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Sample records for sulfated polysaccharide inhibits

  1. Preparation and evaluation of polysaccharide sulfates for inhibiting Helicobacter pylori adhesion.

    PubMed

    Song, Weijuan; Wang, Yalong; Zhang, Liyan; Fu, Shengnan; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-03-15

    In treatments of Helicobacter pylori infections, recrudescences were common because of an unfavorable bacterial eradication rate due to the ever increasing resistance to antibiotics. In this study, we chose pectin, guar gum and chitosan to synthesize their sulfates to inhibit adhesions of H. pylori and thus enhance the eradication rate. The introduction of sulfates was characterized using FT-IR and elemental analysis. Data from zeta-potential, hydrodynamic diameter, hydrolysis and rheological property demonstrated the sulfates were physicochemically stable. Inhibition assay of hemagglutination and adhesion indicated sulfates prevented H. pylori from adhering to erythrocytes and AGS cells. In binding assay, affinities of sulfates to H. pylori suggested sulfates could compete with target cells for bacteria and moderated the bacterial adhesion to hosts. A higher content of galactoses and 2,3-O-linked sulfates benefited this action. Thus polysaccharide sulfates can serve as potential adjuvants to raise the bacterial eradication rate by inhibiting adhesions of H. pylori. PMID:24528746

  2. Inhibition activity of sulfated polysaccharide of Sepiella maindroni ink on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Subo; Cheng, Yanna; Wang, Fengshan; Sun, Lirui; Liu, Chunhui; Chen, Guanjun; Li, Yuhua; Ward, S G; Qu, Xianjun

    2008-06-01

    SIP-SII is the sulfated S. maindroni ink polysaccharide (SIP) isolated from cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni. SIP-SII weakly inhibited tumor cell growth without cytotoxicity in vitro assay. Herein, we examined the effects of SIP-SII on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as tumor cell invasion and migration. SIP-SII (0.8-500 microg/ml) significantly decreased the expression of MMP-2 activity in human ovarian carcinoma cells SKOV3 as evidenced by the gelatin zymography analysis. No significant decrease of MMP-9 was detected in the cell line after SIP-SII treatment. The expression of MMP-2 was also evaluated using Western blot analysis. The results showed that SIP-SII inhibited the expression of MMP-2 in SKOV3 and human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells ECV304 after 24 h incubation. Furthermore, the activity of invasion and migration of SKOV3 and ECV304 cells were measured. SIP-SII displayed an inhibitory effect on the penetration of SKOV3 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane in transwell chamber. A significant inhibition of ECV304 cell migration was observed in the presence of SIP-SII. These results suggest that SIP-SII might suppress invasion and migration of carcinoma cells via inhibition of MMP-2 proteolytic activity. PMID:18406565

  3. A sulfated polysaccharide of Ecklonia cava inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, WonWon; Kim, Kil-Nam; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kang, Nalae; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anticancer effects of the crude polysaccharides (CPs) isolated from Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts using AMG, Viscozyme, Protamex, and Alcalase enzyme against a colon cancer cell line, CT26 cells. Among them, the CP of Protamex extract (PCP) contained the highest fucose and sulfated group contents and showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT-26 cells. In addition, PCP dose-dependently increased the formation of apoptotic body and the percentage of Sub-G1 DNA contents. Also, PCP activated caspase 9 and PARP as regulating the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. Moreover, PPP2, a fraction purified from PCP showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT 26 cells with the increased fucose and sulfated group contents. The results demonstrate that the isolated SP containing plentiful fucose and sulfated group contents has the anticancer effect on colon cancer cells via regulation of Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway. PMID:26417363

  4. A sulfated polysaccharide of Ecklonia cava inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, WonWon; Kim, Kil-Nam; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kang, Nalae; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anticancer effects of the crude polysaccharides (CPs) isolated from Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts using AMG, Viscozyme, Protamex, and Alcalase enzyme against a colon cancer cell line, CT26 cells. Among them, the CP of Protamex extract (PCP) contained the highest fucose and sulfated group contents and showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT-26 cells. In addition, PCP dose-dependently increased the formation of apoptotic body and the percentage of Sub-G1 DNA contents. Also, PCP activated caspase 9 and PARP as regulating the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. Moreover, PPP2, a fraction purified from PCP showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT 26 cells with the increased fucose and sulfated group contents. The results demonstrate that the isolated SP containing plentiful fucose and sulfated group contents has the anticancer effect on colon cancer cells via regulation of Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway. PMID:26417363

  5. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and semaphorin3A

    PubMed Central

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization, which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and fucoidan, but not others, reduce endothelial cell-surface levels of NRP1, NRP2, and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and block the binding and in vitro function of semaphorin3A and VEGF165. Administration of fucoidan to mice reduces VEGF165-induced angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization in vivo. We find that dextran sulfate and fucoidan can bridge the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of the scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), and induce NRP1 and SREC-I coordinate internalization and trafficking to the lysosomes. Overexpression of SREC-I in SREC-I–negative cells specifically reduces cell-surface levels of NRP1, indicating that SREC-I mediates NRP1 internalization. These results demonstrate that engineered receptor internalization is an effective strategy for reducing levels and function of cell-surface receptors, and identify certain sulfated polysaccharides as “internalization inducers.” PMID:18272814

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and semaphorin3A.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta; Tosato, Giovanna

    2008-04-15

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization, which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and fucoidan, but not others, reduce endothelial cell-surface levels of NRP1, NRP2, and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and block the binding and in vitro function of semaphorin3A and VEGF(165). Administration of fucoidan to mice reduces VEGF(165)-induced angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization in vivo. We find that dextran sulfate and fucoidan can bridge the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of the scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), and induce NRP1 and SREC-I coordinate internalization and trafficking to the lysosomes. Overexpression of SREC-I in SREC-I-negative cells specifically reduces cell-surface levels of NRP1, indicating that SREC-I mediates NRP1 internalization. These results demonstrate that engineered receptor internalization is an effective strategy for reducing levels and function of cell-surface receptors, and identify certain sulfated polysaccharides as "internalization inducers." PMID:18272814

  7. WSS25, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits RANKL-induced mouse osteoclast formation by blocking SMAD/ID1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Qin, Yi; Fang, Jian-ping; Ni, Xin-yan; Yao, Jian; Wang, Hai-ying; Ding, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: WSS25 is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata BI, which has been found to bind to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in hepatocellular cancer cells. Since BMP-2 may regulate both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, here we investigated the effects of WSS25 on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Methods: RAW264.7 cells or mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were treated with RANKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, which was assessed using TRAP staining, actin ring formation and pit formation assays, as well as bone resorption assay. Cell viability was detected with MTT assay. The mRNA levels of osteoclastogenesis-related genetic markers (TRAP, NFATc1, MMP-9 and cathepsin K) were detected using RT-PCR, while the protein levels of p-Smad1/5/8 and Id1 were measure with Western blotting. WSS25 was administered to ovariectomized mice (100 mg·kg?1·d?1, po) for 3 months. After the mice were euthanized, total bone mineral density and cortical bone density were measured. Results: In RAW264.7 cells and BMMs, WSS25 (2.5, 5, 10 ?g/mL) did not affect the cell viability, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, WSS25 potently suppressed RANKL-induced expression of TRAP, NFATc1, MMP-9 and cathepsin K in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with RANKL increased BMP-2 expression, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id1 expression, which triggered osteoclast differentiation, whereas co-treatment with WSS25 or the endogenous BMP-2 antagonist noggin suppressed the BMP-2/Smad/Id1 signaling pathway. In RAW264.7 cells, knockdown of Id1 attenuated RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, which was partially rescued by Id1 overexpression. In conformity to the in vitro experiments, chronic administration of WSS25 significantly reduced the bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Conclusion: WSS25 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 cells and BMMs by blocking the BMP-2/Smad/Id1 signaling pathway. WSS25 administration reduces bone loss in ovariectomized mice, suggesting that it may be a promising therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. PMID:26299951

  8. Sulfated Polysaccharide Isolated from the Sea Cucumber Stichopus japonicus Against PC12 Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Inhibition of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Cui, Ningshan; Wang, Peng; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2015-11-01

    In this report, the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus can protect PC12 from Na2S2O4-induced hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. SJP effectively improves cell viability and reduces extracellular LDH release in PC12 cells after H/R. Moreover, SJP significantly increases SOD activity but decreases MDA levels. Our experiments showed that SJP could significantly reduce cell apoptosis caused by H/R. Our current results demonstrate that SJP suppressed the activation of MAPKs, resulting in a significant decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3, p53 phosphorylation, and cytochrome c release in a concentration-dependent manner. MAPK is closely related to H/R injury. SJP inhibited JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation but did not affect the increased ERK1/2 expression. These results suggested that JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways could be involved in SJP-mediated attenuation of PC12 H/R injury. SJP prevented PC12 H/R injury in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that SJP may be developed as a candidate drug to prevent or treat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25952102

  9. Solomonseal Polysaccharide and Sulfated Codonopsis pilosula Polysaccharide Synergistically Resist Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Cunshuai; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    Five combinations of three ratios (PS9-sPS1, PS7-sPS3 and PS6-sPS4) were prepared with polysaccharide (PS) and sulfated polysaccharide (sPS). The antiviral activities of these compounds were subsequently compared in vitro using the MTT assay, observation of the virus structure and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that SP9-sCP1, CP7-sCA3, EP7-sAP3, CA9-sEP1 and EP7-sCA3 presented higher activities, and SP9-sCP1 displayed the highest virus inhibition rate and clearly killed the virus and inhibited viral antigen expression. In an in vivo test, 28-day-old chickens were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and were administered the five drug combinations. On day 14 after the challenge, the morbidity, mortality and cure rate in each group were calculated. The results indicated that SP9-sCP1 presented the lowest morbidity and mortality and the highest cure rate. These results indicate that Solomonseal polysaccharide and sulfated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide synergistically resist NDV. Moreover, SP9-sCP1 had the highest efficacy and may be used as a new antiviral drug. PMID:25692886

  10. Solomonseal polysaccharide and sulfated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide synergistically resist Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Cunshuai; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    Five combinations of three ratios (PS9-sPS1, PS7-sPS3 and PS6-sPS4) were prepared with polysaccharide (PS) and sulfated polysaccharide (sPS). The antiviral activities of these compounds were subsequently compared in vitro using the MTT assay, observation of the virus structure and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that SP9-sCP1, CP7-sCA3, EP7-sAP3, CA9-sEP1 and EP7-sCA3 presented higher activities, and SP9-sCP1 displayed the highest virus inhibition rate and clearly killed the virus and inhibited viral antigen expression. In an in vivo test, 28-day-old chickens were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and were administered the five drug combinations. On day 14 after the challenge, the morbidity, mortality and cure rate in each group were calculated. The results indicated that SP9-sCP1 presented the lowest morbidity and mortality and the highest cure rate. These results indicate that Solomonseal polysaccharide and sulfated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide synergistically resist NDV. Moreover, SP9-sCP1 had the highest efficacy and may be used as a new antiviral drug. PMID:25692886

  11. Complexation of ?-lactoglobulin fibrils and sulfated polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jones, Owen G; Handschin, Stephan; Adamcik, Jozef; Harnau, Ludger; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2011-08-01

    Fibrils of ?-lactoglobulin, formed by heating at pH 2, were titrated with a sulfated polysaccharide (?-carrageenan) to determine the morphology and mechanism of complex formation at low pH. Structural information on the resultant complexes was gathered using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Doppler electrophoresis, and small-angle neutron scattering. Electrophoresis demonstrated that the carrageenan complexed with protein fibrils until reaching a maximum complexation efficiency at a protein/polysaccharide (r) weight ratio of 5:3. Neutron scattering and microscopy indicated an increasing formation of spherical aggregates attached along the protein fibrils with increases in the carrageenan concentration. These globular particles had an average diameter of 30 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering of these complexes could be accurately described by a form factor corresponding to multistranded twisted ribbons with spherical aggregates along their contour length, arranged in a necklace configuration. PMID:21699187

  12. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Characterization of chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xia; Wu, Fang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-11-20

    The biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides are related to the substitution positions of functional groups. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that SO(3-) group (S(6+), high binding energy of 168.7eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharides. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that C-2 and C-3 substitution was occurred but not fully sulfation. Meanwhile, C-6 substituted signals near 65ppm were not observed. The degree of substitution varied from 0.44 to 0.63 in SRSASP which could be attributed to the low reactivity at secondary hydroxyl. Monosaccharide composition result showed a decrease in the ratio of mannose/glucose, indicating the change of chemical composition in sulfated polysaccharides. In size-exclusion chromatograph analysis, a decrease in molecular weight and broadening of molecular weight distribution of sulfated polysaccharides was also observed. It could be attributed to the hydrolysis of polysaccharide in the sulfated reaction. PMID:26344287

  13. Sulfation of extracellular polysaccharides of red microalgae: preparation, characterization and properties.

    PubMed

    Geresh, Shimona; Mamontov, Anna; Weinstein, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Polysaccharides are natural polymers with a variety of properties that may be translated into significant commercial applications. A program of chemical modifications of the extracellular polysaccharides of red microalgae, such as Porphyridium sp. and Rhodella reticulata, has been undertaken by our group in order to tailor new properties and hence to broaden the spectrum of potential applications. These algal biopolymers are anionic in nature due to the presence of uronic acids (about 10%) and sulfate half esters (about 7%). In the current study, the sulfate content of these biopolymers was increased to 35-40% by means of sulfation agents such as pyridine SO(3), DMF.SO(3) and ClSO(3)H. Reaction conditions were optimized in a model system based on potato starch as the model polysaccharide (type of reagent, temperature and time of reaction). After work-up procedures, the highest sulfate content was obtained by sulfation of the polysaccharide of Porphyridium sp. with a mixture of ClSO(3)H and pyridine at 70 degrees C for 1 h. The sulfated products were characterized by chemical and rheological analyses, IR spectroscopy, and GPC-HPLC chromatography. "Oversulfated" polymers (having sulfate contents exceeding 20%) with high molecular weights were found to inhibit mammalian cell growth when used at certain concentrations; for example, over 80% inhibition was obtained when oversulfated polymers at a concentration of 200 microg/ml were tested on T-cell lymphoma line 24-1. These preliminary results indicate that the modified polysaccharides do indeed exhibit potential therapeutic properties. PMID:11741706

  14. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and ?-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients. PMID:25301697

  15. Sulfation patterns determine cellular internalization of heparin-like polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Mencio, Caitlin; Desai, Umesh R.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2013-01-01

    Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which serves biologically relevant roles as an anticoagulant and anti-cancer agent. While it is well known that modification of heparin’s sulfation pattern can drastically influence its ability to bind growth factors and other extracellular molecules, very little is known about the cellular uptake of heparin and the role sulfation patterns serve in affecting its internalization. In this study, we chemically synthesized several fluorescently-labeled heparins consisting of a variety of sulfation patterns. These polysaccharides were thoroughly characterized using anion exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Subsequently, we utilized flow cytometry and confocal imaging to show that sulfation patterns differentially affect the amount of heparin uptake in multiple cell types. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the effect of sulfation pattern on the cellular internalization of heparin or heparan sulfate like polysaccharides. The results of this study expand current knowledge regarding heparin internalization and provide insights into developing more effective heparin-based drug conjugates for applications in intracellular drug delivery. PMID:23398560

  16. Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed

    PubMed Central

    Ushakova, Natalia A.; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E.; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Bilan, Maria I.; Usov, Anatolii I.; Grachev, Alexey A.; Morozevich, Galina E.; Berman, Albert E.; Sanderson, Craig J.; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. PMID:21387013

  17. Medicinal benefits of sulfated polysaccharides from sea vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2011-01-01

    The cell walls of sea vegetables or marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit various biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, and anticancer activities with potential health benefits. Therefore, SPs derived from sea vegetables have great potential in further development as nutraceuticals and medicinal foods. This chapter presents an overview of biological activities and potential medicinal benefits of SPs derived from sea vegetables. PMID:22054963

  18. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2?8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  19. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}?8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  20. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. PMID:23994790

  1. A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua M.; Xia, Jiang; Zhuang, BinQuan; Cho, Kin-Sang; Rogers, Claude J.; Gama, Cristal I.; Rawat, Manish; Tully, Sarah E.; Uetani, Noriko; Mason, Daniel E.; Tremblay, Michel L.; Peters, Eric C.; Habuchi, Osami; Chen, Dong F.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major barrier to regenerating axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but the structural diversity of their polysaccharides has hampered efforts to dissect the structure-activity relationships underlying their physiological activity. By taking advantage of our ability to chemically synthesize specific oligosaccharides, we demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth. Removal of the CS-E motif significantly attenuates the inhibitory activity of CSPGs on axon growth. Furthermore, CS-E functions as a protein recognition element to engage receptors including the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP?, thereby triggering downstream pathways that inhibit axon growth. Finally, masking the CS-E motif using a CS-E-specific antibody reversed the inhibitory activity of CSPGs and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic strategies to regenerate axons after CNS injury. PMID:22411830

  2. Characterization and antiherpetic activity of native and chemically sulfated polysaccharide from Adenanthera pavonina.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Ananda M; Faccin-Galhardi, Ligia C; Lopes, Nayara; Nozawa, Carlos; de Almeida, Raimundo R; Ricardo, Nagila M P S; Linhares, Rosa E C

    2015-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a widespread human pathogen and for many reasons the development of anti-herpetic drugs from natural products has been encouraged. Adenanthera pavonina (Ap) is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, among other uses. Herein, a native Ap seed polysaccharide (PLSAp) and its chemically sulfated derivate (SPLSAp) were studied by Fourier transform IR spectra (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for molar mass determination and their intrinsic viscosity [?]. Biologically, the compounds were evaluated for anti-HSV activity, in HEp2 cell cultures. The cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) and the inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of the polysaccharides were determined by the colorimetric assay (dimethyl-thiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and plaque reduction assay (PRA), respectively. The SPLSAp showed a better antiviral activity when compared to the PLSAp with a CC(50) of 500 ?g/ml, the IC(50) equal to 15 ?g/ml and the selectivity index (SI) of 33.3. The time-of-addition and the time-of-removal assays demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity between 8-16h after the infection. The inhibition of viral DNA and protein syntheses by SPLSAp monitored by PCR and immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively, has also demonstrated. These findings demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited HSV-1 infection in different steps of the replication and, therefore, represents a valuable compound for preclinical studies in anti-herpetic therapy. PMID:26238681

  3. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  4. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    PubMed

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  5. Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Cloned Grateloupia filicina and Their Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Shengfeng; Wang, Jinxia; Song, Lin; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (GSP) were isolated from the cloned Grateloupia filicina which was cultured in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The yield of GSP was 15.75%. The total sugar and sulfate were 40.90 and 19.89%, respectively. And the average molecular weight was 11.7?KDa. The results of neutral sugar analysis showed that GSP was mainly sulfated polysaccharides of galactose. The experiments for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) anticoagulant assays in vitro indicated that GSP was a good potential anticoagulant. Therefore, this study supplied new thought for the cloned Grateloupia filicina exploitation of high-value products. PMID:25945340

  6. In vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities of different sulfated polysaccharides isolated from three algae.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Peilong

    2013-11-01

    Three sulfated polysaccharides(Ulva fasciata (UFP), Gloiopeltis furcata (GFP), Sargassum henslouianum (SHP))were isolated from three algae including green alga Ulva fasciata, red alga Gloiopeltis furcata and brown alga Sargassum henslouianum by ultrasonic extraction and radial flow chromatography. Their in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, UFP, with relatively lower sulfate content, exhibited excellent antioxidant activities in superoxide radical assay, ABTS assay and DPPH assay; however, it demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of MKN45 gastric cancer cells and DLD intestinal cancer cells. SHP with the lowest sulfate content gained relatively lower radical scavenging rates but showed significantly higher antitumor activities. These results indicated that the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides may be related to combined effects of sulfate content and uronic acid content. PMID:23994786

  7. Microwave assisted extraction of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from Ascophyllum nodosum and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan

    2015-09-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum were extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Different conditions of temperature (90-150°C), extraction time (5-30 min) were evaluated and optimal fucoidan yield was 16.08%, obtained from 120°C for 15 min's extraction. Compositional analysis, GPC, HPAEC and IR analysis were employed for characterization of extracted sulfated polysaccharides. Fucose was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 90°C while glucuronic acid was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 150°C. Both the molecular weight and sulfate content of extracted fucoidan increased with decreasing extraction temperature. All fucoidans exhibited antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH scavenging and reducing power, among which fucoidan extracted at 90°C was highest. This study shows that MAE is an efficient technology to extract sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed and Ascophyllum nodosum could potentially be a resource for natural antioxidants. PMID:26050894

  8. Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

  9. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    DOEpatents

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  10. Chemical Fucosylation of a Polysaccharide: A Semisynthetic Access to Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Laezza, Antonio; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Castro, Cristina De; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2015-07-13

    Chemical O-glycosylation of polysaccharides is an almost unexplored reaction. This is mainly due to the difficulties in derivatizing such complex biomacromolecules in a quantitative manner and with a fine control of the obtained structural parameters. In this work, chondroitin raw material from a microbial source was chemo- and regioselectively protected to give two polysaccharide intermediates, that acted in turn as glycosyl acceptors in fucosylation reactions. Further manipulations on the fucosylated polysaccharides, including multiple de-O-benzylation and sulfation, furnished for the first time nonanimal sourced fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs)-polysaccharides obtained so far exclusively from sea cucumbers (Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) and showing several very interesting biological activities. A semisynthetic fCS was characterized from a structural point of view by means of 2D-NMR techniques, and preliminarily assayed in an anticoagulant test. PMID:26083095

  11. Anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activities of sulfated polysaccharide of Sepiella maindroni ink.

    PubMed

    Zong, Aizhen; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Qu, Xianjun; Cao, Jichao; Wang, Fengshan

    2013-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that SIP-SII, a sulfated Sepiella maindroni ink polysaccharide, suppressed the invasion and migration of cancer cells via the inhibition of the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Therefore, this study investigated the anti-metastatic effect of SIP-SII in vivo. SIP-SII (15 and 30 mg/kg d) markedly decreased B16F10 pulmonary metastasis in mice models by 85.9% and 88.0%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that SIP-SII decreased the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in lung metastasis nodules. In addition, SIP-SII inhibited neovascularization in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay at 0.08-2 mg/mL. In the in vitro experiments, SIP-SII (0.8-500 ?g/mL) significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and bFGF in SKOV3 and EA.hy926 cells, respectively. These results suggested that SIP-SII might suppress melanoma metastasis via the inhibition of the tumor adhesion mediated by ICAM-1 and the angiogenesis mediated by bFGF, as well as resulting in depression of the invasion and migration of carcinoma cells. PMID:23044150

  12. A sulfated cyanobacterial polysaccharide proven as a strong inhibitor of human complement activity in an in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Daniela; Blaschek, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides are a rich source of, so far, widely unexplored polysaccharides. One of these exopolysaccharides is a highly sulfated, linear polysaccharide from Synechocystis aquatilis containing the amino sugar N-acetyl-fucosamine. Some sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans are known to be inhibitors of the human complement system, which is an important part of the innate immune system. Defects in this system or misregulation can cause serious diseases. Therefore, new compounds with complement inhibiting activity and simple test assays are of great interest. Exopolysaccharides from S. aquatilis (arabinofucans) were compared to those from Synechocystis pevalekii (complex heteropolysaccharides) and the well-known complement inhibitor heparin. Investigations were performed with a modified ELISA test system based on a commercially available test kit quantifying the membrane attack complex. Hereby the testing becomes more stable, robust, reproducible, easier to handle and, for the first time, the effect of exopolysaccharides and heparin on the lectin pathway could be tested. The exopolysaccharides from S. aquatilis could be shown to be a 30 times stronger inhibitor of the classical pathway of the complement system compared to heparin (IC50?=?0.3?µg/mL vs. 9.2?µg/mL). These exopolysaccharides are also inhibitors of the lectin pathway (IC50?=?10.8?µg/mL) in which, however, heparin is more potent (IC50?=?2.0?µg/mL). Interestingly, these exopolysaccharides do not inhibit the alternative pathway. The exopolysaccharides from S. pevalekii are inactive in all pathways. Furthermore, partially hydrolyzed and desulfated exopolysaccharides from S. aquatilis were tested showing that a minimum molecular size and degree of sulfation are important for the inhibitory effects, whereas unspecific influences by complex formation of exopolysaccharides with calcium could be excluded. PMID:25144674

  13. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Solution conformation and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Tang, YinYing; Xu, Qing; Huang, Shengli; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-20

    Regioselective modification is an effective approach to synthesize polysaccharides with different structure features and improved properties. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. The decrease in fractal dimension (df) values (1.56-2.04) of SRSASP was observed in size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Compared to sample substituted at C-6, SRSASP showed a more expanded conformation of random coil, which was attributed to the breakup of hydrogen bonds and elastic contributions. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the conformational transition and stiffness of the chains after sulfation. SRSASP exhibited enhanced antioxidant activities in the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Sulfation at C-2 or C-3 was favorable for the chelation which might prevent the generation of hydroxyl radicals. It concluded that the degree of substitution and substitution position were the factors influencing biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides. PMID:26572384

  14. Effect of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides and its sulfated derivatives on immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinghong; Zhang, Yuetian; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Zhao, Xingfang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Shu, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    One hundred mice were randomly divided into five groups. The mice in one group were injected with physiological saline as the normal control group. The mice in the other four groups were injected with physiological saline, sulfated Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (SCVP), Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide (CVP) and astragalus polysaccharide (AP) once daily for 7 d and then with cyclophosphamide (CY) in the last 3 d. The serum cytokine level, apoptosis protein expressions, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, changes in peripheral blood T-cell subsets, and immune organ index were then measured. Results showed that SCVP and CVP can overcome CY-induced immunosuppression by promoting spleen lymphocyte proliferation, raising serum IFN-? and IL-2 levels, enlarging immune organ indexes, and decreasing excessive apoptosis. Moreover, SCVP and CVP showed the potential to treat autoimmune diseases based on CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Results suggested that SCVP and CVP exhibited the potential to treat autoimmune and immunosuppression diseases. PMID:25785030

  15. Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. PMID:23507892

  16. Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

  17. A Direct Sulfation Process of a Marine Polysaccharide in Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Weiss, Pierre; Cérantola, Stéphane; Le Bideau, Jean

    2015-01-01

    GY785 is an exopolysaccharide produced by a mesophilic bacterial strain Alteromonas infernus discovered in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. GY785 highly sulfated derivative (GY785 DRS) was previously demonstrated to be a promising molecule driving the efficient mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage repair. This glycosaminoglycan- (GAG-) like compound was modified in a classical solvent (N,N?-dimethylformamide). However, the use of classical solvents limits the polysaccharide solubility and causes the backbone degradation. In the present study, a one-step efficient sulfation process devoid of side effects (e.g., polysaccharide depolymerization and/or degradation) was developed to produce GAG-like derivatives. The sulfation of GY785 derivative (GY785 DR) was carried out using ionic liquid as a reaction medium. The successful sulfation of this anionic and highly branched heteropolysaccharide performed in ionic liquid would facilitate the production of new molecules of high specificity for biological targets such as tissue engineering or regenerative medicine. PMID:26090416

  18. A Direct Sulfation Process of a Marine Polysaccharide in Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Nathalie; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Zykwinska, Agata; Weiss, Pierre; Cérantola, Stéphane; Le Bideau, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    GY785 is an exopolysaccharide produced by a mesophilic bacterial strain Alteromonas infernus discovered in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. GY785 highly sulfated derivative (GY785 DRS) was previously demonstrated to be a promising molecule driving the efficient mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage repair. This glycosaminoglycan- (GAG-) like compound was modified in a classical solvent (N,N'-dimethylformamide). However, the use of classical solvents limits the polysaccharide solubility and causes the backbone degradation. In the present study, a one-step efficient sulfation process devoid of side effects (e.g., polysaccharide depolymerization and/or degradation) was developed to produce GAG-like derivatives. The sulfation of GY785 derivative (GY785 DR) was carried out using ionic liquid as a reaction medium. The successful sulfation of this anionic and highly branched heteropolysaccharide performed in ionic liquid would facilitate the production of new molecules of high specificity for biological targets such as tissue engineering or regenerative medicine. PMID:26090416

  19. Polysaccharides isolated from Digenea simplex inhibit inflammatory and nociceptive responses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana G; Mesquita, Jacilane X; Aragão, Karoline S; Franco, Alvaro X; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Brito, Tarcisio V; Dias, Jordana M; Silva, Renan O; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Abreu, Clara Myrla W S; de Paula, Regina Célia M; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharides (PLS) have notably diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we investigated the previously unexplored anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the PLS fraction isolated from the marine red alga Digenea simplex. We found that the PLS fraction reduced carrageenan-induced edema in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited inflammation induced by dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The fraction also inhibited neutrophil migration into both mouse paw and peritoneal cavity. This effect was accompanied by decreases in IL1-? and TNF-? levels in the peritoneal fluid. Pre-treatment of mice with PLS (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. This same dose of PLS also reduced total licking time in both phases of a formalin test, and increased latency in a hot plate test. Therefore, we conclude that PLS extracted from D. simplex possess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and can be useful as therapeutic agents against inflammatory diseases. PMID:24751242

  20. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1) defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2) looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3) identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding) and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4) considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5) investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases. PMID:25955754

  1. Chemoprevention of Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats by Sulfated Polysaccharides and Aqueous Extract of Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Usama K; Mahmoud, Hamada M; Farrag, Asmaa G; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common cancers and lethal diseases worldwide. Both oxidative stress and chronic inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. Because of limited treatment options and a grave prognosis of HCC, preventive management has been emphasized. The marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca (Ulvaceae) is consumed by humans and livestock because of its nutritional value. Recent studies showed that various extracts of U. lactuca possess antiviral, antiplasmodial, antinephrotoxic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very limited information is available on anticancer potential of U. lactuca with no reports on liver cancer chemopreventive efficacy of this marine algae. Accordingly, the present study was initiated to evaluate the possible antihepatocarcinogenic effects and antioxidant mechanisms of action of various U. lactuca extracts against a clinically relevant rodent model of HCC. Initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single injection of dietary carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA, 200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), followed by promotion with phenobarbital (0.05%) in drinking water. The rats were fed with daily oral dose (50 mg/kg) of polysaccharide sulfate or aqueous extract of U. lactuca for 2, 12, and 24 weeks. At these timepoints, blood samples were taken to measure hepatic injury markers, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, and bilirubin. The liver tissue was harvested for measurement of hepatic oxidative indices, including lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Hepatic histopathology, immunohistochemical analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay were performed. Our results clearly indicate that sulfated polysaccharides of U. lactuca exert a marked chemoprevention of DENA-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis through inhibition of abnormal cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. A modest inhibition rat liver carcinogenesis was observed with the aqueous extract. The sulfated polysaccharides altered serum parameters of hepatic damage and modulated various components of the hepatic enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems. The sulfated polysaccharides from U. lactuca may have unique properties of providing protection against DENA-induced oxidative stress which could contribute to chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. U. lactuca sulfated polysaccharides could be developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic drug against human HCC. PMID:26130745

  2. Structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero/galactofucan polysaccharides on dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Huaide; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero-polysaccharides (DF1) and sulfated galactofucan polysaccharides (DF2) on dopaminergic neuron in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with samples significantly ameliorated the depletion of both DA and TH-, Bcl-2- and Bax-positive neurons in MPTP-induced PD mice, DF1 showed the highest activity. The in vitro results found that DF1 and DF2 could reverse the decreased mitochondrial activity and the increased LDL release induced by MPP(+) (P<0.01 or P<0.001) which provides further evidence that DF1 and DF2 also exerts a direct protection against the neuronal injury caused by MPP(+). Furthermore, the administration of samples effectively decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the level/activities of GSH, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT in MPTP mice. Thus, the neuron protective effect may be mediated, in part, through antioxidant activity and the prevention of cell apoptosis. The chemical composition of DF1, DF2 and DF differed markedly, the DF1 fraction had the most complex chemical composition and showed the highest neuron protective activity. These results suggest that diverse monosaccharides and uronic acid might contribute to neuron protective activity. PMID:26484597

  3. A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Renan O.; Santana, Ana Paula M.; Carvalho, Nathalia S.; Bezerra, Talita S.; Oliveira, Camila B.; Damasceno, Samara R. B.; Chaves, Luciano S.; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P.; Soares, Pedro M. G.; Souza, Marcellus H. L. P.; Barbosa, André Luiz R.; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R.

