulfate-reducing bacteria, was observed. Acetate was oxidized primarily by sulfate reducers. Both choline and glycine betaine were fermented stoichiometrically to acetate and trimethylamine; apparently, neither substrate could be utilized directly by methanogens or sulfate reducers, and the activities of fermenters, methanogens, and sulfate reducers were all required to effect complete mineralization. These observations support the hypothesis that the presence of quaternary amines can mediate the coexistence of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine surface sediments; they also implicate methanogens in the nitrogen cycle of marine sediments containing quaternary amines.

King, Gary M.

1984-01-01

99

Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments.

Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

2012-01-01

100

Metabolism of low molecular weight organic compounds by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a Delaware salt marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of acetate, lactate, pyruvate, and ethanol to CO2 in anaerobic salt marsh sediments was rapid, with the oxidation rate being significantly inhibited (60–90% decrease) in the presence of 2 mM sodium molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, generally had no effect on the oxidation rate. Acetate was the only intermediate

Howard J. Dicker; David W. Smith

1985-01-01

101

Localized corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel in the presence of sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localized corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel was investigated in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) isolated from cooling water system using polarization measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis. The results show the corrosion potential (Ecorr) and breakdown potential (Eb) of SS decreased in turn with the presence of IOB,

Congmin Xu; Yaoheng Zhang; Guangxu Cheng; Wensheng Zhu

2007-01-01

102

Environmental controls on iron?oxidising, sulfur?oxidising and sulfate?reducing bacteria in mine wastes, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic and modern tailings piles and waste dumps in east Otago (South Island) and the Coromandel Peninsula (North Island) of New Zealand encompass a wide range of physico?chemical environmental conditions, and host chemolitho(auto)trophs (iron? and sulfur?oxidising bacteria, IOB and SOB respectively) and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfide mineral grains are only marginally altered, even after up to 100 years of surficial

Debra A. Chappell; Dave Craw

2003-01-01

103

Identification of distinct communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields by reverse sample genome probing.  

PubMed

Thirty-five different standards of sulfate-reducing bacteria, identified by reverse sample genome probing and defined as bacteria with genomes showing little or no cross-hybridization, were in part characterized by Southern blotting, using 16S rRNA and hydrogenase gene probes. Samples from 56 sites in seven different western Canadian oil field locations were collected and enriched for sulfate-reducing bacteria by using different liquid media containing one of the following carbon sources: lactate, ethanol, benzoate, decanoate, propionate, or acetate. DNA was isolated from the enrichments and probed by reverse sample genome probing using master filters containing denatured chromosomal DNAs from the 35 sulfate-reducing bacterial standards. Statistical analysis of the microbial compositions at 44 of the 56 sites indicated the presence of two distinct communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The discriminating factor between the two communities was the salt concentration of the production waters, which were either fresh water or saline. Of 34 standards detected, 10 were unique to the fresh water and 18 were unique to the saline oil field environment, while only 6 organisms were cultured from both communities. PMID:16348801

Voordouw, G; Voordouw, J K; Jack, T R; Foght, J; Fedorak, P M; Westlake, D W

1992-11-01

104

Microbiologically assisted stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in mixed and pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of microbiological environments containing pure and mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria in stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in biotic and abiotic environments was investigated. Carbon steel specimens were subjected to slow strain rate testing in a synthetic seawater environment (3.5% sodium chloride solution), with and without the microbiological cultures. Specimens tested in biotic (microbiological) conditions showed a

R. Javaherdashti; R. K. Singh Raman; C. Panter; E. V. Pereloma

2006-01-01

105

Title: Sulfate reducing bacteria and mercury methylation in the water column of the Lake 658 of the Experimental Lake Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) appear to be the main mediators of mercury methylation in sediments, which are deemed to be major sites of methylmercury (MMHg) production. However, recent studies have also found significant MMHg formation in the water column of lakes across North America. To investigate the potential involvement of SRB in mercury methylation in the water column of a

Darío Achá; Holger Hintelmann; Cecilia A. Pabón

2012-01-01

106

Treatment of simulated wastewater from in situ leaching uranium mining by zerovalent iron and sulfate reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch and column experiments were conducted to determine whether zerovalent iron (ZVI) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can function synergistically and accelerate pollutant removal. Batch experiments suggest that combining ZVI with SRB can enhance the removal of U(?) synergistically. The removal rate of U(?) in the ZVI+SRB combining system is obviously higher than the total rate of ZVI system and

Zheng-ji YI; Bin LIAN; Ying-qun YANG; Jian-ling ZOU

2009-01-01

107

Tackling the minority: sulfate-reducing bacteria in an archaea-dominated subsurface biofilm.  

PubMed

Archaea are usually minor components of a microbial community and dominated by a large and diverse bacterial population. In contrast, the SM1 Euryarchaeon dominates a sulfidic aquifer by forming subsurface biofilms that contain a very minor bacterial fraction (5%). These unique biofilms are delivered in high biomass to the spring outflow that provides an outstanding window to the subsurface. Despite previous attempts to understand its natural role, the metabolic capacities of the SM1 Euryarchaeon remain mysterious to date. In this study, we focused on the minor bacterial fraction in order to obtain insights into the ecological function of the biofilm. We link phylogenetic diversity information with the spatial distribution of chemical and metabolic compounds by combining three different state-of-the-art methods: PhyloChip G3 DNA microarray technology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy. The results of PhyloChip and FISH technologies provide evidence for selective enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which was confirmed by the detection of bacterial dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) genes via quantitative PCR and sequence-based analyses. We further established a differentiation of archaeal and bacterial cells by SR-FTIR based on typical lipid and carbohydrate signatures, which demonstrated a co-localization of organic sulfate, carbonated mineral and bacterial signatures in the biofilm. All these results strongly indicate an involvement of the SM1 euryarchaeal biofilm in the global cycles of sulfur and carbon and support the hypothesis that sulfidic springs are important habitats for Earth's energy cycles. Moreover, these investigations of a bacterial minority in an Archaea-dominated environment are a remarkable example of the great power of combining highly sensitive microarrays with label-free infrared imaging. PMID:23178669

Probst, Alexander J; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Birarda, Giovanni; Bechtel, Hans A; Piceno, Yvette M; Sonnleitner, Maria; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2012-11-22

108

A comparative genomic analysis of energy metabolism in sulfate reducing bacteria and archaea.  

PubMed

The number of sequenced genomes of sulfate reducing organisms (SRO) has increased significantly in the recent years, providing an opportunity for a broader perspective into their energy metabolism. In this work we carried out a comparative survey of energy metabolism genes found in 25 available genomes of SRO. This analysis revealed a higher diversity of possible energy conserving pathways than classically considered to be present in these organisms, and permitted the identification of new proteins not known to be present in this group. The Deltaproteobacteria (and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii) are characterized by a large number of cytochromes c and cytochrome c-associated membrane redox complexes, indicating that periplasmic electron transfer pathways are important in these bacteria. The Archaea and Clostridia groups contain practically no cytochromes c or associated membrane complexes. However, despite the absence of a periplasmic space, a few extracytoplasmic membrane redox proteins were detected in the Gram-positive bacteria. Several ion-translocating complexes were detected in SRO including H(+)-pyrophosphatases, complex I homologs, Rnf, and Ech/Coo hydrogenases. Furthermore, we found evidence that cytoplasmic electron bifurcating mechanisms, recently described for other anaerobes, are also likely to play an important role in energy metabolism of SRO. A number of cytoplasmic [NiFe] and [FeFe] hydrogenases, formate dehydrogenases, and heterodisulfide reductase-related proteins are likely candidates to be involved in energy coupling through electron bifurcation, from diverse electron donors such as H(2), formate, pyruvate, NAD(P)H, ?-oxidation, and others. In conclusion, this analysis indicates that energy metabolism of SRO is far more versatile than previously considered, and that both chemiosmotic and flavin-based electron bifurcating mechanisms provide alternative strategies for energy conservation. PMID:21747791

Pereira, Inês A Cardoso; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Grein, Fabian; Marques, Marta Coimbra; da Silva, Sofia Marques; Venceslau, Sofia Santos

2011-04-19

109

A Comparative Genomic Analysis of Energy Metabolism in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Archaea  

PubMed Central

The number of sequenced genomes of sulfate reducing organisms (SRO) has increased significantly in the recent years, providing an opportunity for a broader perspective into their energy metabolism. In this work we carried out a comparative survey of energy metabolism genes found in 25 available genomes of SRO. This analysis revealed a higher diversity of possible energy conserving pathways than classically considered to be present in these organisms, and permitted the identification of new proteins not known to be present in this group. The Deltaproteobacteria (and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii) are characterized by a large number of cytochromes c and cytochrome c-associated membrane redox complexes, indicating that periplasmic electron transfer pathways are important in these bacteria. The Archaea and Clostridia groups contain practically no cytochromes c or associated membrane complexes. However, despite the absence of a periplasmic space, a few extracytoplasmic membrane redox proteins were detected in the Gram-positive bacteria. Several ion-translocating complexes were detected in SRO including H+-pyrophosphatases, complex I homologs, Rnf, and Ech/Coo hydrogenases. Furthermore, we found evidence that cytoplasmic electron bifurcating mechanisms, recently described for other anaerobes, are also likely to play an important role in energy metabolism of SRO. A number of cytoplasmic [NiFe] and [FeFe] hydrogenases, formate dehydrogenases, and heterodisulfide reductase-related proteins are likely candidates to be involved in energy coupling through electron bifurcation, from diverse electron donors such as H2, formate, pyruvate, NAD(P)H, ?-oxidation, and others. In conclusion, this analysis indicates that energy metabolism of SRO is far more versatile than previously considered, and that both chemiosmotic and flavin-based electron bifurcating mechanisms provide alternative strategies for energy conservation.

Pereira, Ines A. Cardoso; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Grein, Fabian; Marques, Marta Coimbra; da Silva, Sofia Marques; Venceslau, Sofia Santos

2011-01-01

110

Exopolymeric substances of sulfate-reducing bacteria: Interactions with calcium at alkaline pH and implication for formation of carbonate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been recognized as key players in the precipitation of calcium carbonate in lithifying microbial communities. These bacteria increase the alkalinity by reducing sulfate ions, and consuming organic acids. SRB also produce copious amounts of exopolymeric substances (EPS). All of these processes influence the morphology and mineralogy of the carbonate minerals. Interactions of EPS with metals, calcium

O. BRAISSANT; A. W. DECHO; C. DUPRAZ; C. GLUNK; K. M. PRZEKOP; P. T. VISSCHER

2007-01-01

111

Long-term surveillance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds.  

PubMed

Abundance and seasonal dynamics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), in general, and of extreme halophilic SRB (belonging to Desulfocella halophila) in particular, were examined in highly saline industrial wastewater evaporation ponds over a forty one month period. Industrial wastewater was sampled and the presence of SRB was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with a set of primers designed to amplify the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) gene. SRB displayed higher abundance during the summer (10(6)-10(8) targets ml(-1)) and lower abundance from the autumn-spring (10(3)-10(5) targets ml(-1)). However, addition of concentrated dissolved organic matter into the evaporation ponds during winter immediately resulted in a proliferation of SRB, despite the lower wastewater temperature (12-14 degrees C). These results indicate that the qPCR approach can be used for rapid measurement of SRB to provide valuable information about the abundance of SRB in harsh environments, such as highly saline industrial wastewaters. Low level of H2S has been maintained over five years, which indicates a possible inhibition of SRB activity, following artificial salination (approximately 16% w/v of NaCl) of wastewater evaporation ponds, despite SRB reproduction being detected by qPCR. PMID:19226456

Ben-Dov, Eitan; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

2009-02-18

112

Immunomagnetically captured thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from North Sea oil field waters  

SciTech Connect

Immunomagnetic beads (IMB) were used to recover thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. IMB coated with polyclonal antibodies against whole-cell antigens of the thermophilic Thermodesulfobacterium mobile captured strains GFA1, GFA2, and GFA3. GFA1 was serologically and morphologically identical to T. mobile. GFA2 and GFA3 were spore forming and similar to the Desulgotomaculum strains T90A and T93B previously isolated from North Sea oil field waters by a classical enrichment procedure. Western blots (immunoblots) of whole cells showed that GFA2, GFA3, T90A, and T93B are different serotypes of the same Desulfotomaculum species. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against T. mobile type strain cells were produced and used as capture agents on IMB. These MAb, named A4F4, were immunoglobulin M; they were specific to T. mobile and directed against lipopolysaccharides. The prevailing cells immunocaptured with MAb A4F4 were morphologically and serologically similar to T. mobile type strain cells T. mobile was not detected in these oil field waters by classical enrichment procedures. Furthermore, extraction with antibody-coated IMB allowed pure strains to be isolated directly from primary enrichment cultures without prior time-consuming subculturing and consecutive transfers to selective media.

Christensen, B.; Torsvik, T.; Lien, T. (Univ. of Bergen (Norway))

1992-04-01

113

Non-Sulfate-Reducing, Syntrophic Bacteria Affiliated with Desulfotomaculum Cluster I Are Widely Distributed in Methanogenic Environments  

PubMed Central

The classical perception of members of the gram-positive Desulfotomaculum cluster I as sulfate-reducing bacteria was recently challenged by the isolation of new representatives lacking the ability for anaerobic sulfate respiration. For example, the two described syntrophic propionate-oxidizing species of the genus Pelotomaculum form the novel Desulfotomaculum subcluster Ih. In the present study, we applied a polyphasic approach by using cultivation-independent and culturing techniques in order to further characterize the occurrence, abundance, and physiological properties of subcluster Ih bacteria in low-sulfate, methanogenic environments. 16S rRNA (gene)-based cloning, quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, and real-time PCR analyses showed that the subcluster Ih population composed a considerable part of the Desulfotomaculum cluster I community in almost all samples examined. Additionally, five propionate-degrading syntrophic enrichments of subcluster Ih bacteria were successfully established, from one of which the new strain MGP was isolated in coculture with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen. None of the cultures analyzed, including previously described Pelotomaculum species and strain MGP, consumed sulfite, sulfate, or organosulfonates. In accordance with these phenotypic observations, a PCR-based screening for dsrAB (key genes of the sulfate respiration pathway encoding the alpha and beta subunits of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase) of all enrichments/(co)cultures was negative with one exception. Surprisingly, strain MGP contained dsrAB, which were transcribed in the presence and absence of sulfate. Based on these and previous findings, we hypothesize that members of Desulfotomaculum subcluster Ih have recently adopted a syntrophic lifestyle to thrive in low-sulfate, methanogenic environments and thus have lost their ancestral ability for dissimilatory sulfate/sulfite reduction.

Imachi, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Kamagata, Yoichi; Loy, Alexander; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kimura, Nobutada; Wagner, Michael; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

2006-01-01

114

The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate- Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental results from methylation assays of sulfate-reducing bacteria with a pure culture, and through synchrotron-based characterization of mercury in simulated natural waters. Pure cultures of Desulfobulbus propionicus, a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of fermentative growth, were allowed to methylate a mercury isotopic tracer present at <100 ng/L and equilibrated with ~1 ?M aqueous sulfide and ~40 mg/L DOM. Fermentative growth conditions allowed control over ambient sulfide concentrations to favor the predicted dominance of dissolved HgS0. The DOM used was a hydrophobic fraction isolated from Florida Everglades surface water. Results showed that 5-10% of the mercury isotopic tracer was methylated in both DOM-amended and DOM-free cultures. In DOM-amended cultures, 10-20% greater cell growth was observed, suggesting an apparent slower rate of methylation in DOM-free cultures and a beneficial contribution of DOM to cell growth. We note that as much as ~10% of ambient mercury associated with DOM was also methylated, possibly explaining the observed difference in methylation rates in terms of dilution of the total bioavailable mercury pool for DOM-amended cultures. Our observations suggest that, in some cases, DOM- partitioned mercury is subject to microbial methylation at environmentally significant rates. The nature of mercury- sulfide-DOM interaction was investigated in separate experiments. No precipitation was observed in solutions containing DOM and equimolar Hg2+ and aqueous sulfide at concentrations supersaturated with respect to metacinnabar. The equilibrated Hg-S-DOM solution was loaded on hydrophobic chromatography resin and subjected to 100 ?M glutathione extraction. Spectra from DOM-partitioned mercury-sulfide exhibited high similarity to metacinnabar despite the absence of precipitation. Lower mercury concentrations and better resins are being tested in order to evaluate the role of DOM-associated nanoparticulate or colloidal metacinnabar in mercury bioavailability for methylation by SRB.

Moreau, J. W.; Roden, E. E.; Gerbig, C.; Kim, C. S.; Aiken, G. R.; Dewild, J. F.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2007-12-01

115

Iron sulfides and sulfur species produced at hematite surfaces in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria^1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) hematite (a-Fe2O3) dissolution is affected and hydrogen sulfide, the product of sulfate reduction is released. As a consequence, ferrous ions are free to react with excess H2S to form insoluble iron sulfides. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate binding energies consistent with the iron sulfides having a pyrrhotite structure (Fe2p3\\/2 708.4 eV; S2p3\\/2 161.5

G. G. Geesey; Somkiet Techkarnjanaruk; Alice Dohnalkova; David E. McCready; Brent M. Peyton

2001-01-01

116

Diversity and Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Groundwater at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site  

PubMed Central

Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(IV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex., was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from ?-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least 52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0. Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within ?-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (?302 ppb) samples. One Desulfotomaculum-like sequence cluster overwhelmingly dominated high-U (>1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P = 0.0001). This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable tolerance and adaptation to high levels of uranium and suggests the organism's possible involvement in natural attenuation of uranium. The in situ activity level of Desulfotomaculum in uranium-contaminated environments and its comparison to the activities of other SRB and other functional groups should be an important area for future research.

Chang, Yun-Juan; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E.; Stephen, John R.; McKinley, James P.; Macnaughton, Sarah J.; Hussain, A. K. M. Anwar; Saxton, Arnold M.; White, David C.

2001-01-01

117

Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site  

SciTech Connect

Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(TV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex,, was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from F-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least,52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0, Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within F-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (less than or equal to 302 ppb) samples. One Desulfotomaculum like sequence cluster overwhelmingly dominated high-U (> 1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P= 0.0001), This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable tolerance and adaptation to high levels of uranium and suggests the organism's possible involvement in natural attenuation of uranium. The in situ activity level of Desulfotomaculum in uranium-contaminated environments and its comparison to the activities of other SRB and other functional groups should be an important area for future research.

Chang, Yun-Juan (Unknown); Peacock, A D. (Tennessee, Univ Of); Long, Philip E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephen, John R. (Unknown); McKinley, James P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mcnaughton, Sarah J. (Unknown); Hussain, A K M A.; Saxton, A M.; White, D C. (Unknown)

2000-12-01

118

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Cathodically Protected High-Strength, Low-Alloy Steels Exposed to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of two high-strength, low-alloy steels was studied in conditions typical of the marine environment. Double-cantilever beam specimens, heat-treated to produce the microstructure in the heat-affected zone of a weld, were tested in seawater containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at a range of cathodic protection potentials. The threshold stress intensities (K[sub th]) required to cause subcritical crack propagation were

M. J. Robinson; P. J. Kilgallon

1994-01-01

119

Pyrrhotite: an Iron Sulfide Mineral Formed During Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria at a Hematite Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many bacteria are capable of respiring on sulfate and other oxidized forms of sulfur under anaerobic conditions. The hydrogen sulfide that is formed during dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) readily reacts with metals in the surrounding environment to form insoluble metal sulfides. Iron oxides are common substrata for colonization by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sedimentary aquatic systems as well as in subsurface environments. While numerous studies have characterized iron sulfides formed during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by suspended populations of these bacteria in the presence of soluble iron, not much is known about those formed in the presence of biofilm populations associated with solid phase iron, particularly crystalline forms such as hematite. Under the latter conditions, we have observed the formation of the iron sulfide pyrrhotite, typically present in very low abundance in sediments and ore deposits compared to pyrite. The formation of pyrrhotite over pyrite is favored at low redox potential and sulfide activity, conditions we hypothesize are achieved at an iron oxide surface colonized by biofilm-forming SRB. Higher levels of hydrogenase activity by hematite surface-associated SRB than suspended cell populations likely promotes the low redox potential that favors pyrrhotite formation. The tendency for SRB in nature to associate with mineral particle surfaces, including iron oxides, suggests that some pyrrotite may have originated through biotic reactions. A comparison of the fine structure of pyrrhotite formed through these biotic processes with that formed under abiotic processes may reveal differences that provide a signature for biotically-derived pyrrhotite in the biosphere.

Geesey, G.; Reardon, C.; Neal, A.

2008-12-01

120

Anaerobic Oxidation of o-Xylene, m-Xylene, and Homologous Alkylbenzenes by New Types of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.

Harms, Gerda; Zengler, Karsten; Rabus, Ralf; Aeckersberg, Frank; Minz, Dror; Rossello-Mora, Ramon; Widdel, Friedrich

1999-01-01

121

Reduction of chromate by fixed films of sulfate-reducing bacteria using hydrogen as an electron source.  

PubMed

The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to reduce chromate, Cr(VI), was evaluated using fixed-film growth systems and H2 as the electron source. A main objective of the experiment was to distinguish between direct enzymatic reduction and indirect reduction by hydrogen sulfide, in order to subsequently verify and control the synergy of these two mechanisms. In batch experiments with the sulfate-reducing consortium CH10 selected from a mining site, 50 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) was reduced in 15 min in the presence of 500 mg l(-1) hydrogen sulfide compared to 16 mg l(-1) reduced in 1 h without hydrogen sulfide. Fixed films of a CH10 population and Desulfomicrobium norvegicum were fed-batch grown in a column bioreactor. After development of the biofilm, hydrogen sulfide was removed and the column was fed continuously with a 13-mg l(-1) Cr(VI) solution. Specific Cr(VI) reduction rates on pozzolana were close to 90 mg Cr(VI) h(-1) per gram of protein. Exposure to Cr(VI) had a negative effect on the subsequent ability of CH10 to reduce sulfate, but the inhibited bacteria remained viable. PMID:12074089

Battaglia-Brunet, F; Foucher, S; Denamur, A; Ignatiadis, I; Michel, C; Morin, D

2002-03-01

122

Enzymatic catalysis of mercury methylation by planktonic and biofilm cultures of sulfate- reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While biofilms are now known to be the predominant form of microbial growth in nature, little is known about their role in environmental mercury (Hg) methylation. Due to its long-range atmospheric transport, Hg contamination of food chains is a worldwide problem, impacting even pristine areas. Among different forms of mercury species, methylmercury (MeHg) is an extremely neurotoxic and biomagnification-prone compound that can lead to severely adverse health effects on wildlife and humans. Considerable studies have shown that in the aquatic environment the external supply of MeHg is not sufficient to account for MeHg accumulation in biota and in situ biological MeHg formation plays a critical role in determining the amount of MeHg in food webs; moreover, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been identified as the principal Hg-methylating organisms in nature. In a wide range of aquatic systems wetlands are considered important sites for Hg methylation mostly because of the environmental factors that promote microbial activity within, and biofilms are especially important in wetland ecosystems due to large amount of submerged surfaces. Although recent work has focused on the environmental factors that control MeHg production and the conditions that affect the availability of inorganic Hg to SRB, much remains to be understood about the biochemical mechanism of the Hg methylation process in SRB, especially in the biofilm-growth of these microbes. Data from our previous study with SRB strains isolated from a coastal wetland suggested that the specific Hg methylation rate found was approximately an order of magnitude higher in biofilm cells than in planktonic cells. In order to investigate possible reasons for this observed difference, and to test if this phenomenon is observed in other strains, we conducted chloroform, fluroacetate and molybdate inhibition assays in both complete and incomplete-oxidizing SRB species (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans M8, Desulfococcus sp. Desulfobactor sp. BG8) grown in planktonic and biofilm form, as the acetyl- coenzyme A pathway involved with cobalamin has been hypothesized to be the pathway for Hg methylation. The purpose of this study was to probe whether differences in the enzymatically catalyzed process caused differential methylation rates between the species and also between the different forms of culture growth. Any attempts to control the environmentally undesirable Hg methylation process would benefit from a better understanding of the biochemical mechanism involved.

Lin, C.; Kampalath, R.; Jay, J.

2007-12-01

123

Biodegradation of phenolic compounds by sulfate-reducing bacteria from contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of phenolic compounds under sulfate-reducing conditions was studied in sediments from northern Indiana. Phenol, p-cresol and 4-chlorophenol were selected as test substrates and added to sediment suspensions from four sites at an initial concentration of 10 mg\\/liter. Degradative abilities of the sediment microorganisms from the four sites could be related to previous exposure to phenolic pollution. Time to

S. L. Mort; D. Dean-Ross

1994-01-01

124

Competitive Oxidation of Volatile Fatty Acids by Sulfate- and Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from an Oil Field in Argentina? †  

PubMed Central

Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, collectively referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are considered among the most important electron donors for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) in oil fields. Samples obtained from a field in the Neuquén Basin, western Argentina, had significant activity of mesophilic SRB, hNRB, and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). In microcosms, containing VFA (3 mM each) and excess sulfate, SRB first used propionate and butyrate for the production of acetate, which reached concentrations of up to 12 mM prior to being used as an electron donor for sulfate reduction. In contrast, hNRB used all three organic acids with similar kinetics, while reducing nitrate to nitrite and nitrogen. Transient inhibition of VFA-utilizing SRB was observed with 0.5 mM nitrite and permanent inhibition with concentrations of 1 mM or more. The addition of nitrate to medium flowing into an upflow, packed-bed bioreactor with an established VFA-oxidizing SRB consortium led to a spike of nitrite up to 3 mM. The nitrite-mediated inhibition of SRB led, in turn, to the transient accumulation of up to 13 mM of acetate. The complete utilization of nitrate and the incomplete utilization of VFA, especially propionate, and sulfate indicated that SRB remained partially inhibited. Hence, in addition to lower sulfide concentrations, an increase in the concentration of acetate in the presence of sulfate in waters produced from an oil field subjected to nitrate injection may indicate whether the treatment is successful. The microbial community composition in the bioreactor, as determined by culturing and culture-independent techniques, indicated shifts with an increasing fraction of nitrate. With VFA and sulfate, the SRB genera Desulfobotulus, Desulfotignum, and Desulfobacter as well as the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas and the NR-SOB Arcobacter were detected. With VFA and nitrate, Pseudomonas spp. were present. hNRB/NR-SOB from the genus Sulfurospirillum were found under all conditions.

Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Cornish, Sabrina L.; Buziak, Brenton; Lin, Shiping; Cavallaro, Adriana; Arensdorf, Joseph J.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2008-01-01

125

[The effect of sodium salts and pH on hydrogenase activity of the haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacteria].  

PubMed

Hydrogenase is the main catabolic enzyme of hydrogen-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria. In haloalkaliphilic sulfate reducers, hydrogenase, particularly if it is periplasmic, functions at high concentrations of Na+ ions and low concentrations of H+ ions. The hydrogenases of the newly isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfonatronum thiodismutans, D. lacustre, and Desulfonatrovibrio hydrogenovorans exhibit different sensitivity to Na+ ions and remain active at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 4.3 M and NaHCO3 concentrations between 0 and 1.2 M. The hydrogenases of D. lacustre and D. thiodismutans remain active at pH values between 6 and 12. The optimum pH for the hydrogenase of D. thiodismutans is 9.5. The optimum pH for the cytoplasmic and periplasmic hydrogenases of D. lacustre is 10. Thus, the hydrogenases of D. thiodismutans, D. lacustre, and Dv. hydrogenovorans are tolerant to high concentrations of sodium salts and extremely tolerant to high pH values, which makes them unique objects for biochemical studies and biotechnological applications. PMID:16211848

Detkova, E N; Soboleva, G S; Pikuta, E V; Pusheva, M A

126

Biologically-induced precipitation of sphalerite-wurtzite nanoparticles by sulfate-reducing bacteria: implications for acid mine drainage treatment.  

PubMed

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate zinc-tolerance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) obtained from three environmental samples, two inocula from sulfide-mining districts and another inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant. The populations of SRB resisted zinc concentrations of 260 mg/L for 42 days in a sulfate-rich medium. During the experiments, sulfate was reduced to sulfide and concentrations in solution decreased. Zinc concentrations also decreased from 260 mg/L to values below detection limit. Both decreases were consistent with the precipitation of newly-formed sphalerite and wurtzite, two polymorphs of ZnS, forming <2.5-?m-diameter spherical aggregates identified by microscopy and synchrotron-?-XRD. Sulfate and zinc are present in high concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) even after passive treatments based on limestone dissolution. The implementation of a SRB-based zinc removal step in these systems could completely reduce the mobility of all metals, which would improve the quality of stream sediments, water and soils in AMD-affected landscapes. PMID:22414495

Castillo, Julio; Pérez-López, Rafael; Caraballo, Manuel A; Nieto, José M; Martins, Mónica; Costa, M Clara; Olías, Manuel; Cerón, Juan C; Tucoulou, Rémi

2012-03-11

127

Distribution of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic aggregates determined by microsensor and molecular analyses  

SciTech Connect

Using molecular techniques and microsensors for H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 4}, the authors studied the population structure of and the activity distribution in anaerobic aggregates. The aggregates originated from three different types of reactors: a methanogenic reactor, a methanogenic-sulfidogenic reactor, and a sulfidogenic reactor. Microsensor measurements in methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates revealed that the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria was located in a surface layer of 50 to 100 {micro}m thick. The sulfidogenic aggregates contained a wider sulfate-reducing zone (the first 200 to 300 {micro}m from the aggregate surface) with a higher activity. The methanogenic aggregates did not show significant sulfate-reducing activity. Methanogenic activity in the methanogenic-sulfidogenic aggregates and the methanogenic aggregates was located more inward, starting at ca. 100 {micro}m from the aggregate surface. The methanogenic activity was not affected by 10 mM sulfate during a 1-day incubation. The sulfidogenic and methanogenic activities were independent of the type of electron donor, but the substrates were metabolized in different zones. The localization of the populations corresponded to the microsensor data.

Santegoeds, C.M.; Damgaard, L.R.; Hesselink, G.; Zopfi, J.; Lens, P.; Muyzer, G.; Beer, D. de

1999-10-01

128

Comparison of Phylogenetic Relationships Based on Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles and Ribosomal RNA Sequence Similarities among Dissimilatory Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). Of these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarit...

L. L. Kohring D. B. Ringelberg R. Devereux D. A. Stahl M. W. Mittelman D. C. White

1994-01-01

129

Genus- and group-specific hybridization probes for determinative and environmental studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. Four probes were genus specific and identified Desulfobacterium spp., Desulfobacter spp., Desulfobulbus spp., or Desulfovibrio spp. The other two probes encompassed more diverse assemblages. One probe was specific for the phylogenetic lineage composed of Desulfococcus multivorans, Desulfosarcina variabilis, and Desulfobotulus sapovorans. The remaining probe was specific for Desulfobacterium spp., Desulfobacter spp., D. multivorans, D. variabilis, and D. sapovorans. Temperature of dissociation was determined for each probe and the designed specificities of each were evaluated by hybridizations against closely related nontargeted species. In addition, each probe was screened by using a 'phylogrid' membrane which consisted of nucleic acids from sixtyfour non-targeted organisms representing a diverse collection of eukarya, archaea, and bacteria. The value of these probes to studies in environmental microbiology was evaluated by hybridizations to 16S rRNAs of sulfate-reducing bacteria present in marine sediments.

Devereux, R.; Kane, M.D.; Winfrey, J.; Stahl, D.A.

1992-01-01

130

Iron sulfides and sulfur species produced at hematite surfaces in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ) hematite ( -Fe 2 O 3 ) dissolution is affected potentially by a combination of enzymatic (hydrogenase) reduction and hydrogen sulfide oxidation. As a consequence, ferrous ions are free to react with excess H 2 S to form insoluble ferrous sulfides. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate binding energies similar to ferrous sulfides having pyrrhotite-like structures (Fe2 p 3/2 708.4 eV; S2 p 3/2 161.5 eV). Other sulfur species identified at the surface include sulfate, sulfite and polysulfides. Thin film X-ray diffraction identifies a limited number of peaks, the principal one of which may be assigned to the hexagonal pyrrhotite (102) peak (d = 2.09 Å; 2 = 43.22°), at the hematite surface within 3 months exposure to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identifies the presence of a hexagonal structure associated with observed crystallites. Although none of the analytical techniques employed provide unequivocal evidence as to the nature of the ferrous sulfide formed in the presence of SRB at hematite surfaces, we conclude from the available evidence that a pyrrhotite stiochiometry and structure is the best description of the sulfides we observe. Such ferrous sulfide production is inconsistent with previous reports in which mackinawite and greigite were products of biological sulfate reduction (Rickard ; Herbert and Benning ). The apparent differences in stoichiometry may be related to sulfide activity at the mineral surface, controlled in part by H 2 S autooxidation in the presence of iron oxides. Due to the relative stability of pyrrhotite at low temperatures, ferrous sulfide dissolution is likely to be reduced compared to the more commonly observed products of SRB activity. Additionally, biogenic pyrrhotite formation will also have implications for geomagnetic field behavior of sediments.

Neal, Andrew L.; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Dohnalkova, Alice; McCready, David; Peyton, Brent M.; Geesey, Gill G.

2001-01-01

131

Aerobic organic carbon mineralization by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the oxygen-saturated photic zone of a hypersaline microbial mat.  

PubMed

The sulfate-reducing bacterium strain SRB D2 isolated from the photic zone of a hypersaline microbial mat, from Lake Chiprana, NE Spain, respired pyruvate, alanine, and alpha-ketoglutarate but not formate, lactate, malate, succinate, and serine at significant rates under fully oxic conditions. Dehydrogenase enzymes of only the former substrates are likely oxygen-tolerant as all substrates supported anaerobic sulfate reduction. No indications were found, however, that aerobic respiration supported growth. Although strain SRB D2 appeared phylogenetically closely related to the oxygen-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio oxyclinae, substrate spectra were markedly different. Most-probable-number (MPN) estimates of sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indicated that the latter were numerically dominant in both the photic and aphotic zones of the mat. Moreover, substrate spectra of representative isolates showed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria are metabolically more diverse. These findings indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria in the fully oxic photic zone of mats have to compete with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria for organic substrates. Porewater analysis revealed that total carbohydrates and low-molecular-weight carbon compounds (LMWC) made up substantial fractions of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool and that nighttime degradation of the former was concomitant with increased concentration of the latter. Our findings indicate that aerobic respiration by sulfate-reducing bacteria contributes to organic carbon mineralization in the oxic zone of microbial mats as daytime porewater LMWC concentrations are above typical half-saturation constants. PMID:15965719

Jonkers, H M; Koh, I-O; Behrend, P; Muyzer, G; de Beer, D

2005-06-17

132

Amino acids as main substrates for sulfate-reducing bacteria in surface sediment of a eutrophic bay.  

PubMed

The inner part of Tokyo Bay, Japan, is highly eutrophicated as shown by the frequent occurrence of red tide. The bottom water is anoxic during warm seasons especially at artificially dredged sites. In the sediment slurries prepared from surface sediment samples collected from the dredged sites, substrate addition stimulated the consumption of sulfate during anaerobic incubation. Of the substrates added, the seston composed mainly of diatom stimulated consumption more than lactate and acetate. Its effect was nearly equal to that of casamino acids. Casamino acids and some amino acids also accelerated the rate of sulfate reduction measured by the tracer method in sediment samples more than lactate or acetate. Anaerobic incubation of the sediment slurry amended with casamino acids showed that the consumption of amino acids was retarded by the addition of molybdate (final concentration; 20 mM). In the slurry amended with only molybdate, glutamate was accumulated distinctively and linearly with time. Its accumulation rate in molar base was comparable to the rate of sulfate reduction. These results suggested that amino acids were the main substrates for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the sediment. The MPN values of SRB in these sediment samples were often higher with the enumeration medium containing casamino acids instead of lactate. Furthermore, during a week incubation of sediment slurries amended with substrates, casamino acids and seston more greatly stimulated the growth of SRB enumerated by both media than lactate. PMID:14747974

Takii, Susumu

2003-12-01

133

Volatile Fatty Acids and Hydrogen as Substrates for Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Anaerobic Marine Sediment  

PubMed Central

The addition of 20 mM MoO42? (molybdate) to a reduced marine sediment completely inhibited the SO42? reduction activity by about 50 nmol g?1 h?1 (wet sediment). Acetate accumulated at a constant rate of about 25 nmol g?1 h?1 immediately after MoO42? addition and gave a measure of the preceding utilization rate of acetate by the SO42?-reducing bacteria. Similarly, propionate and butyrate (including isobutyrate) accumulated at constant rates of 3 to 7 and 2 to 4 nmol g?1 h?1, respectively. The rate of H2 accumulation was variable, and a range of 0 to 16 nmol g?1 h?1 was recorded. An immediate increase of the methanogenic activity by 2 to 3 nmol g?1 h?1 was apparently due to a release of the competition for H2 by the absence of SO42? reduction. If propionate and butyrate were completely oxidized by the SO42?-reducing bacteria, the stoichiometry of the reactions would indicate that H2, acetate, propionate, and butyrate account for 5 to 10, 40 to 50, 10 to 20, and 10 to 20%, respectively, of the electron donors for the SO42?-reducing bacteria. If the oxidations were incomplete, however, the contributions by propionate and butyrate would only be 5 to 10% each, and the acetate could account for as much as two-thirds of the SO42? reduction. The presence of MoO42? seemed not to affect the fermentative and methanogenic activities; an MoO42? inhibition technique seems promising in the search for the natural substrates of SO42? reduction in sediments.

S?rensen, Jan; Christensen, Dorte; J?rgensen, Bo Barker

1981-01-01

134

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria\\u000a (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium\\u000a sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance.\\u000a Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited

Mohamed Lamine Gana; Salima Kebbouche-Gana; Abdelkader Touzi; Mohamed Amine Zorgani; André Pauss; Hakim Lounici; Nabil Mameri

2011-01-01

135

Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Desulfovibrio mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments such as groundwater, sediments, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Because of the ability of Desulfovibrio to reduce radionuclides and metals through both enzymatic and chemical means, they have been proposed as a means to bioremediate heavy metal contaminated sites. Although classically thought of as strict anaerobes, Desulfovibrio species are surprisingly aerotolerant. Our objective is to understand the response of Desulfovibrio to oxidative stress so that we may more effectively utilize them in bioremediation of heavy metals in mixed aerobic-anaerobic environments. The enzymes superoxide dismutase, superoxide reductase, catalase, and rubrerythrin have been shown by others to be involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species in Desulfovibrio. Some members of the genus Desulfovibrio can even reduce molecular oxygen to water via a membrane bound electron transport chain with the concomitant production of ATP, although their ability to grow with oxygen as the sole electron acceptor is still questioned.

Payne, Rayford B.; Ringbauer, Joseph A., Jr.; Wall, Judy D.

2006-04-05

136

DEVELOPMENT OF A REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA IN STORED SWINE MANURE AND SWINE FECES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Odor produced as a consequence of incomplete digestion of swine manure by bacteria has led to increased public concern and heightened tension between livestock producers and their rural neighbors. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a group of organisms responsible for production of hydrogen sulfid...

137

The Membrane QmoABC Complex Interacts Directly with the Dissimilatory Adenosine 5?-Phosphosulfate Reductase in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate reductase (AprAB) is the enzyme responsible for the reduction of adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (APS) to sulfite in the biological process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which is carried out by a ubiquitous group of sulfate reducing prokaryotes. The electron donor for AprAB has not been clearly identified, but was proposed to be the QmoABC membrane complex, since an aprBA–qmoABC gene cluster is found in many sulfate reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The QmoABC complex is essential for sulfate reduction, but electron transfer between QmoABC and AprAB has not been reported. In this work we provide the first direct evidence that QmoABC and AprAB interact in Desulfovibrio spp., using co-immunoprecipitation, cross-linking Far-Western blot, tag-affinity purification, and surface plasmon resonance studies. This showed that the QmoABC–AprAB complex has a strong steady-state affinity (KD?=?90?±?3?nM), but has a transient character due to a fast dissociation rate. Far-Western blot identified QmoA as the Qmo subunit most involved in the interaction. Nevertheless, electron transfer from menaquinol analogs to APS through anaerobically purified QmoABC and AprAB could not be detected. We propose that this reaction requires the involvement of a third partner to allow electron flow driven by a reverse electron bifurcation process, i.e., electron confurcation. This process is deemed essential to allow coupling of APS reduction to chemiosmotic energy conservation.

Ramos, Ana Raquel; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.; Pereira, Ines A. Cardoso

2012-01-01

138

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Tubes Constructed by the Marine Infaunal Polychaete Diopatra cuprea  

PubMed Central

Marine infaunal burrows and tubes greatly enhance solute transport between sediments and the overlying water column and are sites of elevated microbial activity. Biotic and abiotic controls of the compositions and activities of burrow and tube microbial communities are poorly understood. The microbial communities in tubes of the marine infaunal polychaete Diopatria cuprea collected from two different sediment habitats were examined. The bacterial communities in the tubes from a sandy sediment differed from those in the tubes from a muddy sediment. The difference in community structure also extended to the sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) assemblage, although it was not as pronounced for this functional group of species. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from Diopatra tube SRB by clonal library construction and screening were all related to the family Desulfobacteriaceae. This finding was supported by phospholipid fatty acid analysis and by hybridization of 16S rRNA probes specific for members of the genera Desulfosarcina, Desulfobacter, Desulfobacterium, Desulfobotulus, Desulfococcus, and Desulfovibrio and some members of the genera Desulfomonas, Desulfuromonas, and Desulfomicrobium with 16S rRNA gene sequences resolved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Two of six SRB clones from the clone library were not detected in tubes from the sandy sediment. The habitat in which the D. cuprea tubes were constructed had a strong influence on the tube bacterial community as a whole, as well as on the SRB assemblage.

Matsui, George Y.; Ringelberg, David B.; Lovell, Charles R.

2004-01-01

139

Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes  

SciTech Connect

A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

1999-03-01

140

Reduction of Cr(VI) by a Consortium of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB III)  

PubMed Central

A consortium of bacteria with tolerance to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (up to 2,500 ppm) and other toxic heavy metals has been obtained from metal-refinishing wastewaters in Chengdu, People's Republic of China. This consortium consists of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative rods and has the capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) as amorphous precipitates which are associated with the bacterial surfaces. An endospore-producing, gram-positive rod and a gram-negative rod accumulate the most metallic precipitates, and, over time, 80 to 95% of Cr can be removed from concentrations ranging from 50 to 2,000 ppm (0.96 to 38.45 mM). Kinetic studies revealed a first-order constant for Cr removal of 0.1518 h-1 for an initial concentration of 1,000 ppm (19.3 mM), and the sorption isothermal data could be interpreted by the Freundlich relationship. The sorption was not entirely due to a passive interaction with reactive sites on the bacterial surfaces since gamma-irradiated, killed cells could not immobilize as much metal. When U or Zn was added with the Cr, it was also removed and could even increase the total amount of Cr immobilized. The consortium was tolerant to small amounts of oxygen in the headspace of tubes, but active growth of the bacteria was a requirement for Cr immobilization through Cr(VI) reduction, resulting in the lowering of Eh. Our data suggest that the reduction was via H2S. This consortium has been named SRB III, and it may be useful for the bioremediation of fluid metal-refining wastes. Images

Fude, Li; Harris, Bob; Urrutia, Matilde M.; Beveridge, Terry J.

1994-01-01

141

Application of antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria for indirect immunofluorescent detection of immunoreactive bacteria in sediment from the German Baltic Sea.  

PubMed Central

Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) could detect several distinct populations of bacteria in sediment from the German Baltic Sea. The depth distribution of immunoreactive bacteria was determined by an indirect immunofluorescence filter method. Anti-Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926 serum showed maximum bacterial numbers at a depth of 18 cm, with a concentration of 60 x 10(6) cells cm-3. With anti-Desulfovibrio baculatus DSM 2555 serum, counts were highest at the same depth, approaching 0.7 x 10(6) cells cm-3. Other significantly smaller populations were observed. Anti-SRBStrain 1 (lactate,vibrio) maxima were at 0 to 4 cm and at 17 to 18 cm. Anti-SRBStrain 2 (lactate,vibrio) serum showed several local maxima. Anti-SRBStrain 3 (lactate,oval) serum detected one single peak at a depth of 10 to 12 cm. Also determined were rates of sulfate reduction, total bacterial counts by acridine orange staining, and the viable counts by dilution series on anaerobic lactate medium. The total bacterial counts were highest (180 x 10(6) cells cm-3) at 3 to 4 cm and dropped to 24 x 10(6) cells cm-3 at 10 to 11 cm but showed additional local maxima reaching 140 x 10(6) cells cm-3 at a depth of 17 to 18 cm. Viable counts probable number) were above 10(5) CFU cm-3 at 0 to 3.6 cm but remained below 10(3) CFU at 7.2 to 18 cm. The sulfate reduction rate was maximal (107 nmol cm-3 day-1) at a depth of 1 to 2 cm, dropped to 10 nmol cm-3 day-1 at 12 to 13 cm, and reached 38 nmol cm-3 day-1 at 17 to 18 cm.

Lillebaek, R

1995-01-01

142

Controlling sulfate reducing bacteria by slug dosing with quick-kill antimicrobials and by continuous dosing with isothiazolones  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for controlling biological contamination of oil production water injection systems by sulfate-reducing sessile bacteria wherein a slug dose of a quick-kill antimicrobial selected from one or more of the group consisting of (C{sub 3}-C{sub 7}) alkanedials, formaldehyde, cationic polymeric biguanides, quaternary ammonium compounds (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides), quarternary phosphodium compounds, phenolics, cocodiamine, 2-bromo-2-nitropropanediol, acrolein, dibromonitrilopropionamide and organic thiocyanates is applied to the injection water, the improvement comprising substantially continuously dosing the injection water at a concentration of about 0.25 to 5 ppm based on the weight of injection water with a maintenance antimicrobial selected from the group consisting of an isothiazolone.

Haack, T.K.; Greenley, D.E.

1991-06-25

143

Sulfate-reducing bacteria detection based on the photocatalytic property of microbial synthesized ZnS nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This work presented a novel method for specific detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) based on the photocatalytic property of ZnS nanoparticles. ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized by taking advantage of the characteristic bacterial metabolite, sulfide, and then ZnS nanomaterials were used as photocatalyst for methylene blue (MB) photodegradation. As the amount of ZnS photocatalyst synthesized from microbe metabolized sulfide was affected by initial bacterial concentration before cultivation, the photodegradation ratio of MB was highly related with initial SRB concentration. Under the optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the MB photodegradation ratio and the logarithm of SRB concentration was observed in the range of 1.0×10(3)-1.0×10(8)cfumL(-1). Besides, this proposed method showed excellent specificity for SRB detection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of using the photocatalytic property of microbial synthesized ZnS for bacterial detection. PMID:24120169

Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

2013-09-12

144

Phospholipid Evidence for Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate-reducing Bacteria in Coalbed Methane Wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Powder River Basin (PRB) comprises roughly 22,000 mi2 in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana; it is a major source of coal and natural gas in the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains regions. The coalbed methane (CBM) produced from Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the PRB is thought primarily to be of bacterial origin due to its low ?13C values of -51 to -82 permil. Determination of the timing of methanogenesis, however, requires a methodology suitable for distinguishing viable methanogenic microorganisms. Here we provide evidence of living methanogenic Archaea and sulfate- reducing bacteria collected from co-produced water from CBM wells using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) analyses. Twelve producing wells were sampled in May, 2007, using a high- pressure filtering apparatus. PLFAs were analyzed as fatty acid methyl esters and PLELs analyzed by their liberated core components using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Phospholipid analyses revealed an ecosystem dominated by Archaea, as the Archaeal isoprenoid, phytane, was the dominant phospholipid observed in nine of the wells sampled. Total microbial biomass estimates ranged from 1.1 ×106 cells/L to 8.3 ×107 cells/L, with the proportion of Archaeal cells ranging from 77.5 to 99.7 percent. In addition, the biomarkers 10me16:0, and cy17:0, considered to be biomarkers for genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in several wells. The dominance of lipids from living Archaea in co- produced waters from CBM wells provides evidence supporting a recent origin of gas in the PRB coals.

Glossner, A.; Flores, R. M.; Mandernack, K.

2008-12-01

145

Identification of rice root associated nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron reducing bacteria during root decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leakage of O2 from roots of aquatic plants supports the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate and of sulfide to sulfate in the rhizosphere, so that these electron acceptors may become available to the root microbial communities and affect their activity. We studied the composition of the bacterial community active in anoxically incubated rice roots by analysis of terminal restriction fragment

Daniel Scheid; Stephan Stubner; Ralf Conrad

2004-01-01

146

In-Situ Survival Mechanisms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Polluted Marine Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sediment dwelling anaerobic bacteria are capable of utilizing a wide range of electron donors and acceptors, and they play a key role in the bioremediation of marine contaminants. We believe that these microorganisms have unique genes that are required on...

L. R. Krumholz J. D. Ballard J. M. Suflita

2004-01-01

147

Growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria under acidic conditions in an upflow anaerobic bioreactor as a treatment system for acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to develop a system for the remediation of acid mine drainage using sulphate-reducing bacteria. An upflow porous medium bioreactor was inoculated with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and operated under acidic conditions. The reactor was operated under continuous flow and was shown to be capable of sulfate reduction at pH 4.5, 4.0, 3.5 and 3.25 in

Phillip Elliott; Santo Ragusa; David Catcheside

1998-01-01

148

Modeling in-situ U(VI) bioreduction by sulfate-reducing bacteria in the presence of nitrate.  

SciTech Connect

We present a travel-time based reactive transport model to simulate an in-situ bioremediation experiment for demonstrating enhanced bioreduction of uranium(VI). The model considers aquatic equilibrium chemistry of uranium and other groundwater constituents, uranium sorption and precipitation, and the microbial reduction of nitrate, sulfate and U(VI). Kinetic sorption/desorption of U(VI) is characterized by mass transfer between stagnant micro-pores and mobile flow zones. The model describes the succession of terminal electron accepting processes and the growth and decay of sulfate-reducing bacteria, concurrent with the enzymatic reduction of aqueous U(VI) species. The effective U(VI) reduction rate and sorption site distributions are determined by fitting the model simulation to an in-situ experiment at Oak Ridge, TN. Results show that (1) the presence of nitrate inhibits U(VI) reduction at the site; (2) the fitted effective rate of in-situ U(VI) reduction is much smaller than the values reported for laboratory experiments; (3) U(VI) sorption/desorption, which affects U(VI) bioavailability at the site, is strongly controlled by kinetics; (4) both pH and bicarbonate concentration significantly influence the sorption/desorption of U(VI), which therefore cannot be characterized by empirical isotherms; and (5) calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes significantly influence the model performance of U(VI) reduction.

Luo, Jian [ORNL; Cirpka, Olaf [ORNL; Wu, Weimin [ORNL; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Nyman, Jennifer L [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL; Kitanidis, Peter K [ORNL

2007-06-01

149

Heavy metal removal in anaerobic semi-continuous stirred tank reactors by a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Removal of heavy metals by an enriched consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was evaluated through the abundance of SRB, sulfate reduction, sulfide production and heavy metal precipitation. Five parallel anaerobic semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR, V = 2 L) (referred as R1-R5) were fed with synthetic wastewater containing mixtures of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) in the concentrations of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mg L(-1) of each metal and operated with a hydraulic retention time of 20 days for 12 weeks. The loading rates of each metal in R1-R5 were 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 7.5 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no inhibition of SRB growth and that heavy metal removal efficiencies of 94-100% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) were achieved in R1-R3 throughout the experiment and in R4 during the first 8 weeks. The toxic effect of heavy metals on the SRB consortium was revealed in R5, in which no SRB could survive and almost no heavy metal precipitation was detected after four weeks of operation. PMID:21632086

Kieu, Hoa T Q; Müller, Elizabeth; Horn, Harald

2011-05-11

150

Modeling in-situ uranium(VI) bioreduction by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a travel-time based reactive transport model to simulate an in-situ bioremediation experiment for demonstrating enhanced bioreduction of uranium(VI). The model considers aquatic equilibrium chemistry of uranium and other groundwater constituents, uranium sorption and precipitation, and the microbial reduction of nitrate, sulfate and U(VI). Kinetic sorption\\/desorption of U(VI) is characterized by mass transfer between stagnant micro-pores and mobile flow

Jian Luo; Frank-Andreas Weber; Olaf A. Cirpka; Wei-Min Wu; Jennifer L. Nyman; Jack Carley; Philip M. Jardine; Craig S. Criddle; Peter K. Kitanidis

2007-01-01

151

A green triple biocide cocktail consisting of a biocide, EDDS and methanol for the mitigation of planktonic and sessile sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) cause souring and their biofilms are often the culprit in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion\\u000a (MIC). The two most common green biocides for SRB treatment are tetrakis-hydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS) and glutaraldehyde.\\u000a It is unlikely that there will be another equally effective green biocide in the market any time soon. This means more effective\\u000a biocide treatment probably will rely on

J. Wen; D. Xu; T. Gu; I. Raad

152

Studies on dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria that decompose fatty acids II. Incomplete oxidation of propionate by Desulfobulbus propionicus gen. nov., sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of sulfate-reducing bacteria with ellipsoidal to lemon-shaped cells was regularly enriched from anaerobic freshwater and marine mud samples when mineral media with propionate and sulfate were used. Three strains (1pr3, 2pr4, 3pr10) were isolated in pure culture. Propionate, lactate and alcohols were used as electron donors and carbon sources. Growth on H2 required acetate as a carbon

Friedrich Widdel; Norbert Pfennig

1982-01-01

153

The simultaneous presence of green rust 2 and sulfate reducing bacteria in the corrosion of steel sheet piles in a harbour area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis allow to detect the presence of green rust 2, the ferrous-ferric sulfated compound of composition, 4Fe(OH)2,2FeOOH,FeSO4,nH2O, mixed with magnetite at the surface of steel sheets corroded in a harbour area where the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria are also detected.

Génin, J.-M. R.; Olowe, A. A.; Benbouzid-Rollet, N. D.; Prieur, D.; Confente, M.; Resiak, B.

1992-04-01

154

Co-existence of physiologically similar sulfate-reducing bacteria in a full-scale sulfidogenic bioreactor fed with a single organic electron donor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of culture-dependent and independent methods was used to study the co-existence of different sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria (SRB) in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating sulfate-rich wastewater. The wastewater was fed with ethanol\\u000a as an external electron donor. Twenty six strains of SRB were randomly picked and isolated from the highest serial dilution\\u000a that showed growth (i.e. 108). Repetitive

Shabir A. Dar; Alfons J. M. Stams; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2007-01-01

155

Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands offer an effective means for treatment of wastewater from a variety of sources. An understanding of the microbial ecology controlling nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycles in constructed wetlands has been identified as the greatest gap for optimizing performance of these promising treatment systems. It is suspected that operational factors such as plant types and hydraulic operation influence the subsurface wetland environment, especially redox, and that the observed variation in effluent quality is due to shifts in the microbial populations and/or their activity. This study investigated the biofilm associated sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (using the dsrB and amoA genes, respectively) by examining a variety of surfaces within a model wetland (gravel, thick roots, fine roots, effluent), and the changes in activity (gene abundance) of these functional groups as influenced by plant species and season. Molecular techniques were used including quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), both with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment. PMA treatment is a method for excluding from further analysis those cells with compromised membranes. Rigorous statistical analysis showed an interaction between the abundance of these two functional groups with the type of plant and season (p?sulfate reducing bacterial community, as indicated by DGGE profiles, increased in planted vs. unplanted microcosms. For ammonia oxidizing bacteria, season had the greatest impact on gene abundance and diversity (higher in summer than in winter). Overall, the primary influence of plant presence is believed to be related to root oxygen loss and its effect on rhizosphere redox. PMID:22961363

Faulwetter, Jennifer L; Burr, Mark D; Parker, Albert E; Stein, Otto R; Camper, Anne K

2012-09-08

156

Draft genome sequences for three mercury-methylating, sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

The genetic basis for bacterial mercury methylation has been described recently. For insights into the physiology of mercury-methylating bacteria, we present genome sequences for Desulfococcus multivorans strain DSM 2059, Desulfovibrio alkalitolerans strain DSM 16529, and Desulfovibrio species strain X2. PMID:23950126

Brown, Steven D; Hurt, Richard A; Gilmour, Cynthia C; Elias, Dwayne A

2013-08-15

157

Gene Expression Correlates with Process Rates Quantified for Sulfate- and Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in U(VI)-Contaminated Sediments  

PubMed Central

Though iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria are well known for mediating uranium(VI) reduction in contaminated subsurface environments, quantifying the in situ activity of the microbial groups responsible remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the use of quantitative molecular tools that target mRNA transcripts of key genes related to Fe(III) and sulfate reduction pathways in order to monitor these processes during in situ U(VI) remediation in the subsurface. Expression of the Geobacteraceae-specific citrate synthase gene (gltA) and the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene (dsrA), were correlated with the activity of iron- or sulfate-reducing microorganisms, respectively, under stimulated bioremediation conditions in microcosms of sediments sampled from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC) site at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In addition, Geobacteraceae-specific gltA and dsrA transcript levels were determined in parallel with the predominant electron acceptors present in moderately and highly contaminated subsurface sediments from the OR-IFRC. Phylogenetic analysis of the cDNA generated from dsrA mRNA, sulfate-reducing bacteria-specific 16S rRNA, and gltA mRNA identified activity of specific microbial groups. Active sulfate reducers were members of the Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacterium, and Desulfotomaculum genera. Members of the subsurface Geobacter clade, closely related to uranium-reducing Geobacter uraniireducens and Geobacter daltonii, were the metabolically active iron-reducers in biostimulated microcosms and in situ core samples. Direct correlation of transcripts and process rates demonstrated evidence of competition between the functional guilds in subsurface sediments. We further showed that active populations of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria are present in OR-IFRC sediments and are good potential targets for in situ bioremediation.

Akob, Denise M.; Lee, Sang Hyon; Sheth, Mili; Kusel, Kirsten; Watson, David B.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Kostka, Joel E.; Chin, Kuk-Jeong

2012-01-01

158

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

159

Experimental Study on Restoration of Polluted Groundwater from in Situ Leaching Uranium Mining with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and ZVI-SRB  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of in situ leaching of uranium, the primitive geochemical environment for groundwater is changed since leachant is injected into the water beaving uranium deposit. This increases the concentration of uranium and results in the groundwater contamination.Microbial reduction technology by Sulfate reducing bacteria and Zero Valent Iron were employed to treat uranium wastewater. The experiments were conducted to

Kaiguang Hu; Qingliang Wang; Ganqiang Tao; Aihe Wang; Dexin Ding

2011-01-01

160

COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES AND RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES AMONG DISSIMILATORY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). f these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA direct...

161

Overestimation of the Abundance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Human Feces by Quantitative PCR Targeting the Desulfovibrio 16S rRNA Gene ?  

PubMed Central

The dominant genus of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in humans is Desulfovibrio, and quantitative PCR (QPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene is often used in assays. We show that the 16S rRNA gene assay overestimated SRB abundance in feces from 24 adults compared to QPCR assays using primers targeting two genes involved in SRB energy metabolism.

Christophersen, C. T.; Morrison, M.; Conlon, M. A.

2011-01-01

162

Distinctive Oxidative Stress Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect

Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mM) was investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. Microarray data demonstrated that gene expression was extensively affected by H2O2 with the response peaking at 120 min after H2O2 treatment. Genes affected include those involved with energy production, sulfate reduction, ribosomal structure and translation, H2O2 scavenging, posttranslational modification and DNA repair as evidenced by gene coexpression networks generated via a random matrix-theory based approach. Data from this study support the hypothesis that both PerR and Fur play important roles in H2O2-induced oxidative stress response. First, both PerR and Fur regulon genes were significantly up-regulated. Second, predicted PerR regulon genes ahpC and rbr2 were derepressedin Delta PerR and Delta Fur mutants and induction of neither gene was observed in both Delta PerR and Delta Fur when challenged with peroxide, suggesting possible overlap of these regulons. Third, both Delta PerR and Delta Fur appeared to be more tolerant of H2O2 as measured by optical density. Forth, proteomics data suggested de-repression of Fur during the oxidative stress response. In terms of the intracellular enzymatic H2O2 scavenging, gene expression data suggested that Rdl and Rbr2 may play major roles in the detoxification of H2O2. In addition, induction of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin appeared to be independent of PerR and Fur. Considering all data together, D. vulgaris employed a distinctive stress resistance mechanism to defend against increased cellular H2O2, and the temporal gene expression changes were consistent with the slowdown of cell growth at the onset of oxidative stress.

Zhou, Aifen; He, Zhili; Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Bender, Kelly S.; Keasling, Jay D.; Stahl, David A.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

2009-01-01

163

Molecular Ecological Analysis of the Succession and Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract  

PubMed Central

Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and resultant hydrogen sulfide production may damage the gastrointestinal epithelium and thereby contribute to chronic intestinal disorders. However, the ecology and phylogenetic diversity of intestinal dissimilatory SRB populations are poorly understood, and endogenous or exogenous sources of available sulfate are not well defined. The succession of intestinal SRB was therefore compared in inbred C57BL/6J mice using a PCR-based metabolic molecular ecology (MME) approach that targets a conserved region of subunit A of the adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene. The APS reductase-based MME strategy revealed intestinal SRB in the stomach and small intestine of 1-, 4-, and 7-day-old mice and throughout the gastrointestinal tract of 14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day-old mice. Phylogenetic analysis of APS reductase amplicons obtained from the stomach, middle small intestine, and cecum of neonatal mice revealed that Desulfotomaculum spp. may be a predominant SRB group in the neonatal mouse intestine. Dot blot hybridizations with SRB-specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes demonstrated SRB colonization of the cecum and colon pre- and postweaning and colonization of the stomach and small intestine of mature mice only. The 16S rDNA hybridization data further demonstrated that SRB populations were most numerous in intestinal regions harboring sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, regardless of age. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis demonstrated APS reductase mRNA expression in all intestinal segments of 30-day-old mice, including the stomach. These results demonstrate for the first time widespread colonization of the mouse intestine by dissimilatory SRB and evidence of spatial-specific SRB populations and sulfomucin patterns along the gastrointestinal tract.

Deplancke, B.; Hristova, K. R.; Oakley, H. A.; McCracken, V. J.; Aminov, R.; Mackie, R. I.; Gaskins, H. R.

2000-01-01

164

Molecular ecological analysis of the succession and diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and resultant hydrogen sulfide production may damage the gastrointestinal epithelium and thereby contribute to chronic intestinal disorders. However, the ecology and phylogenetic diversity of intestinal dissimilatory SRB populations are poorly understood, and endogenous or exogenous sources of available sulfate are not well defined. The succession of intestinal SRB was therefore compared in inbred C57BL/6J mice using a PCR-based metabolic molecular ecology (MME) approach that targets a conserved region of subunit A of the adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase gene. The APS reductase-based MME strategy revealed intestinal SRB in the stomach and small intestine of 1-, 4-, and 7-day-old mice and throughout the gastrointestinal tract of 14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day-old mice. Phylogenetic analysis of APS reductase amplicons obtained from the stomach, middle small intestine, and cecum of neonatal mice revealed that Desulfotomaculum spp. may be a predominant SRB group in the neonatal mouse intestine. Dot blot hybridizations with SRB-specific 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes demonstrated SRB colonization of the cecum and colon pre- and postweaning and colonization of the stomach and small intestine of mature mice only. The 16S rDNA hybridization data further demonstrated that SRB populations were most numerous in intestinal regions harboring sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, regardless of age. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis demonstrated APS reductase mRNA expression in all intestinal segments of 30-day-old mice, including the stomach. These results demonstrate for the first time widespread colonization of the mouse intestine by dissimilatory SRB and evidence of spatial-specific SRB populations and sulfomucin patterns along the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:10788396

Deplancke, B; Hristova, K R; Oakley, H A; McCracken, V J; Aminov, R; Mackie, R I; Gaskins, H R

2000-05-01

165

[Primary study on contents of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and organic matter from intertidal zone at Chongming Dongtan].  

PubMed

Collected soil samples from different tidal flats and elevation in Chongming Dongtan wetland, then conducted sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) based on MPN method, determined organic matter content and calculated SO4(2-)/Cl- molar ratio, for the research on the distribution of SRB, relevance to soil organic matter content as well as influence of plant rhizosphere environment on SRB growth. The results show the distribution of SRB is ranked as middle flat > climax flat > bald flat. The same tidal flats at different depths, the SRB levels are shown as 51-52 cm > 21-22 cm > 81-82 cm, therefore 51-52 cm soil depth of Dongtan wetland is the suitable area for SRB to grow. However, in different tidal and depth, the distribution of organic matter content presents climax flat > middle flat > bald flat. From 21-51 cm, as the depth increasing, the organic matter content decreases while the amount of SRB significantly increasing, which indicates SRB utilizes the soil organic matter to carry out reduction reaction. The SO4(2-)/Cl- molar ratios of all soil samples are less than 0.05, indicating that SRB are actively engaged in sulfate reduction. The concentration of SRB in reed rhizosphere soil is the highest, showing that Phragmites australis rhizosphere environment in Dongtan wetland could enhance SRB growth, while the number of SRB in Spartina alterniflora rhizosphere environment is relatively lower than the non-rhizosphere environment, indicating that the rhizosphere effect has different effects on SRB in Dongtan tidal flats. PMID:21072939

Yuan, Qi; Cui, Yu-Xue; Chen, Qing-Qiang; Lü, Bao-Yi; Xie, Bing

2010-09-01

166

Ecology of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in an Iron-Dominated, Mining-Impacted Freshwater Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A legacy of lead and silver mining in its headwaters left Lake Coeur d'Alene, Idaho with a sediment body that is highly reduced and contains up to 100 g kg ?1 iron and a smaller fraction of chemically active sulfi de phases. Th e dynamic character of these sulfi des and their importance for the sequestering of contaminating trace elements

Srividhya Ramamoorthy; Jeffrey S. Piotrowski; Heiko W. Langner; William E. Holben; Matthew J. Morra; R. Frank Rosenzweig

2009-01-01

167

Enzymatic Recovery of Elemental Palladium by Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Worldwide usage of platinum group metals is increasing, prompting new recovery technologies. Resting cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced soluble Pd2+ to elemental, cell-bound Pd0 supported by pyruvate, formate, or H2 as the electron donor without biochemical cofactors. Pd reduction was O2 insensitive, opening the way for recycling and recovery of Pd under oxic conditions.

Lloyd, Jon R.; Yong, Ping; Macaskie, Lynne E.

1998-01-01

168

Biotechnological potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria for transformation of nitrocellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biotransformation of NC by Desulfovibrio sp. was studied.The mass of NC was decreased by 4.9–9.3%. The rate of NC transformation was between 46 and 73mg NC per mg of bacterial protein in 10 days. Moreover, N content (%N) in the remaining NC was reduced by 2–12%. The inhibitory effect of NC was clearly expressed when the growth of D.

O. E. Petrova; N. B. Tarasova; M. N. Davydova

2002-01-01

169

Enzymatic recovery of elemental palladium by using sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of metal waste are produced from nonferrous industries such as mining and surface treatments; in general, physicochemical and biotechnological methods are available to treat these wastes. Worldwide usage of platinum group metals is increasing, prompting new recovery technologies. Resting cells of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced soluble Pd{sup 2+} to elemental, cell-bound Pd° supported by pyruvate, formate, or Hâ as

JON R. LLOYD; PING YONG; LYNNE E. MACASKIE

1998-01-01

170

Recovery of rhodium(III) from solutions and industrial wastewaters by a sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium.  