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group—vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation. PMID:23342384

  4. Occurrence of sulfated fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfate are essential for the polysaccharide effect preventing muscle damage induced by toxins and crude venom from Bothrops jararacussu snake.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Strauch, Marcelo A; Cons, Bruno L; Borges, Paula A; Patrão-Neto, Fernando C; Tavares-Henriques, Matheus S; Teixeira-Cruz, Jhonatha M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Cintra, Adélia C O; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Mourão, Paulo A S; Melo, Paulo A

    2015-05-01

    Snake envenoming is an important public health problem around the world, particularly in tropics. Beyond deaths, morbidity induced by snake venoms, such as myotoxicity, is of pivotal consequence to population. Bothrops jararacussu is the main venomous snake in southeast region of Brazil, and particularly presents strong myotoxic effect. The only available therapy, antibothropic antivenom, poorly affects venom-induced myotoxicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fucCS), a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties, and its derivatives to inhibit toxic activities of B. jararacussu crude venom and its isolated toxins, named bothropstoxins (BthTX-I and BthTX-II). The in vitro myotoxic activities induced by crude venom, by BthTX-I alone and by toxins together were abolished by fucCS. Carboxyl reduction (fucCS-CR) kept this ability whereas defucosilation (defucCS) abrogates myoprotection. We observed the same pattern in the response of these polysaccharides in antagonizing the increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels, the reduction of skeletal muscle CK content and the rise of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by crude venom and isolated toxins. FucCS inhibited edematogenic activity and partially prevented the reduction of total leukocytes in blood when pre-incubated with crude venom. Furthermore, the venom procoagulant effect was completely antagonized by increasing concentrations of fucCS, although this polyanion could stop neither the tail bleeding nor the skin hemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. The B. jararacussu phospholipase, hyaluronidase, proteolytic and collagenase activities were inhibited in vitro. The results suggest that fucCS could be able to interact with both toxins, and it is able to inhibit BthTX-II phospholipase activity. Light microscopy of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) muscle showed myoprotection by fucCS, once necrotic areas, edema and inflammatory cells were all decreased as compared to venom injection alone. Altogether, data show that fucCS was able to inhibit myotoxicity and inflammation induced by B. jararacussu venom and its phospholipase toxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Thus, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is a new polyanion with potential to be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of snakebites in the future. PMID:25702961

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Anti-Angiogenic Multitarget N,O-Sulfated E. Coli K5 Polysaccharide in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rezzola, Sara; Dal Monte, Massimo; Belleri, Mirella; Bugatti, Antonella; Chiodelli, Paola; Corsini, Michela; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Cancarini, Anna; Morbidelli, Lucia; Oreste, Pasqua; Bagnoli, Paola; Semeraro, Francesco; Presta, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockers have been developed for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), the leading cause of visual impairments in the working-age population in the Western world. However, limitations to anti-VEGF therapies may exist because of the local production of other proangiogenic factors that may cause resistance to anti-VEGF interventions. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches targeting additional pathways are required. Here, we identified a sulfated derivative of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide K5 [K5-N,OS(H)] as a multitarget molecule highly effective in inhibiting VEGF-driven angiogenic responses in different in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays, including a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Furthermore, K5-N,OS(H) binds a variety of heparin-binding angiogenic factors upregulated in PDR vitreous humor besides VEGF, thus inhibiting their biological activity. Finally, K5-N,OS(H) hampers the angiogenic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by human vitreous fluid samples collected from patients with PDR. Together, the data provide compelling experimental evidence that K5-N,OS(H) represents an antiangiogenic multitarget molecule with potential implications for the therapy of pathologic neovessel formation in the retina of patients with PDR. PMID:25695948

  6. Sulfated modification can enhance antiglycation abilities of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xing-Ping; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Xiao, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-30

    Dendrobium huoshanense is an important edible-medicinal plant with high nutritional values and health functions. A homogenous polysaccharide (DHPD1) with molecular weight of 3.2 × 10(3)Da was extracted from D. huoshanense, which was mainly composed of glucose, arabinose, galactose, mannose and xylose. Chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method was performed to modify the structure of DHPD1. In order to get a high degree of substitution (DS), sulfated modification conditions were optimized by response surface methodology. The maximum DS of 1.473 was obtained when the reaction condition was fixed at reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 160 min and volume ratio of Pyr to CSA 2:1. NMR spectra revealed that this sulfation occurred to C-2 and C-6 of glycosyl residues in DHPD1. After 28 days of incubation, the sulfated DHPD1 at 1.0mg/mL showed the inhibitory ability of 58.5%, which increased by 16.2% and 52.5% than that of aminoguanidine and DHPD1 at the same dosage. PMID:24299865

  7. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  8. Microanalysis and preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of a sulfated polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-06-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column fluorescence derivatization has been developed to determine the amount of lowmolecularweight sulfated polysaccharide (GFS) in vivo. The metabolism of GFS has been shown to fit a two component model following its administration by intravenous injection, and its pharmacokinetic parameters were determined to be as follows: half-time of distribution phase (t 1/2?)=11.24±2.93 min, half-time of elimination phase (t 1/2?)=98.20±25.78 min, maximum concentration (C max)=110.53 µg/mL and peak time (T max)=5 min. The pharmacokinetic behavior of GFS was also investigated following intragastric administration. However, the concentration of GFS found in serum was too low for detection, and GFS could only be detected for up to 2 h after intragastric administration (200 mg/kg body weight). Thus, the bioavailability of GFS was low following intragastric administration because of the metabolism of GFS. In conclusion, HPLC with postcolumn derivatization could be used for quantitative microanalysis and pharmacokinetic studies to determine the presence of polysaccharides in the serum following intravenous injection.

  9. Pharmacological profiles of animal- and nonanimal-derived sulfated polysaccharides--comparison of unfractionated heparin, the semisynthetic glucan sulfate PS3, and the sulfated polysaccharide fraction isolated from Delesseria sanguinea.

    PubMed

    Groth, Inken; Grünewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

    2009-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) such as heparin are known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, e.g., anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastastic effects. However, since the anticoagulant activity of heparin is dominating, its therapeutic use for other medical indications is limited due to an associated risk of bleeding. Further disadvantages of heparin are its animal origin, the shortage of resources, and its complex and variable composition. However, SP without these limitations may represent a substance class with good prospects for applications other than anticoagulation. In this study, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of two nonanimal-derived SP were investigated in comparison with unfractionated heparin. One is the natural SP fraction from the red algae Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP). The other one is the chemically defined PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate with proven in vivo anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities. All three polysaccharides were examined in vitro for their inhibitory effects on the coagulation and complement system, polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase, hyaluronidase, matrix metalloproteinase-1, heparanase, and p-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Compared with heparin, the nonanimal-derived polysaccharides have a four times weaker anticoagulant activity, but mostly exhibit stronger (1.4-224 times) effects on test systems investigating targets of inflammation or metastasis. According to their different structures, PS3 and D.s.-SP differ in their pharmacological profile with PS3 being the strongest inhibitor of heparanase and cell adhesion and D.s.-SP being the strongest inhibitor of hyaluronidase and complement activation. Considering both pharmacological profile and pharmaceutical quality parameters, PS3 represents a candidate for further development as an anti-inflammatory or antimetastatic drug whereas D.s.-SP might have perspectives for cosmetic applications. PMID:19106233

  10. Effects of partial desulfation on antioxidant and inhibition of DLD cancer cell of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Pei, Yaping; Fang, Zhongxian; Sun, Peilong

    2014-04-01

    Ulva fasciata belonging to the family Ulvaceae, commonly known as 'sea lettuce', is an abundantly growing green seaweed in coastal seashore of South China. Three different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2 and UFP3) were extracted and separated from U. fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. The three native UFP fractions had partial desulfurization by solvolytic desulfation respectively and the effect of sulfate content on the exhibition of the antioxidant and anti-tumor capacities had been evaluated and compared. The results showed that each native polysaccharide (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3) with high sulfate content exhibited better antioxidant activities compared with the partial desulfated polysaccharides (DS-UFP1, DS-UFP2, DS-UFP3). Specifically, UFP2 with relatively high sulfate content, molecular weight and uronic acid content had consistently excellent antioxidant performances. However, UFP2 demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of DLD intestinal cancer cells. Instead, DS-UFP3 with the lowest sulfate content but highest uronic acid content and molecular weight exhibited the best antitumor activity. PMID:24463264

  11. The sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan rescues senescence of endothelial colony-forming cells for ischemic repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun; Choi, Sung Hyun; Asahara, Takayuki; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of cell therapy using endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in the treatment of ischemia is limited by the replicative senescence of isolated ECFCs in vitro. Such senescence must therefore be overcome in order for such cell therapies to be clinically applicable. This study aimed to investigate the potential of sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan to rescue ECFCs from cellular senescence and to improve in vivo vascular repair by ECFCs. Fucoidan-preconditioning of senescent ECFCs was shown by flow cytometry to restore the expression of functional ECFC surface markers (CD34, c-Kit, VEGFR2, and CXCR4) and stimulate the in vitro tube formation capacity of ECFCs. Fucoidan also promoted the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins (cyclin E, Cdk2, cyclin D1, and Cdk4) in senescent ECFCs, significantly reversed cellular senescence, and increased the proliferation of ECFCs via the FAK, Akt, and ERK signaling pathways. Fucoidan was found to enhance the survival, proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of senescent ECFCs transplanted in ischemic tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Moreover, ECFC-induced functional recovery and limb salvage were markedly improved by fucoidan pretreatment of ECFCs. To our knowledge, the findings of our study are the first to demonstrate that fucoidan enhances the neovasculogenic potential of ECFCs by rescuing them from replicative cellular senescence. Pretreatment of ECFCs with fucoidan may thus provide a novel strategy for the application of senescent stem cells to therapeutic neovascularization. PMID:25693733

  12. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  13. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  14. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Cytoadhesion and Merozoite Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Marcele F.; Albrecht, Letusa; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Lopes, Stefanie C. P.; Blanco, Yara C.; Carlos, Bianca C.; Castiñeiras, Catarina; Vicente, Cristina P.; Werneck, Claudio C.; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Mourão, Paulo A. S.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-iEs) in the microvasculature of vital organs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of life-threatening malaria complications, such as cerebral malaria and malaria in pregnancy. This phenomenon is marked by the cytoadhesion of Pf-iEs to host receptors on the surfaces of endothelial cells, on noninfected erythrocytes, and in the placental trophoblast; therefore, these sites are potential targets for antiadhesion therapies. In this context, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin, have shown the ability to inhibit Pf-iE cytoadherence and growth. Nevertheless, the use of heparin was discontinued due to serious side effects, such as bleeding. Other GAG-based therapies were hampered due to the potential risk of contamination with prions and viruses, as some GAGs are isolated from mammals. In this context, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a unique and highly sulfated GAG isolated from the sea cucumber, with respect to P. falciparum cytoadhesion and development. FucCS was effective in inhibiting the cytoadherence of Pf-iEs to human lung endothelial cells and placenta cryosections under static and flow conditions. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches of the FucCS structure virtually abolished the inhibitory effects of FucCS. Importantly, FucCS rapidly disrupted rosettes at high levels, and it was also able to block parasite development by interfering with merozoite invasion. Collectively, these findings highlight the potential of FucCS as a candidate for adjunct therapy against severe malaria. PMID:24395239

  15. Simple and Rapid Quality Control of Sulfated Glycans by a Fluorescence Sensor Assay—Exemplarily Developed for the Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Delesseria sanguinea

    PubMed Central

    Lühn, Susanne; Grimm, Juliane C.; Alban, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from algae are of great interest due to their manifold biological activities. Obstacles to commercial (especially medical) application include considerable variability and complex chemical composition making the analysis and the quality control challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple microplate assay for screening the quality of SP. It is based on the fluorescence intensity (FI) increase of the sensor molecule Polymer-H by SP and was originally developed for direct quantification of SP. Exemplarily, 65 SP batches isolated from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP) and several other algae polysaccharides were investigated. Their FI increase in the Polymer-H assay was compared with other analytical parameters. By testing just one concentration of a D.s.-SP sample, quality deviations from the reference D.s.-SP and thus both batch-to-batch variability and stability can be detected. Further, structurally distinct SP showed to differ in their concentration-dependent FI profiles. By using corresponding reference compounds, the Polymer-H assay is therefore applicable as identification assay with high negative predictability. In conclusion, the Polymer-H assay showed to represent not only a simple method for quantification, but also for characterization identification and differentiation of SP of marine origin. PMID:24727392

  16. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy. PMID:25605207

  17. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the degradation and inhibition cancer cell lines of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Cunshan; Yang, Hua; Huang, Xingyi; Ma, Haile; Qin, Xiaopei; Hu, Jiali

    2015-03-01

    The exposure of polysaccharides solutions to high-energy ultrasound produces a permanent reduction in viscosity and change in activity. However, the exact mechanism which occurs in the process is still not clear. In this work, degradation of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis (PP) was indirectly and directly judged by intrinsic viscosity and high performance gel permeation chromatography. The degradation process was established with dynamics and affirmed by theoretical derivation. Inhibition of cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, 95D) was also investigated by assays of tetrazolium colorimetric. The intrinsic viscosity of the degraded PP decreased exponentially with increase in ultrasonic time, and theoretical derivation was established and confirmed well. The distribution and new fraction of degraded polysaccharides was found. Ultrasound degraded preferentially large PP molecules and cleavage took place roughly at the centre of the molecules. During ultrasound degradation the molecular weight distribution was narrowed. The inhibition activities of SGC7901 with ultrasound degraded polysaccharides were increased. PMID:25498684

  18. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and virulence by an oxazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lulu; Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, a biofilm-related oral disease, is a result of disruption of the microbial ecological balance in the oral environment. Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, produces glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). The EPSs, especially water-insoluble glucans, contribute to the formation of dental plaque, biofilm stability, and structural integrity, by allowing bacteria to adhere to tooth surfaces and supplying the bacteria with protection against noxious stimuli and other environmental attacks. The identification of novel alternatives that selectively inhibit cariogenic organisms without suppressing oral microbial residents is required. The goal of the current study is to investigate the influence of an oxazole derivative on S. mutans biofilm formation and the development of dental caries in rats, given that oxazole and its derivatives often exhibit extensive and pharmacologically important biological activities. Our data shows that one particular oxazole derivative, named 5H6, inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms and prevented synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides by antagonizing Gtfs in vitro, without affecting the growth of the bacteria. In addition, topical applications with the inhibitor resulted in diminished incidence and severity of both smooth and sulcal surface caries in vivo with a lower percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque compared to the control group (P?inhibit biofilm formation and cariogenicity of S. mutans. PMID:26526453

  19. [Study on the purification of SCAMP and the preparation of its sulfated polysaccharides].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-xia; Zhang, Shuang-quan; Liu, Ping

    2002-02-01

    Shark cartilage acid mucopolysaccharide (SCAMP) was extracted from cartilage by the improved method, then we can get SCAMP-F1 and SCAMP-F2 from SCAMP by sepharose-4B chromatography. It was improved that SCAMP-F2 had only one component by sepharose-4B chromatography, PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and especial centrifuge. At the same time, SCAMP-F2 reacted with sulfated reagents (composed of chlorosulfonic acid and pyridine), and sulfated SCAMP-F2 was obtained. Its sulfur content is 19.6%, higher 6.1% than unsulfated SCAMP-F2, IR and 13C-NMR data showed that additional sulfates were located on the carbon-6. PMID:12940029

  20. Rheology and characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Qin, Minpu; Han, Longfei; Sun, Peilong

    2014-11-26

    The rheological characteristics of polysaccharides which were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were investigated in aqueous solutions under conditions of concentration, temperature, solution pH and salt concentrations. It was described by the power-law model with a consistency index (k) and a flow behavior index (n). The rheology results showed UFP exhibited as a shear-thickening fluid and a possible mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon that might be the collapse of UFP necklace-type structures. UFP characteristics were evaluated by determining the chemical analysis and zeta potential. The findings indicated UFP may consist of partially ulvan, as the results were in accordance with the ulvan structure. Additionally, a rod-climbing effect and cold-set gelation were observed in the UFP semidilute solution. Therefore, the cold-set gelling properties and unique shear-thickening fluid properties in this work could be valuable for the exploration of U. fasciata as a new source of water-soluble gelling polysaccharides. PMID:25256496

  1. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  2. Safflower polysaccharide inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongbing; Zeng, Hongxie; Ye, Yongqiang; Liu, Lianbin; Li, Shaojin; Zhang, Junyi; Luo, Rongcheng

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer accounts for 22.9% of all types of cancer in females worldwide. Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) is an active fraction purified from safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L). The present study investigated the effects of safflower polysaccharide on the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay following treatment of the MCF?7 cells with increasing concentrations of SPS. The results demonstrated that the SPS compound significantly inhibited the proliferation of the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and these inhibitory effects increased in a dose? and time?dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of SPS on breast cancer cells, following treatment for 72 h, was detected using an MTT assay and was calculated as 0.12 mg/ml. The apoptotic rate was detected using flow cytometry in the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and the results revealed that SPS induced cell apoptosis. The apoptotic rate of the MCF?7 cells treated with SPS was significantly higher compared with that of the untreated cells and increased in a dose?dependent manner. The expression of B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) was downregulated and the expression of Bcl?2?associated X protein was upregulated in the MCF?7 cells treated with SPS in a time?dependent manner. Additionally, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase?9 was significantly reduced and the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 was increased in the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell treated with SPS. These results demonstrated that SPS inhibited the metastasis of MCF?7 breast cancer cells and understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide novel strategies in breast cancer therapy. PMID:25673029

  3. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  4. Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-? and interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Mei; Li, Ke-Shen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide (APS) on gene expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transcriptional activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). METHODS: IEC were divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, LPS+ 50 ?g/mL APS group, LPS+ 100 ?g/mL APS group, LPS+ 200 ?g/mL APS group, and LPS+ 500 ?g/mL APS group. Levels of mRNAs in LPS-induced inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8, were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAPK protein level was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-? and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly higher in IEC with LPS-induced damage than in control cells. APS significantly abrogated the LPS-induced expression of the TNF-? and IL-8 genes. APS did not block the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c Jun amino-terminal kinase, but inhibited the activation of p38, suggesting that APS inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF-? and IL-8 mRNAs, possibly by suppressing the p38 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: APS-modulated bacterial product-mediated p38 signaling represents an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:19653348

  5. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  6. Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae Growth and Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis by Fructus mume

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tien-Huang; Huang, Su-Hua; Wu, Chien-Chen; Liu, Hsin-Ho; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ching-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscess of diabetic patients in Asian countries. With the spread of multiple-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae, there is an increasing need for the development of alternative bactericides and approaches to block the production of bacterial virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), especially from the K1 and K2 serotypes, is considered the major determinant for K. pneumoniae virulence. We found that extracts of the traditional Chinese medicine Fructus mume inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae strains of both serotypes. Furthermore, Fructus mume decreased the mucoviscosity, and the CPS produced in a dose-dependent manner, thus reducing bacterial resistance to serum killing. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that Fructus mume downregulated the mRNA levels of cps biosynthesis genes in both serotypes, possibly by increasing the intracellular iron concentration in K. pneumoniae. Moreover, citric acid, a major organic acid in Fructus mume extracts, was found to have an inhibitory effect on growth and CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae. Taken together, our results indicate that Fructus mume not only possesses antibacterial activity against highly virulent K. pneumoniae strains but also inhibits bacterial CPS biosynthesis, thereby facilitating pathogen clearance by the host immune system. PMID:24062785

  7. Antibiofilm polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rendueles, Olaya; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides have been shown to mediate many of the cell-to cell and cell-to-surface interactions that are required for the formation, cohesion and stabilization of bacterial biofilms. However, recent studies have identified several bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit biofilm formation by a wide-spectrum of bacteria and fungi both in vitro and in vivo. This review discusses the composition, modes of action, and potential biological roles of antibiofilm polysaccharides recently identified in bacteria and eukaria. Some of these molecules may have technological applications as antibiofilm agents in industry and medicine. PMID:22730907

  8. Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

  9. Baicalin inhibits colistin sulfate-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Lv, Pengfei; Li, Jichang; Wang, Hongjun; Zhou, Tiezhong; Liu, Yingzi; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Baicalin, a type of flavonoid extracted from the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis georgi, has been shown to effectively inhibit cell apoptosis. Therefore, we assumed that baicalin would suppress co-listin sulfate-induced neuronal apoptosis. PC12 cells exposed to colistin sulfate (62.5–500 ?g/mL) for 24 hours resulted in PC12 cell apoptosis. In addition, caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase level and free radical content increased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, PC12 cells were pretreated with baicalin (25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL), and exposed to 125 ?g/mL colistin sulfate. Cell morphology markedly changed, and cell viability increased. Moreover, caspase-3 activity, tate dehydrogenase level and free radical content decreased. Results indicated that baicalin inhi-bited colistin sulfate-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by suppressing free radical injury, and reducing caspase-3 activity and lactate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:25206570

  10. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1?3)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1?6)-?-d-galacto- and/or (1?2)-?-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups. PMID:22073012

  11. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  12. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  13. Magnesium sulfate inhibits sufentanil-induced cough during anesthetic induction

    PubMed Central

    An, Li-Jun; Gui, Bo; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sufentanil-induced cough is a common phenomenon during the induction of anesthesia. This double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of prophylactic magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the incidence and severity of sufentanil-induced cough. A total of 165 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were allocated into three groups (I, II, and III; n = 55 each) that were injected with either 50 ml of normal saline, 30 or 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 (diluted with normal saline into 50 ml). One minute following the injection, all patients were injected with 1.0 ?g/kg of sufentanil within 5 s. The incidence and severity of cough were recorded 30 s after the sufentanil injection. The hemodynamic parameters and plasma magnesium concentration of the patients were also noted. Three patients dropped out the study due to an obvious burning sensation during the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4. Although the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium level, the increase remained within the therapeutic range (2-4 mmol/L). The incidence of cough was much higher in group I than in groups II and III (47.1% vs. 16.4% and 7.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Compared with group I, group III had the lowest incidence of mild cough and both groups II and III had lower incidence of moderate and severe cough (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the hemodynamic data at three timepoints among the three groups. In conclusion, sufentanil-induced cough may be suppressed effectively and safely by prophylactic use of 30 mg/kg of MgSO4 during anesthetic induction. PMID:26550339

  14. Optimized and standardized isolation and structural characterization of anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (Hudson) Lamouroux (Ceramiales, Delesseriaceae).

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

    2009-11-01

    The red seaweed Delesseria sanguinea dominantly populates a large artificial reef in the southwestern Baltic Sea. It contains sulfated polysaccharides (SPs), which exhibit a pharmacological profile indicating anti-inflammatory and anti-skin aging potencies. To establish and optimize an extraction procedure for these SPs and to evaluate the influence of several parameters on their quality, 23 algae batches were harvested over the period of four years and extracted by different methods, resulting in 56 SP batches. Extraction with water at 85 degrees C proved to be superior and led to highly reproducible products with average yields of 11.6 +/- 3.9%, reaching 18% in spring. Their quality was independent of generation form and vitality of the algae. The SPs were identified as sulfated branched xylogalactans (degree of sulfation 0.50 +/- 0.08, mean M(r) 142000). The coextraction of floridean starch turned out to be the only parameter causing any seasonal variability. However, by using water, this concerns solely the yields of the isolated products. Compared to NaOH extracts, the antielastase activity of H(2)O extracted SPs was about twice as strong (IC(50) 0.204 +/- 0.024 microg/mL) and the batch to batch variability was much lower (CV 11.8 vs 28.6%). In conclusion, SPs from Delesseria sanguinea can be isolated in reproducibly high quality by using a specific extraction procedure. Thus, an important prerequisite for a potential economical utilization is fulfilled. PMID:19795906

  15. Synthetic Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Endothelial Cell Functions Essential for Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Claire L.; Hansen, Steen U.; Baráth, Marek; Rushton, Graham; Gardiner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important regulator of the assembly and activity of various angiogenic signalling complexes. However, the significance of precisely defined HS structures in regulating cytokine-dependent angiogenic cellular functions and signalling through receptors regulating angiogenic responses remains unclear. Understanding such structure-activity relationships is important for the rational design of HS fragments that inhibit HS-dependent angiogenic signalling complexes. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized a series of HS oligosaccharides ranging from 7 to 12 saccharide residues that contained a repeating disaccharide unit consisting of iduronate 2-O-sulfate linked to glucosamine with or without N-sulfate. The ability of oligosaccharides to compete with HS for FGF2 and VEGF165 binding significantly increased with oligosaccharide length and sulfation. Correspondingly, the inhibitory potential of oligosaccharides against FGF2- and VEGF165-induced endothelial cell responses was greater in longer oligosaccharide species that were comprised of disaccharides bearing both 2-O- and N-sulfation (2SNS). FGF2- and VEGF165-induced endothelial cell migration were inhibited by longer 2SNS oligosaccharide species with 2SNS dodecasaccharide activity being comparable to that of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting FGFR or VEGFR-2. Moreover, the 2SNS dodecasaccharide ablated FGF2- or VEGF165-induced phosphorylation of FAK and assembly of F-actin in peripheral lamellipodia-like structures. In contrast, FGF2-induced endothelial cell proliferation was only moderately inhibited by longer 2SNS oligosaccharides. Inhibition of FGF2- and VEGF165-dependent endothelial tube formation strongly correlated with oligosaccharide length and sulfation with 10-mer and 12-mer 2SNS oligosaccharides being the most potent species. FGF2- and VEGF165-induced activation of MAPK pathway was inhibited by biologically active oligosaccharides correlating with the specific phosphorylation events in FRS2 and VEGFR-2, respectively. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate structure-function relationships for synthetic HS saccharides that suppress endothelial cell migration, tube formation and signalling induced by key angiogenic cytokines. PMID:20657775

  16. Inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria in aquifer sediment by iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Omoregie, Enoma O; Rose, Jerome; Masion, Armand; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Diels, Ludo; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-03-15

    Batch microcosms were setup to determine the impact of different sized zero valent iron (Fe(0)) particles on microbial sulfate reduction during the in situ bio-precipitation of metals. The microcosms were constructed with aquifer sediment and groundwater from a low pH (3.1), heavy-metal contaminated aquifer. Nano (nFe(0)), micro (mFe(0)) and granular (gFe(0)) sized Fe(0) particles were added to separate microcosms. Additionally, selected microcosms were also amended with glycerol as a C-source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition to metal removal, Fe(0) in microcosms also raised the pH from 3.1 to 6.5, and decreased the oxidation redox potential from initial values of 249 to -226 mV, providing more favorable conditions for microbial sulfate reduction. mFe(0) and gFe(0) in combination with glycerol were found to enhance microbial sulfate reduction. However, no sulfate reduction occurred in the controls without Fe(0) or in the microcosm amended with nFe(0). A separate dose test confirmed the inhibition for sulfate reduction in presence of nFe(0). Hydrogen produced by Fe(0) was not capable of supporting microbial sulfate reduction as a lone electron donor in this study. Microbial analysis revealed that the addition of Fe(0) and glycerol shifted the microbial community towards Desulfosporosinus sp. from a population initially dominated by low pH and metal-resisting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. PMID:24388832

  17. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  18. Presence of sulfate does not inhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation Mnica Snchez-Romn a,b,c,

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    . Introduction The origin of dolomite remains a long-standing enigma in sedimentary geology mainly because of its- tures (200 °C), which indicated that the presence of small concentra- tions of sulfate inhibits

  19. Sequence determination of a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide from melanin-free ink of the squid Ommastrephes bartrami by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiguo; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Dong, Ping; Sheng, Wenjing; Yu, Guangli; Chai, Wengang

    2008-07-01

    A non-sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the ink sac of squid Ommastrephes bartrami after removal of the melanin granules. The carbohydrate sequence of this polysaccharide was assigned by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation of the oligosaccharide fractions produced by partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharide. The structural determination was completed by NMR for assignment of anomeric configuration and confirmation of linkage information and it was unambiguously identified as a glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide containing a glucuronic acid-fucose (GlcA-Fuc) disaccharide repeat in the main chain and a N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) branch at Fuc position 3: -[3GlcAbeta1-4(GalNAcalpha1-3)Fucalpha1](n)-. Partial hydrolysis of the polysaccharide to obtain several oligosaccharide fractions with different numbers of the repeating unit assisted the assignment. In the negative-ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis, the unique (0,2)A type fragmentation was important to establish the presence of a 4-linked fucose in the main polysaccharide chain and a GalNAc branch at the Fuc position-3 of the disaccharide repeat. PMID:18219573

  20. Cyclic di-GMP inhibits Vibrio cholerae motility by repressing induction of transcription and inducing extracellular polysaccharide production

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Disha; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Khataokar, Atul; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls the transition between sessility and motility in many bacterial species. This regulation is achieved by a variety of mechanisms including alteration of transcription initiation and inhibition of flagellar function. How c-di-GMP inhibits the motility of Vibrio cholerae has not been determined. FlrA, a homolog of the c-di-GMP binding Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility regulator FleQ, is the master regulator of the V. cholerae flagellar biosynthesis regulon. Here we show that binding of c-di-GMP to FlrA abrogates binding of FlrA to the promoter of the flrBC operon, deactivating expression of the flagellar biosynthesis regulon. FlrA does not regulate expression of extracellular Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) synthesis genes. Mutation of the FlrA amino acids R135 and R176 to histidine abrogates binding of c-di-GMP to FlrA, rendering FlrA active in the presence of high levels of c-di-GMP. Surprisingly, c-di-GMP still inhibited the motility of V. cholerae only expressing the c-di-GMP blind FlrA(R176H) mutant. We determined that this flagellar transcription-independent inhibition is due to activation of VPS production by c-di-GMP. Therefore, c-di-GMP prevents motility of V. cholerae by two distinct but functionally redundant mechanisms. PMID:24134710

  1. Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) Inhibits the Expression of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: Implications for Membrane Microfiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Yanina, Svetlana; Gassman, Paul L.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2:1 molar ratio preparation of bismuth with a lipophilic dithiol (3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total polysaccharides and proteins secreted by B. diminuta decreased by approximately 95% over a 5-day period when exposed to the bismuth-BAL chelate (BisBAL) at near MIC (12 ?M). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that a possible mechanism of biofilm disruption by BisBAL is the inhibition of carbohydrate Oacetylation. FTIR also revealed extensive homology between EPS samples with and without BisBAL treatment, with proteins, polysaccharides, and peptides varying predominantly only in the amount expressed. EPS secretion decreased following BisBAL treatment as verified by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes.

  2. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  3. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Poh, Zhong Wei; Gan, Chin Heng; Lee, Eric J; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W; Lam, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the "sulfation code" is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. PMID:26400608

  4. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bryony N; Wigley, Paul; Simpson, Hannah L; Williams, Jonathan M; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J M; Fry, Stephen C; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  5. Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Hannah L.; Williams, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Fry, Stephen C.; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L.; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Åsa V.; Söderholm, Johan D.; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1–99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5–10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64–81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75–90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  6. Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    ZHUAN-YUN, LI; XUE-PING, YAO; BIN, LIU; REHEMAN, HA NIZAIER; YANG, GAO; ZHAN, SUN; QI, MA

    2015-01-01

    Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP) has shown a variety of pharmacological properties. In the present study, the role of AAP in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was analyzed in rats to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the control, AAP, LPS and LPS plus AAP groups. Rats were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) to induce ALI. Rats in the LPS plus AAP group were treated with AAP for 7 days before the induction of ALI. The protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed by MPO and MDA kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-6, were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The data showed that treatment with AAP significantly improved LPS-induced lung pathological changes, attenuated protein concentration in the BALF, inhibited MPO activity and reduced the MDA level and lung W/D weight ratio. AAP also inhibited the release of TNF-? and IL-6 in blood. The results indicated that AAP has a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats. PMID:26171152

  7. Pu-erh tea polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of ?-glucosidase activity in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yea-Tyz; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2015-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is mainly induced by environmental factors such as being overweight, decreased physical activity and inbalanced energy metabolism, such as pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. Acarbose, a microbial carbohydrate and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, is currently a useful agent for attenuating type 2 diabetes. However, it is usually accompanied by many side effects, such as abdominal distention, flatulence, diarrhea and meteorism. These side effects may be caused by its strong inhibition of alpha-amylase, leading to the accumulation of several undigested carbohydrates. The bacteria residing in the colon can further ferment the undigested carbohydrate to release gas. Finding a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with a low inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase is highly anticipated. In this report we describe a group of carbohydrates found in pu-erh tea polysaccharide (PTPS) that can inhibit alpha-glucosidase but have less of an inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase. The preliminary experiments on mice indicate that PTPS might be better than acarbose at suppressing blood glucose after oral administration of a carbohydrate diet; it is recommended that further clinical trials are required in type 2 diabetes in future studies. PMID:25820466

  8. Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of SIP-S: A sulfated polysaccharide with anti-metastatic effect.

    PubMed

    Zong, Aizhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Jiang, Wenjie; Du, Fangling; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-09-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that SIP-S had anti-metastatic activity and inhibited the growth of metastatic foci. Here we report the anti-tumor and immunoregulatory potential of SIP-S. SIP-S could significantly inhibit tumor growth in S180-bearing mice, and the inhibition rates was 43.7% at 30 mg/kg d. Besides, SIP-S could improve the thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice and the mice treated with CTX. The combination of SIP-S (15 mg/kg d) with CTX (12.5 mg/kg d) showed higher anti-tumor potency than CTX (25 mg/kg d) alone. These results indicated that SIP-S had immunoenhancing and anticancer activity, and the immunoenhancing activity might be one mechanism for its anti-tumor activity. Flow cytometry results showed that SIP-S could induce tumor cells apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that SIP-S could upregulate the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax, and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein PARP-1 in tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, SIP-S has anti-tumor activity, which may be associated with its immunostimulating and pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:26050887

  9. Sulfated Galactan from Palisada flagellifera Inhibits Toxic Effects of Lachesis muta Snake Venom.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Cláudia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Luciana Garcia; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Rabello; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-06-01

    In Brazil, snakebites are a public health problem and accidents caused by Lachesis muta have the highest mortality index. Envenomation by L. muta is characterized by systemic (hypotension, bleeding and renal failure) and local effects (necrosis, pain and edema). The treatment to reverse the evolution of all the toxic effects is performed by injection of antivenom. However, such therapy does not effectively neutralize tissue damage or any other local effect, since in most cases victims delay seeking appropriate medical care. In this way, alternative therapies are in demand, and molecules from natural sources have been exhaustively tested. In this paper, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of a sulfated galactan obtained from the red seaweed Palisada flagellifera against some toxic activities of L. muta venom. Incubation of sulfated galactan with venom resulted in inhibition of hemolysis, coagulation, proteolysis, edema and hemorrhage. Neutralization of hemorrhage was also observed when the galactan was administered after or before the venom injection; thus mimicking a real in vivo situation. Moreover, the galactan blocked the edema caused by a phospholipase A2 isolated from the same venom. Therefore, the galactan from P. flagellifera may represent a promising tool to treat envenomation by L. muta as a coadjuvant for the conventional antivenom. PMID:26110897

  10. Sulfated Galactan from Palisada flagellifera Inhibits Toxic Effects of Lachesis muta Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Cláudia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Luciana Garcia; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Rabello; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, snakebites are a public health problem and accidents caused by Lachesis muta have the highest mortality index. Envenomation by L. muta is characterized by systemic (hypotension, bleeding and renal failure) and local effects (necrosis, pain and edema). The treatment to reverse the evolution of all the toxic effects is performed by injection of antivenom. However, such therapy does not effectively neutralize tissue damage or any other local effect, since in most cases victims delay seeking appropriate medical care. In this way, alternative therapies are in demand, and molecules from natural sources have been exhaustively tested. In this paper, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of a sulfated galactan obtained from the red seaweed Palisada flagellifera against some toxic activities of L. muta venom. Incubation of sulfated galactan with venom resulted in inhibition of hemolysis, coagulation, proteolysis, edema and hemorrhage. Neutralization of hemorrhage was also observed when the galactan was administered after or before the venom injection; thus mimicking a real in vivo situation. Moreover, the galactan blocked the edema caused by a phospholipase A2 isolated from the same venom. Therefore, the galactan from P. flagellifera may represent a promising tool to treat envenomation by L. muta as a coadjuvant for the conventional antivenom. PMID:26110897

  11. Raspberry pulp polysaccharides inhibit tumor growth via immunopotentiation and enhance docetaxel chemotherapy against malignant melanoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jing; Xu, Han-Mei; Suo, You-Rui

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported previously that the systemic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents is substantially restricted for some cancer types, including malignant melanoma. Therefore, the development of more effective treatment modalities remains a critical, albeit elusive, goal in anticancer therapy. The study presented here evaluates the antitumor activity of raspberry pulp polysaccharides (RPPs) against malignant melanoma using a murine tumor-bearing model. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of this antitumor activity has also been investigated. The results show that while RPP exhibits no direct cytotoxic effect on HT-29, MGC-803, HeLa, Bel-7402, L02 and B16F10 cells in vitro, it does demonstrate a dose-dependent growth inhibition of melanoma in vivo with an inhibition ratio of 59.95% at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1). Besides this, the body weight and spleen index in tumor-bearing mice have also been improved in RPP-treated groups. RPP is also found to induce splenocyte proliferation and is able to upregulate the activity of immune-related enzymes, including acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the serum of tumor-bearing mice show to be effectively increased upon RPP treatment. Histopathological analyses show that RPP induces tumor tissue necrosis by increasing inflammatory cell infiltration and causes no lesions to liver and kidney tissues. Remarkably, RPP further enhances the antitumor effect of the chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel and alleviates docetaxel-induced liver and kidney lesions in tumor-bearing mice. These findings indicate that RPP exhibits antitumor activity in vivo against malignant melanoma, partly by enhancing the cellular immune response of the host organism. In summary, RPP features critical properties to potentially find use as an immunopotentiating agent or as a chemotherapy adjuvant agent for the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:26200777

  12. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide from the deep-sea marine bacterium Idiomarina abyssalis ??? 227(T) containing a 2-O-sulfate-3-N-(4-hydroxybutanoyl)-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose.