PubMed

A quantitative analysis of the rate of removal of rhodium(III) by a resting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium under different initial rhodium and biomass concentrations, pH, temperature, and electron donor was studied. Rhodium speciation was found to be the main factor controlling the rate of its removal from solution. SRB cells were found to have a higher affinity for anionic rhodium species, as compared to both cationic and neutral species, which become abundant when speciation equilibrium was reached. Consequently, a pH-dependent rate of rhodium removal from solution was observed. The maximum SRB uptake capacity for rhodium was found to be 66 mg of rhodium per gram of resting SRB biomass. Electron microscopy studies revealed a time-dependent localization and distribution of rhodium precipitates, initially intracellularly and then extracellularly, suggesting the involvement of an enzymatic reductive precipitation process. When a purified hydrogenase enzyme was incubated with rhodium chloride solution under hydrogen, 88% of the rhodium was removed within 1 h, whereas with a soluble extract from SRB 77% was removed within 10 min. Due to the low pH of the industrial effluent (1.31), the enzymatic reduction of rhodium by the purified hydrogenase was greatly limited, and it was apparent that an industrial effluent pretreatment was necessary before the application of an enzymatic treatment. In the present study, however, it was established that SRB are good candidates for the enzymatic recovery of rhodium from both aqueous solution and industrial effluent. PMID:17137308

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Whiteley, Chris G

171

Isolation of sulfate-reducing bacteria from the terrestrial deep subsurface and description of Desulfovibrio cavernae sp. nov.  

PubMed

Deep subsurface sandstones in the area of Berlin (Germany) located 600 to 1060 m below the surface were examined for the presence of viable microorganisms. The in situ temperatures at the sampling sites ranged from 37 to 45 degrees C. Investigations focussed on sulfate-reducing bacteria able to grow on methanol and triethylene glycol, which are added as chemicals to facilitate the long-term underground storage of natural gas. Seven strains were isolated from porewater brines in the porous sandstone. Three of them were obtained with methanol (strains H1M, H3M, and B1M), three strains with triethylene glycol (strains H1T, B1T, and B2T) and one strain with a mixture of lactate, acetate and butyrate (strain H1-13). Due to phenotypic properties six isolates could be identified as members of the genus Desulfovibrio, and strain B2T as a Desulfotomaculum. The salt tolerance and temperature range for growth indicated that the isolates originated from the indigenous deep subsurface sandstones. They grew in mineral media reflecting the in situ ionic composition of the different brines, which contained 1.5 to 190 g NaCl x l(-1) and high calcium and magnesium concentrations. The Desulfovibrio strains grew at temperatures between 20 and 50 degrees C, while the Desulfotomaculum strain was thermophilic and grew between 30 and 65 degrees C. The strains utilized a broad spectrum of electron donors and acceptors. They grew with carbon compounds like lactate, pyruvate, formate, n-alcohols (C1-C5), glycerol, ethylene glycol, malate, succinate, and fumarate. Some strains even utilized glucose as electron donor and carbon source. All strains were able to use sulfate, sulfite and nitrate as electron acceptors. Additionally, three Desulfovibrio strains reduced manganese oxide, the Desulfotomaculum strain reduced manganese oxide, iron oxide, and elemental sulfur. The 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the isolates belong to three different species. The strains H1T, H3M and B1M could be identified as Desulfovibrio indonesiensis, and strain B2T as Desulfotomaculum geothermicum. The other Desulfovibrio strains (H1M, H1-13, and B1T) showed identical 16S rDNA sequences and similarities as low as 93% to their closest relative, Desulfovibrio aminophilusT. Therefore, these isolates were assigned to a new species, Desulfovibrio cavernae sp. nov., with strain H1M as the type strain. PMID:15490555

Sass, Henrik; Cypionka, Heribert

2004-09-01

172

Passive Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage in Bioreactors using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Critical Review and Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD), characterized by low pH and high concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals, is an important and widespread environmental problem related to the mining industry. Sulfate-reducing passive bioreactors have received much attention lately as promising biotechnologies for AMD treatment. They offer advantages such as high metal removal at low pH, stable sludge, very low operation costs, and

Carmen-Mihaela Neculita; Gerald J. Zagury; Bruno Bussiere

2007-01-01

173

Community Structure, Cellular rRNA Content, and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Marine Arctic Sediments  

PubMed Central

The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of a marine Arctic sediment (Smeerenburgfjorden, Svalbard) was characterized by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and rRNA slot blot hybridization by using group- and genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. The SRB community was dominated by members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group. This group accounted for up to 73% of the SRB detected and up to 70% of the SRB rRNA detected. The predominance was shown to be a common feature for different stations along the coast of Svalbard. In a top-to-bottom approach we aimed to further resolve the composition of this large group of SRB by using probes for cultivated genera. While this approach failed, directed cloning of probe-targeted genes encoding 16S rRNA was successful and resulted in sequences which were all affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group. A group of clone sequences (group SVAL1) most closely related to Desulfosarcina variabilis (91.2% sequence similarity) was dominant and was shown to be most abundant in situ, accounting for up to 54.8% of the total SRB detected. A comparison of the two methods used for quantification showed that FISH and rRNA slot blot hybridization gave comparable results. Furthermore, a combination of the two methods allowed us to calculate specific cellular rRNA contents with respect to localization in the sediment profile. The rRNA contents of Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cells were highest in the first 5 mm of the sediment (0.9 and 1.4 fg, respectively) and decreased steeply with depth, indicating that maximal metabolic activity occurred close to the surface. Based on SRB cell numbers, cellular sulfate reduction rates were calculated. The rates were highest in the surface layer (0.14 fmol cell?1 day?1), decreased by a factor of 3 within the first 2 cm, and were relatively constant in deeper layers.

Ravenschlag, Katrin; Sahm, Kerstin; Knoblauch, Christian; J?rgensen, Bo B.; Amann, Rudolf

2000-01-01

174

Community structure, cellular rRNA content, and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine arctic sediments.  

PubMed

The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of a marine Arctic sediment (Smeerenburgfjorden, Svalbard) was characterized by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and rRNA slot blot hybridization by using group- and genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. The SRB community was dominated by members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group. This group accounted for up to 73% of the SRB detected and up to 70% of the SRB rRNA detected. The predominance was shown to be a common feature for different stations along the coast of Svalbard. In a top-to-bottom approach we aimed to further resolve the composition of this large group of SRB by using probes for cultivated genera. While this approach failed, directed cloning of probe-targeted genes encoding 16S rRNA was successful and resulted in sequences which were all affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group. A group of clone sequences (group SVAL1) most closely related to Desulfosarcina variabilis (91.2% sequence similarity) was dominant and was shown to be most abundant in situ, accounting for up to 54. 8% of the total SRB detected. A comparison of the two methods used for quantification showed that FISH and rRNA slot blot hybridization gave comparable results. Furthermore, a combination of the two methods allowed us to calculate specific cellular rRNA contents with respect to localization in the sediment profile. The rRNA contents of Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cells were highest in the first 5 mm of the sediment (0.9 and 1.4 fg, respectively) and decreased steeply with depth, indicating that maximal metabolic activity occurred close to the surface. Based on SRB cell numbers, cellular sulfate reduction rates were calculated. The rates were highest in the surface layer (0.14 fmol cell(-1) day(-1)), decreased by a factor of 3 within the first 2 cm, and were relatively constant in deeper layers. PMID:10919825

Ravenschlag, K; Sahm, K; Knoblauch, C; Jørgensen, B B; Amann, R

2000-08-01

175

Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach  

SciTech Connect

Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 M and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Luo, Jian [Stanford University; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL

2010-10-01

176

A combined massively parallel sequencing indicator species approach revealed significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities  

SciTech Connect

Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has been mostly used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium (VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee, USA. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 {micro}M, and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner loop injection well towards the outer loop and down-gradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical created conditions. Castellaniella, and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity; while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. Abundance of these bacteria as well as the Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducer Geobacter correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to the electron donor addition and by the groundwater flow path. A false discovery rate approach was implemented to discard false positives by chance given the large amount of data compared.

Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Gentry, Terry [Texas A& M University; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Watson, David B [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A. [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee; Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2010-08-01

177

Growth and Population Dynamics of Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

The consumption of methane in anoxic marine sediments is a biogeochemical phenomenon mediated by two archaeal groups (ANME-1 and ANME-2) that exist syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria. These anaerobic methanotrophs have yet to be recovered in pure culture, and key aspects of their ecology and physiology remain poorly understood. To characterize the growth and physiology of these anaerobic methanotrophs and the syntrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, we incubated marine sediments using an anoxic, continuous-flow bioreactor during two experiments at different advective porewater flow rates. We examined the growth kinetics of anaerobic methanotrophs and Desulfosarcina-like sulfate-reducing bacteria using quantitative PCR as a proxy for cell counts, and measured methane oxidation rates using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. Our data show that the specific growth rates of ANME-1 and ANME-2 archaea differed in response to porewater flow rates. ANME-2 methanotrophs had the highest rates in lower-flow regimes (?ANME-2 = 0.167 · week?1), whereas ANME-1 methanotrophs had the highest rates in higher-flow regimes (?ANME-1 = 0.218 · week?1). In both incubations, Desulfosarcina-like sulfate-reducing bacterial growth rates were approximately 0.3 · week?1, and their growth dynamics suggested that sulfate-reducing bacterial growth might be facilitated by, but not dependent upon, an established anaerobic methanotrophic population. ANME-1 growth rates corroborate field observations that ANME-1 archaea flourish in higher-flow regimes. Our growth and methane oxidation rates jointly demonstrate that anaerobic methanotrophs are capable of attaining substantial growth over a range of environmental conditions used in these experiments, including relatively low methane partial pressures.

Girguis, Peter R.; Cozen, Aaron E.; DeLong, Edward F.

2005-01-01

178

Inside the alkalinity engine: the role of electron donors in the organomineralization potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Mineral precipitation in microbial mats may have been the key to their preservation as fossil stromatolites, potentially documenting evidence of the earliest life on Earth. Two factors that contribute to carbonate mineral precipitation are the saturation index (SI) and the presence of nucleation sites. Both of these can be influenced by micro-organisms, which can either alter SI through their metabolisms, or produce and consume organic substances such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that can affect nucleation. It is the balance of individual metabolisms within the mat community that determines the pH and the dissolved inorganic carbon concentration, thereby potentially increasing the alkalinity and consequently the SI. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are an important component of this 'alkalinity engine.' The activity of SRB often peaks in layers where CaCO(3) precipitates, and mineral precipitation has been demonstrated in SRB cultures; however, the effect of their metabolism on the alkalinity engine and actual contribution to mineral precipitation is the subject of controversy. Here, we show through culture experiments, theoretical calculations, and geochemical modeling studies that the pH, alkalinity, and organomineralization potential will vary depending on the type of electron donor. Specifically, hydrogen and formate can increase the pH, but electron donors like lactate and ethanol, and to a lesser extent glycolate, decrease the pH. The implication of this for the lithification of mats is that the combination of processes supplying electron donors and the utilization of these compounds by SRB may be critical to promoting mineral precipitation. PMID:22925453

Gallagher, K L; Kading, T J; Braissant, O; Dupraz, C; Visscher, P T

2012-08-28

179

Quantification of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria in Industrial Wastewater, by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Using dsrA and apsA Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered a highly sensitive method for the quantification of microbial organisms\\u000a in environmental samples. This study was conducted to evaluate real-time PCR with SybrGreen detection as a quantification\\u000a method for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in industrial wastewater produced by several chemical industries. We designed four\\u000a sets of primers and developed standard curves based on genomic

Eitan Ben-Dov; Asher Brenner; Ariel Kushmaro

2007-01-01

180

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris)

R. Zuo; D. Örnek; B. C. Syrett; R. M. Green; C.-H. Hsu; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

2004-01-01

181

Nested PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Approach To Determine the Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Complex Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we describe a three-step nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy to de- tect sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in complex microbial communities from industrial bioreactors. In the first step, the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primers. Subsequently, this product was used as a template in a second PCR with group-specific SRB primers. A third round of amplification

Shabir A. Dar; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2005-01-01

182

Growth, natural relationships, cellular fatty acids and metabolic adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria that utilize long-chain alkanes under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural relationships, improvement of anaerobic growth on hydrocarbons, and properties that may provide clues to an understanding\\u000a of oxygen-independent alkane metabolism were studied with two mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains Hxd3 and Pnd3.\\u000a Strain Hxd3 had been formerly isolated from an oil tank; strain Pnd3 was isolated from marine sediment. Strains Hxd3 and Pnd3\\u000a grew under strictly anoxic conditions on n-alkanes

Frank Aeckersberg; Fred A. Rainey; Friedrich Widdel

1998-01-01

183

Seasonal Changes in the Relative Abundance of Uncultivated Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Salt Marsh Sediment and in the Rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic diversity and community composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a salt marsh sediment and in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora were investigated. Uncultivated Desulfobacteriaceae family-related phylotypes were studied by selectively amplifying 16S rRNA gene fragments from DNA extracted from salt marsh rhizosphere samples. Two novel phylotypes were retrieved from rhizosphere samples, with A01 having 89.1% sequence similarity with Desulfococcus multivorans

JULIETTE N. ROONEY-VARGA; RICHARD DEVEREUX; ROBERT S. EVANS

1997-01-01

184

Effect on methane digestion of decreased H 2 partial pressure by means of phototrophic or sulfate-reducing bacteria grown in an auxiliary reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2 is a central metabolite in the process of methane digestion. In this study, the partial pressure of H2 was decreased by sparging the gas phase of the digester through an auxiliary reactor in which a Rhodomicrobium vaniellii culture or a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria was allowed to develop at the expense of H2 and CO2 present in the

B. De Corte; K. Verhaegen; P. Bossier; W. Verstraete

1988-01-01

185

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more

Rongjun Zuo; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

186

Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the communities of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine marsh sediments  

PubMed Central

The effect of plant invasion on the microorganisms of soil sediments is very important for estuary ecology. The community structures of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as a function of Spartina alterniflora invasion in Phragmites australis-vegetated sediments of the Dongtan wetland in the Yangtze River estuary, China, were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of the methyl coenzyme M reductase A (mcrA) and dissimilatory sulfite-reductase (dsrB) genes. Sediment samples were collected from two replicate locations, and each location included three sampling stands each covered by monocultures of P. australis, S. alterniflora and both plants (transition stands), respectively. qPCR analysis revealed higher copy numbers of mcrA genes in sediments from S. alterniflora stands than P. australis stands (5- and 7.5-fold more in the spring and summer, respectively), which is consistent with the higher methane flux rates measured in the S. alterniflora stands (up to 8.01 ± 5.61 mg m?2 h?1). Similar trends were observed for SRB, and they were up to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanogens. Diversity indices indicated a lower diversity of methanogens in the S. alterniflora stands than the P. australis stands. In contrast, insignificant variations were observed in the diversity of SRB with the invasion. Although Methanomicrobiales and Methanococcales, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated in the salt marsh, Methanomicrobiales displayed a slight increase with the invasion and growth of S. alterniflora, whereas the later responded differently. Methanosarcina, the metabolically diverse methanogens, did not vary with the invasion of, but Methanosaeta, the exclusive acetate utilizers, appeared to increase with S. alterniflora invasion. In SRB, sequences closely related to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae dominated in the salt marsh, although they displayed minimal changes with the S. alterniflora invasion. Approximately 11.3 ± 5.1% of the dsrB gene sequences formed a novel cluster that was reduced upon the invasion. The results showed that in the sediments of tidal salt marsh where S. alterniflora displaced P. australis, the abundances of methanogens and SRB increased, but the community composition of methanogens appeared to be influenced more than did the SRB.

Zeleke, Jemaneh; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Jian-Gong; Huang, Ming-Yao; Xia, Fei; Wu, Ji-Hua; Quan, Zhe-Xue

2013-01-01

187

Quantitative Analysis of Three Hydrogenotrophic Microbial Groups, Methanogenic Archaea, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, and Acetogenic Bacteria, within Plaque Biofilms Associated with Human Periodontal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human subgingival plaque biofilms are highly complex microbial ecosystems that may depend on H2- metabolizing processes. Here we investigated the ubiquity and proportions of methanogenic archaea, sulfate reducers, and acetogens in plaque samples from 102 periodontitis patients. In contrast to the case for 65 healthy control subjects, hydrogenotrophic groups were almost consistently detected in periodontal pockets, with the proportions of

M. E. Vianna; S. Holtgraewe; I. Seyfarth; G. Conrads; H. P. Horz

2008-01-01

188

Lipid and carbon isotopic evidence of methane-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in association with gas hydrates from the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated lipid biomarker carbon isotope approach reveals new insight to microbial methane oxidation in the Gulf of Mexico gas-hydrate system. Hydrate-bearing and hydrate-free sediments were collected from the Gulf of Mexico slope using a research submersible. Phospholipid fatty acids consist mainly of C16 C18 compounds, which are largely derived from bacteria. The phospholipid fatty acids suggest that total biomass is enhanced 11 30-fold in gas-hydrate bearing sediment compared to hydrate-free sediment. Lipid biomarkers indicative of sulfate-reducing bacteria are strongly depleted in 13C (?13C = -48‰ to -70‰) in the hydrate-bearing samples, suggesting that they are involved in the oxidation of methane (?13C = -47‰ for thermogenic methane and -70‰ for biogenic methane). Isotopic properties of other biomarkers suggest that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Beggiatoa) may also contribute to the lipid pool in hydrate-bearing samples, which are characterized by less negative ?13C values (to -11.2‰). In the hydrate-free sample, fatty acid biomarkers have ?13C values of -27.6‰ to -39.6‰, indicating that crude oil (average ˜-27‰) or terrestrial organic carbon (average ˜-20‰) are the likely carbon sources. Our results provide the first lipid biomarker stable isotope evidence that sulfate- reducing bacteria play an important role in anaerobic methane oxidation in the Gulf of Mexico gas hydrates. The coupled activities of methane-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing organisms contribute to the development of ecosystems in deep-sea environments and result in sequestration of carbon as buried organic carbon and authigenic carbonates. These have implications for studying climate change based on carbon budgets.

Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Li, Yiliang; Wall, Judy D.; Larsen, Lise; Sassen, Roger; Huang, Yongsong; Wang, Yi; Peacock, Aaron; White, David C.; Horita, Juske; Cole, David R.

2002-03-01

189

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.  

PubMed

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

2004-07-23

190

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. obtained from an Algerian oilfield and chemical biocide THPS against sulfate-reducing bacteria consortium inducing corrosion in the oil industry.  

PubMed

The present study enlightens the role of the antagonistic potential of nonpathogenic strain B21 against sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) consortium. The inhibitor effects of strain B21 were compared with those of the chemical biocide tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium sulfate (THPS), generally used in the petroleum industry. The biological inhibitor exhibited much better and effective performance. Growth of SRB in coculture with bacteria strain B21 antagonist exhibited decline in SRB growth, reduction in production of sulfides, with consumption of sulfate. The observed effect seems more important in comparison with the effect caused by the tested biocide (THPS). Strain B21, a dominant facultative aerobic species, has salt growth requirement always above 5% (w/v) salts with optimal concentration of 10-15%. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B21 is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis DQ115802 (94.0% sequence similarity), Bacillus aidingensis DQ504377 (94.0%), and Bacillus salarius AY667494 (92.2%). Comparative analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequence data plus physiological, biochemical, and phenotypic features of the novel isolate and related species of Bacillus indicated that strain B21 may represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, named Bacillus sp. (EMBL, FR671419). The results of this study indicate the application potential of Bacillus strain B21 as a biocontrol agent to fight corrosion in the oil industry. PMID:20949304

Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Touzi, Abdelkader; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Pauss, André; Lounici, Hakim; Mameri, Nabil

2010-10-15

191

Three-year survey of sulfate-reducing bacteria community structure in Carnoulès acid mine drainage (France), highly contaminated by arsenic.  

PubMed

A 3-year survey on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was conducted in the waters of the arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) located at Carnoulès (France) to determine the influence of environmental parameters on their community structure. The source (S5 station) exhibited most extreme conditions with pH lowering to ~1.2; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations reaching 6843, 29 593, and 638 mg L(-1), respectively. The conditions were less extreme at the downstream stations S1 (pH ~3.7; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations of 1114, 4207, and 167 mg L(-1), respectively) and COWG (pH ~3.4; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations of 854, 3134, and 110 mg L(-1), respectively). SRB community structures were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and library analyses based on dsrAB genes. The predominant dsrAB sequences detected were most similar to the family Desulfobulbaceae. Additionally, certain phylotypes could be related to spatio-temporal fluctuations of pH, iron, and arsenic species. For example, Desulfohalobiaceae-related sequences were detected at the most acidic sample (pH 1.4) with high iron and arsenic concentrations (6379 and 524 mg L(-1), respectively). New dsrAB sequences, with no isolated representatives, were found exclusively in COWG. This study gives new insights on SRB community dynamics in AMD systems. PMID:23057444

Giloteaux, Ludovic; Duran, Robert; Casiot, Corinne; Bruneel, Odile; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol

2012-11-02

192

Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.  

PubMed

The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20?°C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture. PMID:23254512

Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

2012-12-20

193

Bioaccumulation of gold by sulfate-reducing bacteria cultured in the presence of gold(I)-thiosulfate complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment, from the Driefontein Consolidated Gold Mine, Witwatersrand Basin, Republic of South Africa, was able to destabilize gold(I)-thiosulfate complex (Au(SO)23-) and precipitate elemental gold. The precipitation of gold was observed in the presence of active (live) SRB due to the formation and release of hydrogen sulfide as an end-product of metabolism, and occurred by three possible mechanisms involving iron sulfide, localized reducing conditions, and metabolism. The presence of biogenic iron sulfide caused significant removal of gold from solutions by adsorption and reduction processes on the iron sulfide surfaces. The presence of gold nanoparticles within and immediately surrounding the bacterial cell envelope highlights the presence of localized reducing conditions produced by the bacterial electron transport chain via energy generating reactions within the cell. Specifically, the decrease in redox conditions caused by the release of hydrogen sulfide from the bacterial cells destabilized the Au(SO)23- solutions. The presence of gold as nanoparticles (<10 nm) inside a sub-population of SRB suggests that the reduction of gold was a part of metabolic process. In late stationary phase or death phase, gold nanoparticles that were initially precipitated inside the bacterial cells, were released from the cells and deposited in the bulk solution as addition of gold nanoparticles that already precipitated in the solution. Ultimately, the formation of micrometer-scale sub-octahedral and octahedral gold and spherical aggregates containing octahedral gold was observed.

Lengke, Maggy; Southam, Gordon

2006-07-01

194

Sulfate Reduction Dynamics and Enumeration of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Hypersaline Sediments of the Great Salt Lake (Utah,USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Bacterial sulfate reduction activity (SRA) was measured in surface sediments and slurries from three sites in the Great Salt\\u000a Lake (Utah, USA) using radiolabeled 35S-sulfate. High rates of sulfate reduction (363 ± 103 and 6,131 ± 835 nmol cm-3 d-1)\\u000a were measured at two sites in the moderately hypersaline southern arm of the lake, whereas significantly lower rates (32 ±

K. K. Brandt; F. Vester; A. N. Jensen; K. Ingvorsen

2001-01-01

195

Perchlorate reduction from a highly contaminated groundwater in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hydrogen-fed biofilm.  

PubMed

We used a hydrogen (H2 )-based biofilm to treat a groundwater contaminated with perchlorate (ClO4 (-) ) at ?10?mg/L, an unusually high concentration. To enhance ClO4 (-) removal, we either increased the H2 pressure or decreased the electron-acceptor surface loading. The ClO4 (-) removal increased from 94% to 98% when the H2 pressure was increased from 1.3 to 1.7?atm when the total acceptor surface loading was 0.49?g?H2 /m(2) ?day. We then decreased the acceptor surface loading stepwise from 0.49 to 0.07?g?H2 /m(2) ?day, and the ClO4 (-) removal improved to 99.6%, giving an effluent ClO4 (-) concentration of 41?µg/L. However, the tradeoff was that sulfate (SO4 (2-) ) reduction occurred, reaching 85% conversion at the lowest acceptor surface loading (0.07?g?H2 /m(2) ?day). In two steady states with the highest ClO4 (-) reduction, we assayed for the presence of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), denitrifying bacteria (DB), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting characteristic reductases. The qPCR results documented competition between PRB and SRB for space within the biofilm. A simple model analysis for a steady-state biofilm suggests that competition from SRB pushed the PRB to locations having a higher detachment rate, which prevented them from driving the ClO4 (-) concentration below 41?µg/L. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 3139-3147. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23797735

Ontiveros-Valencia, Aura; Tang, Youneng; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

2013-07-19

196

Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Floating Macrophyte Rhizospheres from an Amazonian Floodplain Lake in Bolivia and Their Association with Hg Methylation  

PubMed Central

Five subgroups of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were detected by PCR in three macrophyte rhizospheres (Polygonum densiflorum, Hymenachne donacifolia, and Ludwigia helminthorriza) and three subgroups in Eichhornia crassipes from La Granja, a floodplain lake from the upper Madeira basin. The SRB community varied according to the macrophyte species but with different degrees of association with their roots. The rhizosphere of the C4 plant Polygonum densiflorum had higher frequencies of SRB subgroups as well as higher mercury methylation potentials (27.5 to 36.1%) and carbon (16.06 ± 5.40%), nitrogen (2.03 ± 0.64%), Hg (94.50 ± 6.86 ng Hg g?1), and methylmercury (8.25 ± 1.45 ng Hg g?1) contents than the rhizosphere of the C3 plant Eichhornia crassipes. Mercury methylation in Polygonum densiflorum and Eichhornia crassipes was reduced when SRB metabolism was inhibited by sodium molybdate.

Acha, Dario; Iniguez, Volga; Roulet, Marc; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Luna, Ruddy; Alanoca, Lucia; Sanchez, Samanta

2005-01-01

197

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.  

PubMed

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

2003-08-01

198

Nanometer-Size Iron Sulfides Biomineralized by a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Gastropod in Cooperation with Endosymbiotic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The _gscaly-foot_h gastropod has been discovered only from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in the Central Indian Ridge among the global Mid Ocean Ridges (MOR) and found to be peculiar, because it has scale-shaped sclerites composed of hard proteins and iron sulfides that covered the sides of the foot. As the product and mechanism of the iron sulfide biomineralization have not been elucidated in any details, yet, we conducted crystallographic and molecular phylogenetic characterizations of the sclerites._@It was revealed that nanometer-scale (1) mackinawite (FeS) + greigite (Fe3S4), (2) pyrite (FeS2) and (3) mackinawite formed in distinct strata from the outer to inner parts of the sclerites, respectively. This study demonstrated for the first time that pyrite occurred in nature as exceedingly small crystalline nanoparticles (around 3 nm in diameter) and to grow via the aggregation-based pathway._@Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes detected predominant occurrence of bacteria that have the sequences of both genes closely related to sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbus spp. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis using a probe specific to the retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences of the Desulfobulbus-related bacteria revealed the localized occurrence of the bacteria in the most inner part of the sclerites, which represents a novel structural integration between bacteria and metazoans. The results strongly suggested the potential contribution of endosymbiotic SRB to formation of stratified nanometer-scale iron sulfides inside the gastropod_fs scaly. As mackinawite that is easily oxidized under slightly oxic conditions and persisted, pyrite seems to have formed via the strictly anoxic pathway. The results presented here may provide aid in deciphering important, but still partially understood formation mechanisms and biochemical and geochemical roles of iron sulfides.

Suzuki, Y.; Kogure, T.; Takai, K.; Tsuchida, S.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

2003-12-01

199

Culturable diversity of lithotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in soda lakes and the description of Desulfonatronum thioautotrophicum sp. nov., Desulfonatronum thiosulfatophilum sp. nov., Desulfonatronovibrio thiodismutans sp. nov., and Desulfonatronovibrio magnus sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soda lake sediments usually contain high concentrations of sulfide indicating active sulfate reduction. Monitoring of sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria (SRB) in soda lakes demonstrated a dominance of two groups of culturable SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales specialized in utilization of inorganic electron donors, such as formate, H2 and thiosulfate. The most interesting physiological trait of the novel haloalkaliphilic SRB isolates was

D. Y. SorokinT; T. P. Tourova; T. V. Kolganova; E. N. Detkova; E. A. Galinski; G. Muyzer

2011-01-01

200

Corrosion and Electrochemical Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel in Sulfate-reducing and Iron-oxidizing Bacteria Solutions 1 1 Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20576108)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion and electrochemical behavior of 316L stainless steel was investigated in the presence of aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) isolated from cooling water systems in an oil refinery using electrochemical measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive atom X-ray analysis(EDAX). The results show the corrosion potential and pitting potential of 316L stainless steel decrease distinctly

Congmin XU; Yaoheng ZHANG; Guangxu CHENG; Wensheng ZHU

2006-01-01

201

Identification of bacteria in enrichment cultures of sulfate reducers in the Cariaco Basin water column employing Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments  

PubMed Central

Background The Cariaco Basin is characterized by pronounced and predictable vertical layering of microbial communities dominated by reduced sulfur species at and below the redox transition zone. Marine water samples were collected in May, 2005 and 2006, at the sampling stations A (10°30? N, 64°40? W), B (10°40? N, 64°45? W) and D (10°43’N, 64°32’W) from different depths, including surface, redox interface, and anoxic zones. In order to enrich for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), water samples were inoculated into anaerobic media amended with lactate or acetate as carbon source. To analyze the composition of enrichment cultures, we performed DNA extraction, PCR-DGGE, and sequencing of selected bands. Results DGGE results indicate that many bacterial genera were present that are associated with the sulfur cycle, including Desulfovibrio spp., as well as heterotrophs belonging to Vibrio, Enterobacter, Shewanella, Fusobacterium, Marinifilum, Mariniliabilia, and Spirochaeta. These bacterial populations are related to sulfur coupling and carbon cycles in an environment of variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. Conclusions In our studies, we found an association of SRB-like Desulfovibrio with Vibrio species and other genera that have a previously defined relevant role in sulfur transformation and coupling of carbon and sulfur cycles in an environment where there are variable redox conditions and oxygen availability. This study provides new information about microbial species that were culturable on media for SRB at anaerobic conditions at several locations and water depths in the Cariaco Basin.

2013-01-01

202

Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield ? 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine-grained black muds that are distinguishable from coarser pyrite cinders, and exhibit a noticeably strong sulfide odor. Aero- and halo-tolerant SRB were enriched from circumneutral pH cores, and we hypothesize that acido-tolerant SRB may also be present. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of whole community 16S rDNA extracted from each core shows an expected increase in diversity between acidic and circumneutal sediments, and clone libraries from both contaminated and uncontaminated marsh sediments are being compared to assess the impact of long-term contamination. References: Webb et al. 1998, J. Appl. Microbio., 84, 240-248; Moreau et al. 2003, Amer. Min., in review; URS Corp. 2001, Report 51.09967067.00.

Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

2003-12-01

203

The use of a solid adsorber resin for enrichment of bacteria with toxic substrates and to identify metabolites: degradation of naphthalene, O-, and m-xylene by sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria were enriched from contaminated aquifer samples with naphthalene, o-, and m-xylene as sole carbon and energy source in the presence of Amberlite-XAD7, a solid adsorber resin. XAD7 served as a substrate reservoir maintaining a constantly low substrate concentration in the culture medium. In equilibration experiments with XAD7, the aromatic hydrocarbons needed up to 5 days to achieve equilibrium between the water and the XAD7 phase. The equilibrium concentration was directly correlated with the amount of added substrate and XAD7. In the enrichments presented here, XAD7 and aromatic hydrocarbons were adjusted to maintain substrate concentrations of 100 microM m-, or o-xylene, or 50 microM naphthalene. After five subsequent transfers, the three cultures were able to grow with higher substrate concentrations in the absence of XAD7 although they grew best with lower hydrocarbon concentrations. Two new xylene-degrading cultures were obtained that could not utilise toluene as carbon source. O-xylene was degraded anaerobically by a culture, which could also oxidise m-xylene but not p-xylene. Eighty-three percent of the electrons from o-xylene oxidation were recovered in the produced sulfide, indicating a complete oxidation to CO2. Another sulfate-reducing enrichment culture oxidised m-xylene completely to CO2 but not o-, or p-xylene. A naphthalene-degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment culture oxidised naphthalene completely to CO2. Metabolites of naphthalene degradation were recovered from the XAD7 phase and subjected to GC/MS analysis. Besides the metabolites 2-naphthoic acid and decahydro-2-naphthoic acid which were identified by the mass spectrum and coelution with chemically synthesised reference compounds, the reduced 2-naphthoic acid derivatives 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and octahydro-2-naphthoic acid were tentatively identified by their mass spectra. Cultivation of bacterial cultures in the presence of XAD7 and subsequent derivatisation and extraction of metabolites directly from the solid XAD7 resin provides a new method for the isolation of sensitive bacteria and identification of metabolites. PMID:11165347

Morasch, B; Annweiler, E; Warthmann, R J; Meckenstock, R U

2001-03-01

204

Natural Relationships among Sulfate-Reducing Eubacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phylogenetic relationships among 20 nonsporeforming and two endospore-forming species of sulfate-reducing eubacteria were inferred from comparative 16S rRNA sequencing. All genera of mesophilic sulfate-reducing eubacteria except the new genus Desulfomicro...

R. Devereux M. Delaney F. Widdel D. A. Stahl

1989-01-01

205

Distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a stratified fjord (Mariager Fjord, Denmark) as evaluated by most-probable-number counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA fragments.  

PubMed Central

The sulfate-reducing bacterial populations of a stratified marine water column, Mariager Fjord, Denmark, were investigated by molecular and culture-dependent approaches in parallel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and DNA encoding rRNA (rDNA) isolated from the water column indicated specific bacterial populations in different water column layers and revealed a highly differentiated pattern of rRNA- and rDNA-derived PCR amplificates, probably reflecting active and resting bacterial populations. Hybridization of DGGE patterns with rRNA probes indicated the increased presence and activity (by at least 1 order of magnitude) of sulfate-reducing bacteria within and below the chemocline. Parallel to this molecular approach, an approach involving most-probable-number (MPN) counts was used, and it found a similar distribution of cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water column of Mariager Fjord, Approximately 25 cells and 250 cells per ml above and below the chemocline, respectively, were found. Desulfovibrio- and Desulfobulbus-related strains occurred in the oxic zone. DGGE bands from MPN cultures were sequenced and compared with those obtained from nucleic acids extracted from water column samples. The MPN isolates were phylogenetically affiliated with sulfate-reducing delta subdivision proteobacteria (members of the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfobacter), whereas the molecular isolates constituted an independent lineage of the delta subdivision proteobacteria. DGGE of PCR-amplified nucleic acids with general eubacterial PCR primers conceptually revealed the general bacterial population, whereas the use of culture media allowed cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria to be selected. A parallel study of Mariager Fjord biogeochemistry, bacterial activity, and bacterial counts complementing this investigation has been presented elsewhere (N.B. Ramsing, H. Fossing, T. G. Ferdelman, F. Andersen, and B. Thamdrup, Appl. Environ.

Teske, A; Wawer, C; Muyzer, G; Ramsing, N B

1996-01-01

206

Phylogeography of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria among Disturbed Sediments, Disclosed by Analysis of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB)  

PubMed Central

Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time.

Perez-Jimenez, J. R.; Kerkhof, L. J.

2005-01-01

207

Degradative capacities and 16S rRNA-targeted whole-cell hybridization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anaerobic enrichment culture utilizing alkylbenzenes from crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of sulfide in oil field waters, a process which is referred to as souring, has been of concern. Hydrogen sulfide may lead to poisoning, contamination of oil and gas, corrosion of pipelines, conversion of iron mineral to ferrous sulfide. This study used a previously established sulfate-reducing enrichment culture on crude oil as a model system of bacterial habitats in

RALF RABUS; F. Widdel; Manabu Fukui

1996-01-01

208

Abundance and spatial organization of Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacteria in activated sludge investigated by in situ probing with specific 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive panel of ten 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotides specific for mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) within the ?-subclass of Proteobacteria was developed as a diagnostic tool and evaluated for its specificity and in situ applicability. Five probes (DSD131, DSBO224, DSV407, DSR651, DSS658) are specific on genus level and five probes identify distinct phylogenetic subbranches within the families Desulfobacteriaceae (DSMA488, DSB985)

Werner Manz; Michael Eisenbrecher; Thomas R. Neu; Ulrich Szewzyk

1998-01-01

209

Competition and Coexistence of Sulfate-Reducing and Methanogenic Populations in Anaerobic Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The microbial population structure and function of natural anaerobic communities maintained in laboratory fixed-bed biofilm reactors were tracked before and after a major perturbation, which involved the addition of sulfate to the influent of a reactor that had previously been fed only glucose (methanogenic), while sulfate was withheld from a reactor that had been fed both glucose and sulfate (sulfidogenic). The population structure, determined by using phylogenetically based oligonucleotide probes for methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, was linked to the functional performance of the biofilm reactors. Before the perturbation, the methanogenic reactor contained up to 25% methanogens as well as 15% sulfate-reducing bacteria, even though sulfate was not present in the influent of this reactor. Methanobacteriales and Desulfovibrio spp. were the most abundant methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, respectively. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (primarily Desulfovibrio spp. and Desulfobacterium spp.) in the absence of sulfate may be explained by their ability to function as proton-reducing acetogens and/or fermenters. Sulfate reduction began immediately following the addition of sulfate consistent with the presence of significant levels of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the methanogenic reactor, and levels of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased to a new steady-state level of 30 to 40%; coincidentally, effluent acetate concentrations decreased. Notably, some sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfococcus/Desulfosarcina/Desulfobotulus group) were more competitive without sulfate. Methane production decreased immediately following the addition of sulfate; this was later followed by a decrease in the relative concentration of methanogens, which reached a new steady-state level of approximately 8%. The changeover to sulfate-free medium in the sulfidogenic reactor did not cause a rapid shift to methanogenesis. Methane production and a substantial increase in the levels of methanogens were observed only after approximately 50 days following the perturbation.

Raskin, L.; Rittmann, B. E.; Stahl, D. A.

1996-01-01

210

NATURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SULFATE-REDUCING EUBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Phylogenetic relationships among 20 nonsporeforming and two endospore-forming species of sulfate-reducing eubacteria were inferred from comparative 16S rRNA seguencing. ll genera of mesophilic sulfate-reducing eubacteria except the new genus Desulfomicrobium and the gliding Desul...

211

Culturable diversity of lithotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in soda lakes and the description of Desulfonatronum thioautotrophicum sp. nov., Desulfonatronum thiosulfatophilum sp. nov., Desulfonatronovibrio thiodismutans sp. nov., and Desulfonatronovibrio magnus sp. nov.  

PubMed

Soda lake sediments usually contain high concentrations of sulfide indicating active sulfate reduction. Monitoring of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in soda lakes demonstrated a dominance of two groups of culturable SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales specialized in utilization of inorganic electron donors, such as formate, H(2) and thiosulfate. The most interesting physiological trait of the novel haloalkaliphilic SRB isolates was their ability to grow lithotrophically by dismutation of thiosulfate and sulfite. All isolates were obligately alkaliphilic with a pH optimum at 9.5-10 and moderately salt tolerant. Among the fifteen newly isolated strains, four belonged to the genus Desulfonatronum and the others to the genus Desulfonatronovibrio. None of the isolates were closely related to previously described species of these genera. On the basis of phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the novel soda lake SRB isolates, two novel species each in the genera Desulfonatronum and Desulfonatronovibrio are proposed. PMID:21479878

Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Kolganova, T V; Detkova, E N; Galinski, E A; Muyzer, G

2011-04-11

212

Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral  

PubMed Central

The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

2013-01-01

213

Thermodesulfovibrio aggregans sp. nov. and Thermodesulfovibrio thiophilus sp. nov., anaerobic, thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from thermophilic methanogenic sludge, and emended description of the genus Thermodesulfovibrio.  

PubMed

Four obligately anaerobic, thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterial strains, designated TGE-P1(T), TDV(T), TGL-LS1 and TSL-P1, were isolated from thermophilic (operated at 55 degrees C) methanogenic sludges from waste and wastewater treatment. The optimum temperature for growth of all the strains was in the range 55-60 degrees C. The four strains grew by reduction of sulfate with a limited range of electron donors, such as hydrogen, formate, pyruvate and lactate. In co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH(T), strains TGE-P1(T), TGL-LS1 and TSL-P1 were able to utilize lactate syntrophically for growth. The DNA G+C contents of all the strains were in the range 34-35 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of the strains were iso-C(17 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains belong to the Thermodesulfovibrio clade of the phylum 'Nitrospirae'. On the basis of their physiological, chemotaxonomic and genetic properties, strains TGL-LS1 (=JCM 13214) and TSL-P1 (=JCM 13215) were classified as strains of Thermodesulfovibrio islandicus. Two novel species of the genus Thermodesulfovibrio are proposed to accommodate the other two isolates: Thermodesulfovibrio aggregans sp. nov. (type strain TGE-P1(T) =JCM 13213(T) =DSM 17283(T)) and Thermodesulfovibrio thiophilus sp. nov. (type strain TDV(T) =JCM 13216(T) =DSM 17215(T)). To examine the ecological aspects of Thermodesulfovibrio-type cells in the sludge from which the strains were originally isolated, an oligonucleotide probe targeting 16S rRNA of all Thermodesulfovibrio species was designed and applied to thin sections of thermophilic sludge granules. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using the probe revealed rod- or vibrio-shaped cells as a significant population within the sludge, indicating their important role in the original ecosystem. PMID:18984690

Sekiguchi, Yuji; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Narihiro, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi

2008-11-01

214

Mercury Methylation by Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

The Hg-methylating ability of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria in the genera Geobacter, Desulfuromonas, and Shewanella was examined. All of the Geobacter and Desulfuromonas strains tested methylated mercury while reducing Fe(III), nitrate, or fumarate. In contrast, none of the Shewanella strains produced methylmercury at higher levels than abiotic controls under similar culture conditions. Geobacter and Desulfuromonas are closely related to known Hg-methylating sulfate-reducing bacteria within the Deltaproteobacteria.

Kerin, E. J.; Gilmour, C. C.; Roden, E.; Suzuki, M. T.; Coates, J. D.; Mason, R. P.

2006-01-01

215

IN SITU RT-PCR WITH A SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIUM ISOLATED FROM SEAGRASS ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacteria considered to be obligate anaerobes internally colonize roots of the submerged macrophyte Halodule wrightii. A sulfate reducing bacterium, Summer lac 1, was isolated on lactate from H. wrightii roots. The isolate has physiological characteristics typical of Desulfovibri...

216

Molecular analysis of deep subsurface Cretaceous rock indicates abundant Fe(III)- and S°-reducing bacteria in a sulfate-rich environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-level sampler (MLS) was emplaced in a borehole straddling anaerobic, sulfate-rich Cretaceous-era shale and sandstone rock formations â200 m below ground surface at Cerro Negro, New Mexico. Sterile quartzite sand contained in chambers in the sampler allowed in situ colonization and recovery of nucleic acids for molecular analyses. DGGE and 16S rRNA gene cloning results indicated a homogeneously distributed

William P. Kovacik; Ken Takai; Melanie R. Mormile; James P. McKinley; Fred J. Brockman; James K. Fredrickson; William E. Holben

2006-01-01

217

Lipid and carbon isotopic evidence of methane-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in association with gas hydrates from the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated lipid biomarker carbon isotope approach reveals new insight to microbial methane oxidation in the Gulf of Mexico gas-hydrate system. Hydrate-bearing and hydrate-free sediments were collected from the Gulf of Mexico slope using a research submersible. Phospholipid fatty acids consist mainly of C16 C18 compounds, which are largely derived from bacteria. The phospholipid fatty acids suggest that total biomass

Chuanlun L. Zhang; Yiliang Li; Judy D. Wall; Lise Larsen; Roger Sassen; Yongsong Huang; Yi Wang; Aaron Peacock; David C. White; Juske Horita; David R. Cole

2002-01-01

218

Effect of hydrogenase and mixed sulfate-reducing bacterial populations on the corrosion of steel  

SciTech Connect

The importance of hydrogenase activity to corrosion of steel was assessed by using mixed populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from corroded and noncorroded oil pipelines. Biofilms which developed on the steel studs contained detectable numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (10{sup 4} increasing to 10{sup 7}/0.5 cm{sup 2}). However, the biofilm with active hydrogenase activity (i.e., corrosion pipeline organisms), as measured by a semiquantitative commercial kit, was associated with a significantly higher corrosion rate (7.79 mm/year) relative to noncorrosive biofilm (0.48 mm/year) with 10{sup 5} sulfate-reducing bacteria per 0.5 cm{sup 2} but no measurable hydrogenase activity. The importance of hydrogenase and the microbial sulfate-reducing bacterial population making up the biofilm are discussed relative to biocorrosion.

Bryant, R.D.; Jansen, W.; Boivin, J.; Laishley, E.J.; Costerton, J.W. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1991-10-01

219

Performance of a thermophilic sulfate and sulfite reducing high rate anaerobic reactor fed with methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic sulfate and sulfite reduction was studied in lab-scale Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) reactors operated at 65°C and pH 7.5 with methanol as the sole carbon and energy source for the sulfate- and sulfite-reducing bacteria. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h, maximum sulfite and sulfate elimination rates of 5.5 gSO32- L-1 day-1 (100 % elimination) and

Jan Weijma; Look W. Hulshoff Pol; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gatze Lettinga

2000-01-01

220

Kinetic mechanism for the ability of sulfate reducers to out-compete methanogens for acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanosarcina barkeri and Desulfobacter postgatei are ubiquitous anaerobic bacteria which grow on acetate or acetate plus sulfate, respectively, as sole energy sources. Their apparent Ks values for acetate were determined and found to be approximately 0.2 mM for the sulfate-reducing bacterium and 3 mM for the methanogenic bacterium. In mixed cell suspensions of the two bacteria (adjusted to equal Vmax)

Peter Schönheit; Jakob K. Kristjansson; Rudolf K. Thauer

1982-01-01

221

The sulphate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

This monograph surveys knowledge about an unusual and little-studied group of microbes, bringing together information that has hitherto been widely scattered throughout the scientific literature. The sulphate-reducing bacteria cannot grow in air; they respire sulphates instead of oxygen and are difficult to isolate and study. Nevertheless, much progress has been made in recent years and has revealed novelties of biochemistry and physiology. Sulphate-reducing bacteria affect man in a variety of subtle and occasionally blatant ways although, unlike many bacteria, they cause no disease. Among harmful attributes are being agents of pollution, corrosion and spoilage of food and materials. Their beneficial attributes include the generation of most of the world's sulphur supplies and several other mineral resources, as well as contributing to the oil reserves of this planet. They grow in oil wells, sulphur springs, natural gas stores, sewage sludge and comparable habitats. They are not only of great academic interest but also of increasing practical importance in oil, gas, mineral and corrosion technology.

Postgate, J.R.

1984-01-01

222

Diverse Oxidative Stress Resistance Mechanisms in Sulfate-reducing Bacteria as Revealed by Global Analysis of the Impact of H2O2 Exposure on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) plays important roles in the bioremediation of toxic metals. It has been shown aero-tolerant. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of DvH oxidative stress response, mid-log DvH cells were subjected to 1 mM of H2O2 and the transcriptomic changes were examined at 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 min. The microarray data demonstrated that the gene expression was extensively affected with 29% of genes in the genome significantly up- or down-regulated after 120-min H2O2 treatment. In response to elevated cellular H2O2, expression of thiol-peroxidase genes ahpC and bcp were increased in addition to the significant induction of many thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin genes, which represent the thiol switch in the oxidative stress response. Increased gene expression PerR regulon genes including PerR itself provided evidence for the regulatory role of PerR in oxidative stress response. The role of Fur was suggested by the significant up-regulation of Fur regulon genes. In terms of the H2O2 scavenging enzymes, different from the stress response to air where both rbr and rbr2 were induced, only rbr2 was up-regulated in response to H2O2; together with up-regulated rdl, they might be the additional players for the detoxification of H2O2. Superoxide scavenging enzyme katA was significantly down-regulated, which is in contrast to its role in facultative microbes such as E.coli and B. subtilis. The links between the up- regulated genes involved in H2O2 scavenging, protein fate, DNA metabolism and lipid metabolism and the down-regulated genes involved in sulfate reduction, energy production and translation were demonstrated by the gene co-expression network. The proteomics data provided further evidence in translation level and complemented the transcriptomics data. Taken together, the cellular response of D. vulgaris Hildenborough to H2O2 was the up-regulation of detoxification, protein and DNA repair systems and the down-regulation of energy metabolism and protein synthesis, which is in a good agreement with the slowdown of cell growth upon oxidative stress.

Zhou, A.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; He, Z.; Hemme, C. L.; Keasling, J. D.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

2008-12-01

223

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments. [Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

SciTech Connect

Washed cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of (/sup 75/Se)selenate to (/sup 75/Se)selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was greater than or equal to0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace quantities of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

1987-06-01

224

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J. P.; Oremland, R. S.

1987-01-01

225

Uranium Immobilization by Sulfate-reducing Biofilms  

SciTech Connect

Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] was immobilized using biofilms of the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. The biofilms were grown in flat-plate continuous-flow reactors using lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. U(VI) was continuously fed into the reactor for 32 weeks at a concentration of 126 íM. During this time, the soluble U(VI) was removed (between 88 and 96% of feed) from solution and immobilized in the biofilms. The dynamics of U immobilization in the sulfate-reducing biofilms were quantified by estimating: (1) microbial activity in the SRB biofilm, defined as the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production rate and estimated from the H2S concentration profiles measured using microelectrodes across the biofilms; (2) concentration of dissolved U in the solution; and (3) the mass of U precipitated in the biofilm. Results suggest that U was immobilized in the biofilms as a result of two processes: (1) enzymatically and (2) chemically, by reacting with microbially generated H2S. Visual inspection showed that the dissolved sulfide species reacted with U(VI) to produce a black precipitate. Synchrotron-based U L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of U precipitated abiotically by sodium sulfide indicated that U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV). Selected-area electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic analysis of transmission electron microscope lattice-fringe images confirmed the structure of precipitated U as being that of uraninite.

Beyenal, Haluk; Sani, Rajesh K.; Peyton, Brent M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2004-04-01

226

Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. PMID:23116719

Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

2012-10-06

227

Fatty Acids and Stable Carbon Isotopes of a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium: Implications for Carbon Cycling in Organic-Rich Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria have characteristic lipid biomarkers, which help delineate carbon cycling pathways under sulfate-reducing conditions. This is especially important for marine sediments because of the predominance of sulfate reduction in such environments. Little research has been done to determine carbon isotope fractionations associated with lipid biomarkers of known sulfate-reducing bacteria. We examined the fatty acid compositions and their carbon isotope

J. McBeth; B. Giles; E. Ye; Y. Li; C. L. Zhang; J. D. Wall; Y. Huang; J. Horita; D. R. Cole

2001-01-01

228

Structural and functional dynamics of sulfate-reducing populations in bacterial biofilms  

PubMed

We describe the combined application of microsensors and molecular techniques to investigate the development of sulfate reduction and of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in an aerobic bacterial biofilm. Microsensor measurements for oxygen showed that anaerobic zones developed in the biofilm within 1 week and that oxygen was depleted in the top 200 to 400 &mgr;m during all stages of biofilm development. Sulfate reduction was first detected after 6 weeks of growth, although favorable conditions for growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were present from the first week. In situ hybridization with a 16S rRNA probe for SRB revealed that sulfate reducers were present in high numbers (approximately 10(8) SRB/ml) in all stages of development, both in the oxic and anoxic zones of the biofilm. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the genetic diversity of the microbial community increased during the development of the biofilm. Hybridization analysis of the DGGE profiles with taxon-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio were the main sulfate-reducing bacteria in all biofilm samples as well as in the bulk activated sludge. However, different Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were found in the 6th and 8th weeks of incubation, respectively, coinciding with the development of sulfate reduction. Our data indicate that not all SRB detected by molecular analysis were sulfidogenically active in the biofilm. PMID:9758792

Santegoeds; Ferdelman; Muyzer; de Beer D

1998-10-01

229

Structural and functional dynamics of sulfate-reducing populations in bacterial biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the combined application of microsensors and molecular techniques to investigate the development of sulfate reduction and of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in an aerobic bacterial biofilm. Microsensor measurements for oxygen showed that anaerobic zones developed in the biofilm within 1 week and that oxygen was depleted in the top 200 to 400 {micro}m during all stages of biofilm development. Sulfate reduction was first detected after 6 weeks of growth, although favorable conditions for growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were present from the first week. In situ hybridization with a 16S rRNA probe for SRB revealed that sulfate reducers were present in high numbers in all stages of development, both in the oxic and anoxic zones of the biofilm. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the genetic diversity of the microbial community increased during the development of the biofilm. Hybridization analysis of the DGGE profiles with taxon-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio were the main sulfate-reducing bacteria in all biofilm samples as well as in the bulk activated sludge. However, different Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were found in the 6th and 8th weeks of incubation, respectively, coinciding with the development of sulfate reduction. Their data indicate that not all SRB detected by molecular analysis were sulfidogenically active in the biofilm.

Santegoeds, C.M.; Ferdelman, T.G.; Muyzer, G.; Beer, D. de [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany)

1998-10-01

230

Structural and Functional Dynamics of Sulfate-Reducing Populations in Bacterial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

We describe the combined application of microsensors and molecular techniques to investigate the development of sulfate reduction and of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in an aerobic bacterial biofilm. Microsensor measurements for oxygen showed that anaerobic zones developed in the biofilm within 1 week and that oxygen was depleted in the top 200 to 400 ?m during all stages of biofilm development. Sulfate reduction was first detected after 6 weeks of growth, although favorable conditions for growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were present from the first week. In situ hybridization with a 16S rRNA probe for SRB revealed that sulfate reducers were present in high numbers (approximately 108 SRB/ml) in all stages of development, both in the oxic and anoxic zones of the biofilm. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the genetic diversity of the microbial community increased during the development of the biofilm. Hybridization analysis of the DGGE profiles with taxon-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio were the main sulfate-reducing bacteria in all biofilm samples as well as in the bulk activated sludge. However, different Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio species were found in the 6th and 8th weeks of incubation, respectively, coinciding with the development of sulfate reduction. Our data indicate that not all SRB detected by molecular analysis were sulfidogenically active in the biofilm.

Santegoeds, Cecilia M.; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Muyzer, Gerard; de Beer, Dirk

1998-01-01

231

Diversity of Sulfur Isotope Fractionations by Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes†  

PubMed Central

Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.0 to 42.0‰. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation. Sulfate reducers that oxidized the carbon source completely to CO2 showed greater fractionations than sulfate reducers that released acetate as the final product of carbon oxidation. Different metabolic pathways and variable regulation of sulfate transport across the cell membrane all potentially affect isotope fractionation. Previous models that explained fractionation only in terms of sulfate reduction rates appear to be oversimplified. The species-specific physiology of each sulfate reducer thus needs to be taken into account to understand the regulation of sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction.

Detmers, Jan; Bruchert, Volker; Habicht, Kirsten S.; Kuever, Jan

2001-01-01

232

Distribution of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Stratified Fjord (Mariager Fjord, Denmark) as Evaluated by Most-Probable- Number Counts and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfate-reducing bacterial populations of a stratified marine water column, Mariager Fjord, Denmark, were investigated by molecular and culture-dependent approaches in parallel. Denaturing gradient gel elec- trophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and DNA encoding rRNA (rDNA) isolated from the water column indicated specific bacterial populations in different water column layers and revealed a highly differ- entiatedpatternofrRNA-andrDNA-derivedPCRamplificates,probablyreflectingactiveandrestingbacterial populations. Hybridization of

ANDREAS TESKE; CATHRIN WAWER; GERARD MUYZER; ANDNIELS B. RAMSING

233

Incorporation of either molybdenum or tungsten into formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491; EPR assignment of the proximal iron-sulfur cluster to the pterin cofactor in formate dehydrogenases from sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the characterization of the molecular properties and EPR studies of a new formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the sulfate-reducing organism Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491. FDHs are enzymes that catalyze the two-electron oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide in several aerobic and anaerobic organisms. D. alaskensis FDH is a heterodimeric protein with a molecular weight of 126±2 kDa composed of two

Carlos D. Brondino; Mario C. G. Passeggi; Jorge Caldeira; Maria J. Almendra; Maria J. Feio; Jose J. G. Moura; Isabel Moura

2004-01-01

234

Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes. PMID:23757342

Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

2013-06-11

235

Reduction of Iron Oxides Enhanced by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium and Biogenic H2S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between bacteria and minerals at low temperatures often lead to accelerated alteration and transformation of mineral phases through dissolution and precipitation. Here we report the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite, and magnetite by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G-20. The goal of this study was: (1) to investigate iron reduction by G-20 using iron as the sole

Yi-Liang Li; Hojatollah Vali; John Yang; Tommy J. Phelps; Chuanlun L. Zhang

2006-01-01

236

Field and laboratory studies of methane oxidation in an anoxic marine sediment: Evidence for a methanogen-sulfate reducer consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory studies of anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, suggest that anaerobic methane oxidation is mediated by a consortium of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A seasonal survey of methane oxidation and COâ reduction rates indicates that methane production was confined to sulfate-depleted sediments at all times of year, while methane oxidation occurred in two modes. In

Tori M. Hoehler; Marc J. Alperin; Daniel B. Albert; Christopher S. Martens

1994-01-01

237

Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.  

PubMed

This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

2007-08-28

238

Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbially-mediated metal reduction plays a significant role controlling contaminant mobility in aqueous, soil, and sedimentary environments. From among environmentally relevant microorganisms mediating metal reduction, Geobacter spp. have been identified as predominant metal-reducing bacteria under acetate- oxidizing conditions. Due to the significance of these bacteria in environmental systems, it is necessary to understand factors influencing their metabolic physiology. Examination of the

K. A. Weber; K. S. Bender; K. Gandhi; J. D. Coates

2008-01-01

239

Biological sulfate reduction in the acidogenic phase of anaerobic digestion under dissimilatory Fe (III)--reducing conditions.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel approach was developed for sulfate - containing wastewater treatment via dosing Fe?O? in a two - stage anaerobic reactor (A1, S1). The addition of Fe?O? in its second stage i.e. acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor (S1) resulted in microbial reduction of Fe (III), which significantly enhanced the biological sulfate reduction. In reactor S1, increasing influent sulfate concentration to 1400 mg/L resulted in a higher COD removal (27.3%) and sulfate reduction (57.9%). In the reference reactor without using Fe?O? (S2), the COD and sulfate removal were 15.6% and 29%, respectively. The combined performance of the two-stage anaerobic reactor (A1, S1) also showed a higher COD removal of 74.2%. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant bacteria with high similarity to IRB species as well as sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio and acidogenic bacteria (AB) were enriched in S1. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) analysis presented a higher proportion of sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio marrakechensis and Fe (III) reducer Iron-reducing bacteria HN54 in S1. PMID:23411038

Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Chang, Jinghui; Quan, Xie; Li, Qi

2013-01-30

240

Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Harbor sediments are commonly contaminated with hydrocarbons from shipping activities, fuel spills, runoff, and inputs from sewage treatment plants. Once in the sediments, PAHs may persist until degraded, resuspened, bioaccummulated, or removed. Microbial metabolism could be expected to have a significant role in removing PAHs from harbor sediments only if PAHs could be degraded under sulfate-reducing or Fe(III)-reducing conditions. This study examines degradation of PAHs under sulfate-reducing conditions. 27 refs., 3 figs.

Coates, J.D. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

1996-03-01

241

Nitrate-reducing bacteria on rat tongues.  

PubMed Central

Nitrite-producing bacteria (NPB) were isolated from tongues of laboratory rats. The most commonly found nitrite-producing organism was Staphylococcus sciuri, followed by Staphylococcus intermedius, Pasteurella spp., and finally Streptococcus spp. Both morphometric quantification of bacteria on tongue sections and enumeration of culturable bacteria (CFU) showed an increase in the density of bacteria towards the posterior tongue. Up to 65% of bacteria were located in the deep clefts on the posterior tongue. The proportion of culturable NPB in the total culturable microbial population increased from 6% (10(5) CFU cm-2) on the anterior tongue to 65% (10(7) CFU cm-2) on the posterior tongue. Different species compositions of NPB were found on different tongue sections with S. intermedius populations decreasing and S. sciuri and Pasteurella populations increasing towards the posterior tongue. Nitrite production was sensitive to oxygen, and significant nitrite production was only detected on the posterior tongue where the majority of bacteria are situated in deep clefts in the tongue surface. This study suggests the importance of bacteria in nitrite production, from nitrate, on the tongue. Nitrite produced on the tongue may subsequently form nitric oxide in the acidic environment of the stomach. Because of the antimicrobial properties of nitric oxide, a key role for nitrate-reducing tongue bacteria in host animal defense against food-borne pathogens in proposed.

Li, H; Duncan, C; Townend, J; Killham, K; Smith, L M; Johnston, P; Dykhuizen, R; Kelly, D; Golden, M; Benjamin, N; Leifert, C

1997-01-01

242

Influence of Sulfate on the Transport of Bacteria in Quartz Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of sulfate on the transport of bacteria in packed quartz sand was examined at a constant 25 mM ionic strength with the sulfate concentration progressively increased from 0 to 20 mM at pH 6.0. Two representative cell types, Escherichia coli BL21 (Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), were used to determine the effect of sulfate on cell transport behavior. For both examined cell types, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of sulfate in suspensions were higher and the corresponding retained profiles were lower than those without sulfate ions, indicating that the presence of sulfate in suspensions increased cell transport in packed quartz sand regardless of the examined cell types (Gram-positive or Gram-negative). Moreover, the enhancement of bacteria transport induced by the presence of sulfate was more pronounced with increasing sulfate concentration from 5 to 20 mM. In contrast with the results for EPS-present bacteria, the presence of sulfate in solutions did not change the transport behavior for EPS-removed cells. The zeta potentials of EPS-present cells with sulfate were found to be more negative relative to those without sulfate in suspensions, whereas, the zeta potentials for EPS-removed cells in the presence of sulfate were similar as those without sulfate. We proposed that sulfate could interact with EPS on cell surfaces and thus negatively increased the zeta potentials of bacteria, contributing to the increased transport in the presence of sulfate in suspensions.

Shen, Xiufang; Han, Peng; Yang, Haiyan; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping

2013-04-01

243

Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell suspensions was investigated using batch activity tests and by operating a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The maximum specific hydrogenotrophic sulfite/sulfate reduction rate increased with 10% and 300%, respectively, by crushing granular inoculum sludge and by cultivation of this sludge as cell suspension in a CSTR. Operation of a sulfite fed CSTR (hydraulic retention time 4 days; pH 7.0; sulfite loading rate 0.5-1.5 g SO3(2-) l(-1) d(-1)) with hydrogen as electron donor showed that high (up to 1.6 g l(-1)) H2S concentrations can be obtained within 10 days of operation. H2S inhibition, however, limited the sulfite reducing capacity of the CSTR. Methane production by the cell suspension disappeared within 20 days reactor operation. The outcompetition of methanogens in excess of H2 can be attributed to CO2 limitation and/or to sulfite or sulfide toxicity. The use of cell suspensions opens perspectives for monolith or packed bed reactor configurations, which have a much lower pressure drop compared to air lift reactors, to supply H2 to sulfite/sulfate reducing bioreactors. PMID:12889613

Lens, P N L; Gastesi, R; Lettinga, G

2003-06-01

244

Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite.  

PubMed

Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 were used to reduce dissolved U(VI) and subsequently immobilize U(IV) in the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates. The biofilms were grown in three identically operated fixed bed reactors, filled with three types of minerals: one noncarbonate-bearing mineral (hematite) and two carbonate-bearing minerals (calcite and dolomite). The source of carbonates in the reactors filled with calcite and dolomite were the minerals, while in the reactor filled with hematite it was a 10 mM carbonate buffer, pH 7.2, which we added to the growth medium. Our five-month study demonstrated that the sulfate-reducing biofilms grown in all reactors were able to immobilize/reduce uranium efficiently, despite the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates. PMID:18200862

Marsili, Enrico; Beyenal, Haluk; Di Palma, Luca; Merli, Carlo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2007-12-15

245

Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite.  

SciTech Connect

Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 wereused to reduce dissolved U(VI)and subsequently immobilize U(IV) in the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates. The biofilms were grown in three identically operated fixed bed reactors, filled with three types of minerals: one noncarbonate-bearing mineral(hematite) and two carbonate-bearing minerals (calcite and dolomite). The source of carbonates in the reactors filled with calcite and dolomite were the minerals, while in the reactor filled with hematite it was a 10 mM carbonate buffer, pH 7.2, which we added to the growth medium. Our five-month study demonstrated that the sulfate-reducing biofilms grown in all reactors were able to immobilize/reduce uranium efficiently, despite the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates.

Marsili, E.; Beyenal, Haluk; Di Palma, L.; Merli, C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E.; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

2007-12-15

246

Incorporation of either molybdenum or tungsten into formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491; EPR assignment of the proximal iron-sulfur cluster to the pterin cofactor in formate dehydrogenases from sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

We report the characterization of the molecular properties and EPR studies of a new formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from the sulfate-reducing organism Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491. FDHs are enzymes that catalyze the two-electron oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide in several aerobic and anaerobic organisms. D. alaskensis FDH is a heterodimeric protein with a molecular weight of 126+/-2 kDa composed of two subunits, alpha=93+/-3 kDa and beta=32+/-2 kDa, which contains 6+/-1 Fe/molecule, 0.4+/-0.1 Mo/molecule, 0.3+/-0.1 W/molecule, and 1.3+/-0.1 guanine monophosphate nucleotides. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of D. alaskensis FDH is typical of an iron-sulfur protein with a broad band around 400 nm. Variable-temperature EPR studies performed on reduced samples of D. alaskensis FDH showed the presence of signals associated with the different paramagnetic centers of D. alaskensis FDH. Three rhombic signals having g-values and relaxation behavior characteristic of [4Fe-4S] clusters were observed in the 5-40 K temperature range. Two EPR signals with all the g-values less than two, which accounted for less than 0.1 spin/protein, typical of mononuclear Mo(V) and W(V), respectively, were observed. The signal associated with the W(V) ion has a larger deviation from the free electron g-value, as expected for tungsten in a d(1) configuration, albeit with an unusual relaxation behavior. The EPR parameters of the Mo(V) signal are within the range of values typically found for the slow-type signal observed in several Mo-containing proteins belonging to the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes. Mo(V) resonances are split at temperatures below 50 K by magnetic coupling with one of the Fe/S clusters. The analysis of the inter-center magnetic interaction allowed us to assign the EPR-distinguishable iron-sulfur clusters with those seen in the crystal structure of a homologous enzyme. PMID:14669076

Brondino, Carlos D; Passeggi, Mario C G; Caldeira, Jorge; Almendra, Maria J; Feio, Maria J; Moura, Jose J G; Moura, Isabel

2003-12-11

247

Isolation and Characterization of a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium That Anaerobically Degrades Alkanes  

PubMed Central

An alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, AK-01, was isolated from an estuarine sediment with a history of chronic petroleum contamination. The bacterium is a short, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, gram-negative rod. It is mesophilic and grows optimally at pH 6.9 to 7.0 and at an NaCl concentration of 1%. Formate, fatty acids (C4 to C16) and hydrogen were readily utilized as electron donors. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors, but sulfur, nitrite, and nitrate were not. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicate that AK-01 is most closely related to the genera Desulfosarcina, Desulfonema, and Desulfococcus in the delta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. It is phenotypically and phylogenetically different from strains Hxd3 and TD3, two previously reported isolates of alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacteria. The alkanes tested to support growth of AK-01 had chain lengths of C13 to C18. 1-Alkenes (C15 and C16) and 1-alkanols (C15 and C16) also supported growth. The doubling time for growth on hexadecane was 3 days, about four times longer than that for growth on hexadecanoate. Mineralization of hexadecane was indicated by the recovery of 14CO2 from cultures grown on [1-14C]hexadecane. Degradation of hexadecane was dependent on sulfate reduction. The stoichiometric ratio (as moles of sulfate reduced per mole of hexadecane degraded) was 10.6, which is very close to the theoretical ratio of 12.25, assuming a complete oxidation to CO2. Anaerobic alkane degradation by sulfate reducers may be a more widespread phenomenon than was previously thought.