    PubMed

    Kokoulin, Maxim S; Komandrova, Nadezhda A; Kalinovskiy, Anatoly I; Tomshich, Svetlana V; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Vaskovsky, Victor V

    2015-09-01

    The O-specific polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of type strain Idiomarina abyssalis ??? 227(T) and studied by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy including (1)H,(1)H-TOCSY, (1)H,(1)H-COSY, (1)H,(1)H-ROESY, (1)H,(13)C-HSQC, (1)H,(13)C-HMBC, (1)H,(13)C-H2BC and (1)H,(13)C-HSQC-TOCSY experiments. The new structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of I. abyssalis ??? 227(T) containing 2-O-sulfate-3-N-(4-hydroxybutanoyl)-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose was established. PMID:26117228

  13. Pectic polysaccharide from corn (Zea mays L.) effectively inhibited multi-step mediated cancer cell growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Smitha; Kapoor, Sabeeta; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2015-06-25

    Corn pectic polysaccharide (COPP) inhibited galectin-3 mediated hemagglutination at Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 4.08 ?g/mL as opposed to citrus pectin (25 ?g/mL), a well known galectin-3 inhibitor and lactose (4.16 ?g/mL)--sugar specific to galectin-3. COPP effectively (72%) inhibited invasion and metastasis in experimental animals. In vivo results were substantiated by modulation of cancer specific markers such as galectin-3, which is a key molecule for initiation of metastatic cascade, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that enhances angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 that are required for invasion, NF-?B, a transcription factor for proliferative potency of tumor cells and a phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), the activity of which favors cancer cell growth. Structural characterization studies indicate the active component (relatively less acidic, 0.05 M ammonium carbonate, 160 kDa fraction) which showed antimetastatic potency in vitro with MIC of 0.09 ?g/mL, and ? 45 fold increase in the activity when compared to that of COPP. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of rhamnose (1%), arabinose (20%), xylose (3%), mannose (4%), galactose (54%) and uronic acid (10%) in different proportions. However, correlative data attributed galectin-3 inhibitory activity to enhanced levels of arabinose and galactose. FTIR, HPLC and NMR spectroscopic analysis further highlights that COPP is an arabinogalactan with methyl/ethyl esters. It is therefore suggested that the blockade of galectin-3 mediated lung metastasis appears to be a result of an inhibition of mixed functions induced during metastasis. The data signifies the importance of dietary carbohydrate as cancer-preventive agent. Although pectin digestibility and absorption are issues of concern, promising in vivo data provides evidence for the cancer preventive property of corn. The present study reveals for the first time a new component of corn, i.e.,--corn pectin with cancer preventive activity apart from corn starch that has been in wide use for multipurpose health benefits. PMID:25882088

  14. A Novel allosteric pathway of thrombin inhibition: Exosite II mediated potent inhibition of thrombin by chemo-enzymatic, sulfated dehydropolymers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids*

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brian L.; Monien, Bernhard H.; Bock, Paul E.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin and factor Xa, two important pro-coagulant proteinases, can be regulated through direct and indirect inhibition mechanisms. Recently, we designed sulfated dehydropolymers (DHPs) of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids that displayed interesting anticoagulant properties (Monien, B. H., Henry, B. L., Raghuraman, A., Hindle, M., and Desai, U. R. (2006) Bioorg. Med. Chem. 14, 7988–7998). To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the direct inhibition of thrombin, factor Xa, factor IXa, and factor VIIa by CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3, three analogs of sulfated DHPs. All three sulfated DHPs displayed a 2–3-fold preference for direct inhibition of thrombin over factor Xa, whereas this preference for inhibiting thrombin over factor IXa and factor VIIa increased to 17–300-fold, suggesting a high level of selectivity. Competitive binding studies with a thrombin-specific chromogenic substrate, a fluorescein-labeled hirudin peptide, bovine heparin, enoxaparin, and a heparin octasaccharide suggest that CDSO3 preferentially binds in or near anion-binding exosite II of thrombin. Studies of the hydrolysis of H-D-hexahydrotyrosol-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide indicate that CDSO3 inhibits thrombin through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. Overall, designed sulfated DHPs appear to be the first molecules that bind primarily in the region defined by exosite II and allosterically induce thrombin inhibition. The molecules are radically different in structure from all the current clinically used anticoagulants and thus represent a novel class of potent dual thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:17804413

  15. Recognition of bacterial capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides by the macrophage mannose receptor.

    PubMed

    Zamze, Susanne; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Jones, Hannah; Taylor, Philip R; Stillion, Richard J; Gordon, Siamon; Wong, Simon Y C

    2002-11-01

    The in vitro binding of the macrophage mannose receptor to a range of different bacterial polysaccharides was investigated. The receptor was shown to bind to purified capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae and to the lipopolysaccharides, but not capsular polysaccharides, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Binding was Ca(2+)-dependent and inhibitable with d-mannose. A fusion protein of the mannose receptor containing carbohydrate recognition domains 4-7 and a full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor containing all domains external to the transmembrane region both displayed very similar binding specificities toward bacterial polysaccharides, suggesting that domains 4-7 are sufficient for recognition of these structures. Surprisingly, no direct correlation could be made between polysaccharide structure and binding to the mannose receptor, suggesting that polysaccharide conformation may play an important role in recognition. The full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor was able to bind simultaneously both polysaccharide via the carbohydrate recognition domains and sulfated oligosaccharide via the cysteine-rich domain. The possible involvement of the mannose receptor, either cell surface or soluble, in the innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial polysaccharides is discussed. PMID:12196537

  16. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of modified xylofucan sulfate from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Gerbst, Alexey G; Ushakova, Natalia A; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Usov, Anatolii I; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-01-20

    Selectively and totally sulfated (1?3)-linked linear homofucans bearing ?20 monosaccharide residues on average have been prepared from the branched xylofucan sulfate isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of the parent biopolymer and its derivatives were assessed in vitro. Highly sulfated linear fucan derivatives were shown to inhibit clot formation in APTT assay and ristocetin induced platelets aggregation, while the partially sulfated analogs were inactive. In the experiments with purified proteins, fucan derivatives with degree of sulfation of ?2.0 were found to enhance thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin III. The effect of sulfated fucans on thrombin inhibition, which was similar to those of heparinoid Clexane(®) (enoxaparin) and of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina latissima studied previously, can be explained by the multicenter interaction and formation of a ternary complex thrombin-antithrombin III-polysaccharide. The possibility of such complexation was confirmed by computer docking study. PMID:26572418

  17. Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

  18. Decorin and chondroitin-6 sulfate inhibit B16V melanoma cell migration and invasion by cellular acidification.

    PubMed

    Stock, Christian; Jungmann, Oliver; Seidler, Daniela G

    2011-10-01

    In vivo, cells are embedded in an environment generated and maintained by multiple cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. While transiting the dermis metastasizing melanoma cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblasts. To study the roles of ECM components and fibroblasts in melanoma (B16V) cell migration and invasion, we established a co-culture system consisting of fibroblasts, their collagen-rich matrix and B16V cells. The crosstalk between B16V cells and fibroblasts was indicated by a clear increase in release and activity of matrix-metallo-protease-2. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that in B16V cells exposed to either decorin or chondroitin sulfates migration and invasion decreased by more than 50%. Decorin led to a reversible, chondroitin-6-sulfate to an irreversible, cytosolic acidification of B16V cells. Interestingly, decorin lowered NHE1 activity whereas chondroitin-6-sulfate did not. Furthermore, decorin and chondroitin-6-sulfate also acidified the pH at the cell surface which might prevent migration due to strong adhesion. In conclusion, the present co-culture system is an appropriate tool to analyze migration, invasion, and MMP release depending on cell-matrix interactions and the crosstalk between the invasive cells and those surrounded by their self-made matrix. We show a so far unknown function of decorin and chondroitin-6-sulfate: their ability to inhibit B16V cell migration by intracellular acidification. PMID:21792923

  19. Inhibition of vagally mediated immune-to-brain signaling by vanadyl sulfate speeds recovery from sickness.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel R; O'Connor, Jason C; Dantzer, Robert; Freund, Gregory G

    2005-10-18

    To the ill patient with diabetes, the behavioral symptoms of sickness such as fatigue and apathy are debilitating and can prevent recuperation. Here we report that peripherally administered insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) attenuates LPS-dependent depression of social exploration (sickness) in nondiabetic (db/+) but not in diabetic (db/db) mice. We show that the insulin/IGF-1 mimetic vanadyl sulfate (VS) is effective at augmenting recovery from sickness in both db/+ and db/db mice. Specifically, peak illness was reached at 2 h for both VS and control animals injected with LPS, and VS mice recovered 50% faster than non-VS-treated animals. Examination of the mechanism of VS action in db/+ mice showed that VS paradoxically augmented peritoneal macrophage responsivity to LPS, increasing both peritoneal and ex vivo macrophage production of IL-1beta and IL-6 but not TNF-alpha. The effects of VS in promoting recovery from sickness were not restricted to LPS, because they were also observed after direct administration of IL-1beta. To explore the possibility that VS impairs immune-to-brain communication via vagal afferents, the vagally mediated satiety-inducing effects of cholecystokinin 8 were tested in db/+ mice. Cholecystokinin decreased food intake in saline-injected mice but not in VS-treated mice. VS also inhibited LPS-dependent up-regulation of IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA in the brain, while increasing by 50% the cerebral expression of transcripts of the specific antagonist of IL-1 receptors IL-1RA and IL-1R2. Taken together, these data indicate that VS improves recovery from LPS-induced sickness by blocking vagally mediated immune-to-brain signaling and by up-regulating brain expression of IL-1beta antagonists. PMID:16217019

  20. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  1. Momordica charantia polysaccharides could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Juanjuan; Sun, Fumou; Li, Yihang; Zhou, Xiaoling; Duan, Zhenzhen; Duan, Fugang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hansen; Qi, Suhua; Shen, Jiangang

    2015-04-01

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a medicinal plant for stroke treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but its active compounds and molecular targets are unknown yet. M. charantia polysaccharide (MCP) is one of the important bioactive components in MC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through scavenging superoxide (O2(-)), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3) signaling cascades. We conducted experiments with in vivo global and focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat models and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) neural cells. The effects of MCP on apoptotic cell death and infarction volume, the bioactivities of scavenging O2(-), NO and ONOO(-), inhibiting lipid peroxidation and modulating JNK3 signaling pathway were investigated. Major results are summarized as below: (1) MCP dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death in neural cells under OGD condition in vitro and reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains in vivo; (2) MCP had directing scavenging effects on NO, O2(-) and ONOO(-) and inhibited lipid peroxidation; (3) MCP inhibited the activations of JNK3/c-Jun/Fas-L and JNK3/cytochrome C/caspases-3 signaling cascades in ischemic brains in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that MCP could be a promising neuroprotective ingredient of M. charantia and its mechanisms could be at least in part attributed to its antioxidant activities and inhibiting JNK3 signaling cascades during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25510970

  2. The excreted polysaccharide of Pleurotus eryngii inhibits the foam-cell formation via down-regulation of CD36.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Yong, Yangyang; Xia, Xian; Wang, Zeliang; Liang, Youxing; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Previous study has verified the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Pleurotus eryngii (PEPE) is capable of decreasing the lipid content in both of cell-line and mouse model. However, little is known about underlying mechanisms and whether this bioactive polysaccharide exists in submerged culture. Here, we verified the excreted polysaccharides EP and EP-1 from submersion culture of P. eryngii have the remarkable inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells. Structure analysis indicates EP-1 consists of D-types of glucose, galactose and mannose with the main ?(1 ? 3)-glucan glycosidic linkage branched at O-6 by ?-D-glucose while EP digested by ?-1,3-glucanase fails to decrease the lipid accumulation, suggesting that the special structure is essential for its function. Expression analysis suggests that EP is able to cause the down-regulation of the scavenger receptor-CD36 on both transcription and protein levels. Most importantly, EP can be obtained by fermentation in a mass-production. PMID:25129711

  3. Mechanisms of direct inhibition of the respiratory sulfate-reduction pathway by (per)chlorate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Hans K; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Hazra, Amrita B; Justice, Nicholas B; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Iavarone, Anthony T; Engelbrektson, Anna; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

    2015-06-01

    We investigated perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) and chlorate (ClO(3)(-)) (collectively (per)chlorate) in comparison with nitrate as potential inhibitors of sulfide (H(2)S) production by mesophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs). We demonstrate the specificity and potency of (per)chlorate as direct SRM inhibitors in both pure cultures and undefined sulfidogenic communities. We demonstrate that (per)chlorate and nitrate are antagonistic inhibitors and resistance is cross-inducible implying that these compounds share at least one common mechanism of resistance. Using tagged-transposon pools we identified genes responsible for sensitivity and resistance in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We found that mutants in Dde_2702 (Rex), a repressor of the central sulfate-reduction pathway were resistant to both (per)chlorate and nitrate. In general, Rex derepresses its regulon in response to increasing intracellular NADH:NAD(+) ratios. In cells in which respiratory sulfate reduction is inhibited, NADH:NAD(+) ratios should increase leading to derepression of the sulfate-reduction pathway. In support of this, in (per)chlorate or nitrate-stressed wild-type G20 we observed higher NADH:NAD(+) ratios, increased transcripts and increased peptide counts for genes in the core Rex regulon. We conclude that one mode of (per)chlorate and nitrate toxicity is as direct inhibitors of the central sulfate-reduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that (per)chlorate are more potent inhibitors than nitrate in both pure cultures and communities, implying that they represent an attractive alternative for controlling sulfidogenesis in industrial ecosystems. Of these, perchlorate offers better application logistics because of its inhibitory potency, solubility, relative chemical stability, low affinity for mineral cations and high mobility in environmental systems. PMID:25405978

  4. INHIBITION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION BY SULFATE REDUCTION IN MICROCOSMS (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High sulfate (>1,000 mg/L) concentrations are potentially problematic for field implementation of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes because its reduction competes for electron donor with reductive dechlorination. As a result of this competition, reductive dechl...

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits adult neurogenesis and is regulated by fractone-associated heparan sulfates in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Douet, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    Fractones are extracellular matrix structures that display a fractal ultrastructure and that are visualized as puncta after immunolabeling for laminin or heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In the adult brain, fractones are found throughout the subventricular zone (SVZ). The role of fractones is just emerging. We have recently shown that fractones sequester fibroblast growth factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 from the brain ventricles to regulate cell proliferation in the SVZ of the lateral ventricle, the primary neural stem cell niche and neurogenic zone in adulthood. Here, we have examined in vivo the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) on cell proliferation in the SVZ and we have determined whether BMP-4 interacts with fractones to promote this effect. To examine BMP-4 effect on cell proliferation, BMP-4 was intracerebroventricularly injected, and bromodeoxyuridine immunolabeling was performed on frozen sections of the adult mouse brain. To identify the location of BMP-4 binding, biotinylated-BMP-4 was injected, and its binding localized post-mortem with streptavidin, Texas red conjugate. Injection of heparitinase-1 was used to desulfate fractones and determine whether the binding and the effect of BMP-4 on cell proliferation are heparan sulfate-dependent. BMP-4 inhibited cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic zone. Biotinylated-BMP-4 bound to fractones and some adjacent blood vessels. Co-injection of heparitinase-1 and biotinylated-BMP-4 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-4, indicating that the binding was heparan sulfate dependent. Moreover, preventing the binding of BMP-4 to fractones by heparitinase-1 reinforced the inhibitory effect of BMP-4 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. These results show that BMP-4 inhibits cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic zone and that the binding of BMP-4 to fractone-associated heparan sulfates moderates this inhibitory effect. Together with our previous results, these data support the view that fractones capture growth factors and modulate their activity in the neural tissues lining the ventricles. PMID:24681169

  6. Inhibition of in vitro adhesion and virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis by aqueous extract and polysaccharides from Rhododendron ferrugineum L. A new way for prophylaxis of periodontitis?

    PubMed

    Löhr, G; Beikler, T; Hensel, A

    2015-12-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract from the leaves of Rhododendron ferrugineum (RF) was investigated for its capacity of inhibiting the adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells to epithelial buccal KB cells. RF was characterized by HPLC (12.1% taxifolin-3-O-?-l-arabinopyranoside, 1.6% hyperoside, 0.9% isoquercitrin, 1.6% chlorogenic acid and a tannin content of 8.7%). Additionally raw polysaccharides (RPS) were obtained from the leaves of R. ferrugineum by aqueous extraction. RF and RPS interacted in a dose-dependent manner (max. 25% reduction at 1mg/ml each) with the adhesion of P. gingivalis by influencing bacterial outer membrane proteins. On protein level a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of Arg-gingipain activity by RF was observed, while the Lys-gingipain activity remained unaltered. In addition, RF and RPS inhibited the bacterial hemagglutinin. RF affected the P. gingivalis adhesion also by interacting with KB cells in pre-incubation assays of the eukaryotic host cells, leading to reduced bacterial adhesion of about 75%. Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR indicated significant downregulation for arginine-specific gingipain rgpA by RF, while lysin-specific gingipain kgp and fimbrillinA fimA were strongly upregulated. Moreover, pre-incubation with RF abolished the P. gingivalis induced expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF? in KB cells. Results of this study indicate that an aqueous extract from R. ferrugineum combines cytoprotective and antimicrobial effects by both downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibiting the adhesion of P. gingivalis. Thus RF may be potential candidate for the development of an adjunctive antimicrobial approach in the prevention of periodontal diseases. PMID:26522852

  7. The in ovo conversion of oestrone to oestrone sulfate is rapid and subject to inhibition by Bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M

    2015-04-01

    Vertebrate embryos develop in the presence of maternally derived steroids. While these steroids can influence development, embryonic enzymes are thought to buffer some steroid sensitive processes, such as gonadal differentiation, from the effects of maternal steroids. Many of these same enzymes may also buffer the embryo from chemicals present in the environment, but this may alter their capacity to metabolize maternal steroids. Here, we characterized the ability of red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta) embryos to metabolize oestrone immediately following oviposition and tested whether a prevalent environmental chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA), would affect the in ovo conversion of oestrone to oestrone sulfate. We found that tritiated oestrone applied at the time of oviposition is mostly converted to oestrone sulfate within 6 h. However, when BPA is present, that conversion is inhibited, resulting in elevated oestrone levels. Our finding of rapid in ovo metabolism of steroids suggests that maternally derived enzymes are present in the egg and can alter embryonic exposure to exogenous chemicals. The disruption of this metabolism by BPA demonstrates how environmental chemicals might change embryonic exposure to endogenous substances within the egg. Taken together, these findings highlight the dynamic nature of the early endocrine environment in developing vertebrates. PMID:25904318

  8. The predominant molecular state of bound enzyme determines the strength and type of product inhibition in the hydrolysis of recalcitrant polysaccharides by processive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kuusk, Silja; Sørlie, Morten; Väljamäe, Priit

    2015-05-01

    Processive enzymes are major components of the efficient enzyme systems that are responsible for the degradation of the recalcitrant polysaccharides cellulose and chitin. Despite intensive research, there is no consensus on which step is rate-limiting for these enzymes. Here, we performed a comparative study of two well characterized enzymes, the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina and the chitinase ChiA from Serratia marcescens. Both enzymes were inhibited by their disaccharide product, namely chitobiose for ChiA and cellobiose for Cel7A. The products behaved as noncompetitive inhibitors according to studies using the (14)C-labeled crystalline polymeric substrates (14)C chitin nanowhiskers and (14)C-labeled bacterial microcrystalline cellulose for ChiA and Cel7A, respectively. The resulting observed Ki (obs) values were 0.45 ± 0.08 mm for ChiA and 0.17 ± 0.02 mm for Cel7A. However, in contrast to ChiA, the Ki (obs) of Cel7A was an order of magnitude higher than the true Ki value governed by the thermodynamic stability of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Theoretical analysis of product inhibition suggested that the inhibition strength and pattern can be accounted for by assuming different rate-limiting steps for ChiA and Cel7A. Measuring the population of enzymes whose active site was occupied by a polymer chain revealed that Cel7A was bound predominantly via its active site. Conversely, the active-site-mediated binding of ChiA was slow, and most ChiA exhibited a free active site, even when the substrate concentration was saturating for the activity. Collectively, our data suggest that complexation with the polymer chain is rate-limiting for ChiA, whereas Cel7A is limited by dissociation. PMID:25767120

  9. Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

  10. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-C.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, K.-M.

    2008-03-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

  11. Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

    2015-01-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

  12. Polysaccharide Krestin is a novel TLR2 agonist that mediates inhibition of tumor growth via stimulation of CD8 T cells and NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Gad, Ekram; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Chang, Amy; Larson, Emily R.; Dang, Yushe; Martzen, Mark; Standish, Leanna J.; Disis, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Polysaccharide Krestin (PSK) is a mushroom extract that has been long used in Asia and recently in Western countries as a treatment for cancer due to its presumed immune potentiating effects. Although there have been reports of clinical responses after patients have ingested PSK, the mechanism of action of the agent remains undefined. The current study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of the anti-tumor actions of PSK. Experimental Design The immunostimulatory effect of PSK was first evaluated in vitro using splenocytes from neu transgenic mice and TLR2 knockout (TLR2?/?) mice. Then the immunostimualtory and anti-tumor effect of PSK was determined using tumor-bearing neu transgenic mice, TLR2?/? and wild type C57BL/6 mice. Results We demonstrate that PSK is a selective TLR2 agonist, and the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and T cells by PSK is dependent on TLR2. Oral administration of PSK in neu transgenic mice significantly inhibits breast cancer growth. Selective depletion of specific cell populations suggests that the anti-tumor effect of PSK is dependent on both CD8+ T cell and NK cells, but not CD4+ T cells. PSK does not inhibit tumor growth in TLR2?/? mice suggesting the anti-tumor effect is mediated by TLR2. Conclusion These results demonstrate that PSK, a natural product commonly used for the treatment of cancer, is a specific TLR2 agonist and has potent anti-tumor effects via stimulation of both innate and adaptive immune pathways. PMID:21068144

  13. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and inhibits prostate cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiong; Li, Zhuoneng; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Fan; Xu, Ruo-Jun; Cai, Yi-Zhong

    2009-08-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are important functional constituents in red-colored fruits of L. barbarum (Guo Qi Zi, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant commonly known as Goji berry or wolfberry). The influence of LBP on human prostate cancer cells was systematically investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro effects of LBP on two cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) were examined by using trypan blue exclusion staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and immunohistochemical assay (assessment of Bcl-2 and Bax expression). The in vivo effect of LBP on PC-3 cells was assessed in the nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The in vitro results showed that LBP can dose- and time-dependently inhibit the growth of both PC-3 and DU-145 cells. LBP caused the breakage of DNA strands of PC-3 and DU-145 cells; the tail frequency and tail length were significantly higher than that of control cells. LBP also markedly induced PC-3 and DU-145 cell apoptosis, with the highest apoptosis rates at 41.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression following LBP treatments decreased significantly with a dose-effect relationship, which suggested that LBP can regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax to induce apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The in vivo experimental results indicate that LBP might significantly inhibit PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice. Both the tumor volume and weight of the LBP treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group. PMID:19735167

  14. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huheihel, Mahmoud; Ishanu, Vladimir; Tal, Jacov; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not show any cytotoxic effects on vero cells even when a concentration as high as 250 microg/ml was used. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the polysaccharide and HSV and a weak interaction with the cell surface. When tested in vivo, Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide conferred significant and efficient protection against HSV-1 infection: at a concentration as low as 100 microg/ml, it prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of HSV-1 infection in rats and rabbits. The polysaccharide did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in vivo. PMID:11741707

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

  16. Polysaccharide Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  17. A polysaccharide isolated from Ecklonia cava fermented by Lactobacillus brevis inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor-?B in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Woo; Ahn, Ginnae; Arachchillage, Janaka Priyalal Wijesinghe; Kim, Young Mog; Kim, Se-Kwon; Lee, Bae-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-12-01

    We previously reported that the increment of carbohydrate content in the Viscozyme(®) L (Novozyme Corp., Oklahoma City, OK, USA) extract of Lactobacillus brevis-fermented Ecklonia cava affected the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production and that it might be related to the polysaccharide compound. However, there is no report of anti-inflammatory effects of the polysaccharide or its biological mechanism. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the polysaccharide and its biological mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The polysaccharide isolated from the Viscozyme extract of L. brevis-fermented E. cava (VLFEP) dose-dependently decreased LPS-stimulated NO production without cytotoxicity. Also, VLFEP significantly decreased the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) at the 100 ?g/mL concentration. In addition, VLFEP dose-dependently decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible NO synthase, whereas it slightly decreased those of cyclooxygenase 2 and only at the 100 ?g/mL concentration. Moreover, VLEFP dose-dependently decreased the productions and/or mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, compared with those of LPS only-stimulated cells. In further experiments, VLFEP considerably reduced the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory ?B as well as the translocation of nuclear transcription factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 into the nucleus, and its DNA binding was markedly induced by LPS stimulation. This study suggests that VLFEP exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating the production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via inhibiting the NF-?B pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:22145773

  18. Chemical structure and anticoagulant activity of highly pyruvylated sulfated galactans from tropical green seaweeds of the order Bryopsidales.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Canelón, Dilsia J; Vera, Beatriz E; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-05-20

    Sulfated and pyruvylated galactans were isolated from three tropical species of the Bryopsidales, Penicillus capitatus, Udotea flabellum, and Halimeda opuntia. They represent the only important sulfated polysaccharides present in the cell walls of these highly calcified seaweeds of the suborder Halimedineae. Their structural features were studied by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. Their backbone comprises 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linkages, constituted by major amounts of 3-linked 4,6-O-(1'-carboxy)ethylidene-d-galactopyranose units in part sulfated on C-2. Sulfation on C-2 was not found in galactans from other seaweeds of this order. In addition, a complex sulfation pattern, comprising also 4-, 6-, and 4,6-disulfated galactose units was found. A fraction from P. capitatus, F1, showed a moderate anticoagulant activity, evaluated by general coagulation tests and also kinetics of fibrin formation was assayed. Besides, preliminary results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms involved is direct thrombin inhibition. PMID:25817682

  19. Oleanolic acid ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by restoring the balance of Th17/Treg cells and inhibiting NF-?B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geum-Dan; Lim, Sumin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    In a preliminary experiment, it was found that oleanolic acid (OA), which is widely distributed in food and medicinal plants, inhibited interleukin (IL)-6/tumor growth factor beta-induced differentiation of splenic T cells into Th17 cells. Moreover, OA induced the differentiation of splenic T cells into Treg cells. Therefore, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of OA in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of OA significantly inhibited DSS-induced colon shortening, macroscopic score, and myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with OA inhibited DSS-induced differentiation to Th17 cells and downregulated the expression of ROR?t and IL-17 in the lamina propria of colon and Treg cell differentiation and Foxp3 and IL-10 expression were increased. OA treatment increased the DSS-suppressed expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 in the colon. Moreover, OA treatment inhibited DSS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-17, the activation of NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and increased IL-10 expression. OA also inhibited the activation of NF-?B and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest that OA may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and increasing Treg cell differentiation. PMID:26514300

  20. The marked inhibition of the bitter taste of Polymyxin B sulfate and trimethoprim x sulfamethoxazole by flavored BMI-60 in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Hoshi, M; Igarashi, A; Ogata, H; Edo, K

    1999-09-01

    Taste acceptability of ground Polymyxin B sulfate and Bactramin C tablets was examined when flavored BMI-60, a food additive, was added. Both adult and child volunteers found the bitter taste of the two drugs markedly inhibited, making it clinically useful. Noncompliance, due to this bitterness, was improved using flavored BMI-60. The most striking characteristic of flavored BMI-60 is the ease of preparation compared with the manufacture of other hospital pharmaceuticals such as jelly, gummi and candy done to mask bitterness. PMID:10513631

  1. Isolation, chemical investigation and antiviral activity of polysaccharides from Gracilaria corticata (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Sutapa; Ghosal, Prodyut K; Pujol, Carlos A; Carlucci, María J; Damonte, Elsa B; Ray, Bimalendu

    2002-12-20

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from the agarophyte Gracilaria corticata. Chemical analysis combined with infrared spectroscopy showed that the cold water extracted material consists mainly of a high molecular weight sulfated galactan. Most of the sulfate groups are alkali labile and are located at C-4 of the 1,3-linked D-galactose units and C-6 of the 1,4-linked L-galactose residues. The autoclaved extracts contain agar type polysaccharide having a high pyruvate content and a variable degree of methylation, but were contaminated with floridean starch. 1H-NMR studies indicate that methoxyl groups, when present, occur at C-6 of the 1,3-linked D-galactose units and C-2 of the 1,4-linked L-galactose residues of agar polymer. Bioassays showed that a high molecular weight galactan sulfate, exhibited selective antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, likely due to an inhibition of the initial virus attachment to the host cell. PMID:12559431

  2. Structural elucidation of polysaccharide fractions from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii and in vitro investigation of their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Imbs, Tatiana I; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Malyarenko Vishchuk, Olesya S; Isakov, Vladimir V; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N

    2016-01-01

    Laminaran, fucoidan, and alginate were isolated from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii collected in the Japan Sea. The structural characteristics of polysaccharides were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The laminaran was determined as ?-d-glucan, which consisted of 80% of 1,3- and 20% of 1,6-linked residues and was terminated with mannitol. The alginate was a guluronic acid-rich polysaccharide (M/G=0.85). Fucoidan, sulfated ?-l-fucan, contained a linear backbone of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)- linked ?-l-fucopyranose residues with sulfate at C2 and C4 of (1?3)-?-l-fucopyranose residues. Anticancer activity of this fucoidan was investigated in comparison with activity of fucoidan having similar linear backbone from the brown alga Fucus evanescens. The fucoidan from C. langsdorfii significantly inhibited colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells (the percentage of inhibition was 28 and 76, respectively) and weakly inhibited colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 (the percentage of inhibition was about 5). Similar results were obtained for fucoidan from F. evanescens; the percentage of inhibition of colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 54 and 56, respectively. The inhibition of colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 was weak. We suppose that other sulfated and partially acetylated fucoidans consisting of (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranose residues may suppress progression of melanoma cell colony formation similar to fucoidans of C. langsdorfii and F. evanescens. PMID:26453864

  3. The Ability of Insulin To Inhibit the Formation of Amyloid by Pro-Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Processing Intermediates Is Significantly Reduced in the Presence of Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is responsible for amyloid deposition in type 2 diabetes and plays an important role in the loss of ?-cell mass associated with the disease and in the failure of islet transplants, but the mechanism of islet amyloid formation is not understood. The incorrect processing of proIAPP to produce partially processed forms of the peptide has been proposed to play a role in the initiation of islet amyloid in vivo by promoting interactions with proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Insulin is a potent inhibitor of the formation of amyloid by IAPP in vitro in a homogeneous solution; however, its ability to inhibit IAPP in the presence of proteoglycans has not been tested, nor has its effect on the formation of amyloid by proIAPP processing intermediates been examined. Here we show that insulin is a much less effective amyloid inhibitor of both IAPP and proIAPP processing intermediates in vitro in the presence of model glycosaminoglycans, but does inhibit the formation of amyloid by proIAPP processing intermediates in a homogeneous solution. This highlights another mechanism by which sulfated proteoglycans could enhance islet amyloid formation in vivo. Interactions with sulfated proteoglycans can directly promote amyloid formation and can also significantly reduce the effectiveness of natural inhibitors. PMID:24654599

  4. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans May Promote or Inhibit Cancer Progression by Interacting with Integrins and Affecting Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mariana A.; Teixeira, Felipe C. O. B.; Fontes, Miguel; Arêas, Ana Lúcia; Leal, Marcelo G.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.; Stelling, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    The metastatic disease is one of the main consequences of tumor progression, being responsible for most cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review intends to present and discuss data on the relationship between integrins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in health and cancer progression. Integrins are a family of cell surface transmembrane receptors, responsible for cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. Integrins' main functions include cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are cell surface molecules that play important roles as cell receptors, cofactors, and overall direct or indirect contributors to cell organization. Both molecules can act in conjunction to modulate cell behavior and affect malignancy. In this review, we will discuss the different contexts in which various integrins, such as ?5, ?V, ?1, and ?3, interact with HSPGs species, such as syndecans and perlecans, affecting tissue homeostasis. PMID:26558271

  5. A procoagulant chemically sulfated mannan.

    PubMed

    Gracher, Ana Helena P; Santana, Aline G; Cipriani, Thales R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Disorders of hemostasis can produce innumerous problems. Polysaccharides have been studied both as anticoagulant and as procoagulant agents. A mannan with a main chain of ?-(1?6)-linked-Manp units, branched at O-2 mainly by side-chains of 2-O-linked-?-Manp units was chemically sulfated, structurally characterized by NMR and GC-MS (methylation, desulfation and methylation with trideuterated iodomethane), and tested in vitro and in vivo on blood coagulation models. Chemical analyses indicate a high degree of substitution on the sulfated polysaccharide. This polymer acted as a procoagulant agent, increasing blood coagulation in normal and hemophilic plasma, activated platelet aggregation and also decreased ex vivo aPTT. Polymers such as the sulfated mannan could be a helpful source of hemostatic agents to prevent hemorrhagic states. PMID:26572344

  6. Human Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Heparan Sulfate Chains of Glypican-3 Inhibits HGF-Mediated Migration and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Heungnam; Ho, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) participate in many processes related to tumor development, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. HSPGs contain one or more heparan sulfate (HS) chains that are covalently linked to a core protein. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell surface-associated HSPG that is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). GPC3 is involved in Wnt3a-dependent HCC cell proliferation. Our previous study reported that HS20, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HS chains on GPC3, inhibited Wnt3a/?-catenin activation. In the current study, we showed that the HS chains of GPC3 could mediate HCC cells’ migration and motility. Knocking down GPC3 or targeting the HS chains by HS20 inhibited HCC cell migration and motility. However, HS20 had no effect on GPC3 knockdown cells or GPC3 negative cells. In addition, an antibody that recognizes the core protein of GPC3 did not change the rate of cell motility. HCC cell migration and motility did not respond to either canonical or non-canonical Wnt induction, but did increase under hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment. HS20-treated HCC cells exhibited less ability for HGF-mediated migration and motility. Furthermore, HS20 inhibited in vitro HCC spheroid formation and liver tumor growth in mice. GPC3 interacted with HGF; however, a mutant GPC3 lacking the HS chain showed less interaction with HGF. Blocking the HS chains on GPC3 with HS20 reduced c-Met activation in HGF-treated HCC cells and 3D-cultured spheroids. Taken together, our study suggests that GPC3 is involved in HCC cell migration and motility through HS chain-mediated cooperation with the HGF/Met pathway, showing how HS targeting has potential therapeutic implications for liver cancer. PMID:26332121

  7. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  8. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  9. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

  10. Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, So?a; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Mach?, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health. PMID:22909979

  11. Effect of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide on malignant cell transformation by Moloney murine sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, M; Arad, S

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide produced by the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was highly inhibitory for cell transformation of mouse fibroblast cells by an MSV-124 virus stock. This inhibition was most effective if the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. Addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection. These findings support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration. PMID:11497300

  12. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  13. Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1?3)-?-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M.; Ciancia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A highly sulfated 3-linked ?-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

  14. Prevention of acid drainage from stored coal. [Inhibition of bacterial action by treatment with a solution of sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.; Bell, T.L.; Longaker, J.J.