So, Chi Ming; Young, L. Y.

1999-01-01

248

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Protein Electrophoresis of Freshwater Photosynthetic Sulfur Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out using different bacterial strains\\u000a of the photosynthetic sulfur bacteria Chlorobium, Thiocapsa, Thiocystis, and Chromatium cultured in the laboratory, and the natural blooms in two karstic lakes (Lake Cisó and Lake Vilar, NE Spain) where planktonic\\u000a photosynthetic bacteria (purple and green sulfur bacteria) massively developed accounting for most of the microbial

M. Begoña Osuna; Emilio O. Casamayor

2011-01-01

249

Interactions of polyacrylamides used for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir isolates of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides utilized in enhanced oil recovery as mobility control agents and reservoir isolates of Desulfovibrio were examined. Produced waters from reservoirs undergoing polymer flooding were sampled to determine the presence and numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The influence of polyacrylamide on the growth of Desulfovibrio under a number of conditions was studied. Brookfield viscosity and screen

1987-01-01

250

Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially-mediated metal reduction plays a significant role controlling contaminant mobility in aqueous, soil, and sedimentary environments. From among environmentally relevant microorganisms mediating metal reduction, Geobacter spp. have been identified as predominant metal-reducing bacteria under acetate- oxidizing conditions. Due to the significance of these bacteria in environmental systems, it is necessary to understand factors influencing their metabolic physiology. Examination of the annotated finished genome sequence of G. sulfurreducens PCA, G. uraniumreducens Rf4, G. metallireduceans GS-15 as well as a draft genome sequence of Geobacter sp. FRC-32 have identified gene sequences of putative bacteriophage origin. Presence of these sequences indicates that these bacteria are susceptible to phage infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets designed tested for the presence of 12 of 25 annotated phage-like sequences in G. sulfurreducens PCA and 9 of 17 phage-like sequences in FRC- 32. The following genes were successfully amplified in G. sulfurreducens PCA: prophage type transcription regulator, phage-induced endonuclease, phage tail sheath, 2 phage tail proteins, phage protein D, phage base plate protein, phage-related DNA polymerase, integrase, phage transcriptional regulator, and Cro-like transcription regulator. Nine of the following sequences were present in FRC-32: 4 separate phage- related proteins, phage-related tail component, viron core protein, phage Mu protein, phage base plate, and phage tail sheath. In addition to the bioinformatics evidence, incubation of G. sulfurreducens PCA with 1 ?g mL-1 mytomycin C (mutagen stimulating prophage induction) during mid-log phase resulted in significant cell lysis relative to cultures that remained unamended. Cell lysis was concurrent with an increase in viral like particles enumerated using epifluorescent microscopy. In addition, samples collected following this lytic event (~44hours) were filtered through a 0.22 ? m sterile nylon filter, stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM revealed the presence of viral like particles in the culture exposed to mytomycin C. Together these results suggest an active infection with a lysogenic bacteriophage in the model metal reducing bacteria, Geobacter spp., which could affect metabolic physiology and subsequently metal reduction in environmental systems.

Weber, K. A.; Bender, K. S.; Gandhi, K.; Coates, J. D.

2008-12-01

251

Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic, sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from a deep-sea hydro- thermal chimney sample collected at 13? N on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2600 m. Two strains(BL5andH9)werefoundtobephylogenetically similartoDesulfovibrioprofundus(similarity >99%), whereas two other strains (H1 and AM13T) were found to be phylogenetically distinct (similarity 96?4%) from Desulfovibrio zosterae, their closest relative. Strain AM13T was characterized further. It was a

D. Alazard; S. Dukan; A. Urios; F. Verhe ´; N. Bouabida; F. Morel; P. Thomas; J.-L. Garcia; B. Ollivier

2003-01-01

252

Penetration of Sulfate Reducers through a Porous North Sea Oil Reservoir  

PubMed Central

The presence of mesophilic benzoate-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water systems of three Norwegian oil platforms was investigated. Strain 4502 was isolated from the injection water system, and specific antibodies were produced against this isolate. It was present in the injection water system during a period of 3 years, but not in the in situ reservoir water. Later it was found in water samples collected from the oil field production system. This showed that strain 4502 had penetrated the reservoir together with the injection water and eventually reached the production well.

Beeder, J.; Nilsen, R. K.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

1996-01-01

253

Psychrophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from permanently cold arctic marine sediments: description of Desulfofrigus oceanense gen. nov., sp. nov., Desulfofrigus fragile sp. nov., Desulfofaba gelida gen. nov., sp. nov., Desulfotalea psychrophila gen. nov., sp. nov. and Desulfotalea arctica sp. nov.  

PubMed

Five psychrophilic, Gram-negative, sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard. All isolates grew at the in situ temperature of -1.7 degrees C. In batch cultures, strain PSv29T had the highest growth rate at 7 degrees C, strains ASv26T and LSv54T had the highest growth rate at 10 degrees C, and strains LSv21T and LSv514T had the highest growth rate at 18 degrees C. The new isolates used the most common fermentation products in marine sediments, such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate and hydrogen, but only strain ASv26T was able to oxidize fatty acids completely to CO2. The new strains had growth optima at neutral pH and marine salt concentration, except for LSv54T which grew fastest with 1% NaCl. Sulfite and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors by strains ASv26T, PSv29T and LSv54T, and all strains except PSv29T grew with Fe3+ (ferric citrate) as electron acceptor. Chemotaxonomy based on cellular fatty acid patterns and menaquinones showed good agreement with the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences. All strains belonged to the delta subclass of Proteobacteria but had at least 9% evolutionary distance from known sulfate reducers. Due to the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences between the new isolates and their closest relatives, establishment of the new genera Desulfotalea gen. nov., Desulfofaba gen. nov. and Desulfofrigus gen. nov. is proposed, with strain ASv26T as the type strain of the type species Desulfofrigus oceanense sp. nov., LSv21T as the type strain of Desulfofrigus fragile sp. nov., PSv29T as the type strain of the type species Desulfofaba gelida sp. nov., LSv54T as the type strain of the type species Desulfotalea psychrophila sp. nov. and LSv514T as the type strain of Desulfotalea arctica sp. nov. PMID:10555345

Knoblauch, C; Sahm, K; Jørgensen, B B

1999-10-01

254

Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria on Rat Tongues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite-producing bacteria (NPB) were isolated from tongues of laboratory rats. The most commonly found nitrite-producing organism was Staphylococcus sciuri, followed by Staphylococcus intermedius, Pasteurella spp., and finally Streptococcus spp. Both morphometric quantification of bacteria on tongue sections and enumer- ation of culturable bacteria (CFU) showed an increase in the density of bacteria towards the posterior tongue. Upto65%ofbacteriawerelocatedinthedeepcleftsontheposteriortongue.TheproportionofculturableNPB in the total

HONG LI; CALLUM DUNCAN; JOHN TOWNEND; KENNETH KILLHAM; LORNA M. SMITH; PETER JOHNSTON; ROELF DYKHUIZEN; DENISE KELLY; MICHAEL GOLDEN; NIGEL BENJAMIN; ANDCARLO LEIFERT

1997-01-01

255

Microbial community structures and in situ sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing activities in biofilms developed on mortar specimens in a corroded sewer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) caused by sulfuric acid attack in sewer systems has been a serious problem for a long time. A better understanding of microbial community structures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their in situ activities is essential for the efficient control of MICC. In this study, the microbial community structures and the in

Hisashi Satoh; Mitsunori Odagiri; Tsukasa Ito; Satoshi Okabe

2009-01-01

256

Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds.

Im, A.-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong Shik

2013-10-01

257

Hydrogen and acetate cycling in two sulfate-reducing sediments: Buzzards Bay and Town Cove, Mass.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular hydrogen and acetate are believed to be key intermediates in the anaerobic remineralization of organic carbon. We have made measurements of the cycling of both these compounds in two marine sediments: the bioturbated sediments of Buzzards Bay, Mass., and the much more reducing sediments of Town Cove, Orleans, Mass. Hydrogen concentrations are similar in these environments (from less than 5 to 30 nM), and are within the range previously reported for coastal sediments. However, apparent hydrogen production rates differ by a factor of 60 between these two sediments and at both sites show strong correlation with measured rates of sulfate reduction. Acetate concentrations generally increased with depth in both environments; this increase was greater in Buzzards Bay (22.5 to 71.5 M) than in Town Cove (26 to 44 M). Acetate oxidation rates calculated from measured concentrations and 14 C-acetate consumption rate constants suggest that the measured acetate was not all available to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Using the measured sulfate reduction rates, we estimate that between 2% and 100% of the measured acetate pool is biologically available, and that the "bioavailable" pool decreases with depth. A diagenetic model of the total acetate concentration suggests that consumption may be first order with respect to only a fraction of the total pool.

Novelli, P. C.; Michelson, A. R.; Scranton, M. I.; Banta, G. T.; Hobbie, J. E.; Howarth, R. W.

1988-10-01

258

Anaerobic Naphthalene Degradation by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment Culture†  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic naphthalene degradation by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture was studied by substrate utilization tests and identification of metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In substrate utilization tests, the culture was able to oxidize naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1- and 2-naphthoic acids, phenylacetic acid, benzoic acid, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, and cyclohex-1-ene-carboxylic acid with sulfate as the electron acceptor. Neither hydroxylated 1- or 2-naphthoic acid derivatives and 1- or 2-naphthol nor the monoaromatic compounds ortho-phthalic acid, 2-carboxy-1-phenylacetic acid, and salicylic acid were utilized by the culture within 100 days. 2-Naphthoic acid accumulated in all naphthalene-grown cultures. Reduced 2-naphthoic acid derivatives could be identified by comparison of mass spectra and coelution with commercial reference compounds such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and chemically synthesized decahydro-2-naphthoic acid. 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and octahydro-2-naphthoic acid were tentatively identified by their mass spectra. The metabolites identified suggest a stepwise reduction of the aromatic ring system before ring cleavage. In degradation experiments with [1-13C]naphthalene or deuterated D8-naphthalene, all metabolites mentioned derived from the introduced labeled naphthalene. When a [13C]bicarbonate-buffered growth medium was used in conjunction with unlabeled naphthalene, 13C incorporation into the carboxylic group of 2-naphthoic acid was shown, indicating that activation of naphthalene by carboxylation was the initial degradation step. No ring fission products were identified.

Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Richnow, Hans H.; Schink, Bernhard

2000-01-01

259

Anaerobic Biodegradation of Pristane by Nitrate Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent sediments, microbial biodegradation provides a control on the long-term preservation of organic matter, through the preferential loss of certain biomolecules and the alteration and concentration of other more recalcitrant molecules. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons derived from membrane lipids, has been demonstrated by both aerobic and strictly anaerobic culturing experiments. The isoprenoid pristane, once considered stable under anaerobic conditions, is in fact degraded by a denitrifying microcosm (BREGNARD et al., 1997) and a methanogenic, sulphate-reducing enrichment culture (GROSSI, 2000). We recently demonstrated pristane biodegradation and accompanying loss of nitrate by an activated sludge isolate. The measured nitrate consumption accounts for a 7.1 +/- 0.4 mg loss of pristane, 4.74% of the initial substrate, in 181 days, assuming pristane conversion to CO2. We have characterized the microorganisms active in the biodegradation process, through the creation of a 16S rDNA clone library, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Experiments are in progress to enrich cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria that utilize pristane as a sole carbon source and to characterize reaction mechanisms in pristane-oxidizing pathways.

Dawson, K. S.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2007-12-01

260

Structural differentiation of bacterial communities in indole-degrading bioreactors under denitrifying and sulfate-reducing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acclimated, anaerobic microbial community is an efficient method for indole-containing wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of the diversity of indole-degrading communities is still limited. We investigated two anaerobic, indole-decomposing microbial communities under both denitrifying and sulfate-reducing conditions. Utilizing a near full-length 16S rRNA gene clone library, the most dominant bacteria in the denitrifying bioreactor identified was ?-proteobacteria. Among these,

Xuan Hong; Xiaojun Zhang; Binbin Liu; Yuejian Mao; Yongdi Liu; Liping Zhao

2010-01-01

261

Desulfovib~o longus sp. nov., a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from an Oil-Producing Well  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel type of sulfate-reducing bacteria with unusual morphology was isolated from an oil-producing well in the Paris Basin. The cells of this bacterium, strain SEBR 2582T (T = type strain), are long, thin, flexible rods, contain desulfoviridin, and are physiologically similar to members of the genus Desulfovibrio. On the basis of 16s rRNA sequence data, this strain should be

M. MAGOT; P. CAUMETTE; J. M. DESPERRIER; R. MATHERON; C. DAUGA; F. GRIMONT; L. CARREAU

262

Structural differentiation of bacterial communities in indole-degrading bioreactors under denitrifying and sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

The acclimated, anaerobic microbial community is an efficient method for indole-containing wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of the diversity of indole-degrading communities is still limited. We investigated two anaerobic, indole-decomposing microbial communities under both denitrifying and sulfate-reducing conditions. Utilizing a near full-length 16S rRNA gene clone library, the most dominant bacteria in the denitrifying bioreactor identified was ?-proteobacteria. Among these, bacteria from genera Alicycliphilus, Acaligenes and Thauera were abundant and thought responsible for indole degradation. However, in the sulfate-reducing bioreactor, Clostridia and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacterial class found and likely the main degrading species. Microbial communities in these bioreactors shared only two operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Differences in the electron acceptors of denitrification or sulfate reduction may be responsible for the higher indole removal capacity in the denitrifying bioreactor (80%) than the capacity in the sulfate-reducing bioreactor (52%). This study is the first detailed analysis of an anaerobic indole-degrading community. PMID:20656022

Hong, Xuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Binbin; Mao, Yuejian; Liu, Yongdi; Zhao, Liping

2010-07-23

263

Dynamics of sulfate reduction and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in anaerobic paddy soil amended with rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of rice straw to soil is a common agricultural practice in rice cultivation. In anaerobic paddy soil, the complete\\u000a mineralization of organic matter to CH4 and CO2 is accomplished by the sequential reduction of nitrate, ferric iron, sulfate, and methanogenesis. In order to estimate the\\u000a temporal changes of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) as decomposers of organic matters, the effects of

Ji-Zheng He; Xin-Zhan Liu; Yong Zheng; Ju-Pei Shen; Li-Mei Zhang

2010-01-01

264

Diversity and Composition of Sulfate and Sulfite-Reducing Prokaryotes as Affected by Marine-Freshwater Gradient and Sulfate Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a key role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. In estuarine\\u000a ecosystems, sulfate concentrations change with tides and could be limited in tidal freshwater reach or deep sediments. In\\u000a a subtropical estuary of northern Taiwan in December 2007, we examined the compositional changes of SSRP communities. We examined\\u000a three sites: from the lower

Lan-Feng Fan; Sen-Lin Tang; Chang-Po Chen; Hwey-Lian Hsieh

265

Enhanced elementary sulfur recovery in integrated sulfate-reducing, sulfur-producing rector under micro-aerobic condition.  

PubMed

Biological treatment of sulfate-laden wastewater consists of two separate reactors to reduce sulfate to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and to oxidize sulfide to sulfur (S(0)) by sulfide oxidation bacteria (SOB). To have SRB+SOB in a single reactor faced difficulty of low S(0) conversion. This study for the first time revealed that dissolved oxygen (DO) level can be used to manipulate SRB+SOB reactions in a single reactor. This work demonstrated successful operation of an integrated SRB+SOB reactor under micro-aerobic condition. At DO = 0.10-0.12 mg l(-1), since the activities of SOB were enhanced by limited oxygen, the removal efficiency for sulfate reached 81.5% and the recovery of S(0) peaked at 71.8%, higher than those reported in literature. At increased DO, chemical oxidation of sulfide with molecular oxygen competed with SOB so conversion of S(0) started to decline. At DO>0.30 mg l(-1) activities of SRB were inhibited, leading to failure of the SRB+SOB reactor. PMID:22591695

Xu, Xi-jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-jie; Fang, Ning; Yuan, Ye; Ren, Nan-qi; Lee, Duu-jong

2012-04-13

266

Complete genome sequence of the sulfate-reducing firmicute Desulfotomaculum ruminis type strain (DLT)  

SciTech Connect

Desulfotomaculum ruminis Campbell and Postgate 1965 is a member of the large genus Desulfotomaculum which contains 30 species and is contained in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it represents one of the few sulfate- reducing bacteria that have been isolated from the rumen. Here we describe the features of D. ruminis together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,969,014 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,901 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Desulfotomaculum to be pub- lished, and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2009.

Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Visser, Michael [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schaap, Peter J [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Plugge, Caroline M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Muyzer, Gerard [Universitate Amsterdam; Kuever, Jan [Bremen Institute for Materials Testing, Bremen, Germany; Pereira, Ines A. C. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal; Parshina, Sofiya N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland; Stams, Alfons J. M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

2012-01-01

267

Complete genome sequence of the sulfate-reducing firmicute Desulfotomaculum ruminis type strain (DLT)  

PubMed Central

Desulfotomaculum ruminis Campbell and Postgate 1965 is a member of the large genus Desulfotomaculum which contains 30 species and is contained in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it represents one of the few sulfate-reducing bacteria that have been isolated from the rumen. Here we describe the features of D. ruminis together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,969,014 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,901 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Desulfotomaculum to be published, and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2009.

Spring, Stefan; Visser, Michael; Lu, Megan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Larimer, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Detter, John C.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Schaap, Peter J.; Plugge, Caroline M.; Muyzer, Gerard; Kuever, Jan; Pereira, Ines A. C.; Parshina, Sofiya N.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

2012-01-01

268

Magnesium Sulfate Reduces Intra- and Postoperative Analgesic Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized, double-blind study with two parallel groups, we assessed the analgesic effect of periopera- tive magnesium sulfate administration in 46 ASA phys- ical status I or II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery with total IV anesthesia. The patients received either magnesium sulfate 50 mg\\/kg preoperatively and Smg*kg-i * hP ' intraoperatively or the same volume of isotonic sodium

Herbert Koinig; Thomas Wallner; Peter Marhofer; Harald Andel; Klaus Horauf; Nikolaus Mayer

1998-01-01

269

Linked Redox Precipitation of Sulfur and Selenium under Anaerobic Conditions by Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

A biofilm-forming strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), isolated from a naturally occurring mixed biofilm and identified by 16S rDNA analysis as a strain of Desulfomicrobium norvegicum, rapidly removed 200 ?M selenite from solution during growth on lactate and sulfate. Elemental selenium and elemental sulfur were precipitated outside SRB cells. Precipitation occurred by an abiotic reaction with bacterially generated sulfide. This appears to be a generalized ability among SRB, arising from dissimilatory sulfide biogenesis, and can take place under low redox conditions and in the dark. The reaction represents a new means for the deposition of elemental sulfur by SRB under such conditions. A combination of transmission electron microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and cryostage field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to reveal the hydrated nature of SRB biofilms and to investigate the location of deposited sulfur-selenium in relation to biofilm elements. When pregrown SRB biofilms were exposed to a selenite-containing medium, nanometer-sized selenium-sulfur granules were precipitated within the biofilm matrix. Selenite was therefore shown to pass through the biofilm matrix before reacting with bacterially generated sulfide. This constitutes an efficient method for the removal of toxic concentrations of selenite from solution. Implications for environmental cycling and the fate of sulfur and selenium are discussed, and a general model for the potential action of SRB in selenium transformations is presented.

Hockin, Simon L.; Gadd, Geoffrey M.

2003-01-01

270

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis of freshwater photosynthetic sulfur bacteria.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out using different bacterial strains of the photosynthetic sulfur bacteria Chlorobium, Thiocapsa, Thiocystis, and Chromatium cultured in the laboratory, and the natural blooms in two karstic lakes (Lake Cisó and Lake Vilar, NE Spain) where planktonic photosynthetic bacteria (purple and green sulfur bacteria) massively developed accounting for most of the microbial biomass. Several extraction, solubilization, and electrophoresis methods were tested to develop an optimal protocol for the best resolution of the SDS-PAGE. Protein composition from different water depths and at different times of the year was visualized within a molecular mass range between 100 and 15 kDa yielding up to 20 different protein bands. Protein banding patterns were reproducible and changed in time and with depth in agreement with changes in photosynthetic bacteria composition. When a taxonomically stable community was followed in time, differences were observed in the intensity but not in the composition of the SDS-PAGE banding pattern. Three environmental variables directly related to the activity of sulfur bacteria (light, oxygen, and sulfide concentrations) had a significant effect on protein banding patterns and explained 33% of the variance. Changes in natural protein profiles of the bacterial blooms agreed with changes in species composition and in the in situ metabolic state of the populations. PMID:20524118

Osuna, M Begoña; Casamayor, Emilio O

2010-06-04

271

Complete genome sequence of the acetate-degrading sulfate reducer Desulfobacca acetoxidans type strain (ASRB2T)  

SciTech Connect

Desulfobacca acetoxidans Elferink et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Desulfobacca, which belongs to the family Syntrophaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. The species was first observed in a study on the competition of sulfate-reducers and acetoclastic methanogens for acetate in sludge. D. acetoxidans is considered to be the most abundant acetate-degrading sulfate reducer in sludge. It is of interest due to its isolated phylogenetic location in the 16S rRNA-based tree of life. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Syntrophaceae to be published and only the third genome sequence from a member of the order Syntrophobacterales. The 3,282,536 bp long genome with its 2,969 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

2011-01-01

272

A novel lineage of sulfate-reducing microorganisms: Thermodesulfobiaceae fam. nov., Thermodesulfobium narugense, gen. nov., sp. nov., a new thermophilic isolate from a hot spring.  

PubMed

A novel type of a sulfate-reducing microorganism, represented by strain Na82T, was isolated from a hot spring in Narugo, Japan. The isolate was a moderate thermophilic autotroph that was able to grow on H2/CO2 by sulfate respiration. The isolate could grow with nitrate in place of sulfate, and possessed menaquinone-7 and menaquinone-7(H2) as respiratory quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Na82T was a member of the domain Bacteria and distant from any known bacteria, as well as from other sulfate-reducing bacteria (sequence similarities less than 80%). The phylogenetic analysis of the dsrAB gene (alpha and beta subunits of dissimilatory sulfite reductase) sequence also suggested that strain Na82T was not closely related to other sulfate reducers. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, a new taxon is established for the isolate. We proposed the name Thermodesulfobium narugense gen. nov., sp. nov. with strain Na82T (=DSM 14796T=JCM 11510T) as the type strain. Furthermore, a new family, Thermodesulfobiaceae fam. nov., is proposed for the genus. PMID:12910388

Mori, Koji; Kim, Hongik; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Hanada, Satoshi

2003-03-28

273

Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in Central Asia.  

PubMed

Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related to each other and belonged to the genus Desulfonatronovibrio, which, so far, included only obligately alkaliphilic members found exclusively in soda lakes. The isolates utilized formate, H(2) and pyruvate as electron donors and sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate as electron acceptors. In contrast to the described species of the genus Desulfonatronovibrio, the salt lake isolates could only tolerate high pH (up to pH 9.4), while they grow optimally at a neutral pH. They belonged to the moderate halophiles growing between 0.2 and 2 M NaCl with an optimum at 0.5 M. On the basis of their distinct phenotype and phylogeny, the described halophilic SRB are proposed to form a novel species within the genus Desulfonatronovibrio, D. halophilus (type strain HTR1(T) = DSM24312(T) = UNIQEM U802(T)). PMID:22488572

Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Abbas, B; Suhacheva, M V; Muyzer, G

2012-04-10

274

Evidence for syntrophic butyrate metabolism under sulfate-reducing conditions in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

The importance of syntrophy in the degradation of butyrate in an aquifer where sulfate reduction was shown to be an important terminal electron-accepting process was assessed. Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer sediments coupled butyrate degradation to sulfate reduction and methane production. Butyrate degradation in methanogenic microcosms was inhibited by the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, and was restored by the addition of 10 mM sulfate and a hydrogen- and formate-using sulfate reducer, but not by the addition of 10 mM sulfate alone. Molybdate addition inhibited butyrate degradation in sulfate-reducing microcosms. The addition of CO, which inhibits hydrogenases, to sulfate-reducing microcosms inhibited butyrate metabolism and caused the hydrogen partial pressure to increase to levels that would make syntrophic butyrate degradation via sulfate reduction energetically unfavorable (-5 to +3 kJ mol(-1) ). DNA extracted from the most probable number cultures and contaminated sediments contained sequences related to members of the families Syntrophomonadaceae and Syntrophaceae, whose members are known to syntrophically degrade fatty acids, as well as sequences related to uncultured Firmicutes, Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfobacteriaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae. These data show that contaminated sediments degraded butyrate syntrophically coupled to methane production and sulfate reduction. PMID:21223338

Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J

2011-02-01

275

Sulfidogenesis from 2-Aminoethanesulfonate (Taurine) Fermentation by a Morphologically Unusual Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Desulforhopalus singaporensis sp. nov.  

PubMed Central

A pure culture of an obligately anaerobic marine bacterium was obtained from an anaerobic enrichment culture in which taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) was the sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen. Taurine fermentation resulted in acetate, ammonia, and sulfide as end products. Other sulfonates, including 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate (isethionate) and cysteate (alanine-3-sulfonate), were not fermented. When malate was the sole source of carbon and energy, the bacterium reduced sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, or nitrate (reduced to ammonia) but did not use fumarate or dimethyl sulfoxide as a terminal electron acceptor for growth. Taurine-grown cells had significantly lower adenylylphosphosulfate reductase activities than sulfate-grown cells had, which was consistent with the notion that sulfate was not released as a result of oxidative C-S bond cleavage and then assimilated. The name Desulforhopalus singaporensis is proposed for this sulfate-reducing bacterium, which is morphologically unusual compared to the previously described sulfate-reducing bacteria by virtue of the spinae present on the rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonmotile cells; endospore formation was not discerned, nor was desulfoviridin detected. Granules of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate were abundant in taurine-grown cells. This organism shares with the other member of the genus Desulforhopalus which has been described a unique 13-base deletion in the 16S ribosomal DNA. It differs in several ways from a recently described endospore-forming anaerobe (K. Denger, H. Laue, and A. M. Cook, Arch. Microbiol. 168:297–301, 1997) that reportedly produces thiosulfate but not sulfide from taurine fermentation. D. singaporensis thus appears to be the first example of an organism which exhibits sulfidogenesis during taurine fermentation. Implications for sulfonate sulfur in the sulfur cycle are discussed.

Lie, Thomas J.; Clawson, Michael L.; Godchaux, Walter; Leadbetter, Edward R.

1999-01-01

276

Gene expression analysis of the mechanism of inhibition of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are inhibited by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) in the presence of nitrate. This inhibition has been attributed either to an increase in redox potential or to production of nitrite by the NR-SOB. Nitrite specifically inhibits the final step in the sulfate reduction pathway. When the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was added to mid-log phase cultures of the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough in the presence of nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited. Strain CVO reduced nitrate and oxidized sulfide, with transient production of nitrite. Sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris resumed once nitrite was depleted. A DNA macroarray with open reading frames encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism of D. vulgaris was used to study the effects of NR-SOB on gene expression. Shortly following addition of strain CVO, D. vulgaris genes for cytochrome c nitrite reductase and hybrid cluster proteins Hcp1 and Hcp2 were upregulated. Genes for sulfate reduction enzymes, except those for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, were downregulated. Genes for the membrane-bound electron transferring complexes QmoABC and DsrMKJOP were downregulated and unaffected, respectively, whereas direct addition of nitrite downregulated both operons. Overall the gene expression response of D. vulgaris upon exposure to strain CVO and nitrate resembled that observed upon direct addition of nitrite, indicating that inhibition of SRB is primarily due to nitrite production by NR-SOB. PMID:16104868

Haveman, Shelley A; Greene, E Anne; Voordouw, Gerrit

2005-09-01

277

Sulfate reducing processes at extreme salinity and temperature. extending its application window  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of various sulfate-rich wastewaters, such as temperature, pH and salinity, are determined by the (industrial) process from which they originate, and can be far from the physiological optima of the sulfur cycle microorganisms. The main goal of the research described in this thesis was to investigate and develop high rate sulfate reducing wastewater treatment processes for the treatment

M. V. G. Vallero

2003-01-01

278

Perspectives of sulfate reducing bioreactors in environmental biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the study of sulfur cycle bacteria wasalready started around the 1890's by the famousmicrobiologists Winogradsky and Beijerinck,there are nowadays still many new discoveriesto be made about the metabolic properties,phylogenetic position and ecological behaviourof bacteria that play a role in the biologicalsulfur cycle. The current interest of thescientific community in the biological sulfurcycle is very high, especially because of themany

P. Lens; M. Vallerol; G. Esposito; M. Zandvoort

2002-01-01

279

Anaerobic degradation of citrate under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate is an important component of metal processing effluents such as chemical mechanical planarization wastewaters of the\\u000a semiconductor industry. Citrate can serve as an electron donor for sulfate reduction applied to promote the removal of metals,\\u000a and it can also potentially be used by methanogens that coexist in anaerobic biofilms. The objective of this study was to\\u000a evaluate the degradation

Victor M. Gámez; Reyes Sierra-Alvarez; Rebecca J. Waltz; James A. Field

2009-01-01

280

Anaerobic degradation of halogenated phenols by sulfate-reducing consortia.  

PubMed Central

Sulfidogenic consortia enriched from an estuarine sediment were maintained on either 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorophenol as the only source of carbon and energy for over 5 years. The enrichment culture on 4-chlorophenol was the most active and this consortium was selected for further characterization. Utilization of chlorophenol resulted in sulfate depletion corresponding to the values expected for complete mineralization to CO2. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol was coupled to sulfate reduction, since substrate utilization was dependent on sulfidogenesis and chlorophenol loss did not proceed in the absence of sulfate. Other sulfur oxyanions, sulfite or thiosulfate, also served as electron acceptors for chlorophenol utilization, while carbonate, nitrate, and fumarate did not. The sulfidogenic consortium utilized phenol, 4-bromophenol, and 4-iodophenol in addition to 4-chlorophenol. 4-Fluorophenol, however, did not serve as a substrate. 4-Bromo- and 4-iodophenol were degraded with stoichiometric release of halide, and 4-[14C]bromophenol was mineralized, with 90% of the radiolabel recovered as CO2.

Haggblom, M M; Young, L Y

1995-01-01

281

Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxysulpahte green rust GR2(SO{4/2-}) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO{4/2-}) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO{4/2-}) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO{4/2-}) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

282

Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

2006-01-01

283

Chondroitin sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. But as far as we ... containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. ...

284

The Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Limited Growth on the Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes by Thermodesulfatator indicus, a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria fractionate sulfur isotopes during dissimilatory sulfate reduction, producing sulfide depleted in 34S. Although isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction of pure cultures has been extensively studied, most of the research to date has focused on mesophilic sulfate reducers, particularly for the species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Results from these studies show that: 1) fractionations range from 3-46‰ with an average around 18‰ , 2) when organic electron donors are utilized, the extent of fractionation is dependent on the rate of sulfate reduction, with decreasing fractionations observed with higher specific rates, 3) fractionations are suppressed with low sulfate concentrations, and when hydrogen is used as the electron donor. High specific sulfate-reduction rates are encountered when sulfate-reducing bacteria metabolize at their optimal temperature and under non-limiting substrate conditions. Changes in both temperature and substrate availability could shift fractionations from those expressed under optimal growth conditions. Sulfate reducers may frequently experience substrate limitation and sub-optimal growth temperatures in the environment. Therefore it is important to understand how sulfate-reducing bacteria fractionate sulfur isotopes under conditions that more closely resemble the restrictions imposed by the environment. In this study the fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Thermodesulfatator indicus was explored during sulfate reduction under a wide range of temperatures and with both hydrogen-saturating and hydrogen-limited conditions. T. indicus is a thermophilic (temperature optimum = 70° C) chemolithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium, which was recently isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent on the Central Indian Ridge. This bacterium represents the type species of a new genus and to date is the most deeply branching sulfate-reducing bacterium known. T. indicus was grown in carbonate-buffered salt-water medium with H2 as the sole electron donor, and CO2 as primary carbon source. The fractionation of sulfur isotopes was measured in batch cultures and in a thermal gradient block over the full temperature range of growth (40-80° C). For experiments in the gradient block, cell-specific rates of sulfate reduction increased with increasing temperatures to 70° C after which sulfate-reduction rates rapidly decreased. The range of fractionations (1.5-10‰ ) was typical for growth with hydrogen as the electron donor. Fractionations decreased with increasing temperature from 40--60° C, and increased with increasing temperatures from 60-80° C. Growth under H2-limited conditions in a fed-batch culture revealed high fractionations of 24-37‰ . This is the first report of sulfur isotope fractionation under H2 limited growth and indicates that large fractionations are produced when H2 is supplied as a limiting substrate. Our results suggest that fractionation is controlled by the competition of forward and reverse enzymatic reaction rates during sulfate reduction and by sulfate transport into the cell.