    1983-06-01

    A method has been identified for controlling acid production and subsequent dissolution of toxic pollutants in drainage from coal storage piles. Results of laboratory and field experiments indicate that it may be possible to prevent, rather than treat, acid drainage by periodically applying an environmentally safe detergent formulation to the coal. These experiments showed that a mild solution of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) effectively blocks the activity of the bacteria that promote acid formation and chemical leaching. Drainage from coal treated once with 50 mg/L of SLS remained neutral for 60 days, about three times longer than the untreated control sample. An extrapolation of results to an industrial-scale application revealed that the cost of the SLS needed for a single application would likely be no more than $200 per acre of coal storage area ($500 per hectare ) or, expressed per unit weight of coal, $4,000 per million metric tons.

  15. Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Cumpstey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives. PMID:24151557

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-O-endosulfatase from a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshuang; Han, Wenjun; Cai, Xingya; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2015-03-20

    Sulfatases are potentially useful tools for structure-function studies of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To date, various GAG exosulfatases have been identified in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, endosulfatases that act on GAGs have rarely been reported. Recently, a novel HA and CS lyase (HCLase) was identified for the first time from a marine bacterium (Han, W., Wang, W., Zhao, M., Sugahara, K., and Li, F. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 27886-27898). In this study, a putative sulfatase gene, closely linked to the hclase gene in the genome, was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. The recombinant protein showed a specific N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfatase activity that removes 4-O-sulfate from both disaccharides and polysaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting that this sulfatase represents a novel endosulfatase. The novel endosulfatase exhibited maximal reaction rate in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 30 °C and effectively removed 17-65% of 4-O-sulfates from various CS and DS and thus significantly inhibited the interactions of CS and DS with a positively supercharged fluorescent protein. Moreover, this endosulfatase significantly promoted the digestion of CS by HCLase, suggesting that it enhances the digestion of CS/DS by the bacterium. Therefore, this endosulfatase is a potential tool for use in CS/DS-related studies and applications. PMID:25648894

  17. Zinc specifically stimulates the selective binding of a peptide analog of bindin to sulfated fucans.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, P L; Glabe, C G

    1990-01-01

    A synthetic nonapeptide (Leu-Arg-His-Leu-Arg-His-His-Ser-Asn) derived from the sequence of the sea urchin sperm adhesive protein, bindin, has been shown to bind sulfated fucans in high ionic strength (seawater) conditions. The binding is enhanced by approximately 100-fold in the presence of zinc ions, and no other transition metal tested demonstrates any enhancement. Bindin isolated from sperm contains zinc ion at roughly equimolar concentrations. In the presence of Zn++, the synthetic nonapeptide binds to eggs and inhibits fertilization with a half-maximal effective concentration of 300 microM. The polysaccharide binding selectivity of the peptide/Zn++ complex is similar to bindin but less stringent. Although the order of effectiveness of the inhibitory polysaccharides is the same for bindin and the synthetic peptide, polysaccharides that are only weak inhibitors of fucan binding to bindin show greater effectiveness against the peptide. The effect of chemical modification, pH, and amino acid substitution on the binding properties of the peptide suggest that arginine guanido moieties interact with the sulfated fucans, while histidine groups chelate zinc ions. Although the mechanism of zinc-specific stimulation of fucan binding is not yet clear, one potential explanation is that zinc may stabilize a peptide secondary structure that has a high affinity for fucans. PMID:2134050

  18. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum. PMID:25954912

  19. PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate, diminishes contact hypersensitivity responses through inhibition of L- and P-selectin functions.

    PubMed

    Alban, Susanne; Ludwig, Ralf J; Bendas, Gerd; Schön, Michael P; Oostingh, Gertie J; Radeke, Heinfried H; Fritzsche, Juliane; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is initiated by an interaction of selectin adhesion molecules and appropriate carbohydrate ligands. Targeting those interactions seems a promising approach to treat chronic inflammation. We developed a beta-1, 3-glucan sulfate (PS3) with inhibitory activity toward L and P-selectins under static conditions. Here, detailed investigation showed inhibition of P- and L-selectins, but not E-selectin under flow conditions (relative reduction of interaction with appropriate ligands to 34.4+/-16.6, 8.5+/-3.6, or 99.5+/-9.9%, respectively, by PS3 for P-, L- or E-selectin). Intravital microscopy revealed reduction of leukocyte rolling in skin microvasculature from 22.7+/-5.0 to 12.6+/-4.0% after injection of PS3. In the next experiments, mice were sensitized with 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), and lymphocytes were transferred into syngeneic recipients, which were challenged by DNFB. Inflammatory responses were reduced when immunity was generated in mice treated with PS3 or in L-selectin-deficient mice. No effect was observed when L-selectin-deficient donor mice were treated with PS3, further suggesting that PS3 acted primarily through inhibition of L-selectin. Elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity response was reduced in P-selectin-deficient and in PS3-treated mice. Again, PS3 had no effect in P-selectin-deficient mice. PS3 is a potent P- and L-selectin inhibitor that may add to the therapy of inflammatory diseases. PMID:19052560

  20. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Researchers ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  1. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  2. Chemical composition and moisture-absorption/retention ability of polysaccharides extracted from five algae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Hou, Yun; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we prepared seven polysaccharides extracted from five algae including one brown alga Saccharina japonica, one red alga Porphyra haitanensis and three green algae Codium fragile, Enteromorpha linza and Bryopsis plumose. The chemical composition and capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention were investigated in comparison with those of hyaluronic acid (HA). The low molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed exhibited the highest moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities of all of the polysaccharides studied and performed better than HA. The relationships between chemical composition (including sulfated groups, monosaccharide, and molecular weight) and the functions of polysaccharides were also studied. We found the sulfated group was a main active site for moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities. These abilities were also related to molecular weight; with the exception of the low molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed, lower molecular weight improved moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities. PMID:23500437

  3. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+)  CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+)  CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+)  CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+)  CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+)  CD25(-) cells into CD4(+)  CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+)  CD11b(+) MDSCs. PMID:26194418

  4. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  5. Inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis by the sinR orthologue PGN_0088 is indirectly associated with the penetration of Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms by macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Reiko; Noiri, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Mikiyo; Asahi, Yoko; Maezono, Hazuki; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2015-02-01

    Microbes commonly adhere to surfaces, aggregate in self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and live in biofilms. Periodontitis is a serious oral infection that is initiated by the formation of biofilms by Porphyromonas gingivalis. EPS act as a barrier that protects biofilm-forming cells against sources of stress, including those induced by host immune cells and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, drugs intended to kill such micro-organisms cannot be used for the treatment of biofilm infections. Our previous studies revealed that subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of two macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, AZM and erythromycin, ERY) reduced P. gingivalis biofilms. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Bacillus subtilis sinR orthologue (PGN_0088) inhibits the synthesis of carbohydrates that are components of EPS in P. gingivalis biofilms. Here, we constructed a novel sinR mutant from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and reveal that the increased abundance of carbohydrate in EPS of the mutant led to a reduced infiltration rate of AZM and ERY through EPS, and consequently elevated biofilm resistance to these macrolides. Detailed elucidation of the interaction between the product of the sinR gene and EPS will assist in the development of novel approaches that target EPS to prevent and inhibit the formation of biofilms. PMID:25500494

  6. Polysaccharides from the green seaweed Codium decorticatum. Structure and cell wall distribution.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Paula Virginia; Raffo, María Paula; Alberghina, Josefina; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall polysaccharides from Codium decorticatum and their assembly were studied and these results were compared with those obtained previously for this genus. The water soluble polysaccharides are: (i) Pyruvylated and sulfated 3- and 6-linked ?-D-galactans with sulfate mainly on C-4 and also on C-6. Pyruvate ketals are linked to O-3 and O-4 of terminal ?-D-galactose or O-4 and O-6 of 3-linked ?-D-galactose. (ii) Sulfated 3-linked ?-L-arabinans substituted on C-2 or C-2 and C-4 predominantly with sulfate, but also with single stubs of arabinose, and (iii) 4-linked ?-D-mannans with a low degree of sulfation on C-2. The whole polysaccharide system comprises 6.9% of sulfated polysaccharides and 32.9% of fibrillar polysaccharides, mostly insoluble mannans. By in situ localization it was possible to detect two similar fibrillar layers separated by a zone rich in charged polymers. Besides, arabinogalactan proteins co-localized with the fibrillar components. PMID:25498707

  7. Structure, biology, evolution, and medical importance of sulfated fucans and galactans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2008-12-01

    Sulfated fucans and galactans are strongly anionic polysaccharides found in marine organisms. Their structures vary among species, but their major features are conserved among phyla. Sulfated fucans are found in marine brown algae and echinoderms, whereas sulfated galactans occur in red and green algae, marine angiosperms, tunicates (ascidians), and sea urchins. Polysaccharides with 3-linked, beta-galactose units are highly conserved in some taxonomic groups of marine organisms and show a strong tendency toward 4-sulfation in algae and marine angiosperms, and 2-sulfation in invertebrates. Marine algae mainly express sulfated polysaccharides with complex, heterogeneous structures, whereas marine invertebrates synthesize sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans with regular repetitive structures. These polysaccharides are structural components of the extracellular matrix. Sulfated fucans and galactans are involved in sea urchin fertilization acting as species-specific inducers of the sperm acrosome reaction. Because of this function the structural evolution of sulfated fucans could be a component in the speciation process. The algal and invertebrate polysaccharides are also potent anticoagulant agents of mammalian blood and represent a potential source of compounds for antithrombotic therapies. PMID:18796647

  8. Ulvans induce resistance against plant pathogenic fungi independently of their sulfation degree.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mateus B; Ferreira, Luciana G; Hawerroth, Caroline; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Noseda, Miguel D; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-11-20

    The present work aimed to evaluate the defense responses induced by chemically sulfated ulvans in Arabidopsis thaliana plants against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Colletotrichum higginsianum. Derivatives with growing sulfate content (from 20.9 to 36.6%) were prepared with SO3-pyridine complex in formamide. NMR and FTIR spectroscopic analyses confirmed the increase of sulfate groups after the chemical sulfation process. The native sulfated polysaccharide (18.9% of sulfate) and its chemically sulfated derivatives similarly reduced the severity of both pathogenic fungi infections. Collectively, our results suggest that ulvans induce resistance against both fungal pathogens independently of its sulfation degree. PMID:26344294

  9. Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study. PMID:19307459

  10. Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of ?-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 °C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The ?-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mg·mL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mg·mL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. PMID:24863354

  11. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Research from a couple ... Early evidence suggests that chondroitin, with or without glucosamine hydrochloride, can reduce pain in people with Kashin-Beck ...

  12. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sodium chondroitin sulfate into the bladder through a urinary catheter improves quality of live in people with overactive bladder. Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Early evidence suggests that ... (IALURIL) through a catheter weekly for 4 weeks and then monthly for ...

  13. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be cautious about taking products that contain glucosamine. Diabetes: Some early research suggested that glucosamine sulfate might raise blood sugar in people with diabetes. However, more recent and more reliable research now ...

  14. Inhibition of Amyloid A Amyloidogenesis in Vivo and in Tissue Culture by 4-Deoxy Analogues of Peracetylated 2-Acetamido-2-Deoxy-?- and ?-d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kisilevsky, Robert; Szarek, Walter A.; Ancsin, John B.; Elimova, Elena; Marone, Sandra; Bhat, Shridhar; Berkin, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Two novel sugars, 2-acetamido-1,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-?- and ?-d-xylo-hexopyranoses, have been synthesized and their effects on heparan sulfate biosynthesis using primary mouse hepatocytes in tissue culture have been assessed. At concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/L a mixture of both anomers significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate by 60% and 99%, respectively. At 1.0 mmol/L the average molecular weight of the heparan sulfate synthesized is reduced from 77 kd to 40 kd. The biosynthetic inhibition is apparent within 1 hour (the earliest time point examined) of exposure of the hepatocytes to the analogues and appears virtually complete throughout a 24-hour incubation period. Using a radiolabeled version of the ?-anomer we demonstrate that the analogue is incorporated into growing heparan sulfate chains. The nature of the analogue, the quantity of analogue isotope incorporated, and the reduction in the size of the heparan sulfate polysaccharide are consistent with UDP activation and incorporation of the analogue and truncation of the growing heparan sulfate chain. At 0.1 mmol/L, and in the presence of a constant concentration of serum amyloid A (the precursor to AA amyloid), each analogue inhibited amyloid deposition (by 95 to 99%) in a tissue culture model of AA amyloidogenesis. At 6 mg/dose twice daily each analogue inhibited in vivo splenic AA amyloid deposition by 65 to 70% when using a rapid induction model of mouse AA amyloidogenesis. These data indicate that polysaccharides, such as heparan sulfate, play an integral part in the pathogenesis of AA amyloid deposition, and potentially other forms of amyloid. These data support our previous work that demonstrated that agents that mimic aspects of heparan sulfate structure and that interfere with heparan sulfate:amyloid protein binding inhibit AA amyloid deposition. They emphasize that heparan sulfate likely plays a critical role in amyloidogenesis, and compounds that interfere with heparan sulfate biosynthesis may provide leads for the development of anti-amyloid therapeutic agents. PMID:15161647

  15. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, S. A.; Barker, W. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    1999-05-01

    Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH ? 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH ? 3, below the pK a of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

  16. Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from spent coffee grounds by alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-08-20

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), obtained during the processing of coffee powder with hot water to make soluble coffee, are the main coffee industry residues and retain approximately seventy percent of the polysaccharides present in the roasted coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to extract polysaccharides from SCG by using an alkali pretreatment with sodium hydroxide at 25°C, and determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracted polysaccharides. Galactose (60.27%mol) was the dominant sugar in the recovered polysaccharides, followed by arabinose (19.93%mol), glucose (15.37%mol) and mannose (4.43%mol). SCG polysaccharides were thermostable, and presented a typical carbohydrate pattern. Additionally, they showed good antioxidant activity through different methods and presented high antimicrobial percent inhibition against Phoma violacea and Cladosporium cladosporioides (41.27% and 54.60%, respectively). These findings allow identifying possible applications for these polysaccharides in the food industry. PMID:25965493

  17. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class

    PubMed Central

    Rzeski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896

  18. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  19. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient ? -ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Timothy O.; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2 kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M2 seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion, are necessary to induce the transcription of sulfate assimilation genes during early cadmium stress. PMID:22283708

  1. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1?2) and (1?3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  2. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-04-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1?2) and (1?3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  3. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  4. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, H.S.

    1991-11-01

    Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Gravidity-Dependent Production of Antibodies That Inhibit Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Placental Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil-Dunne, Iona; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Agbor-Enoh, Sean T.; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Zhou, Ainong; Megnekou, Rosette; Leke, Rose; Taylor, Diane W.; Gowda, D. Channe

    2001-01-01

    During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate, creating a risk factor for both the mother and the fetus. The primigravidae are at higher risk for placental malaria than the multigravidae. This difference in susceptibility has been attributed to the lack of antibodies that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin 4-sulfate in primigravid women. However, recent results show that many primigravidae at term have antibody levels similar to those of multigravidae, and thus the significance of antiadhesion antibodies in providing protection against malaria during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed plasma samples from women of various gravidities at different gestational stages for antiadhesion antibodies. The majority of women, regardless of gravidity, had similar levels of antibodies at term. Most primigravidae had low levels of or no antiadhesion antibodies prior to ?20 weeks of pregnancy and then produced antibodies. Multigravidae also lacked antibodies until ?12 weeks of pregnancy, but thereafter they efficiently produced antibodies. In pregnant women who had placental infection at term, higher levels of antiadhesion antibodies correlated with lower levels of placental parasitemia. The difference in kinetics of antibody production between primigravidae and multigravidae correlated with the prevalence of malaria in these groups, suggesting that antibodies are produced during pregnancy in response to placental infection. The early onset of efficient antibody response in multigravidae and the delayed production to antibodies in primigravidae appear to account for the gravidity-dependent differential susceptibilities of pregnant women to placental malaria. PMID:11705924

  6. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Azin; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations. PMID:26484353

  7. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Azin; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations. PMID:26484353

  8. Mediating chemical reactions using polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Lauren E.

    We have studied the NaBH4-mediated hydrogenation of select alkenes catalyzed by polysaccharide-stabilized nanoparticles. We compared the catalytic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles or Au/Co-based nanoparticles on the hydrogenation of cinnamic acid, cinnamide, cinnamyl alcohol, and ethyl cinnamate. We evaluated the possibility that the type of stabilizing polysaccharide surrounding the nanoparticle may affect the selectivity towards the alkene compounds that undergo the hydrogenation reaction. We found that the hydrogenation of cinnamide or ethyl cinnamate proceeded readily to 100% completion independent of the type of polysaccharide stabilizing the nanoparticle. However, the extent of the hydrogenation of cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid varied greatly depending on the type of polysaccharide stabilizing the nanoparticle. In the course of these studies, we observed that some polysaccharides by themselves promoted the hydrolysis of ethyl cinnamate. Thus, we have raised the hypothesis that some polysaccharides may act as "esterases" and explored the interaction between select polysaccharides and a variety of ester compounds.

  9. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in Mikawa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Handa, Nobuhiko

    1985-05-01

    Isolation and chemical elucidation of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in seawater were conducted. The water samples were collected in Mikawa Bay, Japan during a red tide bloom of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum. Dissolved polysaccharides were concentrated from 5-101 of seawater with dialysis followed by separation by gel flitration, and isolation by ethanol precipitation. A heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose and a glucan were isolated from the polysaccharide component having a molecular weight more than 4,000 Dalton and were characterized by several chemical analyses. The heteropolysaccharide is a mucilaginous polysaccharide having a highly branched structure and a molecular weight of 10 4-5 × 10 6 Daltons and probably contains a sulfate half ester: the glucan is a polysaccharide with ?-1,3- and 1,6-linkages (chrysolaminaran type). Concentrations of these were respectively ca. 20 and 67 ?g l -1 at 1 m, and 2 and 26 ?g l -1 at 6 m. A similar heteropolysaccharide was found in the boiling water extract of the particulate matter, while ?-glucan was isolated in a much less purified form than the seawater ?-glucan. In addition, a large amount of ?-1,4 glucan was found in the strong alkali extract of the particulate matter, indicating that this glucan must be a cell wall polysaccharide derived from phytoplankton. These results strongly suggest that the heteropolysaccharide and chrysolaminaran type polysaccharide dissolved in seawater were derived from water soluble carbohydrates of phytoplankton through extracellular release or cell lysis.

  10. Antimicrosporidian activity of sulphated polysaccharides from algae and their potential to control honeybee nosemosis.

    PubMed

    Roussel, M; Villay, A; Delbac, F; Michaud, P; Laroche, C; Roriz, D; El Alaoui, H; Diogon, M

    2015-11-20

    Nosemosis is one of the most common and widespread diseases of adult honeybees. The causative agents, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, belong to microsporidia some obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites. In this study, 10 sulphated polysaccharides from algae were evaluated for their antimicrosporidian activity. They were first shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of the mammal microsporidian model, Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The most efficient polysaccharides were then tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of Nosema ceranae in experimentally-infected adult honeybees. Two polysaccharides extracted from Porphyridium spp. did not show any toxicity in honeybees and one of them allowed a decrease of both parasite load and mortality rate due to N. ceranae infection. A decrease in parasite abundance but not in mortality rate was also observed with an iota carrageenan. Our results are promising and suggest that algal sulphated polysaccharides could be used to prevent and/or control bee nosemosis. PMID:26344274

  11. A threading receptor for polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Harniman, Robert L; Renney, Charles M; Carter, Tom S; Crump, Matthew P; Davis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000?M(-1)), and is shown-by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy-to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules. PMID:26673266

  12. Effects of sulfated and non-sulfated ?-glucan extracted from Agaricus brasiliensis in breast adenocarcinoma cells - MCF-7.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, Adrivanio; Tempesta Oliveira, Marcelo; Semprebon, Simone Cristine; Niwa, Andressa Megumi; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2015-11-01

    The ?-glucans (?-G) are polysaccharides produced by various organisms, and sulfation of ?-G renders them more soluble. With the objective to assess the effects of sulfated and non-sulfated ?-G extracted from Agaricus brasiliensis in MCF-7 cells, assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, cell proliferation and mRNA expression. The sulfated and non-sulfated ?-G showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity at concentrations of 5 and 10??g/mL, by the MTT assay. However, only cytotoxicity was observed after 24?h by the Red Neutral test for sulfated ?-G, with no genotoxicity for either ?-G in comet assay. Proliferation was decreased only at 72?h at a concentration of 100??g/mL of sulfated ?-G. Treatment with 5??g/mL of sulfated ?-G for 6?h reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and stress signaling genes, cell cycle arrest, damage and cell migration. The 5??g/mL of non-sulfated ?-G for 6?h reduced the expression of the stress response gene and signaling damage. These results indicate that the cytotoxicity in the MTT is not cell death, and that, in general, sulfated ?-G have greater cytotoxicity compared to non-sulfated ?-G. PMID:25970150

  13. Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Feng; Ji, Yu-Bin; Meng, DE-You

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity. PMID:24223655

  14. Antibodies to Escherichia coli-expressed C-terminal domains of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A (VAR2CSA) inhibit binding of CSA-adherent parasites to placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains. PMID:23319559

  15. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 ?m. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Terry

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: a comparative Study, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate

  17. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  18. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and total gas production and sulfate-reducing bacteria in in vitro swine manure by tannins, with focus on condensed quebracho tannins.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Terence R; Spence, Cheryl; Cotta, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Odor and emissions produced during storage have increased the tension among rural neighbors and among urban and rural residents. Production of these compounds from stored manure is the result of microbial activity of the anaerobic bacteria populations during storage. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of condensed quebracho tannins on in vitro swine manure for reduction of microbial activity and reduced production of gaseous emissions, including the toxic odorant hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was examined. Swine manure was collected from a local swine facility, diluted in anaerobic buffer, and mixed with 1 %?w/v fresh feces. This slurry was combined with quebracho tannins, and total gas and hydrogen sulfide production was monitored over time. Aliquots were removed periodically for isolation of DNA to measure the SRB populations using quantitative PCR. Addition of tannins reduced overall gas, hydrogen sulfide, and methane production by greater than 90 % after 7 days of treatment and continued to at least 28 days. SRB population was also significantly decreased by tannin addition. qRT-PCR of 16S rDNA bacteria genes showed that the total bacterial population was also decreased in these incubations. These results indicate that the tannins elicited a collective effect on the bacterial population and also suggest a reduction in the population of methanogenic microorganisms as demonstrated by reduced methane production in these experiments. Such a generalized effect could be extrapolated to a reduction in other odor-associated emissions during manure storage. PMID:23149758

  19. Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ehrig, Karina; Alban, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP) harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF) and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%). Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81), fucose content (86.1%) and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8) and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 ?g/mL). Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP. PMID:25548975

  20. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  1. In vivo immunological activity of carboxymethylated-sulfated (1?3)-?-D-glucan from sclerotium of Poria cocos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haili; Mukerabigwi, Jean Felix; Zhang, Yuannian; Han, Lin; Jiayinaguli, Telieke; Wang, Qing; Liu, Lina; Cao, Yu; Sun, Renqiang; Huang, Xueying

    2015-08-01

    ?-Glucans are one of the polysaccharides known as biological response modifiers extracted from the sclerotium of Poria cocos which has been used for several decades as Traditional Chinese Medicine. Due to its ability to activate immune system, it can be applied in chemotherapy after being chemically modified. In this study, sulfated (1?3)-?-D-glucan (S-P), carboxymethyl (1?3)-?-D-glucan (CMP), and carboxymethylated-sulfated (1?3)-?-D-glucan (S-CMP), which are (1?3)-?-D-glucan derivatives were synthesized. The current study was aimed to investigate in vivo potential immunological activity of S-CMP in mice. In addition, mice were separately treated with S-P, CMP and S-CMP to evaluate the relationship between single and multiple functional groups. Interestingly, S-CMP exhibited the best in vivo immunological activities and the highest inhibition rate against the implanted HepG2 tumor in BALB/c mice, with significant increase in serum hemolysin antibody titer, spleen antibody production as well as delayed type hypersensitivity compared with S-P and CMP. Furthermore, it was assumed that simultaneous introduction of carboxymethyl and sulfate groups also had great potential effect on antioxidant activity, as substantial decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content was remarked. Therefore, it may suggest that S-CMP has better immunological and anti-tumor effects on mice in vivo. PMID:26014139

  2. ERK Activation by Fucoidan Leads to Inhibition of Melanogenesis in Mel-Ab Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu Seok; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Myo-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed in the class Phaeophyceae, has been widely studied for its possible health benefits. However, the potential of fucoidan as a possible treatment for hyperpigmentation is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of fucoidan on melanogenesis and related signaling pathways using Mel-Ab cells. Fucoidan significantly decreased melanin content. While fucoidan treatment decreased tyrosinase activity, it did not do so directly. Western blot analysis indicated that fucoidan downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and reduced tyrosinase protein expression. Further investigation showed that fucoidan activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, suggesting a possible mechanism for the inhibition of melanin synthesis. Treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, resulted in the recovery of melanin production. Taken together, these findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits melanogenesis via ERK phosphorylation. PMID:25605994

  3. Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

  4. Fucoidan inhibits activation and receptor binding of transforming growth factor-?1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hee; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Mee Jeong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yang, Won Seok

    2013-03-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated, fucose-rich polysaccharide isolated from marine brown algae, has antifibrotic effects. We investigated the biologic effects of interactions of fucoidan with transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and latent TGF-?1 (LTGF-?1). TGF-?1 bound to fucoidan was unable to interact with its receptor. In agreement with this, fucoidan attenuated the cellular effect of TGF-?1 as measured by phosphorylation of Smad2. Binding of fucoidan rendered LTGF-?1 resistant to activation as follows. Fucoidan inhibited furin-like proprotein convertase-mediated activation of platelet LTGF-?1 without suppression of the enzyme. In addition, acid- or heat-activation of small recombinant LTGF-?1 and acid-activation of large LTGF-?1 in cultured cell supernatant were also inhibited by fucoidan. Fucoidan is a mixture of polysaccharides of different sizes. As molecular weight of fucoidan increases, it had more inhibitory effects on TGF-?1 and LTGF-?1. In conclusion, inhibitions of LTGF-?1 activation and TGF-?1 receptor binding by fucoidan may in part account for its antifibrotic effects. PMID:23348228

  5. Heparin and related polysaccharides: synthesis using recombinant enzymes and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Suflita, Matthew; Fu, Li; He, Wenqin; Koffas, Mattheos; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are linear anionic polysaccharides that exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. The two most prominent members of this class of polysaccharides are heparin/heparan sulfate and the chondroitin sulfates (including dermatan sulfate). These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of most animal cells. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on food animal tissues for their isolation and commercial production. Ton quantities of these glycosaminoglycans are used annually as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. The variability of animal-sourced glycosaminoglycans, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials, and their manufacturing processes suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade, there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans. This mini-review focuses on the use of recombinant enzymes and metabolic engineering for the production of heparin and chondroitin sulfates. PMID:26219501

  6. Modulating inhibitors of transthyretin fibrillogenesis via sulfation: polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates as models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2015-02-25

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein's tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  7. Polysaccharides templates for assembly of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Emam, Hossam E; Ahmed, Hanan B

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides are particularly attractive in biomedical applications due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. In addition to its ecofriendly effects and easy processing into different hydrogel shapes, made polysaccharides used on a large scale as suitable media for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In spite of, most of polysaccharides are water insoluble, but it has shown to be quite efficient capping agents and/or nanoreactor matrices for production of AgNPs. Several methods have been developed to get the benefit of multi-functionality for polysaccharides' macromolecules in preparation of AgNPs. Therefore, recently, preparation of nanosilver using different polysaccharides have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop nanocomposites by blending AgNPs with different polysaccharides matrices. The current review represents a wide survey for the published studies which interested in using of polysaccharides in nanosilver preparations. PMID:26453881

  8. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  9. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ashley J; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A; Rudd, Timothy R

    2012-09-01

    The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled ?-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased ?-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 °C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins. PMID:22884801

  10. Heparan sulfate and heparin interactions with proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meneghetti, Maria C. Z.; Hughes, Ashley J.; Rudd, Timothy R.; Nader, Helena B.; Powell, Andrew K.; Yates, Edwin A.; Lima, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix of all multicellular animals, whereas heparin is present within mast cells and can be viewed as a more sulfated, tissue-specific, HS variant. HS and heparin regulate biological processes through interactions with a large repertoire of proteins. Owing to these interactions and diverse effects observed during in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments, manifold biological/pharmacological activities have been attributed to them. The properties that have been thought to bestow protein binding and biological activity upon HS and heparin vary from high levels of sequence specificity to a dependence on charge. In contrast to these opposing opinions, we will argue that the evidence supports both a level of redundancy and a degree of selectivity in the structure–activity relationship. The relationship between this apparent redundancy, the multi-dentate nature of heparin and HS polysaccharide chains, their involvement in protein networks and the multiple binding sites on proteins, each possessing different properties, will also be considered. Finally, the role of cations in modulating HS/heparin activity will be reviewed and some of the implications for structure–activity relationships and regulation will be discussed. PMID:26289657

  11. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell differentiation and cell death. PMID:24344650

  12. Inhibition of Aflatoxin Synthesis in Aspergillus flavus by Three Structurally Modified Lentinans

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinyou; Mo, Haizhen; Chen, Ying; Ding, Ding; Hu, Liangbin

    2014-01-01

    The chemical properties of ?-glucans leading to their inhibition on aflatoxin (AF) production by Aspergillus flavus remain unclear. In this study, structurally modified lentinan derivatives were prepared by carboxymethylation, sulfation, and phosphorylation to explore their inhibition activity to AF synthesis. The results demonstrated that inhibitory activity of lentinan decreased at higher or lower concentrations than 200 ?g/mL. Compared with lentinan, the sulphated derivatives only performed a reduced optimal inhibition rate at a higher concentration. The phosphorylated derivatives achieved complete inhibition of AF production at 50 ?g/mL, but the inhibitory activity was attenuated with an increase of concentration. The minimum concentration of carboxymethylated derivatives to completely inhibit AF synthesis was the same as that of the original lentinan, whereas their inhibition activity was not reduced at the increasing concentration. RT-PCR analyses were conducted to understand the effects of lentinan and its carboxymethylated derivatives on the transcription of certain genes associated with AF biosynthesis. The results showed that lentinan delayed the transcription of aflQ, whereas its carboxymethylated derivatives promoted the transcriptions of all the tested genes. Our results revealed that some chemical group features apart from the ?-bond could play the vital role in the prevention of AF formation by polysaccharide, and highlighted the structural modifications which could promote its practicability in the control of aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24599078

  13. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  14. Controls of Polysaccharide Chemistry on the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Calcium Carbonate Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffre, A. J.; Han, N.; Dove, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Polysaccharide fibrils control the orientation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biominerals. Good examples are found in the multilayered extracellular mucilaginous sheath of green algae and cyanobacteria and in specialized vesicles inside coccolithophorids. More complex organisms such as arthropods and mollusks form biomineralized exoskeletons and shells that consist of insoluble polysaccharides and soluble acid-rich proteins. In these structures, CaCO3 mineral orientation occurs along fibers of the polysaccharide chitin. This raises the question of whether polysaccharide chemistry has specific roles in directing biomineralization. The last three decades of research show that acidic proteins influence CaCO3 polymorph selection, crystallographic orientation, and nucleation and growth rates but little is known about the function of polysaccharides. In fact, polysaccharides are long considered an inert component of organic frameworks. In this experimental investigation, we test the hypothesis that polysaccharides have chemistry-specific influences on calcification by measuring the kinetics of calcite nucleation onto three types of polysaccharide films under controlled solution compositions. Characterized polysaccharides of simple repeating monomer sequences were chosen as model compounds to represent the major carbohydrates seen in microbial and calcifying environments: 1) alginic acid with carboxyl groups, 2) hyaluronic acid with alternating carboxyl and acetylamine groups, and 3) chitosan with amine and acetylamine groups. Biosubstrates were prepared by electrodeposition of these compounds as thin gel-like films onto gold-coated silicon wafers. Using a flow-through cell, heterogeneous nucleation rates of calcite were measured for a suite of supersaturation conditions. These rate data were compared to similar measurements for carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers. Calcite nucleation rates onto the three polysaccharides vary by a factor of 400x. Preliminary analyses of the data attribute these differences to changes in both kinetic and thermodynamic barriers to nucleation. These initial findings indicate that polysaccharide chemistry can have active roles in regulating the kinetics of calcite formation. It may be time to reconsider their presumed function as inert framework molecules for mineralized structures. Future work will investigate CaCO3 nucleation on substrates of polysaccharides with more complex functionalization and monomer sequences to decipher the origins of these effects in promoting or inhibiting mineralization.