Hoek, J.; Reysenbach, A.; Habicht, K.; Canfield, D. E.

2004-12-01

285

Evidence that crude oil alkane activation proceeds by different mechanisms under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fumarate addition has been widely proposed as an initial step in the anaerobic oxidation of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Alkyl and aryl succinates have been reported as metabolites of hydrocarbon degradation in laboratory studies with both pure and enrichment cultures of sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria. In addition these compounds have been reported in samples from environments such as hydrocarbon contaminated aquifers where, in addition to the above redox processes, hydrocarbon degradation linked to methanogenesis was observed. Here we report data from anaerobic crude oil degrading microcosms which revealed significant differences between the acid metabolite profiles of crude oil degraded under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. Under sulfate-reducing conditions fumarate addition and the formation of alkylsuccinate metabolites was the principal mechanism for the anaerobic degradation of n-alkanes and branched chain alkanes. Other than alkyl succinates that represent indigenous metabolites in the sediment inoculum, alkyl succinate metabolites were never detected in sediment microcosms where methane generation was quantitatively linked to n-alkane degradation. This indicates that alternative mechanisms of alkane activation may operate under methanogenic conditions.

Aitken, C. M.; Jones, D. M.; Maguire, M. J.; Gray, N. D.; Sherry, A.; Bowler, B. F. J.; Ditchfield, A. K.; Larter, S. R.; Head, I. M.

2013-05-01

286

Conversion studies with substrate analogues of toluene in a sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Tol2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic toluene oxidation by the sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Tol2 (proposed nameDesulfobacula toluolica) was specifically inhibited by benzyl alcohol when added at concentrations around 500 ?M. Benzyl alcohol added at lower,\\u000a non-inhibitory concentrations (around 5 ?M) was not oxidized by active cells pregrown on toluene, indicating that the alcohol\\u000a is not a free intermediate of toluene metabolism in the sulfate reducer.

Ralf Rabus; Friedrich Widdel

1995-01-01

287

Desulfosporosinus lacus sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from pristine freshwater lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from pristine sediments of Lake Stechlin, Germany. This strain, STP12T, was found to contain predominantly c-type cytochromes and to reduce sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate using lactate as an electron donor. Although STP12T could not utilize elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, it could support growth by dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction. In a comparison of 16S

S. Ramamoorthy; H. Sass; H. Langner; P. Schumann; R. M. Kroppenstedt; S. Spring; J. Overmann; R. F. Rosenzweig

2006-01-01

288

Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir “souring” (the generation of H2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing

Casey Hubert; Gerrit Voordouw; Bernhard Mayer

2009-01-01

289

Solubilization of plutonium hydrous oxide by iron-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of plutonium from soils id challenging because of its strong sorption to soils and limited solubility, Microbial reduction of metals is known to affect the speciation and solubility of sparingly soluble metals in the environment, notably iron and manganese. The similarity in reduction potential for [alpha]-FeOOH(s) and hydrous PuO[sub 2](s) suggests that iron-reducing bacteria may also reduce and

Patricia A. Rusin; Leticia Quintana; James R. Brainard; B. A. Strietelmeler; C. Drew Tait; Scott A. Ekberg; Phillip D. Palmer; Thomas W. Newton; David L. Clark

1994-01-01

290

Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

2009-04-01

291

Sulfide formation in freshwater sediments, by sulfate-reducing microorganisms with diverse tolerance to salt.  

PubMed

Understanding how sulfate-reducing microbes in freshwater systems respond to added salt, and therefore sulfate, is becoming increasingly important in inland systems where the threat from salinisation is increasing. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out mesocosm studies to determine how the sulfate-reducing microbial community in sediments from a freshwater wetland would respond to salinisation. The levels of inorganic mineral sulfides produced after 6months incubation were measured to determine whether they were in sufficient quantity to be harmful if re-oxidized. Comparative sequence analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene was used to compare the sulfate-reducing community structure in mesocosms without salt and those incubated with moderate levels of salt. The amount of total S, acid volatile sulfide or chromium-reducible sulfide produced in sediments with 0, 1 or 5gL(-1) added salt were not significantly different. Sediments subjected to 15gL(-1) salt contained significantly higher total S and acid volatile sulfide, and levels were above trigger values for potential harm if re-oxidation occurred. The overall community structure of the sulfate-reducing microbiota (SRM) was explained by the level of salt added to sediments. However, a group of sulfate reducers were identified that occurred in both the high salt and freshwater treatments. These results demonstrate that freshwater sediments contain sulfate reducers with diverse abilities to respond to salt and can respond rapidly to increasing salinity, explaining the observation that harmful levels of acid volatile sulfides can form rapidly in sediments with no history of exposure to salt. PMID:20934202

Rees, Gavin N; Baldwin, Darren S; Watson, Garth O; Hall, Karina C

2010-10-08

292

Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans sp. nov., a new marine sulfate reducer that oxidizes phosphite to phosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated from marine sediment with phosphite as sole electron donor and CO2 as the only carbon source. Strain FiPS-3 grew slowly, with doubling times of 3-4 days, and oxidized phosphite, hydrogen, formate, acetate, fumarate, pyruvate, glycine, glutamate, and other substrates nearly completely, with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Acetate was formed as a side

Bernhard Schink; Volker Thiemann; Heike Laue; Michael W. Friedrich

2002-01-01

293

Anaerobic degradation of 3-aminobenzoate by a newly isolated sulfate reducer and a methanogenic enrichment culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporing sulfate reducer, strain mAB1, was enriched and isolated from marine sediment samples with 3-aminobenzoate as sole electron and carbon source. Strain mAB1 degraded 3-aminobenzoate completely to CO2 and NH3 with stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Cells contained carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, cytochromes, and sulfite reductase P582. Strain mAB1 degraded also benzoate, 4-aminobenzoate, hydroxybenzoates, and some

Sylvia Schnell; Bernhard Schink

1992-01-01

294

Biomolecular and Isotopic Signatures Related to Cr(VI) Reduction by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from the Hanford 100H Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromium contamination of groundwater is widespread within the Dept. of Energy (DOE) complex. At DOE's Hanford 100H area, we have conducted Cr bioremediation (in situ reductive immobilization) studies involving injection of a lactate-containing polymer, and have observed sequential use of the dissolved electron acceptors present in groundwater (namely, oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate). Sulfate-reducing bacteria are of particular interest for chromate reduction because they can reduce Cr(VI) enzymatically (e.g., using cytochrome c3 or thioredoxin reductase) and abiotically with hydrogen sulfide, the end product of their respiration. In this poster, we use studies of a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Hanford 100H aquifer, Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain RCH1, to explore (a) isotopic signatures that might allow us to distinguish between enzymatic and sulfide-mediated Cr(VI) reduction and (b) biomolecular signatures (gene or transcript copy number of diagnostic genes) that might be used as proxies of in situ metabolic rates. In order to differentiate between the mechanisms of Cr reduction by sulfate reducers, we analyzed the isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by strain RCH1. Cell suspension studies of strain RCH1 demonstrated that Cr(VI) reduction could occur in the presence of lactate (electron donor) alone or with both lactate and sulfate. Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of lactate and sulfate was 25-30% more rapid than enzymatic Cr reduction when only lactate was added, suggesting that biogenic hydrogen sulfide increases the specific rate of Cr(VI) reduction beyond purely enzymatic activity. Cr isotopic measurements showed different fractionation behavior for the lactate-only and lactate+sulfate systems, with fractionation (epsilon) values of 2.3 and 1.66 per mil, respectively. In order to determine whether gene or transcript copy number for diagnostic sulfate and chromate reduction genes could serve as proxies to estimate in situ metabolic rates, chemostat studies were conducted with strain RCH1. Genes assayed by qPCR and RT-qPCR included aprB (APS reductase, beta subunit), dsrA (dissimilatory sulfite reductase, alpha subunit), cyc3 (cytochrome c3), and trxB (thioredoxin reductase). Strong linear relationships were observed between sulfate reduction rates and the gene and transcript copy numbers of all of the targeted genes. These results suggest that use of gene and transcript copy numbers in groundwater samples may be a useful approach for estimating in situ metabolic rates of sulfate-reducing bacteria during Cr bioremediation.

Han, R.; Qin, L.; Geller, J. T.; Chakraborty, R.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

2011-12-01

295

Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had ?18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in ?18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that biocompetitive exclusion was the major process. The results demonstrate that stable isotope data can contribute unique information for understanding complex microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems, and offer important information for the management of H 2S problems in oil reservoirs and elsewhere.

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

2009-07-01

296

Dissimilatory bacterial sulfate reduction in montana groundwaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of hydrogen sulfide in southeastern Montana groundwaters was investigated. Sulfate?reducing bacteria were detected in 25 of 26 groundwater samples in numbers ranging from 2.0 × 10 to greater than 2.4 × 10 bacteria per 100 ml. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation studies indicated a biological role in sulfate reduction. However, sulfate?reducing activity as determined by use of a radioactive

William S. Dockins; Gregory J. Olson; Gordon A. McFeters; Susan C. Turbak

1980-01-01

297

Simple organic electron donors support diverse sulfate-reducing communities in fluidized-bed reactors treating acidic metal- and sulfate-containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial diversity of lactate- and ethanol-utilizing sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) communities was investigated with culture-independent methods. The FBRs were fed for 500 days with synthetic mineral processing wastewater containing sulfate, zinc and iron with hydraulic retention time of 16–24 h. Sodium lactate or ethanol was used as electron donor for microbial sulfate reduction. For microbial characterization, 16S rRNA gene clone

Anna H Kaksonen; Jason J Plumb; Peter D Franzmann; Jaakko A Puhakka

2004-01-01

298

In situ BTEX biotransformation under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

In situ anaerobic biotransformation of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene) was investigated under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. Controlled amounts of BTEX compounds added to slugs of treated groundwater were released into a gasoline-contaminated aquifer at Seal Beach, CA. In a series of studies, the slugs, 470-1700 L in volume, were released into the aquifer through a multi-port injection/extraction well and were subsequently withdrawn over a 2-3 month period. To evaluate unamended in situ conditions, the injectate was treated with granular activated carbon (GAC) and augmented with bromide as a tracer. To evaluate nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions, the injectate was also deionized and augmented with 200-300 {mu}g/L BTEX, nitrate or sulfate, and background electrolytes. Under unamended conditions, transformation appeared to be limited to the slow removal of toluene and m,p-xylene (i.e. sum of m+p-xylene). Under nitrate-reducing conditions, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were transformed without a lag phase in less than 10 days, and o-xylene was transformed in 72 days. Under sulfate-reducing conditions, toluene, m-xylene and o-xylene were completely transformed in less then 50 days, and ethylbenzene was removed in 60 days. Benzene appeared to be removed under sulfate-reducing conditions, but the trend was pronounced only at some levels. 47 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Reinhard, M.; Shang, S.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Orwin, E.; Hopkins, G.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); LeBron, C.A. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

1997-01-01

299

Roles of HynAB and Ech, the Only Two Hydrogenases Found in the Model Sulfate Reducer Desulfovibrio gigas.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria are characterized by a high number of hydrogenases, which have been proposed to contribute to the overall energy metabolism of the cell, but exactly in what role is not clear. Desulfovibrio spp. can produce or consume H2 when growing on organic or inorganic substrates in the presence or absence of sulfate. Because of the presence of only two hydrogenases encoded in its genome, the periplasmic HynAB and cytoplasmic Ech hydrogenases, Desulfovibrio gigas is an excellent model organism for investigation of the specific function of each of these enzymes during growth. In this study, we analyzed the physiological response to the deletion of the genes that encode the two hydrogenases in D. gigas, through the generation of ?echBC and ?hynAB single mutant strains. These strains were analyzed for the ability to grow on different substrates, such as lactate, pyruvate, and hydrogen, under respiratory and fermentative conditions. Furthermore, the expression of both hydrogenase genes in the three strains studied was assessed through quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The results demonstrate that neither hydrogenase is essential for growth on lactate-sulfate, indicating that hydrogen cycling is not indispensable. In addition, the periplasmic HynAB enzyme has a bifunctional activity and is required for growth on H2 or by fermentation of pyruvate. Therefore, this enzyme seems to play a dominant role in D. gigas hydrogen metabolism. PMID:23974026

Morais-Silva, Fabio O; Santos, Catia I; Rodrigues, Rute; Pereira, Inês A C; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

2013-08-23

300

SUBSTRATE DEGRADATION AND METAL REMOVAL PERFORMANCE OF A 1,500- GALLON SULFATE-REDUCING BIOREACTOR FOR MINING-INFLUENCED WATER TREATMENT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful long-term operation and sustainability of passive systems for the treatment of mining influenced water (MIW) affected by metals and acidity has been challenged by a lack of understanding on organic substrate design. Metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in bioreactors produces H2S that precipitates dissolved metals, and it is the main mechanism that removes metals from solution. Fermentation

Ana Ruiz; Linda Figueroa; Marek Zaluski; Diana Bless

301

Comparison of the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacterial communities in the water column and the surface sediments of a Japanese meromictic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were investigated in Lake Suigetsu, a meromictic lake in Japan\\u000a characterized by a permanent oxycline at a depth between 3 and 8 m separating the aerobic freshwater epilimnion from the anaerobic,\\u000a saline, sulfidogenic hypolimnion. A quantitative competitive PCR targeting the gene coding for a portion of the ?-subunit of dissimilatory sulfite reductase

Ryuji Kondo; Junki Butani

2007-01-01

302

Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation: A Thermodynamically Feasible Metabolic Pathway in Subseafloor Sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation, a process that has not been previously inferred in natural environments, is indicated based on dissolved chemical fluxes and Gibbs energies of reaction in sedimentary porewaters. Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) porewater profiles demonstrate that significant ammonium is consumed in the interface between ammonium and sulfate containing waters. Loss of ammonium in this interval greatly exceeds possible nitrogen demand by biomass production. In situ Gibbs energies of reaction (?G) for the reaction, 8NH4+ +3SO42- = 4N2 + 3HS- + 12 H2O + 5H+) in Bay of Bengal sediment and Greenwich Bay (Rhode Island) sediment indicate that sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation is energy yielding. Relatively small and constant but consistently negative in-situ Gibbs energies in both locations suggest that microorganisms can derive energy from this reaction. In combination, the Gibbs energies and the substantial ammonium loss suggest that sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation occurs in Bay of Bengal sediments. The Greenwich Bay DG results suggest that the process may also occur in anoxic sediment where the ammonium concentration profile shows no net loss of ammonium These sites are not geochemically unique; large areas of the ocean floor have conditions favorable for sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation. If this reaction occurs globally, it may be a significant sink for fixed nitrogen.

Schrum, H. N.; Spivack, A. J.; Kastner, M.; D'Hondt, S. L.

2009-12-01

303

Anaerobic Cometabolic Conversion of Benzothiophene by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment Culture and in a Tar-Oil-Contaminated Aquifer†  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic cometabolic conversion of benzothiophene was studied with a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture growing with naphthalene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The sulfate-reducing bacteria were not able to grow with benzothiophene as the primary substrate. Metabolite analysis was performed with culture supernatants obtained by cometabolization experiments and revealed the formation of three isomeric carboxybenzothiophenes. Two isomers were identified as 2-carboxybenzothiophene and 5-carboxybenzothiophene. In some experiments, further reduced dihydrocarboxybenzothiophene was identified. No other products of benzothiophene degradation could be determined. In isotope-labeling experiments with a [13C]bicarbonate-buffered culture medium, carboxybenzothiophenes which were significantly enriched in the 13C content of the carboxyl group were formed, indicating the addition of a C1 unit from bicarbonate to benzothiophene as the initial activation reaction. This finding was consistent with the results of earlier studies on anaerobic naphthalene degradation with the same culture, and we therefore propose that benzothiophene was cometabolically converted by the same enzyme system. Groundwater analyses of the tar-oil-contaminated aquifer from which the naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture was isolated exhibited the same carboxybenzothiophene isomers as the culture supernatants. In addition, the benzothiophene degradation products, in particular, dihydrocarboxybenzothiophene, were significantly enriched in the contaminated groundwater to concentrations almost the same as those of the parent compound, benzothiophene. The identification of identical metabolites of benzothiophene conversion in the sulfate-reducing enrichment culture and in the contaminated aquifer indicated that the same enzymatic reactions were responsible for the conversion of benzothiophene in situ.

Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2001-01-01

304

Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

Coyne, P.; Smith, G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1995-08-15

305

Solubilization of plutonium hydrous oxide by iron-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The removal of plutonium from soils id challenging because of its strong sorption to soils and limited solubility, Microbial reduction of metals is known to affect the speciation and solubility of sparingly soluble metals in the environment, notably iron and manganese. The similarity in reduction potential for [alpha]-FeOOH(s) and hydrous PuO[sub 2](s) suggests that iron-reducing bacteria may also reduce and solubilize plutonium. Bacillus strains were used to demonstrate that iron-reducing bacteria mediate the solubilization of hydrous PuO[sub 2](s) under anaerobic conditions. Up to [approximately]90% of the PuO[sub 2] was biosolubilized in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) within 6-7 days. Biosolubilization occurred to a lesser extent ([approximately] 40%) in the absence of NTA. Little PuO[sub 2] solubilization occurred in sterile culture media or in the presence of a non-iron-reducing Escherichia coli. These observations suggest a potentially attractive, environmentally benign strategy for the remediation of Pu-contaminated soils. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Rusin, P.A.; Quintana, L. (MBX Systems, Tucson, AZ (United States)); Brainard, J.R.; Strietelmeler, B.A.; Tait, C.D.; Ekberg, S.A.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.; Clark, D.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1994-09-01

306

Prokaryotic Community Structure and Sulfate Reducer Activity in Water from High-Temperature Oil Reservoirs with and without Nitrate Treatment? †  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) cause severe problems like microbial corrosion and reservoir souring in seawater-injected oil production systems. One strategy to control SRP activity is the addition of nitrate to the injection water. Production waters from two adjacent, hot (80°C) oil reservoirs, one with and one without nitrate treatment, were compared for prokaryotic community structure and activity of SRP. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene analyses revealed higher prokaryotic abundance but lower diversity for the nitrate-treated field. The 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from both fields were dominated by sequences affiliated with Firmicutes (Bacteria) and Thermococcales (Archaea). Potential heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Deferribacterales) were exclusively found at the nitrate-treated field, possibly stimulated by nitrate addition. Quantitative PCR of dsrAB genes revealed that archaeal SRP (Archaeoglobus) dominated the SRP communities, but with lower relative abundance at the nitrate-treated site. Bacterial SRP were found in only low abundance at both sites and were nearly exclusively affiliated with thermophilic genera (Desulfacinum and Desulfotomaculum). Despite the high abundance of archaeal SRP, no archaeal SRP activity was detected in [35S]sulfate incubations at 80°C. Sulfate reduction was found at 60°C in samples from the untreated field and accompanied by the growth of thermophilic bacterial SRP in batch cultures. Samples from the nitrate-treated field generally lacked SRP activity. These results indicate that (i) Archaeoglobus can be a major player in hot oil reservoirs, and (ii) nitrate may act in souring control—not only by inhibiting SRP, but also by changing the overall community structure, including the stimulation of competitive nitrate reducers.

Gittel, Antje; S?rensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

2009-01-01

307

Genome Sequence of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale Lam5T  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale, a sulfate-reducing, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a Tunisian hot spring. The genome is composed of 2.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 49.48%, and it contains 2,643 protein-coding sequences.

Amin, Oulfat; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Rea, Agnes; Barbe, Valerie; Medigue, Claudine; Vacherie, Benoit; Ollivier, Bernard; Bertin, Philippe N.

2013-01-01

308

Genome Sequence of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale Lam5(T).  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale, a sulfate-reducing, spore-forming bacterium isolated from a Tunisian hot spring. The genome is composed of 2.7 Mb, with a G+C content of 49.48%, and it contains 2,643 protein-coding sequences. PMID:23405336

Amin, Oulfat; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Vacherie, Benoit; Ollivier, Bernard; Bertin, Philippe N; Dolla, Alain

2013-01-24

309

Seasonal composition and activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities in seagrass bed sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) play a key role in the carbon and nutrient cycles of coastal marine, vegetated ecosystems, but the interactions of SRP communities with aquatic plants remain little studied. The abundance, activity, and community composition of SRP was studied i...

310

Complete Genome Sequence of the Piezophilic, Mesophilic, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis AM13(T.).  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis AM13(T) is a piezophilic, mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium collected from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East Pacific Rise (2,600 m depth, 13°N). We report the genome sequence of this bacterium, which includes a 3,702,934-bp chromosome and a circular plasmid of 5,328 bp. PMID:23469349

Ji, Boyang; Gimenez, Gregory; Barbe, Valérie; Vacherie, Benoît; Rouy, Zoé; Amrani, Amira; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Bertin, Philippe; Alazard, Didier; Leroy, Sabine; Talla, Emmanuel; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Pradel, Nathalie

2013-02-21

311

Black Liquor Oxidation as a Method for Reducing Air Pollution from Sulfate Pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the sources of odorous air pollutants from sulfate pulping operations. One of the major sources is the recovery furnace. Odors from this source can be reduced considerably by oxidation of the black liquor prior to evaporation and burning. The procedure has been used with considerable success in the northwestern and northeastern parts of the United States.

E. R. Hendrickson; C. I. Harding

1964-01-01

312

34S/ 32S fractionation by sulfate-reducing microbial communities in estuarine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction in brackish estuarine sediments was studied using an experimental flow-through reactor approach designed to preserve the in situ physical, geochemical and microbial structure of the sediment. Concurrent measurements of potential sulfate reduction rates and 34S/ 32S fractionations were carried out using intact sediment slices (2 cm thick, 4.2 cm diameter) from unvegetated, intertidal sites adjoining a salt marsh along the Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. A total of 30 reactor experiments were performed with sediments collected in February, May and October 2006. The effects of incubation temperature (10, 20, 30 and 50 °C) and sediment depth (0-2, 4-6 and 8-10 cm) were investigated. Sulfate was supplied in non-limiting concentrations via the reactor inflow solutions; no external electron donor was supplied. Isotope fractionations ( ? values) were calculated from the measured differences in sulfate ? 34S between in- and outflow solutions of the reactors, under quasi-steady state conditions. Potential sulfate reduction rates (SRR) varied over one order of magnitude (5-49 nmol cm -3 h -1) and were highest in the 30 °C incubations. They decreased systematically with depth, and were highest in the sediments collected closest to the vegetated marsh. Isotope fractionations ranged from 9‰ to 34‰ and correlated inversely with SRR, as predicted by the standard fractionation model for enzymatic sulfate reduction of Rees (1973). The ? versus SRR relationship, however, varied between sampling times, with higher ? values measured in February, at comparable SRRs, than in May and October. The observed ? versus SRR relationships also deviated from the previously reported inverse trend for sediments collected in a marine lagoon in Denmark ( Canfield, 2001b). Thus, isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction is not uniquely determined by SRR, but is site- and time-dependent. Factors that may affect the ? versus SRR relationship include the structure and size of the sulfate-reducing community, and the nature and accessibility of organic substrates. Whole-sediment data such as those presented here provide a link between isotopic fractionations measured with pure cultures of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes and sulfur isotopic signatures recorded in sedimentary deposits.

Stam, Marjolijn C.; Mason, Paul R. D.; Laverman, Anniet M.; Pallud, Céline; Cappellen, Philippe Van

2011-07-01

313

Genome sequence of Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2, a marine sulfate reducer oxidizing organic carbon completely to carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the metabolically versatile Desulfobacteriaceae are abundant in marine sediments and contribute to the global carbon cycle by complete oxidation of organic compounds. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2 is the first member of this ecophysiologically important group with a now available genome sequence. With 5.6 megabasepairs (Mbp) the genome of Db. autotrophicum HRM2 is about 2 Mbp larger than the sequenced genomes of other sulfate reducers (SRB). A high number of genome plasticity elements (> 100 transposon-related genes), several regions of GC discontinuity and a high number of repetitive elements (132 paralogous genes Mbp(-1)) point to a different genome evolution when comparing with Desulfovibrio spp. The metabolic versatility of Db. autotrophicum HRM2 is reflected in the presence of genes for the degradation of a variety of organic compounds including long-chain fatty acids and for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, which enables the organism to completely oxidize acetyl-CoA to CO(2) but also to grow chemolithoautotrophically. The presence of more than 250 proteins of the sensory/regulatory protein families should enable Db. autotrophicum HRM2 to efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions. Genes encoding periplasmic or cytoplasmic hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases have been detected as well as genes for the transmembrane TpII-c(3), Hme and Rnf complexes. Genes for subunits A, B, C and D as well as for the proposed novel subunits L and F of the heterodisulfide reductases are present. This enzyme is involved in energy conservation in methanoarchaea and it is speculated that it exhibits a similar function in the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in Db. autotrophicum HRM2. PMID:19187283

Strittmatter, Axel W; Liesegang, Heiko; Rabus, Ralf; Decker, Iwona; Amann, Judith; Andres, Sönke; Henne, Anke; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Martinez-Arias, Rosa; Bartels, Daniela; Goesmann, Alexander; Krause, Lutz; Pühler, Alfred; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Richter, Michael; Schüler, Margarete; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Meyerdierks, Anke; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Amann, Rudolf

2009-01-14

314

Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms.  

PubMed

Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC(50) values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC(50) values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8). PMID:20388582

García-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B; Poggi, Héctor; Meraz, Mónica

2010-03-17

315

Nitrite reductase activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria prevents their inhibition by nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can be inhibited by nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), despite the fact that these two groups are interdependent in many anaerobic environments. Practical applications of this inhibition include the reduction of sulphide concentrations in oil fields by nitrate injection. The NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was found to oxidize up to 15 mM sulphide, considerably more than three other NR-SOB strains that were tested. Sulphide oxidation increased the environmental redox potential (Eh) from -400 to +100 mV and gave 0.6 nitrite per nitrate reduced. Within the genus Desulfovibrio, strains Lac3 and Lac6 were inhibited by strain CVO and nitrate for the duration of the experiment, whereas inhibition of strains Lac15 and D. vulgaris Hildenborough was transient. The latter had very high nitrite reductase (Nrf) activity. Southern blotting with D. vulgaris nrf genes as a probe indicated the absence of homologous nrf genes from strains Lac3 and Lac6 and their presence in strain Lac15. With respect to SRB from other genera, inhibition of the known nitrite reducer Desulfobulbus propionicus by strain CVO and nitrate was transient, whereas inhibition of Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobacter postgatei was long-lasting. The results indicate that inhibition of SRB by NR-SOB is caused by nitrite production. Nrf-containing SRB can overcome this inhibition by further reducing nitrite to ammonia, preventing a stalling of the favourable metabolic interactions between these two bacterial groups. Nrf, which is widely distributed in SRB, can thus be regarded as a resistance factor that prevents the inhibition of dissimilatory sulphate reduction by nitrite. PMID:12823193

Greene, E A; Hubert, C; Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

2003-07-01

316

Enhanced transformation of diphenylarsinic acid in soil under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is known to be the major contaminant in soils where diphenylchloroarsine and diphenylcyanoarsine were abandoned after World Wars I and II. In this study, experimental model studies were performed to elucidate key factors regulating the transformation of DPAA under anaerobic soil conditions. The elimination of DPAA in Gleysol soils (Qiqihar and Shindori soils) was more rapid than in Mollisol and Regosol soils (Heihe and Ikarashi soils, respectively) during a 5-week incubation. No clear relationship between decreasing rates of DPAA concentrations and soil Eh values was found. The Ikarashi soil showed the slowest decrease in DPAA concentrations among the four soils, but the transformation of DPAA was notably enhanced by addition of exogenous sulfate together with acetate, cellulose or rice straw. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, resulted in the stagnation of DPAA transformation, suggesting that indigenous sulfate reducers play a role in DPAA transformation under anaerobic conditions. Arsenate, phenylarsonic acid, phenylmethylarsinic acid, diphenylmethylarsine oxide and three unknown compounds were detected as metabolites of DPAA. This is the first study to reveal enhancement of DPAA transformation under sulfate-reducing conditions. PMID:23069334

Guan, Ling; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

2012-10-02

317

Sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation as a potential treatment method for high nitrogen-content wastewater.  

PubMed

After sulfate-reducing ammonium oxidation (SRAO) was first assumed in 2001, several works have been published describing this process in laboratory-scale bioreactors or occurring in the nature. In this paper, the SRAO process was performed using reject water as a substrate for microorganisms and a source of NH(4) (+), with SO(4) (2-) being added as an electron acceptor. At a moderate temperature of 20°C in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) sulfate reduction along with ammonium oxidation were established. In an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR) the SRAO process took place at 36°C. Average volumetric TN removal rates of 0.03 kg-N/m³/day in the MBBR and 0.04 kg-N/m³/day in the UASBR were achieved, with long-term moderate average removal efficiencies, respectively. Uncultured bacteria clone P4 and uncultured planctomycete clone Amx-PAn30 were detected from the biofilm of the MBBR, from sludge of the UASBR uncultured Verrucomicrobiales bacterium clone De2102 and Uncultured bacterium clone ATB-KS-1929 were found also. The stoichiometrical ratio of NH(4) (+) removal was significantly higher than could be expected from the extent of SO(4) (2-) reduction. This phenomenon can primarily be attributed to complex interactions between nitrogen and sulfur compounds and organic matter present in the wastewater. The high NH(4) (+) removal ratio can be attributed to sulfur-utilizing denitrification/denitritation providing the evidence that SRAO is occurring independently and is not a result of sulfate reduction and anammox. HCO(3) (-) concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/l were found to have an inhibiting effect on the SRAO process. Small amounts of hydrazine were naturally present in the reaction medium, indicating occurrence of the anammox process. Injections of anammox intermediates, hydrazine and hydroxylamine, had a positive effect on SRAO process performance, particularly in the case of the UASBR. PMID:22205544

Rikmann, Ergo; Zekker, Ivar; Tomingas, Martin; Tenno, Taavo; Menert, Anne; Loorits, Liis; Tenno, Toomas

2011-12-29

318

Involvement of Luminal Bacteria, Heat Shock Protein 60, Macrophages and ?? T Cells in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo immunological events in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis were evaluated. Rats were fed water (control) or 5% DSS. Colonic sections were assessed by light microscopy, Gram stain, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. A progressive decline in number and increase in fragmentation of bacteria in the colonic lumen was observed over time. Luminal bacteria were the first to

Felix W. Leung; Madalene C. Y. Heng; S. Allen; Kyoji Seno; Joseph W. C. Leung; Ming K. Heng

2000-01-01

319

Phylogenetic Affiliation and Quantification of Psychrophilic Sulfate-Reducing Isolates in Marine Arctic Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen psychrophilic sulfate-reducing isolates from two permanently cold fjords of the Arctic island Spitsbergen (Hornsund and Storfjord) were phylogenetically analyzed. They all belonged to the d subclass of Proteobacteria and were widely distributed within this group, indicating that psychrophily is a polyphyletic property. A new 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probe was designed against the largest coherent cluster of these isolates. The

KERSTIN SAHM; CHRISTIAN KNOBLAUCH; RUDOLF AMANN

1999-01-01

320

The Corrosion Effects of Sulfate and Ferric-Reducing Bacterial Consortia on Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen thermotolerant and thermophilic bacterial isolates from a hot spring in Guanajuato State, Mexico, were tested for their ability to induce the corrosion of carbon steel in monocultures and, in selected cases, in mixed cultures and co-culture with a sulfate-reducing strain, SRB-M. Characterization by 16S rDNA showed that three of the thermophilic isolates (G9a, G9c, and G11) belong to the

Eduardo Valencia-Cantero; Juan José Peña-Cabriales; Esperanza Martínez-Romero

2003-01-01

321

Phylogenetic Affiliation and Quantification of Psychrophilic Sulfate-Reducing Isolates in Marine Arctic Sediments  

PubMed Central

Thirteen psychrophilic sulfate-reducing isolates from two permanently cold fjords of the Arctic island Spitsbergen (Hornsund and Storfjord) were phylogenetically analyzed. They all belonged to the ? subclass of Proteobacteria and were widely distributed within this group, indicating that psychrophily is a polyphyletic property. A new 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probe was designed against the largest coherent cluster of these isolates. The new probe, as well as a set of available probes, was applied in rRNA slot blot hybridization to investigate the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments. rRNA related to the new cluster of incompletely oxidizing, psychrophilic isolates made up 1.4 to 20.9% of eubacterial rRNA at Storfjord and 0.6 to 3.5% of eubacterial rRNA at Hornsund. This group was the second-most-abundant group of sulfate reducers at these sites. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and hybridization analysis showed bands identical to those produced by our isolates. The data indicate that the psychrophilic isolates are quantitatively important in Svalbard sediments.

Sahm, Kerstin; Knoblauch, Christian; Amann, Rudolf

1999-01-01

322

Phylogenetic affiliation and quantification of psychrophilic sulfate-reducing isolates in marine Arctic sediments.  

PubMed

Thirteen psychrophilic sulfate-reducing isolates from two permanently cold fjords of the Arctic island Spitsbergen (Hornsund and Storfjord) were phylogenetically analyzed. They all belonged to the delta subclass of Proteobacteria and were widely distributed within this group, indicating that psychrophily is a polyphyletic property. A new 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probe was designed against the largest coherent cluster of these isolates. The new probe, as well as a set of available probes, was applied in rRNA slot blot hybridization to investigate the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments. rRNA related to the new cluster of incompletely oxidizing, psychrophilic isolates made up 1.4 to 20.9% of eubacterial rRNA at Storfjord and 0.6 to 3. 5% of eubacterial rRNA at Hornsund. This group was the second-most-abundant group of sulfate reducers at these sites. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and hybridization analysis showed bands identical to those produced by our isolates. The data indicate that the psychrophilic isolates are quantitatively important in Svalbard sediments. PMID:10473404

Sahm, K; Knoblauch, C; Amann, R

1999-09-01

323

Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms in Wetlands - Fameless Actors in Carbon Cycling and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point toward the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change.