  15. Impact of sulfation pattern on the conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides as revealed by NMR and MD.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ismael N L; Wang, Xiaocong; Glushka, John N; Santos, Gustavo R C; Valente, Ana P; Prestegard, James H; Woods, Robert J; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-05-01

    Sulfated fucans from sea urchin egg jelly express well-defined chemical structures that vary with species. This species specificity regulates the sperm acrosome reaction, a critical step to assure intra-specific fertilization. In addition, these polysaccharides are involved in other biological activities such as anticoagulation. Although sulfation patterns are relevant to the levels of response in both activities, conformation and dynamics of these glycans are also contributing factors. However, data about these features of sulfated fucans are very rare. To address this, we have employed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments combined with molecular dynamics on structurally defined oligosaccharides derived from two sulfated fucans. The results have indicated that the oligosaccharides are flexible in solution. Ring conformation of their composing units displays just the (1)C4 chair configuration. In a particular octasaccharide, composed of two tetrasaccharide sequences, inter-residual hydrogen bonds play a role to decrease dynamics in these repeating units. Conversely, the linking disaccharide [-3)-?-L-Fucp-2(OSO3(-))-(1-3)-?-L-Fucp-4(OCO3(-))-(1-] located right between the two tetrasaccharide units has amplified motions suggested to be promoted by electrostatic repulsion of sulfates on opposite sides of the central glycosidic bond. This conjunction of information about conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides provides new insights to explain how these glycans behave free in solution and influenced by sulfation patterns. It may also serve for future studies concerning structure-function relationship of sulfated fucans, especially those involving sea urchin fertilization and anticoagulation. PMID:25527427

  16. Additionally sulfated xylomannan sulfates from Scinaia hatei and their antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sayani; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Ray, Bimalendu

    2015-10-20

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) display affinity for cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans with biological relevance in virus entry. This study demonstrates the potential of chemically engineered sulfated xylomannans from Scinaia hatei as antiHSV drug candidate. Particularly, a dimethylformamide -SO3/pyridine based procedure has been employed for the generation of anionic polysaccharides. This one-step procedure has the power of providing a spectrum of xylomannans with varying molecular masses (<12-74kDa), sulfate content (1-50%) and glycosyl composition. Especially, the sulfated xylomannans S1F1 and S2F1 possessed altered activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 compared to the parental compound (F1) and that too in the absence of drug-induced cytotoxicity. Regarding methodological facet, the directive decoration of hydroxyl functionality with sulfate group plus changes in the molecular mass and sugar composition during isolation by the used reagent opens a door for the production of new molecular entity with altered biological activity from other natural sources. PMID:26256190

  17. Attenuation of Magnesium Sulfate on CoCl?-Induced Cell Death by Activating ERK1/2/MAPK and Inhibiting HIF-1? via Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Suppression in a Neuronal Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, You-Liang; Ju, Da-Tong; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Jing-Ying

    2015-08-31

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO?) ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis in a rat model. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms governing the anti-apoptotic effect of MgSO? on cobalt chloride (CoCl?)-exposed NB41A3 mouse neuroblastoma cells. MgSO? increased the viability of NB41A3 cells treated with CoCl? in a dose-dependent manner. MgSO? treatment was shown to lead to an increase in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, with a concomitant decrease in the pro-apoptotic proteins. MgSO? also attenuated the CoCl?-induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and reduced the release of cytochrome c form the mitochondria to the cytosol. Furthermore, exposure to CoCl? caused activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?). On the other hand, MgSO? markedly reduced CoCl?-induced HIF-1? activation and suppressed HIF-1? downstream protein BNIP3. MgSO? treatment induced ERK1/2 activation and attenuated CoCl?-induced activation of p38 and JNK. Addition of the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly reduced the ability of MgSO? to protect neurons from CoCl?-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, incubation of cultures with the p38 and JNK inhibitors did not significantly affect MgSO?-mediated neuroprotection. MgSO? appears to suppress CoCl?-induced NB41A3 cell death by activating ERK1/2/ MAPK pathways, which further modulates the role of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondria in NB41A3 cells. Our data suggest that MgSO? may act as a survival factor that preserves mitochondrial integrity and inhibits apoptotic pathways. PMID:26211648

  18. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  19. Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  20. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of a red microalgal polysaccharide on herpes-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

    2003-04-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a species of red microalga has proved to be a potent antiviral agent against various members of the herpes family. In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate differences between normal cells, those infected with herpes viruses, and infected cells treated with red microalgal polysaccharide. FT-IR enables the characterization of cell or tissue pathology based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the cells. The advantage of microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy over conventional FT-IR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell cultures or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and noninfected cells, and between infected cells treated with the polysaccharide and those not treated. In infected cells, there was an impressive decrease in sugar content and a considerable increase in phosphate levels in conjunction with the infection progress. Our results also proved that sugars penetrated and accumulated inside cells treated with the red microalgal polysaccharide. These could have been sugar fragments of low molecular weight present in the polysaccharide solution, despite purification by dialysis. Such sugar accumulation might be responsible for a breakdown in the internal steps of the viral replication cycle. PMID:14658634

  1. Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Seneff, Stephanie

    Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots #12;· Cholesterol sulfate supplies

  2. Natural polysaccharides as electroactive polymers.

    PubMed

    Finkenstadt, Victoria L

    2005-06-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs), a new class of materials, have the potential to be used for applications like biosensors, environmentally sensitive membranes, artificial muscles, actuators, corrosion protection, electronic shielding, visual displays, solar materials, and components in high-energy batteries. The commercialization of synthetic EAPs, however, has so far been severely limited. Biological polymers offer a degree of functionality not available in most synthetic EAPs. Carbohydrate polymers are produced with great frequency in nature. Starch, cellulose, and chitin are some of the most abundant natural polymers on earth. Biopolymers are a renewable resource and have a wide range of uses in nature, functioning as energy storage, transport, signaling, and structural components. In general, electroactive materials with polysaccharide matrices reach conductance levels comparable with synthetic ion-conducting EAPs. This review gives a brief history of EAPs, including terminology, describes evaluation methods, and reports on the current progress of incorporating polysaccharides as matrices for doped, blended, and grafted electroactive materials. PMID:15724215

  3. Structural characterization of a homogalacturonan from Capparis spinosa L. fruits and anti-complement activity of its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijun; Wang, Hongwei; Shi, Songshan; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

    2012-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide CSPS-2B-2 with a molecular mass of 8.8 kDa, was obtained from the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. Chemical and NMR spectral analysis verified CSPS-2B-2 was a linear poly-(1-4)-?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 12.9±0.4% of carboxyl groups existed as methyl ester and 2.6±0.1% of D-GalpA residues were acetylated. A sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 with a sulfation degree of 0.88±0.02 was prepared via the substitution of C-2 and/or C-3 of GalpA residues in CSPS-2B-2. Bioassay on the complement and coagulation system demonstrated that Sul-2B-2 (CH(50): 3.5±0.2 ?g/mL) had a stronger inhibitory effect on the activation of complement system through the classic pathway than that of heparin (CH(50): 8.9±0.3 ?g/mL). Interestingly, Sul-2B-2 at low dose even middle dose (for example 52 ?g/mL) had no effect on coagulation system, which was totally different from heparin. Thus, our observation indicated that Sul-2B-2 was more efficient than heparin in inhibiting the activation of the complement system through classical pathway and exhibiting a relatively less anti-coagulant activity. These results suggested that the sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 prepared from the homogalacturonan in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L, might be a promising drug candidate in case of necessary therapeutic complement inhibition. PMID:22752400

  4. Marine Polysaccharides in Pharmaceutical Applications: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Laurienzo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The enormous variety of polysaccharides that can be extracted from marine plants and animal organisms or produced by marine bacteria means that the field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of micro-organisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. Following an overview of the current knowledge on marine polysaccharides, with special attention to potential pharmaceutical applications and to more recent progress on the discovering of new polysaccharides with biological appealing characteristics, this review will focus on possible strategies for chemical or physical modification aimed to tailor the final properties of interest. PMID:20948899

  5. ESTIMATION OF THE SULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN CONTENT OF BOVINE SKIN WITH ALCIAN BLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures selected from the work of Bjornsson and Karlsson for the quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (SGAGs) with Alcian Blue were modified and adapted to the measurement of this type of polysaccharide in bovine skin. Modifications include: (1) pulverization of the skin under liquid nitr...

  6. Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, John James

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

  7. O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

  8. Polysaccharide production by microalgae. Final report on phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing overall biomass production rates. Three different algae were studied--unicellular blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis, filamentous blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and a green colonial alga, Scenedesmus sp. Batch cultures were grown with varying amounts of nitrate to limit nitrogen uptake at various stages in the batch growth curve. In the presence of high nitrate concentrations, the Synechococcus culture became stationary within four days, whereas both Spirulina and Scenedesmus maintained an appreciable growth rate and high daily productivities, for at least a week. With limiting nitrate concentrations, the cellular content of polysaccharide (measured as total carbohydrates) increased markedly, from 20-25 percent to 70-80 percent in Synechococcus and Spirulina. Depending on the level of nitrate used, onset of nitrogen limitation could be set at various culture densities. In all cases, little or no inhibition of total biomass production was noted.

  9. A novel antinociceptive sulphated polysaccharide of the brown marine alga Spatoglossum schroederi.

    PubMed

    Farias, Wladimir R L; Lima, Paula Cristina W C; Rodrigues, Natália Velloso F C; Siqueira, Rômmulo Celly L; Amorim, Renata M F; Pereira, Maria G; Assreuy, Ana Maria S

    2011-06-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) of brown algae (Phaeophyta) are composed mainly of alpha- L-fucose, being classified as fucans, with recognized role in inflammation but not in nociception, which was already described for SP obtained from red algae. Here the SP of the brown marine alga S. schroederi (named Ss-SP) was isolated and assayed for the antinociceptive effect. Ss-SP was isolated by DEAE-cellulose, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and evaluated in nociception models (Formalin, Hot plate, Von Frey) using Swiss mice (20-25g). Anion exchange chromatography provided four major fractions being F1 (Ss-SP) that of highest metachromatic activity and sugar content. Ss-SP inhibited both phases of the formalin test. In the first phase the paw licking (55.2 +/- 8.07s) was reduced by 45% (30.5 +/- 6.51s) and 40% (32.85 +/- 8.66s) at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. In the second phase, Ss-SP was also inhibitory about 39%, but only at 1 mg/kg (83.0 +/- 15.70s) compared to formalin (136.8 +/- 10.27s). This inhibitory effect suggests a mixed mechanism similar to morphine, which was not confirmed in the hot plate test, a model of pain associated with central neurotransmission. However, Ss-SP reduced the animal reaction in response to stimulation withVon Frey filament at the 2nd and 3rd h (20.8 +/- 6.86% versus carrageenan: 47.9 +/- 5.83%; 33.3 +/- 7.71% versus carrageenan: 62.5 +/- 9.83%). Accordingly, the paw edema induced by carrageenan (0.08 +/- 0.01g) was potently reduced in 45.35% by Ss-SP pre-treatment (0.02 +/- 0.003g), corroborating the anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated for brown seaweed polysaccharides. In conclusion our data revealed for the first time the antinociceptive effect of Ss-SP which could be used as a new source of analgesic substances. PMID:21815427

  10. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler–Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. PMID:23441919

  11. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. PMID:23441919

  12. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  13. Translocation of Sulfate in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ivan K.; Lang, A. Lee

    1988-01-01

    Sulfate translocation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) was investigated. More than 90% of the sulfate entering the shoot system was recoverable in one or two developing trifoliate leaves. In young plants, the first trifoliate leaf contained between 10 to 20 times as much sulfate as the primary leaves, even though both types of leaf had similar rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. We conclude that most of the sulfate entering mature leaves is rapidly loaded into the phloem and translocated to sinks elsewhere in the plant. This loading was inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and selenate. At sulfate concentrations below 0.1 millimolar, more than 95% of the sulfate entering primary leaves was exported. At higher concentrations the rate of export increased but so did the amount of sulfate remaining in the leaves. Removal of the first trifoliate leaf increased two-fold the transport of sulfate to the apex, indicating that these are competing sinks for sulfate translocated from the primary leaves. The small amount of sulfate transported into the mesophyll cells of primary leaves is a result of feedback regulation by the intracellular sulfate pool, not a consequence of their metabolic inactivity. For example, treatment of plants with 2 millimolar aminotriazole caused a 700 nanomoles per gram fresh weight increase in the glutathione content of primary leaves, but had no effect on sulfate aquisition. PMID:16665991

  14. Sulfated heterorhamnans from the green seaweed Gayralia oxysperma: partial depolymerization, chemical structure and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Ropellato, Juliana; Carvalho, Mariana M; Ferreira, Luciana G; Noseda, Miguel D; Zuconelli, Cristiane R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Ducatti, Diogo R B; Kenski, Juliana C N; Nasato, Pauline L; Winnischofer, Sheila M B; Duarte, Maria E R

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated heterorhamnans produced by Gayralia oxysperma were utilized for the preparation of two homogeneous and highly sulfated Smith-degraded products (M(w) of 109 and 251 kDa), which were constituted principally by 3-linked ?-L-rhamnosyl units 2- or 4-sulfate and 2-linked ?-L-rhamnosyl units 4- or 3,4-sulfate, in different percentages. The homogeneous products and the crude extracts containing the sulfated heterorhamnans showed cytotoxic effect against U87MG cells. These sulfated polysaccharides induced an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase with concomitant increase of the mRNA levels of p53 and p21. The presence of 2-linked disulfated rhamnose residues together with the molecular weight could be important factors to be correlated with the inhibitory effect on human glioblastoma cells. PMID:25498661

  15. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jose A; Yi, Bo R; Wallace, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc) is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc) analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP), suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26414071

  16. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc) is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc) analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP), suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26414071

  17. Soluble polysaccharide and biomass of red microalga Porphyridium sp. alter intestinal morphology and reduce serum cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dvir, I; Chayoth, R; Sod-Moriah, U; Shany, S; Nyska, A; Stark, A H; Madar, Z; Arad, S M

    2000-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. on gastrointestinal physiology and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets containing dietary fibre from pelleted red microalgal cells (biomass) or their sulfated polysaccharide, pectin or cellulose (control) were fed to rats for a period of 30 d. All three fibre-supplemented diets increased the length of both the small intestine and colon, with a significantly greater effect in rats fed the algal polysaccharide. The polysaccharide also increased mucosa and muscularis cross-sectional area of the jejunum, and caused hypertrophy in the muscularis layer. The algal biomass significantly lowered gastrointestinal transit time by 44% in comparison with the control rats. Serum and mucosal cholecystokinin levels were lower in rats on the pectin and polysaccharide diets, while cholecystokinin levels in rats fed algal biomass were not different from those in the control animals. In comparison with the control diet, all the experimental diets significantly lowered serum cholesterol levels (22-29%). Feeding of non-fermentable algal polysaccharide or biomass significantly increased faecal weight and bile acid excretion compared with pectin-fed or control rats. The algal polysaccharide and biomass were thus shown to be potent hypocholesterolaemic agents active at low concentrations in the diet. Both metabolic and morphological changes were observed following consumption of algae, suggesting several possible mechanisms by which the alga affects lipid metabolism. The results presented in the present study encourage the use of red microalga as a functional food. PMID:11103217

  18. Review: prospects for the use of extracts and polysaccharides from marine algae to prevent and treat the diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Besednova, Natalya N; Zaporozhets, Tatyana S; Somova, Larisa M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H. pylori. In recent years, fucoidans have been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes the data on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H. pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H. pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H. pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H. pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of H. pylori infection. PMID:25660579

  19. BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticle modified biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenming; Wang, Kefeng; Lu, Xiong; Li, Minqi; Liu, Hongrui; Xie, Chaoming; Meng, Fanzhi; Jiang, Ou; Li, Chen; Zhi, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated chitosan/chondrotin sulfate nanoparticles (CHI/CS NPs) are developed to enhance ectopic bone formation on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. BMP-2 contained CHI/CS NPs were prepared by a simple and mild polyelectrolyte complexation process. It does not involve harsh organic solvents and high temperature, and therefore retain growth factors activity. These NPs were immobilized on BCP scaffolds, and realize the sustained release of growth factors from the scaffolds. The bare BCP scaffolds, NP loaded scaffolds (BCP-NP), and NP loaded and polydopamine coated scaffolds (BCP-Dop-NP) were seeded with bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. BMSC culture results indicate that all scaffolds favor cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation. Afterwards, the bare BCP, BCP-NP, and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds were implanted into rabbits intramuscularly to evaluate the ectopic bone formation of scaffolds. In vivo results indicate that the BCP-NP and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds enhance more ectopic bone formation than the bare BCP scaffolds. Both the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide NPs are effective to improve the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. In addition, BCP-NP scaffolds induce more bone formation than BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds. This is because BCP-NP scaffolds harness the intrinsic osteoinductivity BCP and BMP-2, whereas BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds have polydopamine coatings that inhibit the surfaces biological features of BCP scaffolds, and therefore weaken the bone formation ability of scaffolds. PMID:25100662

  20. Diverse Roles of Heparan Sulfate and Heparin in Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Olczyk, Pawel; Mencner, ?ukasz; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (Hp) are linear polysaccharide chains composed of repeating (1?4) linked pyrosulfuric acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy glucopyranose (glucosamine) residue. Mentioned glycosaminoglycans chains are covalently O-linked to serine residues within the core proteins creating heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans (HSPG). The latter ones participate in many physiological and pathological phenomena impacting both the plethora of ligands such as cytokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules and the variety of the ECM constituents. Moreover, HS/Hp determine the effective wound healing process. Initial growth of HS and Hp amount is pivotal during the early phase of tissue repair; however heparan sulfate and heparin also participate in further stages of tissue regeneration. PMID:26236728

  1. Solution NMR spectroscopy of food polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many polysaccharides are allowed for direct food use, where they serve a number of useful functions. In addition to possibly being a source of calories, a food polysaccharide may be a dietary fiber, bulking agent, crystallization inhibitor, thickener, encapsulant, gelling agent, foam and emulsion s...

  2. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  3. Unexplored possibilities of all-polysaccharide composites.

    PubMed

    Simkovic, Ivan

    2013-06-20

    Composites made solely from polysaccharides are mostly ecological because they can degrade without leaving behind ecologically harmful residues, in contrast to composites which contain synthetic polymers. Herein, the following groups of all-polysaccharide composites (APCs) are discussed: an all-cellulose group that includes cotton composites, cellulose combined with other polysaccharides, as well as those based on chitin/chitosan, heparin, hyaluronan, xylan, glucomannan, pectin, xyloglucan, arabinan, starch, carrageenan, alginate, galactan as one of the components in combination with other polysaccharides. They can be used in medical, paper, food, packing, textile, electronic, mechanical engineering and other applications. The composites were tested for absorptivity, biodegradability, crystallinity, rheology, and mechanical, optical, separation, gelling, pasting, film-forming, adhesive, antimicrobial properties, as well as water vapor permeability, water repellency, dye uptake, and fire-retardancy. Except for food applications, composites based on more than two types of polysaccharides have rarely been used and many possible combinations remain unexplored. PMID:23648032

  4. Comparison of the preliminary characterizations and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuo-fa; Lv, Guo-ying; Song, Ting-ting; Jin, Qun-li; Huang, Jian-bo; Fan, Lei-fa; Cai, Wei-ming

    2015-11-01

    Three polysaccharides (PPB-MB, PPB-MW and PPB-MM) were obtained from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates (mulberry branches, mixed wood sawdust and an equal combination of the two materials) and their chemical composition was investigated. PPB-MM contained the highest contents of neutral sugar (66.59%) and uronic acid (23.38%), followed by PPB-MW and PPB-MB, with PPB-MW having the highest protein content. The three polysaccharides were all composed of six kinds of monosaccharides, namely fucose, mannose, glactose, xylose, arabinose and glucose. The antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides were determined using lipid peroxidant inhibition, ABTS radical scavenging, and Fe(2+)-chelating assay. Results showed that PPB-MM exhibited the highest antioxidant properties in all the assays. As a result, an equal combination of mulberry branches and mixed wood sawdust serves as a good culture substrate for producing such antioxidant polysaccharides. PMID:26256363

  5. Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

    1983-08-01

    The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

  6. Anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from blueberry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiyun; Liu, Ning; Wu, Zhaoxia; Feng, Ying; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1) from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg-1·d-1) inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05), increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05), boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01), promoting the secretion of TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-2 (p < 0.05) and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01). From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator. PMID:25734419

  7. Verrucomicrobia Are Candidates for Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacterioplankton in an Arctic Fjord of Svalbard

    PubMed Central

    Cardman, Z.; Arnosti, C.; Durbin, A.; Ziervogel, K.; Cox, C.; Steen, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    In Arctic marine bacterial communities, members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are consistently detected, although not typically abundant, in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrotag surveys of the marine water column and in sediments. In an Arctic fjord (Smeerenburgfjord) of Svalbard, members of the Verrucomicrobia, together with Flavobacteria and smaller proportions of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, constituted the most frequently detected bacterioplankton community members in 16S rRNA gene-based clone library analyses of the water column. Parallel measurements in the water column of the activities of six endo-acting polysaccharide hydrolases showed that chondroitin sulfate, laminarin, and xylan hydrolysis accounted for most of the activity. Several Verrucomicrobia water column phylotypes were affiliated with previously sequenced, glycoside hydrolase-rich genomes of individual Verrucomicrobia cells that bound fluorescently labeled laminarin and xylan and therefore constituted candidates for laminarin and xylan hydrolysis. In sediments, the bacterial community was dominated by different lineages of Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria but also included members of multiple phylum-level lineages not observed in the water column. This community hydrolyzed laminarin, xylan, chondroitin sulfate, and three additional polysaccharide substrates at high rates. Comparisons with data from the same fjord in the previous summer showed that the bacterial community in Smeerenburgfjord changed in composition, most conspicuously in the changing detection frequency of Verrucomicrobia in the water column. Nonetheless, in both years the community hydrolyzed the same polysaccharide substrates. PMID:24727271

  8. Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunyan; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi; Cui, Jiangxia

    2013-01-01

    Background Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. Objective: To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. Materials and Methods The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Results and Conclusion Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples. PMID:23661989

  9. Soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex nanogels: folic acid loading, protection, and controlled delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xuzhe; Yao, Ping

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we developed a facile approach to produce nanogels via self-assembly of folic acid, soy protein, and soy polysaccharide. High-pressure homogenization was introduced to break down the original aggregates of soy protein, which benefits the binding of soy protein with soy polysaccharide and folic acid at pH 4.0. After a heat treatment that causes the soy protein denaturation and gelation, folic acid-loaded soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex nanogels were fabricated. The nanogels have a polysaccharide surface that makes the nanogels dispersible in acidic conditions where folic acid is insoluble and soy protein forms precipitates after heating. More importantly, the protein and polysaccharide can inhibit the reactions between dissolved oxygen and folic acid during UV irradiation. After the preparation and storage of the nanogels in the presence of heat, oxygen, and light in acidic conditions, most of the folic acid molecules in the nanogels remain in their natural structure and can be released rapidly at neutral pH, that is, in the intestine. Because most food and beverages are acidic, the nanogels are a suitable delivery system of folic acid in food and beverages. PMID:23758109

  10. Manipulation of cellulose nanocrystal surface sulfate groups toward biomimetic nanostructures in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Zoppe, Justin O; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    We report a facile aqueous procedure to create multivalent displays of sulfonated ligands on CNCs for future applications as viral inhibitors. CNCs were decorated with model compounds containing sulfonate groups via reactions of epoxides and isothiocyanates with amines under alkaline conditions. At first, surface sulfate groups of CNCs were hydrolytically cleaved by alkaline hydrolysis to increase the number of available surface hydroxyls. Success of desulfation was confirmed via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CNC surface hydroxyl groups were then activated with epichlorohydrin before subsequent reactions. As proof of concept toward aqueous pathways for functionalizing nanoparticles with sulfonated ligands, 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt hydrate (CPSA) and 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate sodium salt monohydrate (4-SPITC) were chosen as model compounds to react with homobifunctional 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EBEA) molecular spacer. The approaches presented are not only applicable to polysaccharide nanocrystals, but also other classes of polymeric and inorganic substrates presenting surface hydroxyl groups, as in the case of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), silica or glass. CNCs carrying sulfonated ligands were characterized by ATR-FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Surface chemical compositions of desired elements were determined via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We anticipate that with these facile aqueous procedures as the proof of concept, a diverse library of target-specific functionalities can be conjugated to CNCs for applications in nanomedicine, especially related to viral inhibition. PMID:25933518

  11. Purification, characterization and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii residue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gaoxing; Yang, Wenjian; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Fang, Yong; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-19

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii residue was isolated and further purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography to yield PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3. Molecular weights were determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3 were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Sulfate and uronic acid content, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum were also evaluated. The antitumor activities of the polysaccharides against HepG-2 cells were studied in vitro. Results showed that the three polysaccharides could suppress the proliferation and enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of HepG-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect increased in the order of PEPE-1polysaccharides extracted from P. eryngii residue might be suitable for functional foods and natural antitumor drugs development. PMID:25263894

  12. Natural polysaccharides promote chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on magnetic nanoparticle/PVA composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruixia; Nie, Lei; Du, Gaolai; Xiong, Xiaopeng; Fu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the synergistic effects of natural polysaccharides and inorganic nanoparticles on cell adhesion and growth on intrinsically cell non-adhesive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite (nHAP) nanoparticles are effective in increasing osteoblast growth on PVA hydrogels. Herein, we blended hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), two important components of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), with Fe2O3/nHAP/PVA hydrogels. The presence of these natural polyelectrolytes dramatically increased the pore size and the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) while maintaining excellent compressive strength of hydrogels. Chondrocytes were seeded and cultured on composite PVA hydrogels containing Fe2O3, nHAP and Fe2O3/nHAP hybrids and Fe2O3/nHAP with HA or CS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay consistently confirmed that the addition of HA or CS promotes chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA and composite hydrogels. Particularly, the combination of HA and CS exhibited further promotion to cell adhesion and proliferation compared with any single polysaccharide. The results demonstrated that the magnetic composite nanoparticles and polysaccharides provided synergistic promotion to cell adhesion and growth. Such polysaccharide-augmented composite hydrogels may have potentials in biomedical applications. PMID:26037704

  13. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Holleman, James W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  14. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE ; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  15. Molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides from edible seaweeds by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ordóñez, Eva; Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Rupérez, Pilar

    2012-05-15

    Biological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds are related to their composition and structure. Many factors such as the kind of sugar, type of linkage or sulfate content of algal biopolymers exert an influence in the relationship between structure and function. Besides, the molecular weight (MW) also plays an important role. Thus, a simple, reliable and fast HPSEC method with refractive index detection was developed and optimized for the MW estimation of soluble algal polysaccharides. Chromatogram shape and repeatability of retention time was considerably improved when sodium nitrate was used instead of ultrapure water as mobile phase. Pullulan and dextran standards of different MW were used for method calibration and validation. Also, main polysaccharide standards from brown (alginate, fucoidan, laminaran) and red seaweeds (kappa- and iota-carrageenan) were used for quantification and method precision and accuracy. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability for retention time, peak areas and inter-day precision was below 0.7%, 2.5% and 2.6%, respectively, which indicated good repeatability and precision. Recoveries (96.3-109.8%) also showed its fairly good accuracy. Regarding linearity, main polysaccharide standards from brown or red seaweeds showed a highly satisfactory correlation coefficient (r>0.999). Moreover, a good sensitivity was shown, with corresponding limits of detection and quantitation in mg/mL of 0.05-0.21 and 0.16-0.31, respectively. The method was applied to the MW estimation of standard algal polysaccharides, as well as to the soluble polysaccharide fractions from the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima and the red Mastocarpus stellatus, respectively. Although distribution of molecular weight was broad, the good repeatability for retention time provided a good precision in MW estimation of polysaccharides. Water- and alkali-soluble fractions from S. latissima ranged from very high (>2400 kDa) to low MW compounds (<6 kDa); this high heterogeneity could be attributable to the complex polysaccharide composition of brown algae. Regarding M. stellatus, sulfated galactans followed a descending order of MW (>1400 kDa to <10 kDa), related to the different solubility of carrageenans in red seaweeds. In summary, the method developed allows for the molecular weight analysis of seaweed polysaccharides with very good precision, accuracy, linearity and sensitivity within a short time. PMID:22483892

  16. Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.

    PubMed

    Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

    2014-02-15

    Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells. PMID:24507248

  17. Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

    2014-09-01

    Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 ?g/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

  18. Peptide mimics of two pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotypes (6B and 9V) protect mice from a lethal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire M; Lo Passo, Carla; Scuderi, Angela; Kolberg, Jan; Baxendale, Helen; Goldblatt, David; Oggioni, Marco R; Felici, Franco; Andrew, Peter W

    2009-06-01

    Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were used to immunise mice. Two peptides, MP13 and MP7, induced specific anti-6B and 9V polysaccharide antibodies, respectively. Mice immunised with MP7-keyhole limpet hemocyanin or MP13-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate were significantly and specifically protected against a lethal challenge with pneumococci of the appropriate serotype. This study provides strong in vivo evidence that peptide mimics are alternatives to polysaccharide vaccines. PMID:19499518

  19. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  1. Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

    2012-11-01

    Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is ?-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by ?-(1?3)-glycosidic bonds with attached ?-(1?6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. ?-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  3. Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    2014-03-01

    Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of ?-D-fructofuranose units with ?(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.

  4. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. )

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  5. A common sugar-nucleotide-mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis, as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc (Ac3).

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Xander M; Lawrence, Roger; Thijssen, Victor L; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A; Troost, Ran; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; Griffioen, Arjan W; Lefeber, Dirk J; van Delft, Floris L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2015-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, and alterations in their amount and structure have been associated with diseases such as cancer. In this study, we probed 11 sugar analogs for their capacity to interfere with GAG biosynthesis. One analog, with a modification not directly involved in the glycosidic bond formation, 6F-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) (Ac3), was selected for further study on its metabolic and biologic effect. Treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cells with 50 ?M 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) inhibited biosynthesis of GAGs (chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by ?50-60%, heparan sulfate by ?35%), N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)/GalNAc containing glycans recognized by the lectins Datura stramonium and peanut agglutinin (by ?74 and ?43%, respectively), and O-GlcNAc protein modification. With respect to function, 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) treatment inhibited growth factor signaling and reduced in vivo angiogenesis by ?33%. Although the analog was readily transformed in cells into the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-activated form, it was not incorporated into GAGs. Rather, it strongly reduced cellular UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GlcNAc pools. Together with data from the literature, these findings indicate that nucleotide sugar depletion without incorporation is a common mechanism of sugar analogs for inhibiting GAG/glycan biosynthesis. PMID:25868729

  6. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thöle, Christian; Brandt, Simone; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates) after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS) with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL) led to reduced binding to 3'-sialyl lactose, sialylated Le(a) and Le(x). A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation) indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity. PMID:26389872

  7. Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

  8. Polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sinha, V R; Kumria, R

    2001-08-14

    Natural polysaccharides are now extensively used for the development of solid dosage forms for delivery of drug to the colon. The rationale for the development of a polysaccharide based delivery system for colon is the presence of large amounts of polysaccharidases in the human colon as the colon is inhabited by a large number and variety of bacteria which secrete many enzymes e.g. beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, beta-D-xylosidase, dextranase, etc. Various major approaches utilizing polysaccharides for colon-specific delivery are fermentable coating of the drug core, embedding of the drug in biodegradable matrix, formulation of drug-saccharide conjugate (prodrugs). A large number of polysaccharides have already been studied for their potential as colon-specific drug carrier systems, such as chitosan, pectin, chondroitin sulphate, cyclodextrin, dextrans, guar gum, inulin, amylose and locust bean gum. Recent efforts and approaches exploiting these polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery are discussed. PMID:11472812

  9. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  10. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUA?1-3GalNAc?1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ?O-D-D, ?A-D-D, ?C-D-D, ?E-A-D, ?D-D-C, ?E-D-D and ?A-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ?C-A-D, ?C-D-C and ?A-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol ? stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ?A-D-A, ?A-D-D and ?A-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields. PMID:23019154

  11. Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

  12. Immobilized phosphorylase for synthesis of polysaccharides from glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous processes for enzymatic production of carbohydrates from glucose are discussed. Key reactant in process is identified as phosphorylase which catalyzes reversible formation or degradation of polysaccharide. Chemical compounds and reactions to synthesize polysaccharides are analyzed.

  13. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, David S.; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K.; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Datta, Anup K.; Carlson, Russell W.