Pester, Michael; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Friedrich, Michael W.; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

2012-01-01

324

Sulfur Isotope Enrichment during Maintenance Metabolism in the Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfotomaculum putei?  

PubMed Central

Values of ?34S (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}={\\delta}^{34}S_{HS}-{\\delta}^{34}S_{SO_{4}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}, where ?34SHS and \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\delta}^{34}S_{SO_{4}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} indicate the differences in the isotopic compositions of the HS? and SO42? in the eluent, respectively) for many modern marine sediments are in the range of ?55 to ?75‰, much greater than the ?2 to ?46‰ ?34S (kinetic isotope enrichment) values commonly observed for microbial sulfate reduction in laboratory batch culture and chemostat experiments. It has been proposed that at extremely low sulfate reduction rates under hypersulfidic conditions with a nonlimited supply of sulfate, isotopic enrichment in laboratory culture experiments should increase to the levels recorded in nature. We examined the effect of extremely low sulfate reduction rates and electron donor limitation on S isotope fractionation by culturing a thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfotomaculum putei, in a biomass-recycling culture vessel, or “retentostat.” The cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction and the specific growth rate decreased progressively from the exponential phase to the maintenance phase, yielding average maintenance coefficients of 10?16 to 10?18 mol of SO4 cell?1 h?1 toward the end of the experiments. Overall S mass and isotopic balance were conserved during the experiment. The differences in the ?34S values of the sulfate and sulfide eluting from the retentostat were significantly larger, attaining a maximum ?34S of ?20.9‰, than the ?9.7‰ observed during the batch culture experiment, but differences did not attain the values observed in marine sediments.

Davidson, Mark M.; Bisher, M. E.; Pratt, Lisa M.; Fong, Jon; Southam, Gordon; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Reches, Z.; Onstott, Tullis C.

2009-01-01

325

Unusual Starch Degradation Pathway via Cyclodextrins in the Hyperthermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus Strain 7324  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain 7324 has been shown to grow on starch and sulfate and thus represents the first sulfate reducer able to degrade polymeric sugars. The enzymes involved in starch degradation to glucose 6-phosphate were studied. In extracts of starch-grown cells the activities of the classical starch degradation enzymes, -amylase and amylopullulanase, could not be detected. Instead,

Antje Labes; Peter Schonheit

2007-01-01

326

Anaerobic oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons to CO 2 by a new type of sulfate-reducing bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

n-Hexadecane added as electron donor and carbon source to an anaerobic enrichment culture from an oil production plant or to anoxic marine sediment samples allowed dissimilatory sulfate reduction to sulfide. The enrichment from the oil field was purified via serial dilutions in liquid medium under a hexadecane phase and in agar medium with caprylate. A pure culture of a sulfate-reducing

Frank Aeckersberg; Friedhelm Bak; Friedrich Widdel

1991-01-01

327

Genome-Assisted Analysis of Dissimilatory Metal-Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Whole genome sequence for Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens has provided numerous new biological insights into the function of these model dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Many of the discoveries, including the identification of a high number of c-type cytochromes in both organisms, have been the result of comparative genomic analyses including several that were experimentally confirmed. Genome sequence has also aided the identification of genes important for the reduction of metal ions and other electron acceptors utilized by these organisms during anaerobic growth by facilitating the identification of genes disrupted by random insertions. Technologies for assaying global expression patterns for genes (mRNA) and proteins have also been enabled by the availability of genome sequence but their application has been limited mainly to the analysis of the role of global regulatory genes and to identifying genes expressed or repressed in response to specific electron acceptors. It is anticipated that details regarding the mechanisms of metal ion respiration, and metabolism in general, will eventually be revealed by comprehensive, systems-level analyses enabled by functional genomic analyses.

Fredrickson, Jim K.; Romine, Margaret F.

2005-06-01

328

Professional Oral Health Care Reduces the Number of Oropharyngeal Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silent aspiration of oropharyngeal pathogenic organisms is a significant risk factor causing pneumonia in the elderly. We hypothesized that regular oral hygiene care will affect the presence of oropharyngeal bacteria. Professional cleaning of the oral cavity and\\/or the gargling of a disinfectant liquid solution was performed over a five-month period in three facilities for the dependent elderly. Total oropharyngeal bacteria,

A. Ishikawa; T. Yoneyama; K. Hirota; Y. Miyake; K. Miyatake

2008-01-01

329

Effect of nitrate and nitrite on sulfide production by two thermophilic, sulfate-reducing enrichments from an oil field in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (tSRB) can be major contributors to the production of H2S (souring) in oil reservoirs. Two tSRB enrichments from a North Sea oil field, NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, were obtained at 58°C\\u000a with acetate-propionate-butyrate and with lactate as the electron donor, respectively. Analysis by rDNA sequencing indicated\\u000a the presence of Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus in NS-tSRB1 and of Archaeoglobus fulgidus in

Krista M. Kaster; Alexander Grigoriyan; Gary Jennneman; Gerrit Voordouw

2007-01-01

330

Complete Biological Dehalogenation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Sulfate Containing Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of dehalogenating bacteria to compete with sulfate reducing bacteria forelectron donor was studied in microcosms that simulated groundwater contaminatedwith both chlorinated ethylenes and fuel hydrocarbon compounds. Results demonstratethat reductive dehalogenation of perchloroethylene to ethylene can proceed in thepresence of >100 mg l-1 sulfate. The hydrogen concentration, which was2.5 nM in the presence of approximately 150 mg l-1 sulfate

T. P. Hoelen; M. Reinhard

2004-01-01

331

The First Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of a Deep-Sea Sulfate Reducer: Insights into the Piezophilic Lifestyle of Desulfovibrio piezophilus  

PubMed Central

Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30T is a piezophilic anaerobe that was isolated from wood falls in the Mediterranean deep-sea. D. piezophilus represents a unique model for studying the adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria to hydrostatic pressure. Here, we report the 3.6 Mbp genome sequence of this piezophilic bacterium. An analysis of the genome revealed the presence of seven genomic islands as well as gene clusters that are most likely linked to life at a high hydrostatic pressure. Comparative genomics and differential proteomics identified the transport of solutes and amino acids as well as amino acid metabolism as major cellular processes for the adaptation of this bacterium to hydrostatic pressure. In addition, the proteome profiles showed that the abundance of key enzymes that are involved in sulfate reduction was dependent on hydrostatic pressure. A comparative analysis of orthologs from the non-piezophilic marine bacterium D. salexigens and D. piezophilus identified aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, asparagine, serine and tyrosine as the amino acids preferentially replaced by arginine, histidine, alanine and threonine in the piezophilic strain. This work reveals the adaptation strategies developed by a sulfate reducer to a deep-sea lifestyle.

Pradel, Nathalie; Ji, Boyang; Gimenez, Gregory; Talla, Emmanuel; Lenoble, Patricia; Garel, Marc; Tamburini, Christian; Fourquet, Patrick; Lebrun, Regine; Bertin, Philippe; Denis, Yann; Pophillat, Matthieu; Barbe, Valerie; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain

2013-01-01

332

The first genomic and proteomic characterization of a deep-sea sulfate reducer: insights into the piezophilic lifestyle of Desulfovibrio piezophilus.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio piezophilus strain C1TLV30(T) is a piezophilic anaerobe that was isolated from wood falls in the Mediterranean deep-sea. D. piezophilus represents a unique model for studying the adaptation of sulfate-reducing bacteria to hydrostatic pressure. Here, we report the 3.6 Mbp genome sequence of this piezophilic bacterium. An analysis of the genome revealed the presence of seven genomic islands as well as gene clusters that are most likely linked to life at a high hydrostatic pressure. Comparative genomics and differential proteomics identified the transport of solutes and amino acids as well as amino acid metabolism as major cellular processes for the adaptation of this bacterium to hydrostatic pressure. In addition, the proteome profiles showed that the abundance of key enzymes that are involved in sulfate reduction was dependent on hydrostatic pressure. A comparative analysis of orthologs from the non-piezophilic marine bacterium D. salexigens and D. piezophilus identified aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, asparagine, serine and tyrosine as the amino acids preferentially replaced by arginine, histidine, alanine and threonine in the piezophilic strain. This work reveals the adaptation strategies developed by a sulfate reducer to a deep-sea lifestyle. PMID:23383081

Pradel, Nathalie; Ji, Boyang; Gimenez, Grégory; Talla, Emmanuel; Lenoble, Patricia; Garel, Marc; Tamburini, Christian; Fourquet, Patrick; Lebrun, Régine; Bertin, Philippe; Denis, Yann; Pophillat, Matthieu; Barbe, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain

2013-01-30

333

Stable Isotopic Studies of n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Enrichment Culture  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to study the metabolism of deuterated n-alkanes (C6 to C12) and 1-13C-labeled n-hexane by a highly enriched sulfate-reducing bacterial culture. All substrates were activated via fumarate addition to form the corresponding alkylsuccinic acid derivatives as transient metabolites. Formation of d14-hexylsuccinic acid in cell extracts from exogenously added, fully deuterated n-hexane confirmed that this reaction was the initial step in anaerobic alkane metabolism. Analysis of resting cell suspensions amended with 1-13C-labeled n-hexane confirmed that addition of the fumarate occurred at the C-2 carbon of the parent substrate. Subsequent metabolism of hexylsuccinic acid resulted in the formation of 4-methyloctanoic acid, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid was tentatively identified. We also found that 13C nuclei from 1-13C-labeled n-hexane became incorporated into the succinyl portion of the initial metabolite in a manner that indicated that 13C-labeled fumarate was formed and recycled during alkane metabolism. Collectively, the findings obtained with a sulfate-reducing culture using isotopically labeled alkanes augment and support the previously proposed pathway (H. Wilkes, R. Rabus, T. Fischer, A. Armstroff, A. Behrends, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 177:235-243, 2002) for metabolism of deuterated n-hexane by a denitrifying bacterium.

Davidova, Irene A.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Nanny, Mark; Kropp, Kevin G.; Suflita, Joseph M.

2005-01-01

334

Temperature and nutrient induced responses of Lake Fryxell sulfate-reducing prokaryotes and description of Desulfovibrio lacusfryxellense , sp. nov., a pervasive, cold-active, sulfate-reducing bacterium from Lake Fryxell, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature and carbon substrate availability on the stimulation of sulfate reduction by indigenous populations\\u000a of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in permanently ice-covered Lake Fryxell, Antarctica were investigated. Psychrophilic\\u000a and halotolerant, lactate-degrading SRP showed significant metabolic activity throughout all sampled depths of the water column,\\u000a suggesting that such organisms, possibly of marine origin, may be key contributors to carbon

W. Matthew SattleyMichael; Michael T. Madigan

2010-01-01

335

Desulfovibrio brasiliensis sp. nov., a moderate halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from Lagoa Vermelha (Brazil) mediating dolomite formation.  

PubMed

A novel halotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio brasiliensis strain LVform1, was isolated from sediments of a dolomite-forming hypersaline coastal lagoon, Lagoa Vermelha, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cells are vibrio-shaped and 0.30 to 0.45 microm by 1.0 to 3.5 microm in size. These bacteria mediate the precipitation of dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] in culture experiments. The strain was identified as a member of the genus Desulfovibrio in the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, its physiological and morphological properties. Strain LVform1 is obligate sodium-dependent and grows at NaCl concentrations of up to 15%. The 16S rRNA sequence revealed that this strain is closely related to Desulfovibrio halophilus (96.2% similarity) and to Desulfovibrio oxyclinae (96.8% similarity), which were both isolated from Solar Lake, a hypersaline coastal lake in the Sinai, Egypt. Strain LVform1 is barotolerant, growing under pressures of up to 370 bar (37 MPa). We propose strain LVform1 to be the type strain of a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio brasiliensis (type strain LVform1 = DSMZ No. 15816 and JCM No. 12178). The GenBank/EMBL accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain LVform1 is AJ544687. PMID:15856133

Warthmann, Rolf; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Sass, Henrik; McKenzie, Judith A

2005-04-26

336

Interactions of polyacrylamides used for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir isolates of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides utilized in enhanced oil recovery as mobility control agents and reservoir isolates of Desulfovibrio were examined. Produced waters from reservoirs undergoing polymer flooding were sampled to determine the presence and numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The influence of polyacrylamide on the growth of Desulfovibrio under a number of conditions was studied. Brookfield viscosity and screen factor measurements were used to screen for adverse changes in the rheological properties of polyacrylamide solutions which had been exposed to Desulfovibrio. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides stimulated the growth of Desulfovibrio under laboratory conditions. The polymer may act as a nitrogen source or as an incomplete substrate under certain conditions, but is apparently not utilizable as a carbon source. Desulfovibrio caused a loss in screen factor of polyacrylamide solutions under anaerobic conditions, but no significant loss in solution viscosity was observed. No decrease in polymer concentration was detected. Labelled polyacrylamide was not incorporated in Desulfovibrio. The authors conclude that the observed screen factor losses are probably not the result of enzymatic degradation of the polymer, and are most likely a physical/chemical interaction of polymer molecules with some product of Desulfovibrio metabolism.

Sewell, G.W.

1987-01-01

337

Clinical efficiency of 2% chlorhexidine gel in reducing intracanal bacteria.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel on intracanal bacteria reduction during root canal instrumentation. The additional antibacterial effect of an intracanal dressing (Ca[OH](2) mixed with 2% CHX gel) was also assessed. Forty-three patients with apical periodontitis were recruited. Four patients with irreversible pulpitis were included as negative controls. Teeth were instrumented using rotary instruments and 2% CHX gel as the disinfectant. Bacterial samples were taken upon access (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and after 2 weeks of intracanal dressing (S3). Anaerobic culture was performed. Four samples showed no bacteria growth at S1, which were excluded from further analysis. Of the samples cultured positively at S1, 10.3% (4/39) and 8.3% (4/36) sampled bacteria at S2 and S3, respectively. A significant difference in the percentage of positive culture between S1 and S2 (p < 0.001) but not between S2 and S3 (p = 0.692) was found. These results suggest that 2% CHX gel is an effective root canal disinfectant and additional intracanal dressing did not significantly improve the bacteria reduction on the sampled root canals. PMID:17963947

Wang, Ching S; Arnold, Roland R; Trope, Martin; Teixeira, Fabricio B

2007-11-01

338

Temporal and geographical distributions of epilithic sodium dodecyl sulfate-degrading bacteria in a polluted South Wales river  

SciTech Connect

Epilithic bacteria were isolated nonselectively from riverbed stones and examined by gel zymography for their ability to produce alkylsulfatase (AS) enzymes and thus to metabolize alkyl sulfate surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. The percentages of AS+ isolates from stone epilithon at five sites from the source to the river mouth were measured on five sampling days spread over 1 year. The results showed that (i) the prevalence of epilithic AS+ strains (as a percentage of all isolates) was much higher at polluted sites than at the source; (ii) when averaged over the whole river, percentages of AS+ strains were significantly higher at the end of summer compared with either the preceding or the following winter; (iii) analysis of site-sampling time interactions indicated that water quality factors (e.g., biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen concentration) rather than climatic factors determined the distributions of epilithic AS+ isolates; (iv) constitutive strains were the most prevalent (7.2% of all isolates), with smaller numbers of isolates with inducible (4.5%) and repressible (1.7%) enzymes.

Anderson, D.J.; Day, M.J.; Russell, N.J.; White, G.F.

1988-02-01

339

Desulfobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov., a new psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium and descriptions of its physiological response to temperature changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychrotrolerant acetate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain akvbT) was isolated from sediment from the northern part of The North Sea with annual temperature fluctuations between 8 and 14 °C.\\u000a Of the various substrates tested, strain akvbT grew exclusively by the oxidation of acetate coupled to the reduction of sulfate. The cells were motile, thick rods with\\u000a round ends and grew in dense

Irene H. Tarpgaard; Antje Boetius; Kai Finster

2006-01-01

340

Performance and Ethanol Oxidation Kinetics of a Sulfate-Reducing Fluidized-Bed Reactor Treating Acidic Metal-Containing Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of simulated acidic wastewater (pH 2.5–5)containing sulfate (1.0–2.2 g l-1), zinc (15–340 mg l -1) and iron (57 mg l -1) was studied in a sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) at 35 °C.The original lactate feed for enrichment and maintenance\\u000a of the FBRculture was replaced stepwise with ethanol over 50 days. The robustnessof the process was studied by increasing

Anna H. Kaksonen; Peter D. Franzmann; Jaakko A. Puhakka

2003-01-01

341

Dynamics of methane production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of sulfate reduction, methane production, and denitrification were investigated in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, stimulated methane production in soil slurries, thus suggesting competition for common substrates between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Acetate, hydrogen, and methanol were found to stimulate both sulfate reduction and methane production, while trimethylamine mainly stimulated methane production. Nitrate addition reduced both methane production and sulfate reduction, either as a consequence of competition of poisoning of the bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were only slightly limited by the availability of electron acceptors, while denitrifying bacteria were seriously limited by low nitrate concentrations. Arrhenius plots of the three processes revealed different responses to temperature changes in the slurries. Methane production was most sensitive to temperature changes, followed by denitrification and sulfate reduction. No significant differences between slope patterns were observed when comparing summer and winter measurements, indicating similar populations regarding temperature responses.

Westermann, P.; Ahring, B.K.

1987-10-01

342

Dynamics of Methane Production, Sulfate Reduction, and Denitrification in a Permanently Waterlogged Alder Swamp  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of sulfate reduction, methane production, and denitrification were investigated in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, stimulated methane production in soil slurries, thus suggesting competition for common substrates between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Acetate, hydrogen, and methanol were found to stimulate both sulfate reduction and methane production, while trimethylamine mainly stimulated methane production. Nitrate addition reduced both methane production and sulfate reduction, either as a consequence of competition or poisoning of the bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were only slightly limited by the availability of electron acceptors, while denitrifying bacteria were seriously limited by low nitrate concentrations. Arrhenius plots of the three processes revealed different responses to temperature changes in the slurries. Methane production was most sensitive to temperature changes, followed by denitrification and sulfate reduction. No significant differences between slope patterns were observed when comparing summer and winter measurements, indicating similar populations regarding temperature responses.

Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer

1987-01-01

343

Anaerobic biodegradation of long-chain n-alkanes under sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

The ability of anaerobic microorganisms to degrade a wide variety of crude oil components was investigated using chronically hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments as the source of inoculum. When sulfate reduction was the predominant electron-accepting process, gas chromatographic analysis revealed almost complete n-alkane removal (C{sub 15}-C{sub 34}) from a weathered oil within 201 d of incubation. No alteration of the oil was detected in sterile control incubations or when nitrate served as an alternate electron acceptor. The amount of sulfate reduced in the oil-amended nonsterile incubations was more than enough to account for the complete mineralization of the n-alkane fraction of the oil; no loss of this anion was observed in sterile control incubations. The mineralization of the alkanes was confirmed using {sup 14}C-14,15-octacosane (C{sub 28}H{sub 58}), with 97% of the radioactivity recovered as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. These findings extend the range of hydrocarbons known to be amenable to anaerobic biodegradation. Moreover, the rapid and extensive alteration in the n-alkanes can no longer be considered a defining characteristic of aerobic oil biodegradation processes alone.

Caldwell, M.E.; Suflita, J.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Garrett, R.M.; Prince, R.C. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

1998-07-15

344

Transformation of 3- and 4-Picoline under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions  

PubMed Central

A microbial population which transformed 3- and 4-picoline under sulfate-reducing conditions was isolated from a subsurface soil which had been previously exposed to different N-substituted aromatic compounds for several years. In the presence of sulfate, the microbial culture transformed 3- and 4-picoline (0.4 mM) within 30 days. From the amounts of ammonia released and of sulfide that were determined during the transformation of 3-picoline, it can be concluded that the parent compound was mineralized to carbon dioxide and ammonia. During the transformation of 4-picoline, a UV-absorbing intermediate accumulated in the culture medium. This metabolite was identified as 2-hydroxy-4-picoline by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, and its further transformation was detected only after an additional month of incubation. The small amount of sulfide produced during the oxidation of 4-picoline and the generation of the hydroxylated metabolite indicated that the initial step in the metabolic pathway of 4-picoline was a monohydroxylation at position 2 of the heterocyclic aromatic ring. The 3- and 4-picoline-degrading cultures could also transform benzoic acid; however, the other methylated pyridine derivatives, 2-picoline, dimethyl-pyridines, and trimethylpyridines, were not degraded.

Kaiser, J.-P.; Minard, R. D.; Bollag, J.-M.

1993-01-01

345

Biodegradation of munitions compounds by a sulfate reducing bacterial enrichment culture  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of several munitions compounds was studied. The compounds included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. All of the compounds studied were degraded by the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment culture. The SRB culture did not use the munitions compounds as their sole source of carbon. However, all the munitions compounds tested served as the sole source of nitrogen for the SRB culture. Degradation of munitions compounds was achieved by a co-metabolic process. The SRB culture used a variety of carbon sources including pyruvate, ethanol, formate, lactate, and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}. The SRB culture was an incomplete oxidizer, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates to CO{sub 2} as the sole product, and it did not use acetate or methanol as a carbon source. In addition to serving as nitrogen sources, the munitions compounds also served as electron acceptors in the absence of sulfate. A soil slurry experiment with 5% and 10% munitions compounds-contaminated soil showed that the contaminant TNT was metabolized by the SRB culture in the presence of pyruvate as electron donor. This culture may be useful in decontaminating munitions compounds-contaminated soil and water under anaerobic conditions.

Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-08-01

346

Desulfotomaculum intricatum sp. nov., a sulfate reducer isolated from freshwater lake sediment.  

PubMed

A novel spore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain SR45(T), was isolated from sediment of a freshwater lake, Lake Mizugaki, in Japan. Cells of strain SR45 were rod-shaped (1.0-1.5×2.0-5.0 µm) and weakly motile; Gram staining and the KOH lysis test were negative. For growth, the optimum pH was 6.4-6.8 and the optimum temperature was 42-45 °C. Strain SR45(T) used sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors but not Fe(III). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 41.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on genes for the 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase (gyrB) revealed that the isolated strain belonged to the family Peptococcaceae in the class Clostridia. The closest relative is Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans 5575(T), with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 92-94?%. It is suggested that the strain is the second isolated member of Desulfotomaculum subcluster Ie. The isolate had multiple 16S rRNA gene copies, with 13 different sequences. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, the name Desulfotomaculum intricatum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SR45(T) (?=?NBRC 109411(T)?=?DSM 26801(T)). PMID:23584284

Watanabe, Miho; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2013-04-12

347

Desulfotomaculum alkaliphilum sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed

A new moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing, chemolithoheterotrophic bacterium, strain S1T, was isolated from a mixed cow/pig manure with neutral pH. The bacterium is an obligately anaerobic, non-motile, Gram-positive, spore-forming curved rod growing within a pH range of 8.0-9.15 (optimal growth at pH 8.6-8.7) and temperature range of 30-58 degrees C (optimal growth at 50-55 degrees C). The optimum NaCl concentration for growth is 0.1%. Strain S1T is an obligately carbonate-dependent alkaliphile. The G+C content of the DNA is 40.9 mol%. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including H2+acetate, formate, ethanol, lactate and pyruvate. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfur or nitrate, can be used as electron acceptors. Strain S1T is able to utilize acetate or yeast extract as sources of carbon. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence allowed strain S1T (= DSM 12257T) to be classified as a representative of a new species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotomaculum alkaliphilum sp. nov. PMID:10826784

Pikuta, E; Lysenko, A; Suzina, N; Osipov, G; Kuznetsov, B; Tourova, T; Akimenko, V; Laurinavichius, K

2000-01-01

348

Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium.  

PubMed

A new alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Z-7935T (T = type strain), was isolated from a soda-depositing lake, Lake Magadi in Kenya. This organism is a motile vibrio which utilizes only hydrogen and formate as electron donors and sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate, but not sulfur, as electron acceptors. Thiosulfate is dismutated. Strain Z-7935T is an obligately sodium-dependent alkaliphile which grows in sodium carbonate medium and does not grow at pH 7; the maximum pH for growth is more than pH 10, and the optimum pH is 9.5 to 9.7. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth is 3% (wt/vol). The optimum temperature for growth is 37 degrees C. The G + C content of the DNA is 48.6 mol%. 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis revealed that strain Z-7935T represents a new lineage with genus status in the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. The name Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism; the type strain of D. hydrogenovorans is strain Z-7935 (= DSM 9292). PMID:8995816

Zhilina, T N; Zavarzin, G A; Rainey, F A; Pikuta, E N; Osipov, G A; Kostrikina, N A

1997-01-01

349

Sulfate Fining Chemistry in Oxidized and Reduced Soda-Lime-Silica Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Various reducing agents were used and their additions were varied to (1) increase glass quality through eliminating defects from silica scum, (2) decrease SOx emissions through changing the kind and quantity of reducing agents, and (3) improve production efficiency through increased flexibility of glass redox control during continuous processing. The work included measuring silica sand dissolution and sulfate decomposition in melts from glass batches. Glass batches were heated at a temperature-increase rate deemed similar to that experienced in the melting furnace. The sulfate decomposition kinetics was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis. Sulfur concentrations in glasses quenched at different temperatures were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The distribution of residual sand (that which was not dissolved during the initial batch reactions) in the glass was obtained as a function of temperature with optical microscopy in thin-sections of melts. The fraction of undissolved sand was measured with X-ray diffraction. The results of the present study helped Visteon Inc. reduce the energy consumption and establish the batch containing 0.118 mass% of graphite as the best candidate for Visteon glass production. The improved glass batch has a lower potential for silica scum formation and for brown fault occurrence in the final glass product. It was established that bubbles trapped in the melt even at 1450 C have a high probability to be refined when reaching the hot zone in the glass furnace. Furthermore, silica sand does not accumulate at the glass surface and dissolves faster in the batch with graphite than in the batch with carbocite.

Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.

2005-05-13

350

Impact of sulphate-reducing bacteria on the performance of engineering materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is an electrochemical corrosion influenced by the presence\\/action of biological\\u000a agents such as, but not limited to, bacteria. One of the key elements of MIC is sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). There are\\u000a still many misunderstandings about these bacteria, their role in the deterioration of engineering materials and their importance\\u000a over other types of corrosion-related micro-\\/macro-organisms. SRB do

Reza Javaherdashti

351

A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation  

PubMed Central

A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Gu, Xiaojie; Zhao, Chenyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zeping

2009-01-01

352

Exposure to common food additive carrageenan leads to reduced sulfatase activity and increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The commonly used food additive carrageenan, including lambda (?), kappa (?) and iota (?) forms, is composed of galactose disaccharides linked in alpha-1,3 and beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds with up to three sulfate groups per disaccharide residue. Carrageenan closely resembles the endogenous galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and keratan sulfate. However, these GAGs have beta-1,3 and beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds, in contrast to the unusual alpha-1,3 glycosidic bond in carrageenan. Since sulfatase activity is inhibited by sulfate, and carrageenan is so highly sulfated, we tested the effect of carrageenan exposure on sulfatase activity in human intestinal and mammary epithelial cell lines and found that carrageenan exposure significantly reduced the activity of sulfatases, including N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, galactose-6-sulfatase, iduronate sulfatase, steroid sulfatase, arylsulfatase A, SULF-1,2, and heparan sulfamidase. Consistent with the inhibition of sulfatase activity, following exposure to carrageenan, GAG content increased significantly and showed marked differences in disaccharide composition. Specific changes in CS disaccharides included increases in di-sulfated disaccharide components of CSD (2S6S) and CS-E (4S6S), with declines in CS-A (4S) and CS-C (6S). Specific changes in heparin-heparan sulfate disaccharides included increases in 6S disaccharides, as well as increases in NS and 2S6S disaccharides. Study results suggest that carrageenan inhibition of sulfatase activity leads to re-distribution of the cellular GAG composition with increase in di-sulfated CS and with potential consequences for cell structure and function. PMID:22410212

Yang, Bo; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Linhardt, Robert; Tobacman, Joanne

2012-03-05

353

Desulfatitalea tepidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediment.  

PubMed

A novel sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain S28bF(T), was isolated from tidal flat sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan. Cells of strain S28bF(T) were rod-shaped (0.5-0.6×1.7-3.8 µm), motile and Gram-stain-negative. For growth, the optimum pH was pH 6.8-7.3 and the optimum temperature was 34-42 °C. Strain S28bF(T) used sulfate and thiosulfate as electron acceptors, but not nitrate. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56.6 mol%. The fatty acid profile of strain S28bF(T) was characterized by the presence of anteiso-C(15?:?0) and C(16?:?0) as the major components. Phylogenetic analyses based on genes for 16S rRNA, the alpha subunit of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) and adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) revealed that the isolated strain belonged to the class Deltaproteobacteria. Its closest relative was Desulfosarcina cetonica DSM 7267(T) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 93.3?%. Two other strains, S28OL1 and S28OL2 were also isolated from the same sediment. These strains were closely related to S28bF(T) with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99?%, and the same physiological characteristics were shared with strain S28bF(T). On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, a novel species in a new genus, Desulfatitalea tepidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the strains obtained in this study. The type strain is S28bF(T) (?=?NBRC 107166(T)?=?DSM 23472(T)). PMID:22581901

Higashioka, Yuriko; Kojima, Hisaya; Watanabe, Miho; Fukui, Manabu

2012-05-11

354

Desulfonatronum thiodismutans sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of lithoautotrophic growth.  

PubMed

A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain MLF1(T), was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrio-shaped cells were observed, which were 0.6-0.7x1.2-2.7 micro m in size, motile by a single polar flagellum and occurred singly, in pairs or as short spirilla. Growth was observed at 15-48 degrees C (optimum, 37 degrees C), >1-7 % NaCl, w/v (optimum, 3 %) and pH 8.0-10.0 (optimum, 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires a high concentration of carbonate in the growth medium and is obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. As electron donors, strain MLF1(T) uses hydrogen, formate and ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The novel isolate is a lithoheterotroph and a facultative lithoautotroph that is able to grow on hydrogen without an organic source of carbon. Strain MLF1(T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The DNA G+C content is 63.0 mol% (HPLC). DNA-DNA hybridization with the most closely related species, Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(T), exhibited 51 % homology. Also, the genome size (1.6x10(9) Da) and T(m) value of the genomic DNA (71+/-2 degrees C) for strain MLF1(T) were significantly different from the genome size (2.1x10(9) Da) and T(m) value (63+/-2 degrees C) for Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951(T). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered to be a novel species of the genus Desulfonatronum, for which the name Desulfonatronum thiodismutans sp. nov. is proposed (the type strain is MLF1(T)=ATCC BAA-395(T)=DSM 14708(T)). PMID:13130014

Pikuta, Elena V; Hoover, Richard B; Bej, Asim K; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William B; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul

2003-09-01

355

Transmission of ice-nucleating active bacteria from a prey reduces cold hardiness of a predator (Araneae: Theridiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ice-nucleating active (INA) bacteria on cold hardiness of the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum, was determined by measuring the supercooling point (SCP) of hatchlings given either INA-bacteria-fed or bacteria-free prey ( Drosophila melanogaster). Spiders that had eaten INA-bacteria-fed flies showed higher SCPs than those fed on bacteria-free flies. Through feeding, INA bacteria in the prey reduce the cold

Kazuhiro Tanaka; Masahiko Watanabe

2003-01-01

356

Anaerobic Degradation of 2-Methylnaphthalene by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment Culture†  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic degradation of 2-methylnaphthalene was investigated with a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture. Metabolite analyses revealed two groups of degradation products. The first group comprised two succinic acid adducts which were identified as naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid and naphthyl-2-methylene-succinic acid by comparison with chemically synthesized reference compounds. Naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid accumulated to 0.5 ?M in culture supernatants. Production of naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid was analyzed in enzyme assays with dense cell suspensions. The conversion of 2-methylnaphthalene to naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid was detected at a specific activity of 0.020 ± 0.003 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1 only in the presence of cells and fumarate. We conclude that under anaerobic conditions 2-methylnaphthalene is activated by fumarate addition to the methyl group, as is the case in anaerobic toluene degradation. The second group of metabolites comprised 2-naphthoic acid and reduced 2-naphthoic acid derivatives, including 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid, octahydro-2-naphthoic acid, and decahydro-2-naphthoic acid. These compounds were also identified in an earlier study as products of anaerobic naphthalene degradation with the same enrichment culture. A pathway for anaerobic degradation of 2-methylnaphthalene analogous to that for anaerobic toluene degradation is proposed.

Annweiler, Eva; Materna, Arne; Safinowski, Michael; Kappler, Andreas; Richnow, Hans H.; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2000-01-01

357

Effects of temperature on anaerobic decomposition of high-molecular weight organic matter under sulfate-reducing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most sedimentary mineralization occurs along coasts under anaerobic conditions. In the absence of oxygen, high-molecular weight organic matter in marine sediments is gradually decomposed by hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. Because of the different responses of the respective steps to temperature, degradation may be specifically slowed or stopped in certain step. To evaluate the effect of temperature on cellobiose degradation, culture experiments were performed at six different temperatures (3 °C, 8 °C, 13 °C, 18 °C, 23 °C, and 28 °C) under sulfate-reducing conditions. This study measured the concentrations of sulfide, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and organic acids during that degradation. Degradation patterns were divided into three temperature groups: 3 °C, 8/13 °C, and 18/23/28 °C. The decrease in DOC proceeded in two steps, except at 3 °C. The length of the stagnant phase separating these two steps differed greatly between temperatures of 8/13 °C and 18/23/28 °C. In the first step, organic carbon was consumed by hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. In the second step, acetate accumulated during the first step was oxidized by sulfate reduction. Bacterial communities in the cultures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); the major differences among the three temperature groups were attributed to shifts in acetate-using sulfate reducers of the genus Desulfobacter. This suggests that temperature characteristics of dominant acetate oxidizers are important factors in determining the response of carbon flow in coastal marine sediments in relation to the changes in temperature.