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  14. Silkrose: A novel acidic polysaccharide from the silkmoth that can stimulate the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Takashi; Kusano, Kie; Ido, Atsushi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2016-01-20

    We have identified a novel acidic polysaccharide from silkmoth (Antheraea yamamai) pupae that activates the mammalian innate immune response. This bioactive polysaccharide was isolated using nitric oxide production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. We named this polysaccharide "silkrose". It has a molecular weight of 3.15×10(5) and comprises nine monosaccharides. The expression profiles indicated that silkrose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? that exist downstream of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-indeptendent signaling pathways. Also, the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which exists upstream of the signaling pathways, led to the suppression of NO production by silkrose. Furthermore, this polysaccharide promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B in RAW264 cells, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in macrophages through the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that silkrose activates the innate immune response to various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. PMID:26572439

  15. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. PMID:25081076

  16. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  17. Energetics of metamorphosis in bonefish (Albula sp.) leptocephali: Role of keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, E

    1996-08-01

    Energy budget calculations, based on published values for changes in biochemical composition and oxygen consumption, have confirmed that metamorphosing bonefish (Albula sp.) larvae from the Gulf of California receive all of their metabolic energy requirements from the breakdown of endogenous reserves. The calculations showed that during metamorphosis, about 80% of the energy was supplied by lipid, and most of the remainder was provided by keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycan. These results support the suggestion that keratan sulfate can function as a storage polysaccharide, a novel function for glycosaminoglycans in vertebrates. PMID:24194255

  18. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wu, Tao; Dai, ShengDong; Xu, Jinling; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) extracts against obesity have been reported; however, the anti-obesity ability of the major components of green tea, polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine is not clear. Therefore, experiments with total green tea extracts, polyphenols, polysaccharides, caffeine, and a complex of polysaccharide and polyphenol at a dose of 400 or 800 mg kg?¹ were conducted on high-fat diet fed rats for 6 weeks to investigate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicated that polyphenols and polysaccharides were responsible for the suppressive effect of green tea extracts on body weight increase and fat accumulation. Moreover, polyphenols, polysaccharides, or caffeine can improve blood lipid and antioxidant levels, and effectively reduce rat serum leptin levels, inhibit the absorption of fatty acids, and markedly reduce the expression levels of the IL-6 and TNF-? gene. Furthermore, it was shown that polysaccharides and polyphenols were synergistic in reduction of serum leptin levels and in anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the polysaccharide combination with polyphenols might be a potential therapy against obesity. PMID:25431018

  19. Conformational analysis of the oligosaccharides related to side chains of holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C-H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc-GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  20. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor ?, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  1. Elimination of breast tumor-associated chondroitin sulfate promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Prinz, R D; Willis, C M; Viloria-Petit, A; Klüppel, M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths amongst women in the USA. The tumor microenvironment has been suggested to be an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of cancers. The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate, as part of the cellular microenvironment, consists of long linear chains of repeating disaccharide units, which are covalently attached to core proteins to form chondroitin sulfate-proteoglycans. In vitro studies have implicated chondroitin sulfate in various aspects of carcinogenesis, whereas the in vivo roles of chondroitin sulfate are less clear. Drastically elevated levels of chondroitin sulfate have been observed within the stromal compartment of many solid tumors, including human breast carcinomas, the significance of which is unknown. We examined the role of tumor-associated chondroitin sulfate in breast cancer progression. Enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfate by intra-tumor injections of chondroitinase ABC leads to the development of secondary tumors and increased lung metastases, while primary orthotopic tumor growth was not affected. These results establish a metastasis-inhibiting effect of primary breast tumor-associated chondroitin sulfate, which may open novel carbohydrate-based therapeutic strategies to combat breast cancer. PMID:22183949

  2. Glucosamine sulfate--environmental antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2009-10-01

    We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk (every media of 20 ml) left opened for 1 week with and without Arthryl supplements 1,500 mg, the content of one package of the medication. A similar volume (20 ml) is ingested in taking the medication. Experiments with three repeatable results were taken for consideration. Arthryl inhibited environmental bacterial colonies' growth in every media but fungi growth was not impaired. Milk stayed liquid for the whole week with supplement of the Arthryl compared with sour milk transformation without Arthryl. Sample B showed inhibitory properties of the bacterial colonies on the fungi growth. The sample with Arthryl showed progressive growth of fungi without bacterial growth after 10 days of follow up compared with bacterial growth on media without Arthryl. Glucosamine sulfate as a new trademark Arthryl has environmental antibacterial properties but does not inhibit growth of fungal colonies. PMID:19495827

  3. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  4. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  5. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    2015-08-07

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO4(H2O) 52-]n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  6. Characterization of a novel purified polysaccharide from the flesh of Cipangopaludina chinensis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingying; Xiong, Qingping; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xia; Yu, Chunhao; Wu, Jie; Yi, Jing; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Ying; Cui, Hao

    2016-01-20

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the characterization of a novel polysaccharide from the flesh of Cipangopaludina chinensis, named CCPSn. The results found CCPSn was a white powder, readily soluble in hot water and slightly soluble in water. CCPSn was a homopolysaccharide composed of d-glucose (d-Glc) with molecular weight of 91.1kDa. Based on analysis of UV-visible, FT-IR, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation, GM-MS and NMR, the structure of CCPSn was elucidated as follows: the backbone was composed of (1?3) linked ?-d-Glc. The branches, consisting of a single (1?3) linked ?-d-Glc units and terminal ?-d-Glc-4-O-SO3(-), were attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was calculated to be about 16.73%. The C-1 of terminal ?-d-Glc-4-O-SO3(-) was linked to O-3 of (1?3) linked ?-d-Glc in the branches. In addition, the results indicated CCPSn was a sulfated polysaccharide with the sulfate radical content of 9.12%. PMID:26572424

  7. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. PMID:24879929

  8. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii and Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275.

    PubMed

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-15

    Polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii (PEPS) and exopolysaccharides from Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST1275 EPS) were sulphated, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated and crude polysaccharides were determined. Degree of sulphonation of PEPS and ST1275 EPS was 0.69 and 0.31, respectively. Characteristic bands in FT-IR spectra indicated that the sulphate group was at the C6 position of the galactose skeleton. Antioxidant activities of PEPS and ST1275 EPS were significantly (P<0.05) improved after sulphonation. For tested crude and sulphated polysaccharides, sulphated PEPS had the largest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003 while sulphated ST1275 EPS had the largest inhibition zone against Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 54001. Furthermore, sulphated PEPS had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli ATCC 25922, and both sulphated PEPS and sulphated ST1275 EPS had the lowest MICs on S. aureus CMCC 26003 and L. monocytogenes CMCC 54001. PMID:25038675

  9. Inhibitory activity of polysaccharide extracts from three kinds of edible fungi on proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell and mouse implanted S180 tumor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shi-Ming; Xiao, Zheng-Ming; Xu, Zhao-Hui

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine the activities of polysaccharide extracts from Flammulina velutipes (Curt. ex Fr.) Sing (FV), Lentinus edodes (LE) and Agaricus bisporus-Sing (AB) on the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and on mouse implanted S-180 tumors in vivo. METHODS: The polysaccharide extracts were isolated from the fruit bodies of FV, LE and AB by the methods of hot-water extraction, Sevag’s removal of proteins, ethanol precipitation, trypsin digestion and ethanol fractional precipitation. Human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were treated with 50 mg/L polysaccharide extracts, and the mitosis index, mitochondria activity and cell proliferation were detected at different times in both control and experimental groups. The mice with S-180 implanted tumors were injected with the polysaccharide extracts at 24 mg/kg body weight for 9 d and the tumor weight was measured on the 15th day. RESULTS: The mitosis index of hepatoma cells in vitro could be significantly decreased by treatment with the polysaccharide extracts from the three kinds of edible fungi (P < 0.005). The cell numbers and mitochondria activity of SMMC-7721 cells treated with polysaccharide extracts were lower than those in control groups (P < 0.005). The inhibition rates of polysaccharide extracts against implanted S-180 tumors in mice were 52.8%, 56.6% and 51.9% respectively compared with that in control groups. CONCLUSION: The polysaccharide extracts from the three kinds o f edible fungi could inhibit not only the cultured malignant cells in vitro but also implanted S-180 tumor in vivo. PMID:11819477

  10. Anticorrosive Microbial Polysaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble microbial polysaccharides are often implicated in biofilm formation and are believed to mediate cell-cell aggregation and adhesion to surfaces. Generally, biofilm formation is considered harmful or undesirable, as it leads to increased drag, plugging of pores, dimished heat transfer, ...

  11. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  12. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    E-print Network

    Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from

  13. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  14. Polysaccharides: Candidates of promising vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants remain the only adjuvants approved for human use in the USA for over 80 years because of alum's simplicity, tolerability, safety and cost-efficiency. Recent development of vaccines, especially the increasing applications of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines, makes aluminium adjuvants cannot stimulate enough immunity to the antigens, since aluminium adjuvants can only induce Th2 type immune responses. So, novel adjuvants are urgent to make up the disadvantages of aluminium adjuvants. However, some major hurdles need to be overcome, not only the scientific knowledge of adjuvants but also unacceptable side-effects and toxicity. A number of carbohydrate-based polysaccharides from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and recognize pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells, followed by triggering innate immunity and regulating adaptive immunity. What is more, polysaccharides are safe and biodegradable without tissue deposits as observed in aluminium adjuvants. Therefore, polysaccharide-based compounds and formulations are potential vaccine adjuvant candidates. Here, we mainly review polysaccharide-based adjuvants investigated in recent years. PMID:25994059

  15. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  16. Characterization of acidic polysaccharides from the mollusks through acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiuling; Wen, Chengrong; Lu, Jiaojiao; Teng, Nan; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-01

    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exist widely in nature. Herein we propose an elegant methodology to identify UACPs by analyzing their disaccharides produced from the acid hydrolysis using HPLC-MS(n) upon 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Based on the optimization of experimental conditions by the single factor experiment and orthogonal test design, the combination of 1.3M TFA at 105°C for 3h is found to be the optimum. Subsequently, these conditions were applied to investigate the distribution of UACPs in 20 selected species of edible Bivalvia and Gastropoda. PMP-disaccharides derived from UACPs in mollusks were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of the reference PMP-disaccharides from hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), and AGSP with ?4)-GlcA(1?2)-Man(1? repeating units. The analysis reveals the prevalence of CS in the shellfishes as well as the HP, and existence of three non-GAG UACPs in 7 mollusks. PMID:26076626

  17. Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Miguel A.; Vargas, Miguel A.; Regueiro, Verónica; Llompart, Catalina M.; Albertí, Sebastián; Bengoechea, José A.

    2004-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the defense of areas exposed to microorganisms. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APs) are one of the most important weapons of this system and that they make up the protective front for the respiratory tract. On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). Klebsiella pneumoniae CPS mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to human neutrophil defensin 1, ?-defensin 1, lactoferrin, protamine sulfate, and polymyxin B. K. pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O antigen did not play an important role in AP resistance, and CPS was the only factor conferring protection against polymyxin B in strains lacking O antigen. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the amount of CPS expressed by a given strain and the resistance to polymyxin B. We also showed that K. pneumoniae CPS mutant bound more polymyxin B than the wild-type strain with a concomitant increased in the self-promoted pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that CPS protects bacteria by limiting the interaction of APs with the surface. Finally, we report that K. pneumoniae increased the amount of CPS and upregulated cps transcription when grown in the presence of polymyxin B and lactoferrin. PMID:15557634

  18. Functional improvements in ?-lactoglobulin by conjugating with soybean soluble polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Inada, Naoki; Hayashi, Mai; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hattori, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS) was hydrolyzed by autoclaving for 6 and 12 h to obtain SSPS (6 h) and SSPS (12 h). Bovine ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) was conjugated with each SSPS by the Maillard reaction to improve its function. Conjugation between BLG and each SSPS was confirmed by Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. BLG-SSPS (6 h) and BLG-SSPS (12 h), respectively, retained approximately 56 and 43% of the retinol-binding activity of BLG. Structural analyses by intrinsic fluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies indicated that the native structure of BLG had almost been maintained in each conjugate and that the surface structure was covered by conjugated SSPS. The emulsifying properties of BLG were improved in each conjugate at pH 3, 5, and 7 in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. The antibody responses to BLG-SSPS (6 h) and BLG-SSPS (12 h) were considerably reduced in BALB/c mice. We conclude that conjugation with SSPS was very effective for improving the function of BLG and this study would contribute to greater utilization of SSPS. PMID:25315246

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

  20. Rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract by spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minxia; Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Qian, Songxiang; Feng, Sujuan

    2010-01-01

    A simple approach for the rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract using spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The mixed standard solution composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, galactose and D-xylose in different proportions (1.00: 1.01: 0.12: 0.05) was prepared according to the monosaccharide composition analysis of the polysaccharides by GC-MS. The determination of polysaccharides by UV-Vis spectrophotometer was performed after 35-min color reaction, in which 1 ml 5% phenol and 4 ml sulfate was used. The assay of the method validation has shown that the method was stable, reliable and feasible. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied in the preparation procedure of BianTi Soft Extract, selecting out optimal decoction conditions and suitable decoction container. It suggests that the convenient method could be useful for the quality control of BianTi Soft Extract. Meanwhile, it may be an alternative for polysaccharides determination of other formulations. PMID:20668575

  1. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Structure-function relationships of immunostimulatory polysaccharides: A review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sónia S; Passos, Cláudia P; Madureira, Pedro; Vilanova, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-11-01

    Immunostimulatory polysaccharides are compounds capable of interacting with the immune system and enhance specific mechanisms of the host response. Glucans, mannans, pectic polysaccharides, arabinogalactans, fucoidans, galactans, hyaluronans, fructans, and xylans are polysaccharides with reported immunostimulatory activity. The structural features that have been related with such activity are the monosaccharide and glycosidic-linkage composition, conformation, molecular weight, functional groups, and branching characteristics. However, the establishment of structure-function relationships is possible only if purified and characterized polysaccharides are used and selective structural modifications performed. Aiming at contributing to the definition of the structure-function relationships necessary to design immunostimulatory polysaccharides with potential for preventive or therapeutical purposes or to be recognized as health-improving ingredients in functional foods, this review introduces basic immunological concepts required to understand the mechanisms that rule the potential claimed immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides and critically presents a literature survey on the structural features of the polysaccharides and reported immunostimulatory activity. PMID:26256362

  3. Effects of polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with Bordetella avium and Avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-08-30

    Chicks' co-infection with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria seriously threaten the development of the poultry industry. In this study, a model was established in which chicks were injected with either subgroup B ALV (ALV-B)+Bordetella avium (B. avium), or ALV-B+B. avium+Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), or B. avium only, or B. avium+TPPPS. The data showed that the group injected with ALV-B and B. avium exhibited significant inhibition of the immune function and therefore increased pathogenicity compared with the group injected with B. avium-only. Application of TPPPS effectively alleviated immunosuppression, and body weights increased sharply in the TPPPS groups compared with non-TPPPS groups. To some extent, TPPPS may reduce the proliferation of ALV-B. These results suggest that Pinus pollen polysaccharides are beneficial treating co-infections with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria and therefore have potential for development into safe and effective immunoregulator. PMID:24815403

  4. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against ?-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of diabetes. This study provides scientific evidence and advances in the preparation technology and a hypoglycemic activities evaluation method for seaweed polysaccharides, especially glycosidase inhibition in combination with an antioxidative activity evaluation method.

  5. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments. [Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Washed cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of (/sup 75/Se)selenate to (/sup 75/Se)selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was greater than or equal to0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace quantities of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

  6. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

  7. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hua-Sheng; Sun, Bu-Chan; Xiang, Xiao-Ren; Chu, Yun-Fei; Zhai, Fan; Jia, Ling-Chang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides (GBEP) on gastric cancer. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric cancer were treated with oral GBEP capsules. The area of tumors was measured by electron gastroscope before and after treatment, then the inhibitory and effective rates were calculated. The ultrastructures of tumor cells were examined by transmissional electron microscope. Cell culture, MTT, flow cytometry were performed to observe proliferation, apoptosis and changes of relevant gene expression of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. RESULTS: Compared with the statement before treatment, GBEP capsules could reduce the area of tumors, and the effective rate was 73.4%. Ultrastructural changes of the cells indicated that GBEP could induce apoptosis and differentiation in tumor cells of patients with gastric cancer. GBEP could inhibit the growth of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells following 24-72 h treatment in vitro at 10-320 mg/L, which was dose- and time-dependent. GBEP was able to elevate the apoptosis rate and expression of c-fos gene, but reduce the expression of c-myc and bcl-2 genes also in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic mechanism of GBEP on human gastric cancer may relate to its effects on the expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and c-fos genes, which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and differentiation of tumor cells. PMID:14606069

  8. Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Fomitskaya, Polina A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl ?-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 ?-l-fucosyl or ?-l-fucosyl-(1?3)-?-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific ?-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-?-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the ?-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  9. Polysaccharide of the slime glycolipoprotein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Koepp, L H; Orr, T; Bartell, P F

    1981-01-01

    The polysaccharide moiety was isolated by mild acid hydrolysis from the slime glycolipoprotein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BI. After gel filtration, the polysaccharide obtained from the Carbohydrate peak fractions was found to be lipid- and protein-free. Analyses indicated that the polysaccharide contained the carbohydrate components of the parent glycolipoprotein. Molecular size of the polysaccharide was estimated by gel filtration as 70,000 to 100,000. The polysaccharide showed no indications of toxicity in mice at doses far in excess of the lethal dose for the parent glycolipoprotein, nor did the mice develop the leukopenia that characteristically follows intraperitoneal injection of glycolipoprotein. The polysaccharide acted as an inhibitor of indirect hemagglutination of glycolipoprotein-coated erythrocytes in the presence of anti-glycolipoprotein serum; however, it was not antigenic itself in rabbits. Coupled with methylated bovine serum albumin, the polysaccharide continued to lack the leukopenic and toxic properties of the parent glycolipoprotein, but the coupled polysaccharide was capable of stimulating indirect hemagglutinating antibody against both the polysaccharide and the glycolipoprotein coating erythrocytes. Moreover, the antibody to the coupled polysaccharide protected mice against challenge with lethal doses of viable P. aeruginosa with the same effectiveness as anti-glycolipoprotein serum. PMID:6793519

  10. Structure of a fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber. Evidence for the presence of 3-O-sulfo-beta-D-glucuronosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R P; Mulloy, B; Mourão, P A

    1991-07-25

    The structure of a unique focose-branched chondroitin sulfate isolated from the body wall of a sea cucumber was examined in detail. This glycosaminoglycan contains side chain disaccharide units of sulfated fucopyranosyl units linked to approximately one-half of the glucuronic acid moieties through the O-3 position of the acid. The intact polysaccharide is totally resistant to chondroitinase degradation, whereas, after defucosylation, it is partially degraded by the enzyme. However, only after an additional step of desulfation, the chondroitin from sea cucumber is almost totally degraded by chondroitinase AC or ABC. This result, together with the methylation and NMR studies of the native and chemically modified polysaccharide, suggest that besides the fucose branches, the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate contains sulfate esters at position O-3 of the beta-D-glucuronic acid units. Furthermore, the proteoglycan from the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate is recognized by anti-Leu-7 monoclonal antibody, which specifically recognizes 3-sulfoglucuronic acid residues. In analogy with the fucose branched units, the 3-O-sulfo-beta-D-glucuronosyl residues are resistant to chondroitinase degradation. Regarding the position of the glycosidic linkage and site of sulfation in the fucose branches, our results suggest high heterogeneity. Tentatively, it is possible to suggest the preponderance of disaccharide units formed by 3,4-di-O-sulfo-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl units glycosidically linked through position 1----2 to 4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-fucopyranose. Finally, the presence of unusual 4/6-disulfated disaccharide units, together with the common 6-sulfated and non-sulfated units, was detected in the chondroitin sulfate core of this polysaccharide. PMID:1906878

  11. Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Kluger, Bernhard; Sarkanj, Bojan; Lemmens, Marc; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96 h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061 mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059 mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44× less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range. PMID:25492089

  12. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80 ?g or normal saline 0.4 mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator. PMID:25962819

  13. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  14. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  15. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  16. Polysaccharide Nanosystems for Future Progress in Cardiovascular Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Amanda Karine Andriola; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides have received a lot of attention in the biomedical field. Indeed, sources of polysaccharides, extracted or produced from plants, bacteria, fungi or algae, are diverse and renewable. Moreover, recent progresses in polysaccharide chemistry and nanotechnologies allow elaborating new dedicated nanosystems. Polysaccharide-based nanosystems may be designed for interacting in several biological processes. In particular, the atherothrombotic pathology is highly concerned by polysaccharide-mediated recognition. Atherothrombotic diseases, regardless of the anatomical localization, remain the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. This review intends to provide an overview on polysaccharide-based nanosystems as drug delivery systems and targeted contrast agents for molecular imaging with an emphasis on the treatment and imaging of cardiovascular pathologies. PMID:24723980

  17. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    2015-08-07

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO4(H2O) 52-]n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  18. Application of polysaccharides for surface modification of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Doh, Kyung-Oh; Yeo, Yoon

    2012-12-01

    Polysaccharides have been used in various biomedical applications due to availability and biocompatibility. In particular, polysaccharides have gained increasing interest in the development of functional nanomedicines as a component to provide a stealth function, improve interactions with target tissues or enable environment-responsive drug release. This review discusses recent advances in nanomedicine engineering based on polysaccharides with a specific emphasis on the rationale, applications and the remaining challenges. PMID:23323561

  19. Antibacterial and antiviral study of dialdehyde polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Le

    Concerns for microbial contamination and infection to the general population, especially the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms, have greatly increased. Polymeric biocides have been found to be a feasible strategy to inactivate drug-resistant bacteria. However, current polymeric biocide systems involve multi-step chemical reactions and they are not cost-effective. Desirable antimicrobial systems need to be designed to be environmentally friendly, broad-spectrum effective against microorganisms, flexible for various delivery methods and economically affordable. We demonstrated that dialdehyde polysaccharides (including dialdehyde starch and dialdehdye cellulose) were broad-spectrum polymeric biocides against gram-positive/negative bacteria, bacteriophages and human virus. These polymers can be easily converted from starch and cellulose through one-step periodate oxidation. Destructions of microorganism by dialdehyde polysaccharides have been achieved in aqueous suspension or by solid surface contact. The dialdehdye functions of dialdehdye polysaccharides were found to be the dominant action against microorganism. The reactivity of the dialdehyde functionality was found to be pH-dependent as well as related to the dispersion of dialdehyde polysaccharides. Degradation of dialdehyde starch during cooking was confirmed. Degradation of dialdehyde starch was more liable in alkaline condition. Carboxylic acid and conjugated aldehyde functionalities were the two main degradation products, confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. The pH effect on the polysaccharide structure and the corresponding antimicrobial activity was very complicated. No decisive conclusions could be obtained from this study. Liner inactivation kinetics was found for dialdehyde starch aqueous suspension against bacteria. This linear inactivation kinetics was derived from the pseudo-first chemical reaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacteria. The established inactivation kinetics was successfully predicated the response of bacteria to dialdehyde starch with time. Inactivation of bacteria by dialdehyde starch was speculated to be the crosslinking-interaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacterial surface. Amino groups of bacterial surfaces were blocked by dialdehyde starch. This crosslinking action was also suggested from the preliminary study of the bacterial dehydrogenase activity. However, membrane damage was found in the dialdehdye starch treated bacteria from the fluorescent study.

  20. Binding of lectins to Streptococcus mutans cells and type-specific polysaccharides, and effect on adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, S; Gill, K; Slade, H D

    1977-01-01

    The lectin concanavalin A (Con A) agglutinated the cells of 13 of 15 strains of the seven serotypes of Streptococcus mutans in an 18-h incubation period. Strains of types a, d, f, and g agglutinated within 2 h. Strains of a, d, and f were also agglutinated in 2 h by the castor bean lectin RCA. S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. bovis, Actinomyces viscosus, A. naeslundii, and Lactobacillus plantarum were agglutinated within 2 h. The S. mutans type f polysaccharide was precipitated by Con A. The a, b, c, d, and e polysaccharides were not precipitated. Glucan from d and e strains of S. mutans and dextran T2000 were also precipitated by Con A. D-glucose inhibited the agglutination of type f cells by Con A and the agglutination of type d cells by D-galactose. The quantity of [acetyl-3H]Con A bound was not proportional to the degree of agglutination. Cells grown in sucrose medium bound more Con A than those grown in glucose medium. After treatment with dextranase, the sucrose-grown cells bound two- to fourfold more Con A. The binding of Con A to the type-specific polysaccharide or to teichoic acid could not be determined by the use of specific antibody due to the binding of Con A to the antibody globulin on the cell surface. Con A bound to S. mutans cells did not inhibit the activity of cell-bound glucosyltransferase, glucan synthesis, and in vitro adherence. Bound Con A also did not inhibit the ability of heat-treated cells to bind glucosyltransferase, synthesize glucan, and produce in vitro adherence. PMID:22491

  1. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  2. Polysaccharide extraction from Spirulina sp. and its antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Chaiklahan, Ratana; Chirasuwan, Nattayaporn; Triratana, Panya; Loha, Veara; Tia, Suvit; Bunnag, Boosya

    2013-07-01

    To optimize polysaccharide extraction from Spirulina sp., the effect of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and time were investigated using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The results showed that extraction temperature and solid-to-liquid ratio had a significant impact on the yield of polysaccharides. A polysaccharides yield of around 8.3% dry weight was obtained under the following optimized conditions: solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:45, temperature of 90°C, and time of 120 min. The polysaccharide extracts contained rhamnose, which accounted for 53% of the total sugars, with a phenolic content of 45 mg GAE/g sample. PMID:23541559

  3. Antitumor activity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides against cervical carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Cai, Yaping; Shao, Xingyue; Jia, Guiyan; Huang, Yulan; Qin, Xuegong; Wang, Jingwei; Zheng, Xiaoliang

    2013-07-25

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as folk medicine in different countries to treat different ailments in humans. P. oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P), extracted from P. oleracea L., is found to have bioactivities such as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (POL-P3b) was successfully purified from Galium verum L. by DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. To evaluate the anticancer efficacy and associated mechanisms of POL-P3b on cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo, we showed that treatment of HeLa cell with POL-P3b inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, POL-P3b significantly inhibited tumor growth in U14-bearing mice. Further analysis indicated that POL-P3b possesses the activity of inhibiting cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo at a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the mechanisms were associated with Sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest, triggering DNA damage and inducing apoptosis. PMID:23768576

  4. Purification, characterization and antitumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Phellinus igniarius mycelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Chao; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Hai-Le; Yan, Jing-Kun; Guo, Dan-Zhao

    2015-11-20

    Water-soluble intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) were extracted from cultured mycelia of Phellinus igniarius. The IPS were purified by ethanol fractional precipitation, ion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography in that order. Homogeneous polysaccharide IPSW-1, IPSW-2, IPSW-3, and IPSW-4 were obtained, which molecular characteristics were examined using multiangle laser-light scattering and refractive index detector system. The average molecular weights of them were 34.1, 17.7, 15.1, 21.7kDa, respectively. GC analysis indicated that IPSW-1, IPSW-2 and IPSW-3 all only contained glucose, while IPSW-4 was composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.29:1.21:1:43.86:1.86. UV and IR analysis suggested they belonged to ?-type of the pyran group and didn't contain protein. These homogeneous polysaccharides could inhibit the growth of SW480 and HepG2 cells to a certain extent in a dose-dependent manner. So they could be beneficial for the further development of a natural carcinoma preventive agent and functional food. PMID:26344250

  5. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  6. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3?M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4?h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1?mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  7. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    PubMed

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  8. Anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Tricholoma matsutake

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Hongqing; Ma, Binxiang; Xu, Ting; Li, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many more fungal polysaccharides have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including anti-tumor, immunostimulation, anti-oxidation, and so on. The non-starch polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive natural products. Objective: To investigate the anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide (TMP-A) isolated from Tricholoma matsutake. Materials and Methods: The anti-microorganism activity of purified polysaccharides (TMP-A) was evaluated by the inhibition zone diameter, the anti-tumor activity was evaluated by the S180 tumor cells that were implanted subcutaneously into the Kunming strain male mice in vivo, and the immune activity was evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage stimulation, respectively. Results: In this study, the most susceptible bacteria of TMP-A at a concentration of 20 mg/ml was Micrococcus lysodeikticus (inhibition zone diameter 24.38 ± 1.19 mm) and the TMP-A did not show any antifungal activity for the tested stains of the fungi. In addition, the inhibitory rate in mice treated with 80 mg/kg TMP-A could reach 68.422%, being the highest in the three doses, which might be comparable to mannatide. The anti-tumor activity of the TMP-A was usually believed to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, because it could significantly promote the lymphocyte and macrophage cells in the dose range of 50–200 ?g/mL and in the dose range of 100 – 400 ?g/mL in vitro, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the purification polysaccharide of Tricholoma matsutake is a potential source of natural broad-spectrum, anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immunomodulation. PMID:23930009

  9. Observation of an Organic-Inorganic Lattice Match during Biomimetic Growth of (001)-Oriented Calcite Crystals under Floating Sulfate Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kewalramani, S.; Kim, K; Stripe, B; Evmenenko, G; Dommett, G; Dutta, P

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular layers rich in amino acids and with some sulfated polysaccharides appear to control oriented calcite growth in living organisms. Calcite crystals nucleating under floating acid monolayers have been found to be unoriented on average. We have now observed directly, using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, that there is a 1:1 match between the monolayer unit cell and the unit cell of the (001) plane of calcite. Thus, sulfate head groups appear to act as templates for the growth of (001)-oriented calcite crystals, which is the orientation commonly found in biominerals.

  10. Proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, and nucleotides with inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus and its enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, has claimed innumerable lives in the past. Many biomolecules which suppress HIV replication and also other biomolecules that inhibit enzymes essential to HIV replication have been reported. Proteins including a variety of milk proteins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, ribonucleases, antifungal proteins, and trypsin inhibitors; peptides comprising cathelicidins, defensins, synthetic peptides, and others; polysaccharides and polysaccharopeptides; nucleosides, nucleotides, and ribozymes, demonstrated anti-HIV activity. In many cases, the mechanism of anti-HIV action has been elucidated. Strategies have been devised to augment the anti-HIV potency of these compounds. PMID:26411457

  11. Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bathe, Mark; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS intrinsic stiffness, and steric interactions on CS osmotic pressure are investigated. At physiological ionic strength (0.15 M NaCl), the sulfation type and pattern, as measured by a standard statistical description of copolymerization, are found to have a negligible influence on CS osmotic pressure, which depends principally on the mean volumetric fixed charge density. The intrinsic backbone stiffness characteristic of polysaccharides such as CS, however, is demonstrated to contribute significantly to its osmotic pressure behavior, which is similar to that of a solution of charged rods for the 20-disaccharide chains considered. Steric excluded volume is found to play a negligible role in determining CS osmotic pressure at physiological ionic strength due to the dominance of repulsive intermolecular electrostatic interactions that maintain chains maximally spaced in that regime, whereas at high ionic-strength steric interactions become dominant due to electrostatic screening. Osmotic pressure predictions are compared to experimental data and to well-established theoretical models including the Donnan theory and the Poisson-Boltzmann cylindrical cell model. PMID:16055525

  12. Chemical analysis of Hericium erinaceum polysaccharides and effect of the polysaccharides on derma antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wu, Pin-ru; Shen, Zheng-yu; Chen, Xiang-dong

    2010-07-01

    Hericium erinaceum was a traditional edible mushroom in Asia. In this study, we extracted polysaccharides from H. erinaceum. HPLC analysis indicated that H. erinaceum polysaccharides were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The FT-IR spectra of H. erinaceum polysaccharides showed characteristic absorption bands of polysaccharides. The pharmacological properties of H. erinaceum polysaccharides were investigated in aged rats. Results showed that H. erinaceum polysaccharides significantly enhanced skin antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1, TIMP-1 activities and collagen protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that H. erinaceum polysaccharides possess anti-skin-aging activities. PMID:20380848

  13. Determination of the distribution of constituent disaccharide units within the chain near the linkage region of shark-cartilage chondroitin sulfate C.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, H; Kikuchi, K; Ogamo, A; Nagasawa, K

    1987-12-01

    A method for analyzing the distribution of constituent disaccharide units within the chain near the linkage region of chondroitin sulfate has been developed. The method consists of (a) chemical modification of the reducing terminal residue in the polysaccharide by a 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylamino)ethylamino (DNP-AEA) group, (b) controlled fragmentation of the DNP-AEA-labeled polysaccharide with chondroitinase AC-I, followed by separation of the digestion products into the DNP-AEA-labeled fragments and unlabeled fragments on octyl-Sepharose CL-4B gel, (c) fractionation of the DNP-AEA-labeled fragments into fractions having different chain-lengths on Sephadex G-100 (superfine), and (d) determination of the disaccharide unit composition of the de-dinitropheylated products (AEA-labeled fragments) by the method combining chondroitinase AC-II treatment with HPLC analysis. A preparation of shark cartilage chondroitin sulfate C, which had been characterized well with regard to molecular species (Mr 48,000; average number of repeating disaccharide units (dpav) 93-94; consisting of chondroitin 6-sulfated 66.8%, 4-sulfated 22.5%, disulfated (D type) 10.3%, and nonsulfated units 0.4%), was analyzed by the above method. On the basis of the data obtained, distribution features of the disaccharide units within the chain near the linkage region of the polysaccharide (dpav 27) were estimated. It was, however, difficult to propose a final primary sequence of the polysaccharide chain, although there was a definite trend towards an enrichment of 4-sulfated and nonsulfated disaccharide residues in the area close to the linkage region (dpav 3-9 or 11). This was apparent together with an enrichment of 6-sulfated and disulfated disaccharide residues in the area distant from the linkage region (dpav 11 or 13-27). PMID:3120783

  14. Identification of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Network Essential for Cytochrome Anchoring and Biofilm Formation in Geobacter sulfurreducens? †

    PubMed Central

    Rollefson, Janet B.; Stephen, Camille S.; Tien, Ming; Bond, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Transposon insertions in Geobacter sulfurreducens GSU1501, part of an ATP-dependent exporter within an operon of polysaccharide biosynthesis genes, were previously shown to eliminate insoluble Fe(III) reduction and use of an electrode as an electron acceptor. Replacement of GSU1501 with a kanamycin resistance cassette produced a similarly defective mutant, which could be partially complemented by expression of GSU1500 to GSU1505 in trans. The ?1501 mutant demonstrated limited cell-cell agglutination, enhanced attachment to negatively charged surfaces, and poor attachment to positively charged poly-d-lysine- or Fe(III)-coated surfaces. Wild-type and mutant cells attached to graphite electrodes, but when electrodes were poised at an oxidizing potential inducing a positive surface charge (+0.24 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode [SHE]), ?1501 mutant cells detached. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibrils surrounding wild-type G. sulfurreducens which were absent from the ?1501 mutant. Similar amounts of type IV pili and pilus-associated cytochromes were detected on both cell types, but shearing released a stable matrix of c-type cytochromes and other proteins bound to polysaccharides. The matrix from the mutant contained 60% less sugar and was nearly devoid of c-type cytochromes such as OmcZ. The addition of wild-type extracellular matrix to ?1501 cultures restored agglutination and Fe(III) reduction. The polysaccharide binding dye Congo red preferentially bound wild-type cells and extracellular matrix material over mutant cells, and Congo red inhibited agglutination and Fe(III) reduction by wild-type cells. These results demonstrate a crucial role for the xap (extracellular anchoring polysaccharide) locus in metal oxide attachment, cell-cell agglutination, and localization of essential cytochromes beyond the Geobacter outer membrane. PMID:21169487

  15. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  16. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds. PMID:21087484

  17. Purification and identification of a polysaccharide from medicinal mushroom Amauroderma rude with immunomodulatory activity and inhibitory effect on tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Honghui; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiguo; Yu, Xiongtao; Jiao, Chunwei; Yang, Xiaobing; Dhaliwal, Preet; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms in recent years have been the subject of many experiments searching for anticancer properties. We previously screened thirteen mushrooms for their potential in inhibiting tumor growth, and found that the water extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity. Previous studies have shown that the polysaccharides contained in the water extract were responsible for the anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of the polysaccharides on immune regulation and tumor growth. Using the crude Amauroderma rude extract, in vitro experiments showed that the capacities of spleen lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells were all increased. In vivo experiments showed that the extract increased macrophage metabolism, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. In addition, the partially purified product stimulated the secretion of cytokines in vitro, and in vivo. Overall, the extract decreased tumor growth rates. Lastly, the active compound was purified and identified as polysaccharide F212. Most importantly, the purified polysaccharide had the highest activity in increasing lymphocyte proliferation. In summary, this molecule may serve as a lead compound for drug development. PMID:26219260

  18. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    DOEpatents

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  19. Interference with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as potential antitumor strategy: superiority of a sulfated galactofucan from the brown alga Saccharina latissima and fucoidan over heparins.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tino; Ehrig, Karina; Liewert, Inga; Alban, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    The present study demonstrates that fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSP) from brown algae interfere with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in human Burkitt's lymphoma cells by binding CXCL12 and thereby blocking both CXCL12-induced CXCR4 receptor activation and downstream effects like migration and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9. This mode of action is currently considered as promising strategy for tumor therapy and may contribute to the known in vivo antitumor, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity of FCSP. In terms of the inhibition of the CXCR4 activation, FCSP from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-FCSP) proved to be more active than a commercial "Fucoidan" from Fucus vesiculosus, and both FCSP were superior to heparins by more than one order of magnitude. Fractionation of S.l.-FCSP revealed that its main fraction is composed of a homogeneous, higher sulfated galactofucan (S.l.-SGF) which consistently exhibited stronger activities and can therefore be considered as the active ingredient of S.l.-FCSP. By subjecting Fucoidan to the same fractionation procedure, the inhibitory activity of the obtained purified Fucoidan on the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis tended to be weaker and its antioxidant and antiproliferative effects were lost. This was probably due to the separation of contaminants including phenolic compounds, whose content additionally showed marked batch-to-batch variability. Regarding the need of standardized, well-characterized FCSP preparations for any potential medical application, our results indicate that S.l.-SGF is a promising candidate for further investigations and that S. latissima may be a more appropriate source of FCSP than F. vesiculosus or other algae species with high contents of co-extractable compounds. PMID:25878069

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  1. A SOLVENT-FREE PROCESS TO ESTERIFY POLYSACCHARIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel process for the preparation of acetates of polysaccharides will be discussed. The process involves the acetylation of polysaccharides with acetic anhydride in the presence of iodine as a catalyst. No solvent is required to bring about the acetylation. The method is simple, rapid, and char...

  2. Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

    1991-01-01

    Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

  3. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides in Biofilm Formation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Limoli, Dominique H.; Jones, Christopher J.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Microbes produce a biofilm matrix consisting of proteins, extracellular DNA, and polysaccharides that is integral in the formation of bacterial communities. Historical studies of polysaccharides revealed that their overproduction often alters the colony morphology and can be diagnostic in identifying certain species. The polysaccharide component of the matrix can provide many diverse benefits to the cells in the biofilm, including adhesion, protection, and structure. Aggregative polysaccharides act as molecular glue, allowing the bacterial cells to adhere to each other as well as surfaces. Adhesion facilitates the colonization of both biotic and abiotic surfaces by allowing the bacteria to resist physical stresses imposed by fluid movement that could separate the cells from a nutrient source. Polysaccharides can also provide protection from a wide range of stresses, such as desiccation, immune effectors, and predators such as phagocytic cells and amoebae. Finally, polysaccharides can provide structure to biofilms, allowing stratification of the bacterial community and establishing gradients of nutrients and waste products. This can be advantageous for the bacteria by establishing a heterogeneous population that is prepared to endure stresses created by the rapidly changing environments that many bacteria encounter. The diverse range of polysaccharide structures, properties, and roles highlight the importance of this matrix constituent to the successful adaptation of bacteria to nearly every niche. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge regarding the diversity and benefits that polysaccharide production provides to bacterial communities within biofilms. PMID:26185074

  4. In vitro antioxidant activities of low-molecular-weight polysaccharides with various functional groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu Kai; Tsai, Min Lang; Huang, Jin Ru; Chen, Rong Huei

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different functional groups of sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl and/or their ionized groups on in vitro antioxidant capacities of low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH), and starch (LMST), respectively, and to elucidate their structure-activity relationship. Ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used as positive controls. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of LMAG and LMCH were higher than that of LMST in the DPPH radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide radical scavenging and ferrous metal-chelating capacities. The different scavenging capacities may be due to the combined effects of the different sizes of the electron-cloud density and the different accessibility between free radical and LMPS, which, in turn, depends upon the different hydrophobicities of the constituent sugars. PMID:19256513

  5. Rheological properties, gelling behavior and texture characteristics of polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Leke; Li, Yinping; Chi, Yongzhou; Ji, Yinglu; Gao, Yan; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-20

    Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera (PE) which is the most common green algae is gradually becoming an attractive candidate with novel functions by virtue of its unique chemical and physicochemical properties. The infrared spectrum (FT-IR) of PE confirmed that it is a distinctive, sulfated heteropolysaccharide. Dynamic rheology was systematically conducted to investigate the effect of concentration, temperature, pH, and electrolytes on PE. The flow behavior testing verified its pseudoplastic character. A closed hysteresis loop was obtained when the PE concentration reached 10g/L. For the phase angel (tan?) was always less than 1, the solid-like behavior of PE is also found at 10-14g/L PE in the linear viscoelastic region (LVR). Furthermore, study on its potential gelling behavior showed that 16g/L PE could form a gel and had well textural properties. The unique functional groups and characteristics of PE provided the possibility to apply into food industry. PMID:26572475

  6. Neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Ruimin; Li, Ning; Chen, Yonglin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-20

    A novel analytical method for neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to a charged aerosol detector. The effects of column type, additives, pH and column temperature on retention and separation were evaluated. Additionally, the method could distinguish potential impurities in samples, including chloride, sulfate and sodium, from sugars. The results of validation demonstrated that this method had good linearity (R(2)?0.9981), high precision (relative standard deviation?4.43%), and adequate accuracy (94.02-103.37% recovery) and sensitivity (detection limit: 15-40ng). Finally, the monosaccharide compositions of the polysaccharide from Eclipta prostrasta L. and stachyose were successfully profiled through this method. This report represents the first time that all of these common monosaccharides could be well-separated and determined simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography without additional derivatization. This newly developed method is convenient, efficient and reliable for monosaccharide analysis. PMID:26572471

  7. Mode of interaction between pseudorabies virus and heparan sulfate/heparin.

    PubMed

    Trybala, E; Bergström, T; Spillmann, D; Svennerholm, B; Olofsson, S; Flynn, S J; Ryan, P

    1996-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the efficient attachment of pseudorabies virus (PrV) is mediated by an interaction between glycoprotein C (gC) and a cellular heparin-like substance (T. C. Mettenleiter, L. Zsak, F. Zuckermann, N. Sugg, H. Kern, and t. Ben-Porat, J. Virol. 64, 278-286, 1990). According to the prevalent concept, this interaction is likely to occur between clusters of basic residues of PrV gC and the negatively charged sulfate esters and carboxylate groups of heparan sulfate/heparin. To elucidate which of the three major types of sulfate groups of heparan sulfate/heparin are involved in the interaction with PrV, we used selectively N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-desulfated samples and other modified heparins as competitors in virus-attachment assays. PrV exhibited limited preference for the specific sulfate groups of heparan sulfate/heparin in accordance with a hierarchy of 6-O- > 2-O- > N-sulfates. In addition, since selective removal of any of the specific sulfates had only a slight effect on the competition capacity of heparin, it is likely that the combination of any two of three types of sulfate groups could contribute to an interaction with PrV with an efficiency nearly equal to native, fully sulfated heparin. When tested on different cell lines the pattern of PrV requirement for the specific O-sulfate groups, i.e., 6-O-sulfates > 2-O-sulfates, remained the same. However, different minimum lengths of heparin fragments were required to inhibit PrV attachment to different cell lines, suggesting a relative virus flexibility in accommodation to different forms of heparan sulfate. PMID:8615039

  8. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal.

    PubMed

    Pustjens, Annemieke M; Schols, Henk A; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-11-01

    To enable structural characteristics of individual cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal (RSM) to be studied, polysaccharide fractions were sequentially extracted. Fractions were analysed for their carbohydrate (linkage) composition and polysaccharide structures were also studied by enzymatic fingerprinting. The RSM fractions analysed contained pectic polysaccharides: homogalacturonan in which 60% of the galacturonic acid residues are methyl-esterified, arabinan branched at the O-2 position and arabinogalactan mainly type II. This differs from characteristics previously reported for Brassica campestris meal, another rapeseed cultivar. Also, in the alkali extracts hemicelluloses were analysed as xyloglucan both of the XXGG- and XXXG-type decorated with galactosyl, fucosyl and arabinosyl residues, and as xylan with O-methyl-uronic acid attached. The final residue after extraction still contained xyloglucan and remaining (pectic) polysaccharides next to cellulose, showing that the cell wall matrix of RSM is very strongly interconnected. PMID:24053853

  9. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  10. [Isolation, purification and structure analysis of polysaccharides from Peacilomyces lilacinus].

    PubMed

    Shi, Huai; Liu, Bo; Su, Mingxing; Huang, Sufang; Zhu, Yujing

    2010-08-01

    The paper dealt with the characterization of polysaccharide of Paecilomyces lilacinus NH-PL-03 strain. First, we extracted and purified exude polysaccharide from the fungal fermentation broth by ethanol depositing method. Second, the proteins were removed by the Sevage method from the crude polysaccharide. Third, the purified polysaccharide (EP-1) was obtained after Superdex G-75 column separation. The results of UV-spectrometer and Sephacryl S-200 HR chromatography experiments showed that the EP-1 was a homogeneous pure polysaccharide with molecular weight of 35.2 kDa. Tested by paper chromatography analysis using the complete hydrolysis by sulfuric acid, we found that the EP-1 comprise single component as glucose. The chemical structure of EP-1 was confirmed as a kind of linear glucan linked by beta-(1,3) linkage. The Congo red reaction performed that EP-1 probable presented a triple-helical conformation in the dilute alkali. PMID:21090112

  11. Polysaccharides for colon targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, M K; Jain, S K

    2004-01-01

    Colon targeted drug delivery has the potential to deliver bioactive agents for the treatment of a variety of colonic diseases and to deliver proteins and peptides to the colon for their systemic absorption. Various strategies, currently available to target the release of drugs to colon, include formation of prodrug, coating of pH-sensitive polymers, use of colon-specific biodegradable polymers, timed released systems, osmotic systems, and pressure controlled drug delivery systems. Among the different approaches to achieve targeted drug release to the colon, the use of polymers especially biodegradable by colonic bacteria holds great promise. Polysaccharidases are bacterial enzymes that are available in sufficient quantity to be exploited in colon targeting of drugs. Based on this approach, various polysaccharides have been investigated for colon-specific drug release. These polysaccharides include pectin, guar gum, amylose, inulin, dextran, chitosan, and chondroitin sulphate. This family of natural polymers has an appeal to drug delivery as it is comprised of polymers with a large number of derivatizable groups, a wide range of molecular weights, varying chemical compositions, and, for the most part, low toxicity and biodegradability yet high stability. The most favorable property of these materials is their approval as pharmaceutical excipients. PMID:15200012

  12. Catabolism of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a ubiquitous component of the cell surface and extracellular matrix of animal tissues. CS chains are covalently bound to a core protein to form a proteoglycan, which is involved in various biological events including cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Their functions are executed by regulating the activity of bioactive proteins, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines. This review article focuses on the catabolism of CS. This catabolism predominantly occurs in lysosomes to control the activity of CS-proteoglycans. CS chains are fragmented by endo-type glycosidase(s), and the resulting oligosaccharides are then cleaved into monosaccharide moieties from the nonreducing end by exoglycosidases and sulfatases. However, the endo-type glycosidase responsible for the systemic catabolism of CS has not yet been identified. Based on recent advances in studies on hyaluronidases, which were previously considered to be hyaluronan-degrading enzymes, it appears that they recognize CS as their original substrate rather than hyaluronan and acquired hyaluronan-hydrolyzing activity at a relatively late stage of evolution. PMID:26204402

  13. Astragalus polysaccharide improves muscle atrophy from dexamethasone- and peroxide-induced injury in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Tao; Shi, Ying; Yin, Yi; Wei, Lian-Bo; Zou, Yu-Cong; Huang, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Ming; Wan, Heng; Li, Cheng-Jie; Diao, Jian-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is an important bioactive component of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (Leguminosae) that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating muscle wasting, a serious complication with complex mechanism manifested as myofibers atrophy and satellite cells apoptosis. In this study, the anti-atrophy and anti-apoptotic activity of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) was characterized in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes and myoblasts. APS inhibited dexamethasone-induced atrophy by restoring phosphorylation of Akt, m-TOR, P70s6k, rpS6 and FoxO3A/FoxO1. The targets that protected C2C12 myoblasts from damage by H2O2 were promoting cells proliferation and inhibiting cells apoptosis. The protective mechanisms involved mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Moreover, Antioxidant effect of APS was also detected in this work. Our findings suggested that APS could be explored as a protective and perhaps as a therapeutic agent in the management of muscle wasting. PMID:23817095

  14. Radio-protective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus brevis-fermented Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, Bae-Jin; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Kim, Daekyung; Yang, Hyemi; Kim, Young Mog; Park, Sun Joo; Jee, Youngheun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the radioprotective effects of a polysaccharide isolated from enzymatic extracts of Ecklonia cava (E. cava) fermented by fungi and bacteria. We identified that the aqueous extract of the Lactobacillus brevis-fermented E. cava especially showed the highest proliferation effect. In addition, the enzymatic extract prepared by enzyme-assisted extraction using Viscozyme (VLFE) significantly increased cell proliferation. Further study indicated that the polysaccharides isolated from the >30 kDa fraction of VLFE (VLFEP) significantly enhanced survival and proliferation effects in ?-ray-irradiated cells. Also, VLFEP markedly reduced the DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species, and the percentage of Sub-G(1) DNA contents caused by ?-ray-irradiation. Moreover, VLFEP modulated the expression levels of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 via inhibition of I?B? degradation and phosphorylation and NF?B p65 translocation into nuclei. These results demonstrate that VLFEP has radioprotective properties including the modulation of apoptosis via the inhibition of the NF?B signaling pathway. PMID:23068138

  15. Sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design considerations in anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of improvement in anaerobic digestion were investigated: inhibition of sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design. In the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, an undesirable end product, is produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of adding SRB-specific biochemical inhibitors to a waste stream as a method of preventing sulfate reduction in continuous anaerobic digesters. Two classes of inhibitory compounds were identified: (1) sulfate analogs and (2) transition metal divalent cations. Molybdate was found to have an immediate inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction, and a delayed effect on other trophic groups. Non-specific inhibition was not caused by a dynamic imbalance due to cessation of fatty acid degradation via sulfate reduction. Transition metals had no effect on sulfate reduction or overall digester performance in high sulfate digesters. The hypothesis that nutrient limitation could be synergistically coupled with the addition of SRB-specific inhibitors was investigated. Recovery of sulfate reduction was slower after molybdate removal from the feed when phosphate was limited as compared with when it was continually added, although this effect may have been an indirect result of non-specific inhibition. Periodic pulse nutrient addition was investigated as a method of (1) reducing cell growth, sludge production and related disposal costs and (2) reducing nutrient addition costs. Sustained waste treatment performance was demonstrated for iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen-free feeds. When withheld nutrients were added in pulses, effective operation could be maintained over long periods. Increasing pulse strength delayed the onset of adverse effects related to nutrient starvation.

  16. Antiviral and Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Galactomannans from Plants of Caatinga Biome

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Márcia Maria Mendes; de Morais, Selene Maia; da Silva, Ana Raquel Araújo; Barroso, Naiara Dutra; Pontes Filho, Tadeu Rocha; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho; Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto; Lima, Danielle Malta; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo

    2015-01-01

    Dengue represents a serious social and economic public health problem; then trying to contribute to improve its control, the objective of this research was to develop phytoterapics for dengue treatment using natural resources from Caatinga biome. Galactomannans isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tull were chemically sulfated in order to evaluate the antioxidant, and antiviral activities and the role in the inhibition of virus DENV-2 in Vero cells. A positive correlation between the degree of sulfation, antioxidant and antiviral activities was observed. The sulfated galactomannans showed binding to the virus surface, indicating that they interact with DENV-2. The sulfated galactomannans from C. ferrea showed 96% inhibition of replication of DENV-2 followed by D. gardneriana (94%) and A. pavonina (77%) at 25?µg/mL and all sulfated galactomannans also showed antioxidant activity. This work is the first report of the antioxidant and antiviral effects of sulfated galactomannans against DENV-2. The results are very promising and suggest that these sulfated galactomannans from plants of Caatinga biome act in the early step of viral infection. Thus, sulfated galactomannans may act as an entry inhibitor of DENV-2. PMID:26257815

  17. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  18. Chondroitin sulfate-based nanocarriers for drug/gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lili; Liu, Mengrui; Wang, Juan; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-11-20

    In recent years, the naturally occurring polysaccharides captured an increasing amount of attention in the field of drug/gene delivery systems owing to their outstanding propensities, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogenicity, extremely low toxicity, and so on. Chondroitin sulfate (ChS), a member of glycosaminoglycan family, consists of repeating disaccharide units of b-1,3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) and b-1,4-linked d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) with certain position(s) sulfated, which has been widely applied in nano-sized carriers. This review will focus on shared and unique properties of ChS and its latest development in drug/gene delivery systems. In detail, the application of ChS as nanocarriers will be discussed in three dimensions: self-assembly of hydrophobically modified ChS, ChS decorated nanocarriers, and some other nanocarriers based on ChS. A discussion relating to the future perspectives of ChS-based nanocarriers for drug/gene delivery is also included. PMID:26344295

  19. Identification, characterization and immunogenicity of an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Apicella, Michael A; Post, Deborah M B; Fowler, Andrew C; Jones, Bradley D; Rasmussen, Jed A; Hunt, Jason R; Imagawa, Sayaka; Choudhury, Biswa; Inzana, Thomas J; Maier, Tamara M; Frank, Dara W; Zahrt, Thomas C; Chaloner, Kathryn; Jennings, Michael P; McLendon, Molly K; Gibson, Bradford W

    2010-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4)-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4)-alpha-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3)-beta-D-QuiNAc-(1->2)-beta-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 microg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 microg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis produces an O-antigen capsule that may be the basis of a future vaccine. PMID:20625403

  20. Identification, Characterization and Immunogenicity of an O-Antigen Capsular Polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Andrew C.; Jones, Bradley D.; Rasmussen, Jed A.; Hunt, Jason R.; Imagawa, Sayaka; Choudhury, Biswa; Inzana, Thomas J.; Maier, Tamara M.; Frank, Dara W.; Zahrt, Thomas C.; Chaloner, Kathryn; Jennings, Michael P.; McLendon, Molly K.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2010-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4)-?-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4)-?-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3)-?-D-QuiNAc-(1->2)-?-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 µg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 µg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis produces an O-antigen capsule that may be the basis of a future vaccine. PMID:20625403

  1. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.

  2. Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Enhancement of Henipavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Dhondt, Kévin P.; Châlons, Marie; Mély, Stéphane; Raoul, Hervé; Negre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc; Gerlier, Denis; Vivès, Romain R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nipah virus and Hendra virus are emerging, highly pathogenic, zoonotic paramyxoviruses that belong to the genus Henipavirus. They infect humans as well as numerous mammalian species. Both viruses use ephrin-B2 and -B3 as cell entry receptors, and following initial entry into an organism, they are capable of rapid spread throughout the host. We have previously reported that Nipah virus can use another attachment receptor, different from its entry receptors, to bind to nonpermissive circulating leukocytes, thereby promoting viral dissemination within the host. Here, this attachment molecule was identified as heparan sulfate for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Cells devoid of heparan sulfate were not able to mediate henipavirus trans-infection and showed reduced permissivity to infection. Virus pseudotyped with Nipah virus glycoproteins bound heparan sulfate and heparin but no other glycosaminoglycans in a surface plasmon resonance assay. Furthermore, heparin was able to inhibit the interaction of the viruses with the heparan sulfate and to block cell-mediated trans-infection of henipaviruses. Moreover, heparin was shown to bind to ephrin-B3 and to restrain infection of permissive cells in vitro. Consequently, treatment with heparin devoid of anticoagulant activity improved the survival of Nipah virus-infected hamsters. Altogether, these results reveal heparan sulfate as a new attachment receptor for henipaviruses and as a potential therapeutic target for the development of novel approaches against these highly lethal infections. PMID:25759505

  3. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  4. Characterization and localization of large sulfated glycoproteins in the extracellular matrix of the developing asteroid Pisaster ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Crawford, T J; Crawford, B J

    1992-02-01

    In this study techniques commonly used to extract and purify proteoglycans of vertebrates were applied to the embryo of the asteroid Pisaster ochraceus at the early bipinnaria larva stage, a stage in which extensive cell migration is occurring within the extracellular matrix of the blastocoel. Several large sulfated glycoproteins were isolated and shown to consist of protein cores covalently bound to sulfated polysaccharide chains. The polysaccharide chains consisted primarily of neutral sugars and were not susceptible to glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes, suggesting that these were not glycosaminoglycans. The sulfated glycoproteins could be fractionated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose-acrylamide composite gels. Two types of monoclonal antibodies prepared against isolated extracellular matrix of these embryos reacted with two subsets of bands on Western blots of the composite gels. Staining of sections of the embryos with the antibodies showed that the epitopes that they recognized were located throughout the extracellular matrices of the embryos. That these high molecular weight glycoproteins were located within the extracellular matrix of the embryos suggests that they may be involved in the control of morphogenesis and cellular movement. PMID:1510829

  5. Profiling sulfation/epimerization pattern of full-length heparan sulfate by NMR following cell culture 13C-glucose metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Pegeot, Mathieu; Sadir, Rabia; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellen, Lena; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Gans, Pierre; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2015-02-01

    Through its ability to interact with proteins, heparan sulfate (HS) fulfills a large variety of functions. Protein binding depends on the level of HS sulfation and epimerization which are cell specific and dynamically regulated. Characterization of this molecule, however, has been restricted to oligosaccharide fragments available in large amount for structural investigation or to sulfate distribution through compositional analysis. Here we developed a (1)H-(13)C 2D NMR-based approach, directly performed on HS isolated from (13)C-labeled cells. By integrating the peak volumes measured at different chemical shifts, this non-destructive analysis allows us to determine both the sulfation and the iduronic/glucuronic profiles of the polysaccharide. Applied to wild-type and N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-deficient fibroblasts as well as to epithelial cells differentiation, it also gives insights into the functional relationships existing between HS biosynthetic enzymes. This approach should be of significant interest to better understand HS changes that occur through physiologic regulations or during pathological development. PMID:25335974

  6. Mouse development is not obviously affected by the absence of dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 in spite of a modified brain dermatan sulfate composition.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Barbara; Thelin, Martin A; Rauch, Uwe; Feinstein, Ricardo; Oldberg, Ake; Malmström, Anders; Maccarana, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 (DS-epi2), together with its homolog DS-epi1, transform glucuronic acid into iduronic acid in DS polysaccharide chains. Iduronic acid gives DS increased chain flexibility and promotes protein binding. DS-epi2 is ubiquitously expressed and is the predominant epimerase in the brain. Here, we report the generation and initial characterization of DS-epi2 null mice. DS-epi2-deficient mice showed no anatomical, histological or morphological abnormalities. The body weights and lengths of mutated and wild-type littermates were indistinguishable. They were fertile and had a normal lifespan. Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/DS isolated from the newborn mutated mouse brains had a 38% reduction in iduronic acid compared with wild-type littermates, and compositional analysis revealed a decrease in 4-O-sulfate and an increase in 6-O-sulfate containing structures. Despite the reduction in iduronic acid, the adult DS-epi2-/- brain showed normal extracellular matrix features by immunohistological stainings. We conclude that DS-epi1 compensates in vivo for the loss of DS-epi2. These results extend previous findings of the functional redundancy of brain extracellular matrix components. PMID:22496542

  7. Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Deveci, N.; Delaloglu, C.G.

    1995-04-01

    Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial feasibility of utilizing a biological system capable of converting hydrous calcium sulfate (gypsum) to elemental sulfur. Gypsum, which was used in this study, is a byproduct of the fertilizer industry. The biological system is referred to as a bacterial mutualism, and involves Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for sulfate conversion and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum for hydrogen sulfide conversion. Bacterial mutualism and utilization of sulfate were investigated by means of a two-stage anaerobic system. In the first stage, a gas purge system was used for sulfate conversion to sulfide, and it was found that maximum conversion is 34%. In the second stage, a static culture system was used for sulfide conversion to sulfur with a conversion of 92%. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Bioinspired matrices assembled by polysaccharide-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le

    Bioinspired matrices assembled on the basis of noncovalent interactions between proteins and polysaccharides have been proved suitable to deliver therapeutically relevant proteins or DNAs. Our initial efforts were dedicated to the relationship between mechanical properties of hydrogels assembled based on specific interactions between low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and heparin binding peptides (HBPs) such as HIP, ATIII, and PF4ZIP peptides. The measured differences in affinity and kinetics for LMWH-HBP binding likely lead to observed differences in the phase separation behavior of the poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LMWH/PEG-HIP hydrogels versus the PEG-LMWH/PEG-ATIII hydrogels. More attention has been given to the PF4ZIP peptide employed for the noncovalent assembly of heparinized hydrogels. Multifunctional star PEG-PF4ZIP bioconjugates complexed with star PEG-LMWH form hydrogels that exhibit increasing elastic moduli with increasing mole ratio of PEG-PF4ZIP. The viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels can be controlled via alterations in the ratio between LMWH and PF4ZIP peptide, and comparisons with other PEG-LMWH/PEG-HBP hydrogels suggest the importance of both LMWH/HBP binding kinetics and the binding capacity of LMWH in determining rheological properties in these hydrogels. Characterization of the PEG-LMWH/PEG-PF4ZIP hydrogels suggests that useful moduli for soft tissue engineering applications are obtained at physiological temperatures and after applying high shear. Furthermore, in the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) release, bFGF/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) co-release, and hydrogel erosion results, the combination of growth factor (GF) release profiles and hydrogel erosion profiles suggests that GF delivery from the assembled hydrogels is mainly an erosion-controlled process that may permit co-release of GF with PEG-LMWH and may therefore also improve the bioactivity of GF delivered from these matrices. Hydrogels with such engineered mechanical properties and biological activities may find expanded use in controlled delivery of therapeutics and in other biological applications. In addition to the multivalent PEG-HBPs, a growth factor with two LMWH-binding sites, VEGF, was also employed to physically crosslink PEG-unfractionated LMWH based on protein-polysaccharide interactions, and the assembled networks can be selectively eroded in the presence of the growth factor receptors. The VEGF released from these hydrogels is bioactive and able to increase proliferation of VEGF-responsive cell lines. A receptor-mediated hydrogel erosion and protein delivery are suggested from the release of VEGF crosslinks in response to cell surface KDR. Employing similar approaches, other therapeutically important difunctional proteins or synthetic peptides can also act as crosslinks of environmentally-responsive systems and be delivered in a targeted manner. The multivalent PEG-HBPs are also capable of binding both heparin and plasmid DNA sufficiently well to make them valuable for serving as DNA delivery vectors. Transfection studies suggest the PEG-HBPs possess significant transfection efficiency. Apart from the highly toxic PEG-ATIII vector, increased heparin affinity of PEG-HBPs correlated well with increased cellular uptake and increased transfection efficiency. In general, cell surface binding and cellular uptake, mediated by heparan sulfate, play a key role in the transfection pathway. Given that the structures and components of PEG-HBPs can be accurately tuned, the multivalent PEG-HBPs may find broader applications in gene delivery.

  9. Development of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels for controlling drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Aaron David

    The use of polymers as biomaterials has evolved over the past several decades, encompassing an expanding synthetic toolbox and many bio-mimetic approaches. Both synthetic and natural polymers have been used as components for biomaterials as their unique chemical structures can provide specific functions for desired applications. Of these materials, heparin, a highly sulfated naturally occurring polysaccharide, has been investigated extensively as a core component in drug delivery platforms and tissue engineering. The goal of this work was to further explore the use of heparin via conjugation with synthetic polymers for applications in drug delivery. We begin by investigating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a depolymerized heparin that is used medicinally in the prevention of thrombosis by subcutaneous injection or intravenous drip. Certain disease states or disorders require frequent administration with invasive delivery modalities leading to compliance issues for individuals on prolonged therapeutic courses. To address these issues, a long-term delivery method was developed for LMWH via subcutaneous injection of in situ hydrogelators. This therapy was accomplished by chemical modification of LMWH with maleimide functionality so that it may be crosslinked into continuous hydrogel networks with four-arm thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). These hydrogels degrade via hydrolysis over a period of weeks and release bioactive LMWH with first-order kinetics as determined by in vitro and in vivo models, thus indicating the possibility of an alternative means of heparin delivery over current accepted methodologies. Evaluation of the maleimide-thiol chemistries applied in the LMWH hydrogels revealed reversibility for some conjugates under reducing conditions. Addition chemistries, such as maleimide-thiol reactions, are widely employed in biological conjugates and are generally accepted as stable. Here we show that the resulting succinimide thioether formed by the Michael type addition of thiol derivatives to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) undergoes retro and exchange reactions in the presence of other thiol compounds at physiological pH and temperature. Model studies of NEM conjugated to various thiols (4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPA), N-acetylcysteine, or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)), incubated with a naturally occurring reducing agent, glutathione, showed half-lives from 20-80 hrs with extents of conversion from 20-90% for MPA and N-acetylcysteine conjugates. The kinetics of the retro reactions and extent of exchange can be modulated by the Michael donor's reactivity; therefore the degradation of maleimide-thiol adducts could be tuned for controlled release of drugs or degradation of materials at timescales different than those currently possible via disulfide-mediated release. The reduction sensitive maleimide-thiol chemistry was then investigated as a crosslinking mechanism for LMWH hydrogels. Crosslinking maleimide functionalized LMWH with PEG functionalized with thiophenyl functionalities imparted glutathione sensitivity. 4-mercaptophenylpropionic acid and 2,2-dimethyl-3-(4-mercaptophenyl)propionic acid, induced sensitivity to glutathione as shown by a decrease in degradation time of 4x and 5x respectively. The pseudo-first order retro reaction constants were approximately an order of magnitude slower than hydrogels crosslinked via disulfide linkages, indicating the potential use of the retro succinimide-thioether covalent bonds for reduction mediated release and/or degradation with increased blood stability and prolonged drug delivery timescales compared to disulfide chemistries. In summary, this work highlights the use of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels composed of LMWH and PEG as investigated for drug delivery and as a tool for elucidating a novel reduction sensitive controlled release mechanism.

  10. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives.

    PubMed

    ?opíková, Jana; Taubner, Tomáš; T?ma, Jan; Synytsya, Andriy; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-02-13

    Hydrophobic derivatives of highly methylated citrus pectin, chitosan and cellulose were prepared and tested as potential cholesterol lowering agents. Elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods confirmed high substitution degree for all of them. Substitution with long alkyl/acyl groups led to significant changes in physical and thermal properties of modified polysaccharides. Sorption of cholate and cholesterol by these polysaccharide-based sorbents was estimated in comparison with the synthetic drug cholestyramine. It was found that modified polysaccharides have high affinity to cholesterol. By contrast, cholestyramine was effective only in cholate sorption. PMID:25458291

  11. Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into polysaccharide substrates and their properties.