Matsui, Takato; Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

2013-03-01

358

Comparison of Mechanisms of Alkane Metabolism under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions among Two Bacterial Isolates and a Bacterial Consortium  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that fumarate addition and carboxylation are two possible mechanisms of anaerobic alkane degradation. In the present study, we surveyed metabolites formed during growth on hexadecane by the sulfate-reducing isolates AK-01 and Hxd3 and by a mixed sulfate-reducing consortium. The cultures were incubated with either protonated or fully deuterated hexadecane; the sulfate-reducing consortium was also incubated with [1,2-13C2]hexadecane. All cultures were extracted, silylated, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We detected a suite of metabolites that support a fumarate addition mechanism for hexadecane degradation by AK-01, including methylpentadecylsuccinic acid, 4-methyloctadecanoic acid, 4-methyloctadec-2,3-enoic acid, 2-methylhexadecanoic acid, and tetradecanoic acid. By using d34-hexadecane, mass spectral evidence strongly supporting a carbon skeleton rearrangement of the first intermediate, methylpentadecylsuccinic acid, was demonstrated for AK-01. Evidence indicating hexadecane carboxylation was not found in AK-01 extracts but was observed in Hxd3 extracts. In the mixed sulfate-reducing culture, however, metabolites consistent with both fumarate addition and carboxylation mechanisms of hexadecane degradation were detected, which demonstrates that multiple alkane degradation pathways can occur simultaneously within distinct anaerobic communities. Collectively, these findings underscore that fumarate addition and carboxylation are important alkane degradation mechanisms that may be widespread among phylogenetically and/or physiologically distinct microorganisms.

Callaghan, Amy V.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Kropp, Kevin G.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Young, Lily Y.

2006-01-01

359

Genome Sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an Acidophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium from Copper Mining Waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia  

PubMed Central

We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

Abicht, Helge K.; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

2011-01-01

360

Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from oil field water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel gram-negative, thermophilic, acetate-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain A8444, isolated from hot North\\u000a Sea oil field water, is described. The rod-shaped cells averaged 1 ?m in width and 2.5 ?m in length. They were motile by means\\u000a of a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 44 and 74?C, with an optimum at 60?C. Spores were not produced. Sulfate\\u000a and

Janiche Beeder; Terje Torsvik; Torleiv Lien

1995-01-01

361

Desulfohalobium utahense sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from Great Salt Lake.  

PubMed

A novel moderately halophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain EtOH3(T), was isolated from anoxic hypersaline (270 g NaCl l(-1)) sediment of the northern arm of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Cells of strain EtOH3(T) were oval to rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and stained Gram-negative. The strain required sodium and magnesium ions for growth and grew at salinities of up to 240 g NaCl l(-1) and 121 g MgCl(2).6H(2)O l(-1). The optimum NaCl concentration was 80-100 g l(-1). Strain EtOH3(T) grew at temperatures ranging from 15 to 44 degrees Celsius (optimum 37 degrees Celsius). The pH range for growth was 6.5-8.3 (optimum around pH 6.8). Only sulfate and thiosulfate served as electron acceptors for a broad range of electron donors including various short-chain fatty acids and primary (C(1-5)) alcohols, amino acids, H(2)/acetate and H(2)/yeast extract. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 51.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrAB [genes encoding the major subunits of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] and 16S rRNA gene sequence data placed strain EtOH3(T) within the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfohalobiaceae. Strain EtOH3(T) shared 76 and 91 % dsrAB and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with the type strain of the phylogenetically most closely related species with a validly published name, Desulfohalobium retbaense DSM 5692(T). High 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity ( approximately 97 %) was shared with the recently described strain 'Desulfovermiculus halophilus' VKM B-2364. Strain EtOH3(T), however, clearly differed from this strain in both genomic G+C content and in several of its phenotypic properties. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, the novel species Desulfohalobium utahense sp. nov. is proposed, with strain EtOH3(T) (=VKM B-2384(T)=DSM 17720(T)) as the type strain. PMID:16957100

Jakobsen, Trine Fredlund; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

2006-09-01

362

Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

2002-10-01

363

Transformation of non-oxygenated, homocyclic aromatic compounds by aquifer microorganisms under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions  

SciTech Connect

A mixed methanogenic culture was enriched from creosote-contaminated sediment that used toluene or o-xylene as sole source of carbon and energy. The adaptation periods before the onset of measurable degradation were long (120-255 days). Both toluene and o-xylene were completely degraded to stoichiometric amounts of methane, carbon dioxide and biomass. The enriched methanogenic cultures could not degrade benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene or ethylbenzene. The doubling times were 6 days and 10 days for the cultures growing on toluene or o-xylene, respectively. Toluene and o-xylene were toxic and inhibited degradation as initial concentrations increased. The presence of preferred substrates including glucose, methanol, and acetate inhibited toluene degradation. Isotope trapping and simultaneous adaptation experiments provided evidence that toluene was degraded via both methyl and ring hydroxylation. A mixed sulfate-reducing culture was enriched from gasoline-contaminated sediment that used toluene and all three isomers of xylene as sole sources of carbon and energy. The adaptation period before the onset of measurable degradation by the sulfate-reducing cultures was followed sequentially by m-, p-, and o-xylene. The doubling time for the sulfate-reducing cultures growing on toluene or xylenes was about 20 days. The build up of sulfide as a result of sulfate-reduction appeared to inhibit degradation. Benzoate was detected as a transient intermediate and benzylsuccinate accumulated in sulfate-reducing cultures fed toluene. Benzene degradation was not initially observed. However, after all other carbon sources were exhausted benzene was eventually completely mineralized to carbon dioxide under strictly anaerobic conditions. The rates of degradation were very slow, and were influenced by the initial benzene concentration and by the presence of other carbon sources that could be degraded preferentially over benzene.

Edwards, E.A.

1993-01-01

364

COMPARISON OF HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN PCE-DEHALOGENATING AND SULFATE-REDUCING ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary transformation pathway for PCE in anoxic environments is through sequential reductive dehalogenation, and information concerning dehalogenation processes that occur in environments containing alternative electron acceptors (sulfate) is limited. Hydrogen is postulated ...

365

BIOFILMS AND ADHESION PROTEIN IN ANAEROBE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEXICAN GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pipelines plugging, souring oil and corrosion by microorganisms are a big problem in the oil industry. The pipelines plugging is produced by bacterial consortium that can produce biofilms. In these attached microbial populations, aerobes bacteria growth in the superficial layers, and, anaerobes bacteria (fermenters, sulfate-reducing bacteria, tiosulfate-reducing bacteria, methanogen growth adhered to metal. In industrial areas, surfactants, emulsifiers and

366

Effects of borax treatment on hydrogen sulfide emissions and sulfate reducing bacteria in stored swine manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malodorous compounds and emissions produced from stored swine manure can pose both environmental and health issues. These nuisance odors largely result from compounds such as sulfides, volatile fatty acids, and phenols, which are produced as a result of anaerobic digestion of materials present in t...

367

Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas. For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The [4Fe-4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli/1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris/2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

Huynh, B. H.; Moura, I.; Lino, A. R.; Moura, J. J. G.; Legall, J.

1988-02-01

368

Monitoring of sulfate-reducing bacteria in acid water from uranium mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most serious environment problems created by the mining industry is acid mine drainage. In one plant of Nuclear Industries of Brazil—INB, this problem is a matter of concern. The presence of iron sulfites, such as pyrite, generates water with acidity above the levels allowed by the legislation and therefore, inappropriate for releasing straight into the environment. The

J. S. Benedetto; S. K. de Almeida; H. A. Gomes; R. F. Vazoller; A. C. Q. Ladeira

2005-01-01

369

Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as a Model for Understanding Bacterial Mercury Methylation?†  

PubMed Central

We propose the use of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 as a model species for understanding the mechanism of microbial Hg methylation. Strain ND132 is an anaerobic dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacterium (DSRB), isolated from estuarine mid-Chesapeake Bay sediments. It was chosen for study because of its exceptionally high rates of Hg methylation in culture and its metabolic similarity to the lost strain D. desulfuricans LS, the only organism for which methylation pathways have been partially defined. Strain ND132 is an incomplete oxidizer of short-chain fatty acids. It is capable of respiratory growth using fumarate as an electron acceptor, supporting growth without sulfide production. We used enriched stable Hg isotopes to show that ND132 simultaneously produces and degrades methylmercury (MeHg) during growth but does not produce elemental Hg. MeHg produced by cells is mainly excreted, and no MeHg is produced in spent medium. Mass balances for Hg and MeHg during the growth of cultures, including the distribution between filterable and particulate phases, illustrate how medium chemistry and growth phase dramatically affect Hg solubility and availability for methylation. The available information on Hg methylation among strains in the genus Desulfovibrio is summarized, and we present methylation rates for several previously untested species. About 50% of Desulfovibrio strains tested to date have the ability to produce MeHg. Importantly, the ability to produce MeHg is constitutive and does not confer Hg resistance. A 16S rRNA-based alignment of the genus Desulfovibrio allows the very preliminary assessment that there may be some evolutionary basis for the ability to produce MeHg within this genus.

Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Kucken, Amy M.; Brown, Steven D.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Wall, Judy D.

2011-01-01

370

Methylmercury Decomposition in Sediments and Bacterial Cultures: Involvement of Methanogens and Sulfate Reducers in Oxidative Demethylation  

PubMed Central

Demethylation of monomethylmercury in freshwater and estuarine sediments and in bacterial cultures was investigated with 14CH3HgI. Under anaerobiosis, results with inhibitors indicated partial involvement of both sulfate reducers and methanogens, the former dominating estuarine sediments, while both were active in freshwaters. Aerobes were the most significant demethylators in estuarine sediments, but were unimportant in freshwater sediments. Products of anaerobic demethylation were mainly 14CO2 as well as lesser amounts of 14CH4. Acetogenic activity resulted in fixation of some 14CO2 produced from 14CH3HgI into acetate. Aerobic demethylation in estuarine sediments produced only 14CH4, while aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments produced small amounts of both 14CH4 and 14CO2. Two species of Desulfovibrio produced only traces of 14CH4 from 14CH3HgI, while a culture of a methylotrophic methanogen formed traces of 14CO2 and 14CH4 when grown on trimethylamine in the presence of the 14CH3HgI. These results indicate that both aerobes and anaerobes demethylate mercury in sediments, but that either group may dominate in a particular sediment type. Aerobic demethylation in the estuarine sediments appeared to proceed by the previously characterized organomercurial-lyase pathway, because methane was the sole product. However, aerobic demethylation in freshwater sediments as well as anaerobic demethylation in all sediments studied produced primarily carbon dioxide. This indicates the presence of an oxidative pathway, possibly one in which methylmercury serves as an analog of one-carbon substrates.

Oremland, Ronald S.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Winfrey, Michael R.

1991-01-01

371

Subendothelial retention of lipoprotein (a). Evidence that reduced heparan sulfate promotes lipoprotein binding to subendothelial matrix.  

PubMed Central

Vessel wall subendothelial extracellular matrix, a dense mesh formed of collagens, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans, has important roles in lipid and lipoprotein retention and cell adhesion. In atherosclerosis, vessel wall heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are decreased and we therefore tested whether selective loss of HSPG affects lipoprotein retention. A matrix synthesized by aortic endothelial cells and a commercially available matrix (Matrigel; , Rutherford, NJ) were used. Treatment of matrix with heparinase/heparitinase (1 U/ml each) increased LDL binding by approximately 1.5-fold. Binding of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] to both subendothelial matrix and Matrigel(R) increased 2-10-fold when the HSPG were removed by heparinase treatment. Incubation of endothelial cells with oxidized LDL (OxLDL) or lysolecithin resulted in decreased matrix proteoglycans and increased Lp(a) retention by matrix. The effect of OxLDL or lysolecithin on endothelial PG was abolished in the presence of HDL. The decrease in matrix HSPG was associated with production of a heparanase-like activity by OxLDL-stimulated endothelial cells. To test whether removal of HSPG exposes fibronectin, a candidate Lp(a) binding protein in the matrix, antifibronectin antibodies were used. The increased Lp(a) binding after HSPG removal was inhibited 60% by antifibronectin antibodies. Similarly, the increased Lp(a) binding to matrix from OxLDL-treated endothelial cells was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. We hypothesize that atherogenic lipoproteins stimulate endothelial cell production of heparanase. This enzyme reduces HSPG which in turn promotes Lp(a) retention.

Pillarisetti, S; Paka, L; Obunike, J C; Berglund, L; Goldberg, I J

1997-01-01

372

Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

2000-02-01

373

Effect of sulphate-reducing bacteria on electro-chemical corrosion behavior of 16Mn steel in sea mud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on electrochemical corrosion behavior of 16Mn steel, and galvanic corrosion behavior of the steels in the juncture area between bacterial and bacteria-free sea mud was studied in laboratory under simulated conditions. Sea mud dense with SRB was taken from the Qingdao beach. Part of the sea mud was sterilized and the rest was kept in the original condition. The sterilized and original sea mud was put respectively into two plastic testing troughs electrically-connected by an agar potassium chloride salt bridge. Galvanic and non-galvanic 16Mn steel samples were put into the trough at the same intervals. The SRB number measured by the MPN tri-tube method was about 2.4×105 per 100 g mud and was kept basically the same during the experimental period. The p, pH, eH, T, S (salinity) were measured simultaneously. The galvanic current was measured with zero-resistance galvanometer and the corrosion rate was measured with the weight loss method. The results showed that (1) the corrosion rate of 16Mn steel in bacterial sea mud was 4.0 times that in bacteria-free sea mud; (2) galvanic corrosion occurs between steel samples buried in different (bacterial and bacteriafree) sea mud. The steel sample in the bacterial sea mud was the anode of a galvanic couple and had higher corrosion rate than that of the non-galvanic sample. The existence of the galvanic couple increased the corrosion rate of the sample in bacterial sea mud by 4.1%.

Zhang, Jing-Lei; Hou, Bao-Rong; Guo, Gong-Yu; Sun, Hu-Yuan; Xu, Yan

2001-03-01

374

Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in deeply buried sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that microorganisms are catalyzing the ongoing reduction of Fe(III) in the sediments of deep (20-250 m) aquifers was investigated. Acetate-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were recovered from deep subsurface sediments, but only from sediments in which it appeared that Fe(III) reduction was the terminal electron-accepting process for oxidation of organic matter. The Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms were capable of reducing ferric oxides

Derek R. Lovley; E. J. P. Phillips; F. H. Chapelle

1990-01-01

375

Hydrocarbon activation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions proceeds by different mechanisms.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial degradation of alkanes typically involves their conversion to fatty acids which are then catabolised by beta-oxidation. The critical step in this process is activation of the hydrocarbon. Under oxic conditions this is catalyzed by monooxygenase enzymes with the formation of long chain alcohols. In the absence of oxygen alternative alkane activation mechanisms have been observed or proposed. Fumarate addition to alkanes to form alkyl succinates is considered a central process in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Comparative studies of crude oil degradation under sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions revealed distinctive patterns of compound class removal and metabolite formation. Alkyl succinates derived from C7 to C26 n-alkanes and branched chain alkanes were found in abundance in sulfate-reducing systems but these were not detected during methanogenic crude oil degradation. Only one other mechanism of alkane activation has been elucidated to date. This involves addition of carbon derived from bicarbonate/CO2 to C-3 of an alkane chain to form a 2-ethylalkane with subsequent removal of the ethyl group leading to the formation of a fatty acid 1 carbon shorter than the original alkane. 2-ethylalkanes have never been detected as metabolites of anaerobic alkane degradation and were not detected in crude oil-degrading methanogenic systems. Due to the range of alkanes present in crude oil it was not possible to infer the generation of C-odd acids from C-even alkanes which is characteristic of the C-3 carboxylation mechanism. Furthermore genes homologous to alkysuccinate synthetases were not detected in the methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading community by pyrosequencing of total DNA extracted from methanogenic enrichments cultures. beta-oxidation genes were detected and intriguingly, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were present. This offers the possibility that alkane activation in the methanogenic system does not proceed via acid metabolites, but may be initiated by an anaerobic hydroxylation reaction. This is not unprecedented and hydroxylation of ethylbenzene has been demonstrated. However the C-H bond dissociation energy of alkanes is typically considered too high to readily permit alkane hydroxylation. It is however clear that alkane activation in these methanogenic crude oil-degrading systems involves mechanisms other than the well-known fumarate-addition reactions.

Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

2010-05-01

376

Homology Modeling of Dissimilatory APS Reductases (AprBA) of Sulfur-Oxidizing and Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background The dissimilatory adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers) catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP); in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8–99.3% and 89.5–96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 Å with respect to the template structures). Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1) SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2) crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3) SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I) and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. Conclusions Based on the comparative models, there are no significant structural differences between dissimilatory APS reductases from SRP and SOB; this might be indicative for a similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation.

Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

2008-01-01

377

Gene Expression by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Grown on an Iron Electrode under Cathodic Protection Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sequence of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was reanalyzed to design unique 70-mer oligonucleotide probes against 2,824 probable protein-coding regions. These included three genes not previously annotated, including one that encodes a c-type cytochrome. Using microarrays printed with these 70-mer probes, we analyzed the gene expression profile of wild-type D. vulgaris grown on cathodic hydrogen, generated at

Sean M. Caffrey; Hyung Soo Park; Jenny Been; Paul Gordon; Christoph W. Sensen; Gerrit Voordouw

2008-01-01

378

Characterization of a Sulfate- and U(VI)-Reducing Enrichment from Area 3 of the Oak Ridge Field Research Center  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a sulfate-reducing enrichment from the location of the Oak Ridge FRC Area 3 field experiment; (2) assess the capacity of the enrichment community for U(VI) reduction; (3) characterize the metabolic activity of the enrichment community; (4) kinetically model microbial growth and U(VI) reduction by the enrichment; and (5) investigate the enrichment's community structure.

Nyman, Jennifer L.; Gentile, Margaret; Criddle, Craig

2005-04-18

379

Isolation and characterization of a new spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacterium growing by complete oxidation of catechol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Groll, was isolated from a benzoate enrichment culture inoculated with black mud from a freshwater ditch. The isolate was a spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, gram-positive bacterium. This isolate was able of complete oxidation of several aromatic compounds including phenol, catechol, benzoate, p-and m-cresol, benzyl alcohol and vanillate. With hydrogen and carbon dioxide, formate or O-methylated

Jan Kuever; Juergen Kulmer; Sigrid Jannsen; Ulrich Fischer; Karl-Heinz Blotevogel

1993-01-01

380

The perioperative infusion of low doses of magnesium sulfate reduces analgesic requirements in patients undergoing abdominal hernioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium sulfate, which is an antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and a physiological calcium channel blocker, has analgesic properties in a number of acute and chronic pain conditions. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether intravenous administration of low doses of magnesium during anaesthesia would reduce analgesic requirements intraoperatively and in the early postoperative period.In a prospective,

Panorea D. Mavrommati; Zoe T. Gabopoulou; Charalambos N. Papadimos; Mathews G. Petsikopoulos; Vassiliki A. Vrettou; Marianthi G. Konstantinidou; Kyriaki G. Velmachou

2004-01-01

381

Comparison of reduced volume versus four liters sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solutions for colonoscopy colon cleansing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:In an attempt to improve patient tolerance for colonoscopy cleansing, a reduced volume lavage regimen with 2 L sulfate-free electrolyte lavage solution (SF-ELS, NuLYTELY, Braintree Laboratories, Braintree, MA) plus 20 mg p.o. bisacodyl (Half Lytely, Braintree Laboratories) was compared with standard 4 L SF-ELS lavage for safety and efficacy.METHODS:At two centers, 200 patients undergoing colonoscopy for routine indications were randomized

Jack A. DiPalma; Bruce G. Wolff; Alan Meagher; Mark v B. Cleveland

2003-01-01

382

Note: Desulfovibrio aespoeensis sp. nov., a mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from deep groundwater at aspo hard rock laboratory, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

BOX 462,s-405 30 A sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain Aspo-2, was isolated from granitic groundwater sampled at a depth of 600 m. This and other strains of SRB frequently occur in the deep granitic rock aquifers studied. On the basis of its morphological, physiological and genotypical properties, and its unique habitat, we propose strain Aspo-2 as a new species of the genus

Mehrdad Motamedi; Karsten Pedersen

1998-01-01

383

Desulfotomaculum carboxydivorans sp.nov., a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of growth at 100% CO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moderately thermophilic, anaerobic, chemolithoheterotrophic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain CO-1-SRBT, was isolated from sludge from an anaerobic bioreactor treating paper mill wastewater. Cells were Gram-positive, motile, spore-forming rods. The temperature range for growth was 30¿68 °C, with an optimum at 55 °C. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0¿17 g l¿1; there was no change in growth rate until the

Sofiya N. Parshina; Jan Sipma; Yutaka Nakashimada; Anne Meint Henstra; Hauke Smidt; Anatoly M. Lysenko; Piet N. L. Lens; Gatze Lettinga; Alfons J. M. Stams

2005-01-01

384

Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 106 acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm?3 in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments.

Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

2012-01-01

385

Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 10(6) acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm(-3) in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments. PMID:22572639

Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

2012-05-10

386

Biological reduction of Np(V) and Np(V) citrate by metal-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Oxidized actinide species are often more mobile than reduced forms. Bioremediation strategies have been developed to exploit this chemistry and stabilize actinides in subsurface environments. We investigated the ability of metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens and Shewanella oneidensis to enzymatically reduce Np(V) and Np(V) citrate, as well as the toxicity of Np(V) to these organisms. A toxic effect was observed for both bacteria at concentrations of > or = 4.0 mM Np(V) citrate. Below 2.0 mM Np(V) citrate, no toxic effect was observed and both Fe(III) and Np(V) were reduced. Cell suspensions of S. oneidensis were able to enzymatically reduce unchelated Np(V) to insoluble Np(IV)(s), but cell suspensions of G. metallireducens were unable to reduce Np(V). The addition of citrate enhanced the Np(V) reduction rate by S. oneidensisand enabled Np(V) reduction by G. metallireducens. The reduced form of neptunium remained soluble, presumably as a polycitrate complex. Growth was not observed for either organism when Np(V) or Np(V) citrate was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor. Our results show that bacteria can enzymatically reduce Np(V) and Np(V) citrate, but that the immobilization of Np(IV) may be dependent on the abundance of complexing ligands. PMID:17533836

Icopini, Gary A; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Neu, Mary P

2007-04-15

387

Composition, Reactivity, and Regulations of Extracellular Metal-Reducing Structures (Bacterial Nanowires) Produced by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

This research proposal seeks to describe the composition and function of electrically conductive appendages known as bacterial nanowires. This project targets bacterial nanowires produced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria Shewanella and Geobacter. Specifically, this project will investigate the role of these structures in the reductive transformation of iron oxides as solid phase electron acceptors, as well as uranium as a dissolved electron acceptor that forms nanocrystalline particles of uraninite upon reduction.

Scholten, Johannes

2006-06-01

388

Biodegradation of an alicyclic hydrocarbon by a sulfate-reducing enrichment from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

We used ethylcyclopentane (ECP) as a model alicyclic hydrocarbon and investigated its metabolism by a sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichment obtained from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer. The enrichment coupled the consumption of ECP with the stoichiometrically expected amount of sulfate reduced. During ECP biodegradation, we observed the transient accumulation of metabolite peaks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, three of which had identical mass spectrometry profiles. Mass-spectral similarities to analogous authentic standards allowed us to identify these metabolites as ethylcyclopentylsuccinic acids, ethylcyclopentylpropionic acid, ethylcyclopentylcarboxylic acid, and ethylsuccinic acid. Based on these findings, we propose a pathway for the degradation of this alicyclic hydrocarbon. Furthermore, a putative metabolite similar to ethylcyclopentylsuccinic acid was also found in samples of contaminated groundwater from the aquifer. However, no such finding was evident for samples collected from wells located upgradient of the gas condensate spill. Microbial community analysis of the ECP-degrading enrichment by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least three different organisms using universal eubacterial primers targeting 550 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on sequence analysis, these organisms are phylogenetically related to the genera Syntrophobacter and Desulfotomaculum as well as a member of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group. The evidence suggests that alicyclic hydrocarbons such as ECP can be anaerobically activated by the addition to the double bond of fumarate to form alkylsuccinate derivatives under sulfate-reducing conditions and that the reaction occurs in the laboratory and in hydrocarbon-impacted environments. PMID:12514025

Rios-Hernandez, Luis A; Gieg, Lisa M; Suflita, Joseph M

2003-01-01

389

Fast start-up and stable performance coupled to sulfate reduction in the nitrobenzene bio-reduction system and its microbial community.  

PubMed

Three laboratory-scale sequence batch reactors were set up in this study. It was found that a successfully established sulfate-reducing system - operating at COD/SO42- ratio of 5.0 - could speed up the start-up process, leading to a high performance. It took about 100 and 60 days, respectively, for a non-sulfate-reducing system and a sulfate-reducing control system to achieve stable and high removal of NB. However, it maintained a complete NB removal in sulfate-reducing system throughout the study. Rapid and stable NB reduction was coupled to the on-going sulfate reducing process. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile demonstrated that the predominant bacterial groups in the non-sulfate-reducing system and the sulfate-reducing control system were affiliated to Deltaproteobacterium and Acinetobacter, while in the sulfate-reducing system were sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:22487131

Huang, Jingang; Wen, Yue; Ding, Ning; Xu, Yue; Zhou, Qi

2012-03-23

390

Reduced aflatoxicosis in livers of hamsters fed a manganese sulfate supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male, weanling Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were given (for 10 weeks) diets supplemented with manganese sulfate, aflatoxin, or a combination of both. All animals were killed and a histopathologic evaluation was performed on each liver to assess the influence of a manganese?supplemented diet on aflatoxicosis. Serum cholesterol and liver glycogen levels were also analyzed to further study the interaction of

Charles E. Hastings Jr; Gerald C. Llewellyn

1987-01-01

391

Anaerobic Transformation of Alkanes to Fatty Acids by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Strain Hxd3  

PubMed Central

Strain Hxd3, an alkane-degrading sulfate reducer previously isolated and described by Aeckersberg et al. (F. Aeckersberg, F. Bak, and F. Widdel, Arch. Microbiol. 156:5-14, 1991), was studied for its alkane degradation mechanism by using deuterium and 13C-labeled compounds. Deuterated fatty acids with even numbers of C atoms (C-even) and 13C-labeled fatty acids with odd numbers of C atoms (C-odd) were recovered from cultures of Hxd3 grown on perdeuterated pentadecane and [1,2-13C2]hexadecane, respectively, underscoring evidence that C-odd alkanes are transformed to C-even fatty acids and vice versa. When Hxd3 was grown on unlabeled hexadecane in the presence of [13C]bicarbonate, the resulting 15:0 fatty acid, which was one carbon shorter than the alkane, incorporated a 13C label to form its carboxyl group. The same results were observed when tetradecane, pentadecane, and perdeuterated pentadecane were used as the substrates. These observations indicate that the initial attack of alkanes includes both carboxylation with inorganic bicarbonate and the removal of two carbon atoms from the alkane chain terminus, resulting in a fatty acid one carbon shorter than the original alkane. The removal of two terminal carbon atoms is further evidenced by the observation that the [1,2-13C2]hexadecane-derived fatty acids contained either two 13C labels located exclusively at their acyl chain termini or none at all. Furthermore, when perdeuterated pentadecane was used as the substrate, the 14:0 and 16:0 fatty acids formed both carried the same numbers of deuterium labels, while the latter was not deuterated at its carboxyl end. These observations provide further evidence that the 14:0 fatty acid was initially formed from perdeuterated pentadecane, while the 16:0 fatty acid was produced after chain elongation of the former fatty acid with nondeuterated carbon atoms. We propose that strain Hxd3 anaerobically transforms an alkane to a fatty acid through a mechanism which includes subterminal carboxylation at the C-3 position of the alkane and elimination of the two adjacent terminal carbon atoms.

So, Chi Ming; Phelps, Craig D.; Young, L. Y.

2003-01-01

392

Effect of uranium (VI) on two sulphate-reducing bacteria cultures from a uranium mine site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was conducted to assess the impact of uranium (VI) on sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) communities obtained from environmental samples collected on the Portuguese uranium mining area of Urgeiriça. Culture U was obtained from a sediment, while culture W was obtained from sludge from the wetland of that mine. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was used to monitor community changes

Mónica Martins; Maria Leonor Faleiro; Sandra Chaves; Rogério Tenreiro; Maria Clara Costa

2010-01-01

393

Microplate screening assay for the detection of arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient, inexpensive microplate colorimetric assay for screening of bacteria which can be used in bioremediation of arsenic was developed. The assay is based on the colorimetric analysis of the precipitates formed upon reaction of silver nitrate with arsenic. The method proved reliable and sensitive for the detection of As[III] oxidizers and As[V] reducers and can be used over a

Diliana D. Simeonova; Didier Lièvremont; Florence Lagarde; Daniel A. E. Muller; Veneta I. Groudeva; Marie-Claire Lett

2004-01-01

394

High abundance and diversity of iron-reducing bacteria in wet tropical forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wet tropical forests, warm and damp conditions promote rapid oxygen consumption in soils that contain high concentrations of iron oxides. Ferric iron is often the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for bacteria in soil during frequent periods of oxygen depletion. Highly-weathered soils of the wet tropics are likely to support large populations of Fe(III) reducing microorganisms whose activity is

E. A. Dubinsky; E. L. Brodie; G. L. Andersen; W. L. Silver; M. K. Firestone

2005-01-01

395

Advances In Biotreatment of Acid Mine Drainage and Biorecovery of Metals: 2. Membrane Bioreactor System for Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte,

Henry H. Tabak; Rakesh Govind

2003-01-01

396

Electric current generation by sulfur-reducing bacteria in microbial-anode fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur - reducing bacteria are a part of normal microflora of natural environment. Their main function is supporting of reductive stage of sulfur cycle by hydrogen sulfide production in the process of dissimilative sulfur-reduction. At the same time these bacteria completely oxidize organic compounds with CO2 and H2O formation. It was shown that they are able to generate electric current in the two chamber microbial-anode fuel cell (MAFC) by interaction between these two processes. Microbial-anode fuel cell on the basis of sulfur- and ferric iron-reducing Desulfuromonas acetoxidans bacteria has been constructed. It has been shown that the amount of electricity generation by investigated bacteria is influenced by the concentrations of carbon source (lactate) and ferric iron chloride. The maximal obtained electric current and potential difference between electrodes equaled respectively 0.28-0.29 mA and 0.19-0.2 V per 0.3 l of bacterial suspension with 0.4 g/l of initial biomass that was grown under the influence of 0.45 mM of FeCl3 and 3 g/l of sodium lactate as primal carbon source. It has also been shown that these bacteria are resistant to different concentrations of silver ions.

Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

2012-10-01

397

Plutonium(V\\/VI) Reduction by the Metal-Reducing Bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the ability of the metal-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to reduce Pu(VI) and Pu(V). Cell suspensions of both bacteria reduced oxidized Pu (a mixture of Pu(VI) and Pu(V)) to Pu(IV). The rate of plutonium reduction was similar to the rate of U(VI) reduction obtained under similar conditions for each bacteria. The rates of Pu(VI)

Gary A. Icopini; Joe G. Lack; Larry E. Hersman; Mary P. Neu; Hakim Boukhalfa

2009-01-01

398

Isolation and characterization of sulphate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris from Vajreshwari thermal springs in Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the thermal springs of Vajreshwari were investigated with combined microbiological and\\u000a molecular approaches. A sulphate-reducing bacteria medium containing lactate was used for enrichment and isolation, which\\u000a yielded Gram negative, rod shaped, anaerobic, non-spore forming and motile bacteria capable of reducing sulphate to sulphide.\\u000a These grew at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 °C and could use pyruvate,

Jeffy George; C. S. Purushothaman; Yogesh S. Shouche

2008-01-01

399

Characterization and reactivity assessment of organic substrates for sulphate-reducing bacteria in acid mine drainage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD), which contains high concentrations of sulphate and dissolved metals, is a serious environmental problem. It can be treated in situ by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), but effectiveness of the treatment process depends on the organic substrate chosen to supply the bacteria’s carbon source. Six natural organic materials were characterized in order to investigate how well these

Gerald J. Zagury; Viktors I. Kulnieks; Carmen M. Neculita

2006-01-01

400

Toward a rigorous network of protein-protein interactions of the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough  

SciTech Connect

Protein–protein interactions offer an insight into cellular processes beyond what may be obtained by the quantitative functional genomics tools of proteomics and transcriptomics. The aforementioned tools have been extensively applied to study E. coli and other aerobes and more recently to study the stress response behavior of Desulfovibrio 5 vulgaris Hildenborough, a model anaerobe and sulfate reducer. In this paper we present the first attempt to identify protein-protein interactions in an obligate anaerobic bacterium. We used suicide vector-assisted chromosomal modification of 12 open reading frames encoded by this sulfate reducer to append an eight amino acid affinity tag to the carboxy-terminus of the chosen proteins. Three biological replicates of the 10 ‘pulled-down’ proteins were separated and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Replicate agreement ranged between 35% and 69%. An interaction network among 12 bait and 90 prey proteins was reconstructed based on 134 bait-prey interactions computationally identified to be of high confidence. We discuss the biological significance of several unique metabolic features of D. vulgaris revealed by this protein-protein interaction data 15 and protein modifications that were observed. These include the distinct role of the putative carbon monoxide-induced hydrogenase, unique electron transfer routes associated with different oxidoreductases, and the possible role of methylation in regulating sulfate reduction.

Chhabra, S.R.; Joachimiak, M.P.; Petzold, C.J.; Zane, G.M.; Price, M.N.; Gaucher, S.; Reveco, S.A.; Fok, V.; Johanson, A.R.; Batth, T.S.; Singer, M.; Chandonia, J.M.; Joyner, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Singh, A.K.; Keasling, J.D.

2011-05-01