    PubMed

    Hassabo, Ahmed G; Nada, Ahmed A; Ibrahim, Hassan M; Abou-Zeid, N Y

    2015-05-20

    A method to impregnate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into different polysaccharides substrates (cellulose powder (CP), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (Chit)) by using glucose as reducing agent, is presented. X-ray diffraction analyses of polysaccharides coated with AgNPs showed the formation of silver particle sizes in the range of 3.7-5.6 nm and have almost spherical shape. The entire prepared composite shows antimicrobial effect. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharides loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The results suggest excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:25817678

  12. Composite polysaccharide fibers prepared by electrospinning and coating

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, N.; Miao, J.; Simmons, T.J.; Dordick, J.S.; Linhardt, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Composite polysaccharide fibers composed two oppositely charged natural polysaccharides, chitosan and hyaluronic acid, were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent coating The fiber size distribution was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Chitosan/hyaluronic acid composite fibers were stable in water but showed controlled release of hyaluronic acid into phosphate buffered saline, and the presence of 3-wt% hyaluronic acid coating improved the swelling ratio to 30%. The resulting composite polysaccharide fibers have a number of potential biomedical applications in wound healing applications and in drug delivery systems. PMID:24507368

  13. Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases in Biomass Conversion.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Johnston, Esther M; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    The derivation of second-generation biofuels from non-edible biomass is viewed as crucial for establishing a sustainable bio-based economy for the future. The inertness of lignocellulosic biomass makes its breakdown for conversion into fuels and other compounds a challenge. Enzyme cocktails can be utilized in the bio-refinery for lignocellulose deconstruction but until recently their costs were regarded as high. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) offer tremendous promise for further process improvements owing to their ability to boost the activity of biomass-degrading enzyme consortia. Combining data from multiple disciplines, progress has been made in understanding the biochemistry of LPMOs. We review the academic literature in this area and highlight some of the key questions that remain. PMID:26472212

  14. Nutraceutical functionalities of polysaccharides from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byeong-Dae; Choi, Yeung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers are seeking functional materials from marine resources. These marine resources can be used as traditional food additives, and specifically, these are based on polysaccharides. To date, there is a big opportunity to develop new high-value added products with indispensable functional characteristics, which can be used in nutraceuticals either as additives or supplements. Also, a crossover in the pharmaceutical market may be established. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mimetic-type molecules are already being utilized in the field of nutrition as well as in the cosmetics industry. This chemical is used as a dietary supplement to maintain the structure and function of cartilages, for the relief of pain caused by osteoarthritic joints, and can also be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Recently, in relation to the prevalence of mad cow disease and avian influenza, the production of GAGs from marine invertebrates offers new market opportunities as compared with that obtained from bovine or avian livestock. PMID:22361178

  15. The Impact of Chain Length and Flexibility in the Interaction between Sulfated Alginates and HGF and FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Arlov, Øystein; Aachmann, Finn L; Feyzi, Emadoldin; Sundan, Anders; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund

    2015-11-01

    Alginate is a promising polysaccharide for use in biomaterials as it is biologically inert. One way to functionalize alginate is by chemical sulfation to emulate sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which interact with a variety of proteins critical for tissue development and homeostasis. In the present work we studied the impact of chain length and flexibility of sulfated alginates for interactions with FGF-2 and HGF. Both growth factors interact with defined sequences of heparan sulfate (HS) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Whereas FGF-2 interacts with a pentasaccharide sequence containing a critical 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid, HGF has been suggested to require a highly sulfated HS/heparin octasaccharide. Here, oligosaccharides of alternating mannuronic and guluronic acid (MG) were sulfated and assessed by their relative efficacy at releasing growth factor bound to the surface of myeloma cells. 8-mers of sulfated MG (SMG) alginate showed significant HGF release compared to shorter fragments, while the maximum efficacy was achieved at a chain length average of 14 monosaccharides. FGF-2 release required a higher concentration of the SMG fragments, and the 14-mer was less potent compared to an equally sulfated high-molecular weight SMG. Sulfated mannuronan (SM) was subjected to periodate oxidation to increase chain flexibility. To assess the change in flexibility, the persistence length was estimated by SEC-MALLS analysis and the Bohdanecky approach to the worm-like chain model. A high degree of oxidation of SM resulted in approximately twice as potent HGF release compared to the nonoxidized SM alginate. The release of FGF-2 also increased with the degree of oxidation, but to a lower degree compared to that of HGF. It was found that the SM alginates were more efficient at releasing FGF-2 than the SMG alginates, indicating a greater dependence on monosaccharide identity and charge orientation over chain flexibility and charge density. PMID:26406104

  16. Evidence for bioadhesive effects of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing herbs in an ex vivo bioadhesion assay on buccal membranes.

    PubMed

    Schmidgall, J; Schnetz, E; Hensel, A

    2000-02-01

    Aqueous extracts of polysaccharide-containing plants are widely used in therapy for irritated mucus membranes in the pharynx region. In order to prove the existence of mucilaginous effects of polysaccharide hydrocolloids on epithelia an ex vivo system based on porcine buccal membranes was established. The tissue culture was stable and there was no indication of cytolytic processes during the 5 hour incubation period. This was confirmed through histological studies and the respective LDH values as toxicity marker. The test system was shown to discriminate the adhesive effects of different raw polysaccharides, obtained from a variety of medicinal plants. While polysaccharides from Altheae officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, Malva moschata, or Tilia cordata showed only moderate bioadhesion to epithelial tissue, strong adhesive processes were observed with polysaccharides from Fucus vesiculosus and Calendula officinalis. The adhesive effects were concentration-dependent. Histological studies of membranes, incubated with a fluorescence-labelled rhamnogalacturonan, indicated the presence of distinct polysaccharide layers on the apical membrane surface. With these results, adsorption effects of certain polysaccharides on mucus membranes were shown for the first time. Such effects suggest that this may account, at least in part, for the therapeutic effects of mucilage-containing plants in the treatment of irritated buccal membranes. PMID:10705734

  17. Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bligh, S.W.; Harding, C.T.; Sadler, P.J.; Bulman, R.A.; Bydder, G.M.; Pennock, J.M.; Kelly, J.D.; Latham, I.A.; Marriott, J.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Soluble and insoluble polysaccharides were derivatized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and/or spin-labeled with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). Polysaccharides derivatized with DTPA were prepared via cyanogen bromide activation, coupling to a diamine linker, and to DTPA anhydride. Spin-labeled polysaccharides were also prepared via cyanogen bromide activation. The extent of derivatization for dextran (18 kDa) was about 120 glucose units per DTPA, and for cellulose and starch about 15-30 units per DTPA. For spin-labeled polysaccharides, the average loading ranged from 1 nitroxide per 16 glucose units for starch to 181 for dextran (82 kDa). These derivatized paramagnetic polysaccharides were shown to be more effective relaxants than the small paramagnetic molecules alone. Both soluble and insoluble polysaccharide-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes were effectively cleared from the body (rats) after oral administration. After intravenous administration, the biodistribution of dextran-linker-DTPA-Gd(3) complexes differed significantly from that of GdDTPA. Reduction of the nitroxide by ascorbic acid was retarded in the polysaccharide derivatives, particularly in starch derivatized with both nitroxide and linker-DTPA-Cu(2). These agents showed contrast enhancement in the gastrointestinal tract of rabbits.

  18. In-situ radiotracer and electrochemical study of sulfate accumulation on Al 2024 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kolics, A.; Thomas, A.E.; Wieckowski, A.

    1995-12-01

    We have applied radiotracer, electrochemical and ultrahigh vacuum techniques to study sulfate accumulation in passive films on pure aluminum and Al 2024 alloy in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} containing 0.1 mM Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. We have found that the sulfate coverage is pH and electrode potential dependent and that sulfate is bonded to the surface in two distinctively different ways. While the breakdown of the passive film results in sulfate removal, the subsequent repassivation reintroduces the sulfate anion into the passive film. There is a strong tendency of sulfate to remain in the passive film which explains the inhibitive properties of sulfate in aluminum corrosion. Our data reveal that the anomalous sulfate accumulation during the negative-going polarization can be attributed to the copper content of the alloy surface. The formation of copper-containing nodules determines the electrode potential threshold below which sulfate anions desorb. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  19. A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury

    E-print Network

    Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

    Habuchie , Dong F. Chenb,f , and Linda C. Hsieh-Wilsona,2 a Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering to understand the biological functions of CS. For example, genetic approaches are challenged by the presence

  20. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION VIA THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to excessive vanadium (V) occurs in some occupations and with consumption of some dietary regimens for weight reduction and body-building. Because vanadium is vasoactive, individuals exposed to excessive V may develop adverse vascular effects. We showed previously that v...

  1. Differential Expression of Specific Dermatan Sulfate Domains in Renal Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lensen, Joost F. M.; van der Vlag, Johan; Versteeg, Elly M. M.; Wetzels, Jack F. M.; van den Heuvel, Lambert P. W. J.; Berden, Jo H. M.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Rops, Angelique L. W. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate (DS), also known as chondroitin sulfate (CS)-B, is a member of the linear polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The expression of CS/DS and DS proteoglycans is increased in several fibrotic renal diseases, including interstitial fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy, mesangial sclerosis and nephrosclerosis. Little, however, is known about structural alterations in DS in renal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the renal expression of two different DS domains in renal transplant rejection and glomerular pathologies. DS expression was evaluated in normal renal tissue and in kidney biopsies obtained from patients with acute interstitial or vascular renal allograft rejection, patients with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA), and from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), membranous glomerulopathy (MGP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using our unique specific anti-DS antibodies LKN1 and GD3A12. Expression of the 4/2,4-di-O-sulfated DS domain recognized by antibody LKN1 was decreased in the interstitium of transplant kidneys with IF/TA, which was accompanied by an increased expression of type I collagen, decorin and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), while its expression was increased in the interstitium in FSGS, MGP and SLE. Importantly, all patients showed glomerular LKN1 staining in contrast to the controls. Expression of the IdoA-Gal-NAc4SDS domain recognized by GD3A12 was similar in controls and patients. Our data suggest a role for the DS domain recognized by antibody LKN1 in renal diseases with early fibrosis. Further research is required to delineate the exact role of different DS domains in renal fibrosis. PMID:26322947

  2. Dynamics of water solutions of natural polysaccharides by fast field cycling nmr relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusova, Alena; Conte, Pellegrino; Kucerik, Jiri; de Pasquale, Claudio; Alonzo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Cryobiology studies the effect of low temperatures on living systems such as microorganisms and plants. In particular, plants growing in cold or frozen environments can survive such extreme conditions due to the cold hardening process. Hardening is a three step process during which, first, translocation of polysaccharides to the plant roots affects water structure in the cell-soil surface. For this reason, increase of cell-membrane permeability and resistance to temperatures from -5°C to -10°C is achieved. In a second step, chemical alteration of cell membrane arises and resistance to temperatures up to -20°C is obtained. The last hardening step consists in the vitrification of the plant tissues which allow plants to survive at temperatures as low as -50°C. Since polysaccharides play a very important role in the initial part of the cold hardening process, it is of paramount importance to study the effect of such natural biopolymers on water structure. Here, we present preliminary data obtained by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry on the effect of hyaluronan (an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan) on water structure at different concentrations of the polysaccharide. Although hyaluronan is a polysaccharide found exceptionally in animal, human or bacterial bodies, in the present work it was used as a model "pilot" compound. In fact, it has an unique ability to hold water and it contains both polysaccharide and protein-like acetamido functionalities. For this reason, hyaluronan promotes the future research on other plant biopolymers such as, for instance, starch and other very specific proteins. Results revealed that different water-structure systems surround the molecule of hyaluronan in diluted and semidiluted systems. Namely, at the lowest hyaluronan concentration, three hydration shells can be recognized. The first hydration shell is made by bound water (BW) which is strongly fixed to the hyaluronan surface mainly through electrostatic interactions. A second hydration shell contains water molecules, also recognized as partly-bound (PBW), which are not directly interacting with the hyaluronan chains but with BW. Finally, water molecules, which dynamics is resembling that of the pure and undisturbed water, are indicated either as a bulk water or free water (FW). As hyaluronan concentration is increased the third FW hydration shell is lost and all water molecules are affected by the presence of hyaluronan molecules. This work showed the great potential of FFC-NMR relaxometry in revealing water nature in polysaccharide solutions and the possibility for future applications on complex biological systems. Acknowledgements A.P. gratefully acknowledges a bilateral Erasmus project between Brno University of Technology and University of Palermo which provided grant sustainment for working in Italy. Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic, project MSM 0021630501 is also acknwledged. This work was partially funded by Ce.R.T.A. s.c.r.l. (Centri Regionali per le Tecnologie Alimentari; Italy). Authors kindly acknowledge Dr. Vladimír Velebný (CPN company, Dolní Dobrou?, Czech Republic) for providing of hyaluronan sample.

  3. Human monoclonal macroglobulins with specificity for Klebsiella K polysaccharides that contain 3,4-pyruvylated-D-galactose and 4,6- pyruvylated-D-galactose

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Two human IgM myeloma proteins, IgMWEA and IgMMAY, were found to react with agar and Klebsiella polysaccharides that contain pyruvylated D- galactose (DGal). Quantitative precipitin data and precipitin inhibition studies with methyl alpha- and beta-glycosides of 4,6- pyruvylated-D-galactose showed their combining sites to be different, although each was directed against the pyruvylated-D-Gal, one reacting most specifically with Klebsiella polysaccharides with terminal nonreducing beta-linked 2,4 pyruvylated-D-Gal, whereas the other reacted equally well with Klebsiella polysaccharides that contain 3,4 beta-linked and 4,6 alpha-linked terminal nonreducing pyruvylated-DGal. Inhibition studies showed that both sites are directed toward one of the two space isomers of 3,4- or 4,6-pyruvylated DGal, the form in which the methyl group of the pyruvate is equatorial, or endo, and its carboxyl group axial, or exo, to the plane of the acetal ring. Coprecipitation studies showed the combining site of IgMWEA to be located on an (Fab')2 fragment and not on the (Fc)5mu fragment. The monoclonal peak in the serum of IgMMAY was specifically precipitated by Klebsiella polysaccharide. Myeloma proteins with specificities of this type may occur with reasonable frequency in humans and may be a consequence of clonal expansion from inapparent infection, carrier states, or disease produced by various Klebsiella organisms. PMID:6158553

  4. Heparin/Heparan Sulfate 6-O-Sulfatase from Flavobacterium heparinum

    PubMed Central

    Myette, James R.; Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Shriver, Zachary; Raman, Rahul; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) comprise a chemically heterogeneous class of sulfated polysaccharides. The development of structure-activity relationships for this class of polysaccharides requires the identification and characterization of degrading enzymes with defined substrate specificity and enzymatic activity. Toward this end, we report here the molecular cloning and extensive structure-function analysis of a 6-O-sulfatase from the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium heparinum. In addition, we report the recombinant expression of this enzyme in Escherichia coli in a soluble, active form and identify it as a specific HSGAG sulfatase. We further define the mechanism of action of the enzyme through biochemical and structural studies. Through the use of defined substrates, we investigate the kinetic properties of the enzyme. This analysis was complemented by homology-based molecular modeling studies that sought to rationalize the substrate specificity of the enzyme and mode of action through an analysis of the active-site topology of the enzyme including identifying key enzyme-substrate interactions and assigning key amino acids within the active site of the enzyme. Taken together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate that 6-O-sulfatase is a predominantly exolytic enzyme that specifically acts on N-sulfated or N-acetylated 6-O-sulfated glucosamines present at the non-reducing end of HSGAG oligosaccharide substrates. This requirement for the N-acetyl or N-sulfo groups on the glucosamine substrate can be explained through eliciting favorable interactions with key residues within the active site of the enzyme. These findings provide a framework that enables the use of 6-O-sulfatase as a tool for HSGAG structure-activity studies as well as expand our biochemical and structural understanding of this important class of enzymes. PMID:19726671

  5. Enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharide fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2013-03-01

    Amphiphilic oligo- and polysaccharides (e.g. polysaccharide alkyl or alkyl-aryl esters) form a new class of polymers with exceptional properties. They function as polymeric surfactants, whilst maintaining most of the properties of the starting polymeric material such as emulsifying, gelling, and film forming properties combined with partial water solubility or permeability. At present carbohydrate fatty acid esters are generally obtained by chemical methods using toxic solvents and organic and inorganic catalysts that leave residual traces in the final products. Enzymatic reactions offer an attractive alternative route for the synthesis of polysaccharide esters. In this review the state of the art of enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharides fatty esters has been described. PMID:23465902

  6. Genetic, Biochemical, and Structural Analyses of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Colin A; Mainprize, Iain L; Nickerson, Nicholas N

    2015-01-01

    Surface polysaccharides are an often essential component of the outer surface of bacteria. They may serve to protect organisms from harsh environmental conditions and to increase virulence. The focus of this review will be to introduce polysaccharide biosynthesis and export from the cell, and the associated techniques used to determine these glycostructures. Protein interactions and proteomics will then be discussed while introducing systems biology approaches used to determine protein-protein and protein-polysaccharide interactions. The final section will address related screening methods used to study gene regulation in bacteria relating to polysaccharide gene clusters and their associated regulators. The goal of this review will be to highlight key studies that have increased our knowledge of glycobiology and discuss novel methods that examine this field at the cellular level using systems biology. PMID:26621474

  7. Synbiotic matrices derived from plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A porous synbiotic matrix was prepared by lyophilization of alginate and pectin or fructan oligosaccharides and polysaccharides cross-linked with calcium. These synbiotic matrices were excellent physical structures to support the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus (1426) and Lactobacillus reuteri (...

  8. Impact of sulfate pollution on anaerobic biogeochemical cycles in a wetland sediment.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Darren S; Mitchell, Alison

    2012-03-15

    The impact of sulfate pollution is increasingly being seen as an issue in the management of inland aquatic ecosystems. In this study we use sediment slurry experiments to explore the addition of sulfate, with or without added carbon, on the anaerobic biogeochemical cycles in a wetland sediment that previously had not been exposed to high levels of sulfate. Specifically we looked at the cycling of S (sulfate, dissolved and particulate sulfide--the latter measured as acid volatile sulfide; AVS), C (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, methane and the short chain volatile fatty acids formate, acetate, butyrate and propionate), N (dinitrogen, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and redox active metals (Fe(II) and Mn(II)). Sulfate had the largest effects on the cycling of S and C. All the added S at lower loadings were converted to AVS over the course of the experiment (30 days). At the highest loading (8 mmol) less than 50% of consumed S was converted to AVS, however this is believed to be a kinetic effect. Although sulfate reduction was occurring in sediments with added sulfate, dissolved sulfide concentrations remained low throughout the study. Sulfate addition affected methanogenesis. In the absence of added carbon, addition of sulfate, even at a loading of 1 mmol, resulted in a halving of methane formation. The initial rate of formation of methane was not affected by sulfate if additional carbon was added to the sediment. However, there was evidence for anaerobic methane oxidation in those sediments with added sulfate and carbon, but not in those sediments treated only with carbon. Surprisingly, sulfate addition had little apparent impact on N dynamics; previous studies have shown that sulfide can inhibit denitrification and stimulate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. We propose that because most of the reduced sulfur was in particulate form, levels of dissolved sulfide were too low to interfere with the N cycle. PMID:22204939

  9. Surface polysaccharides from Acinetobacter baumannii: Structures and syntheses.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Denis

    2015-12-11

    The emergence of multidrug-resistance Acinetobacter baumannii requires novel approaches for prevention, treatment and diagnosis. The structures of surface polysaccharides from A.?baumannii are valuable tools to understand pathogenesis, virulence and immunogenicity. The synthesis of bacterial mono- or polysaccharides may result in novel probes to become important therapeutic options in the fight against A.?baumannii. This report exemplifies the relevance of glycochemistry for the development of new antibiotics. PMID:26531136

  10. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-?B and NFAT Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Song, Fangming; Liu, Qian; Yang, Mingli; Zhao, Jinmin; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ge; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Jiake

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine) on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) derived osteoclast culture system, we showed that berberine sulfate at the dose of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 ?M significantly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Notably, berberine sulfate at these doses did not affect the BMM viability. In addition, we observed that berberine sulfate inhibited the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, Acp5) and Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2). Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot analysis further revealed that berberine sulfate inhibits receptor for activation of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-?B and NFAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine sulfate is a natural compound potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26580592

  11. Heparin interacts with elongation factor 1? of Cryptosporidium parvum and inhibits invasion

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Atsuko; Murakoshi, Fumi; Ishiwa, Akiko; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Cagayat Recuenco, Frances; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause serious watery diarrhea, cryptosporidiosis, in human and other mammals. C. parvum invades gastrointestinal epithelial cells, which have abundant glycosaminoglycans on their cell surface. However, little is known about the interaction between C. parvum and glycosaminoglycans. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of sulfated polysaccharides on C. parvum invasion of host cells and identified the parasite ligands that interact with sulfated polysaccharides. Among five sulfated polysaccharides tested, heparin had the highest, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion. Heparan sulfate-deficient cells were less susceptible to C. parvum infection. We further identified 31 parasite proteins that potentially interact with heparin. Of these, we confirmed that C. parvum elongation factor 1? (CpEF1?), which plays a role in C. parvum invasion, binds to heparin and to the surface of HCT-8 cells. Our results further our understanding of the molecular basis of C. parvum infection and will facilitate the development of anti-cryptosporidial agents. PMID:26129968

  12. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4?C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector?to?target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I. PMID:23292184

  13. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  14. Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidan Inhibits the Viability and Invasiveness and Triggers Apoptosis in IL-1?-Treated Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast Synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zunhua; Shi, Xiaozhe; Nie, Daqing; Guan, Bingyu

    2015-10-01

    Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found mainly in various species of brown algae and brown seaweed. Here, we investigated the effects of low-molecular-weight (LMW) fucoidan (4 kDa) on interleukin-1beta (IL-1?)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocyte (RAFLS). 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin V/propidium iodide assay were used to assess cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate cell invasion. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis was done to measure gene expression and secretion. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. LMW fucoidan dose-dependently inhibited the viability and induced apoptosis of IL-1?-treated RAFLS. Fucoidan attenuated IL-1?-induced invasion of RAFLS and decreased the expression and secretion of metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9. Fucoidan suppressed NF-?B binding activity, p65 nuclear translocation, and I?B-? degradation in IL-1?-stimulated RAFLS. Additionally, IL-1?-induced phosphorylation of p38 but not ERK or JNK was significantly impaired by fucoidan treatment. LMW fucoidan reduces the viability, survival, and invasiveness of IL-1?-treated RAFLS, which is associated with inhibition of NF-?B and p38 activation. LMW fucoidan may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25787883

  15. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  16. Comparison of polysaccharides of Haliotis discus hannai and Volutharpa ampullacea perryi by PMP-HPLC-MS(n) analysis upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dongmei; Wen, Chengrong; Liu, Haiman; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-13

    Haliotis discus hannai Ino (Haliotis) is a highly valued marine shellfish, and it is sometimes replaced by another cheaper Gastropoda mollusk, Volutharpa ampullacea perryi (Volutharpa). Polysaccharides from pleopods, viscera and gonads of these two gastropods were compared by analyzing the mono- and di-saccharides in their acid hydrolysates using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Disaccharide analysis revealed the distribution of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) in the biological samples. GlcA-(1?2)-Man, GlcA-(1?3)-GalN, and another disaccharide consisting of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose were found in the hydrolysates, which indicated the existence of AGSP (abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide) with the backbone composed of ?2)-?-Man(1?4)-?-GlcA(1? repeating unit, AAP (abalone glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide) with the backbone of ?3)-GalNAc-(1?2)-GlcA-(1?3)-GalNAc-(1?4)-GlcA-(1? repeating unit, and unidentified DS1P containing a hexuronic acid linked to a hexose unit, respectively. As shown by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs), AAP was the only UACP found in pleopods of the two gastropods; gonads and viscera of Haliotis contained DS1P and AGSP, while those of Volutharpa contained DS1P, AGSP as well as AAP. Monosaccharides in the acid hydrolysates were demonstrated in XICs by extracting their corresponding PMP derivative quasi-molecular ions one by one, and the results indicated the similar conclusion to the disaccharide analysis. Therefore, it could be concluded that polysaccharides from pleopods of the two gastropods are very similar, while those from their viscera and gonads differ greatly. PMID:26279526

  17. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  18. Extracellular polysaccharide production by a strain of Pleurotus djamor isolated in the south of Brazil and antitumor activity on Sarcoma 180

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Gisele Martini; De Barba, Fabiana Figueredo Molin; Schiebelbein, Ana Paula; Pereira, Bruna Parmezzani; Chaves, Mariane Bonatti; Silveira, Marcia Luciane Lange; Pinho, Mauro Souza Leite; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Wisbeck, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides with medicinal properties can be obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and culture broth of several fungus species. This work was carried out in batch culture using a stirred tank reactor with two different initial glucose concentrations (40–50 g/L) and pH values (3.0–4.0) to enhance extracellular polysaccharides production by Pleurotus djamor UNIVILLE 001 and evaluate antitumor effect of intraperitonial administration of Pleurotus djamor extract on sarcoma 180 animal model. According to factorial design, the low pH value (pH 3.0) led to a gain of 1.6 g/L on the extracellular polysaccharide concentration, while glucose concentration in the tested range had no significant effect on the concentration of polysaccharide. With 40 g/L initial glucose concentration and pH 3.0, it was observed that yield factor of extracellular polysaccharide on substrate (YP/S = 0.072) and maximum extracellular polysaccharide productivity (QPmax = 11.26 mg/L.h) were about 188% and 321% respectively higher than those obtained in the experiment performed at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, the highest values of the yield factor of biomass on substrate (YX/S = 0.24) and maximal biomass productivity (QXmax = 32.2 mg/L.h) were also reached. In tumor response study, mean tumor volume on the 21th day was 35.3 cm3 in untreated group and 1.6 cm3 in treated group (p = 0.05) with a tumor inhibition rate of 94%. These impressive results suggests an inhibitory effect of P.djamor extract on cancer cells. PMID:24688493

  19. Optimization of reaction conditions by RSM and structure characterization of sulfated locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Ting; Tian, Jia; Liu, Wenxi; Jing, Fan; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-12-19

    Sulfated derivatives of galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) with the degree of substitution (DS) of 0.34-1.07 were synthesized using chlorosulfonic acid/pyridine (CSA/Py) method. Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the reaction conditions. Results of FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that SO3H groups were widely present in sulfated LBG (SLBG). (13)C NMR result revealed that sulfation had occurred and C-6 substitution was predominant in SLBG. All sulfated samples showed a decrease in Mw and more broad molar mass distribution in size exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS) analysis. Results of MW - [Formula: see text] showed a decrease in fractal dimension (df) value. Laser light scattering results also showed a conformation transition from a compact chain conformation of branched clusters to a random coil conformation of SLBG. Compared to LBG and SLBG with low DS and molecular weight, SLBG2 exhibited an internal structure of random coil with a DS of 1.07. DS and molecular weight had great influence on its conformation in aqueous solution. Our results confirmed that the degradation of polysaccharide and SO3H groups improved significantly the stiffness of the chains due to the electrostatic effect. PMID:25263904

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of polysaccharide conjugates prepared from fresh tea leaves and their improving impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiang; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; We, Heng; Sun, Chaochao; Li, Jianrong; Jiang, Yongwen

    2014-11-01

    Hot-water extracts were prepared from fresh tea leaves and fractionated by DEAE-cellulose DE-52 column chromatography to yield one unexplored polysaccharide-conjugate fraction TPC-L (tea polysaccharide conjugates). Chemical components, molecular weight and its distribution, water vapor sorption properties, zeta potentials and optical characteristics of TPC-L were investigated. As compared with injured cell group, the two dosages of TPC-L (150 and 300 ?g/mL) were discovered to possess remarkably protective effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells against impairments induced by high glucose in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). Compared with group NC (normal control), the ingestion of 40 mg/kg of TPC-L could significantly reduce blood glucose levels of normal mice ingesting starch, and significant difference of AUC (area under the curve of blood glucose) and ?AUC (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) at the postprandial time point of 0.5 and 1.0 h were observed. The three dosages of TPC-L (10, 40 and 160 mg/kg) did not significantly lower postprandial blood glucose levels of normal mice ingesting glucose. TPC-L could improve starch tolerance to prevent impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) from developing into diabetes as well as protective effects on HUVE cells against impairments induced by high glucose It was suggested that TPC-L improved IGT through its capability of inhibition on digestive enzymes. PMID:25129719

  1. Characterization of pumpkin polysaccharides and protective effects on streptozotocin-damaged islet cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yan; Chen, Guang-Tong; Meng, Guo-Liang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The polysaccharides from pumpkin fruit (PP) were obtained and purified by hot-water extraction, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of PP were determined by gel filtration chromatography, gas chromatography, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the molecular weight of PP was about 23 kDa and PP was composed of D-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose with a molar ratio of 1 : 7.79 : 70.32 : 7.05. FTIR and NMR spectra indicated that PP was the polysaccharide containing pyranose ring. Additionally, PP protected islets cells from streptozotocin (STZ) injury in vitro via increasing the levels of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reducing the production of NO. The experiment of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction further proved that PP inhibited apoptosis via modulating the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 in STZ-damaged islet cells. In conclusion, PP could be explored as a novel agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25835364

  2. Purification and characterization of a novel polysaccharide-peptide complex from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danmin; Li, Yunhong; Cui, Fengjie; Chen, Jun; Sun, Jiamin

    2016-02-10

    A novel polysaccharide-peptide complex CNP-1-2 with molecular weight of 9.17×10(4)Da was obtained from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and purification with Superdex 200 and DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. CNP-1-2 exhibited the highest growth inhibitory effect on human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 with inhibition ratio of 92.34% and stimulated activation of macrophages with NO secretion level of 47.53?mol/L among the polysaccharide fractions. CNP-1-2 comprised approximately 87.25% carbohydrate and 9.37% protein. Monosaccharide analysis suggested that CNP-1-2 was composed of l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose with a molar ratio of 1.30:1.00:2.56:4.95:5.09. Methylation analysis, FT-IR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis revealed that CNP-1-2 might have a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked Glcp, 1,3-linked Glcp, 1,3-linked Manp, 1,4-linked Galp, 1,2,6-linked Galp and 1,2,6-linked Galp. Its side chain might be composed of 1-linked Araf, 1,6-linked Galp and 1-linked Rhap residues. AFM (atomic force micrograph) analysis revealed that CNP-1-2 had the molecular aggregation along with branched and entangled structure. PMID:26686182

  3. Silver polyvinyl pyrrolidone nanoparticles exhibit a capsular polysaccharide influenced bactericidal effect against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bibbs, Ronda K.; Harris, Rhonda D.; Peoples, Veolanda A.; Barnett, Cleon; Singh, Shree R.; Dennis, Vida A.; Coats, Mamie T.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highly adaptive nature of S. pneumoniae exemplifies the need for next generation antimicrobials designed to avoid high level resistance. Metal based nanomaterials fit this criterion. Our study examined the antimicrobial activity of gold nanospheres, silver coated polyvinyl pyrrolidone (AgPVP), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) against various serotypes of S. pneumoniae. Twenty nanometer spherical AgPVP demonstrated the highest level of killing among the tested materials. AgPVP (0.6 mg/mL) was able to kill pneumococcal serotypes 2, 3, 4, and 19F within 4 h of exposure. Detailed analysis of cultures during exposure to AgPVP showed that both the metal ions and the solid nanoparticles participate in the killing of the pneumococcus. The bactericidal effect of AgPVP was lessened in the absence of the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. Capsule negative strains, JD908 and RX1, were only susceptible to AgPVP at concentrations at least 33% higher than their respective capsule expressing counterparts. These findings suggest that mechanisms of killing used by nanomaterials are not serotype dependent and that the capsular polysaccharide participates in the inhibition. In the near future these mechanisms will be examined as targets for novel antimicrobials. PMID:25520713

  4. Antidiabetic Activity of Polysaccharides from Tuberous Root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera in KKAy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yihui; Wan, Luosheng; Xiao, Zuoqi; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Yonglong; Chen, Jiachun

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The present study investigated the antidiabetic effect and the potential mechanisms of two new polysaccharides (LSP1, LSP2) and the total polysaccharides (TLSP), isolated from the tuberous roots. Upon the intragastric administration in obese insulin-resistant diabetic KKAy mice for 28 days, TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 all caused a remarkable decrease of fasting blood glucose and significant improvement of insulin resistance and serum lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. In addition, liver histological analysis showed that TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 significantly ameliorated the hepatocyte hypertrophy and decreased the lipid accumulation in the mice liver. Further experiments suggested that TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 effectively inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic glycolysis and hepatic glycogen content. Furthermore, the mechanistic analysis showed the increased expression of insulin-receptor ? subunit, insulin-receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors ?. These results suggested that TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 manifest strong antidiabetic activity, therefore hold a great promise for therapeutic application in diabetic therapy and other related metabolic disorders. PMID:23762123

  5. Structure and Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dimocarpus longan Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fa-Yan; Ning, Yuan-Ling; Qi, Jia; He, Zhou; Jie, Jiang; Lin, Juan-Juan; Huang, Yan-Jun; Li, Fu-Sen; Li, Xue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A new water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from Dimocarpus longan pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. The chemical structure was determined using Infrared (IR), gas chromatography (GC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the sample was 1.1 × 105 Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that LP1 was composed of Glc, GalA, Ara and Gal in a molar ratio of 5.39:1.04:0.74:0.21. Structural analysis indicated that LP1 consisted of a backbone of ?4)-?-d-Glcp-(1?4)-?-d-GalpA-(1?4)-?-d-Glcp-(1?4)-?-d-Glcp-(1? units with poly saccharide side chains composed of ?2)-?-d-Fruf-(1?2)-l-sorbose-(1? attached to the O-6 position of the ?-d-Glcp residues. In vitro experiments indicated that LP1 had significantly high antitumor activity against SKOV3 and HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon-? (IFN-?), increased the activity of murine macrophages and enhanced B- and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The results of this study demonstrate that LP1 has potential applications as a natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:24663085

  6. Peripheral antinociception and anti-inflammatory effects of sulphated polysaccharides from the alga Caulerpa mexicana.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, José Gerardo; Rodrigues, José Ariévilo Gurgel; de Sousa Oliveira Vanderlei, Edfranck; Souza, Ricardo Basto; Quinderé, Ana Luíza Gomes; Coura, Chistiane Oliveira; de Araújo, Ianna Wivianne Fernandes; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2014-10-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides from marine algae are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulphated polysaccharides from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SPs) in nociceptive and inflammatory models in rodents. Cm-SPs (10 or 20 mg/kg), administered i.v. in Swiss mice, significantly reduced nociceptive responses, as measured by the number of writhes in response to acetic acid. Cm-SPs (10 or 20 mg/kg) also reduced second-phase responses in the formalin test, but did not exhibit a significant antinociceptive effect in the hot plate test, suggesting that its antinociceptive action occurs through a peripheral mechanism. Cm-SPs (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), administered s.c. in wistar rats 1 hr before carrageenan, dextran, histamine or serotonin, were tested in paw oedema models. Cm-SPs (10 or 20 mg/kg) reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw. In addition, Cm-SPs (20 mg/kg) inhibited dextran- or histamine-induced paw oedema, but not serotonin-induced oedema, suggesting that histamine is the major target of Cm-SPs anti-oedematogenic activity. Finally, Cm-SPs (20 mg/kg) administered in mice did not show significant signs of toxicity. In conclusion, Cm-SPs appear to be promising natural modulatory agents for pain and inflammatory conditions. PMID:24674382

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Feixiang; Lin, Liming; Hu, Min; Qi, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The CSP1, one component of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP), was obtained after water extraction, deproteinization, de-colorization and purification with DEAE-cellulose 52. And a more homogeneous component CSP1-2 was obtained using Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. CSP1-2 mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of about 2:2:1 and its average molecular weight was approximately 2.70×10(4)Da. Pharmacological tests showed that CSP1, in which the CSP1-2 was its main component, had antihypertensive effect by stimulating the secretion of vasodilator NO, decreasing the level of ET-1, epinephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin II, inhibiting the increase of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and lowering the level of inflammatory mediator of C-reactive protein (CRP). These results suggested that CSP1 may possess high potential in treating hypertension. PMID:26432374

  8. Aerobic sulfate reduction in microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Des Marais, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O2) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O2 challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O2 have little effect on rates of sulfate reduction in these mats.

  9. Preparation and anticoagulation activity of sodium cellulose sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao Mei; Li, Lin; Zheng, Bi Sheng; Normakhamatov, Nodirali; Guo, Si Yuan

    2007-10-01

    Semi-synthesis of cellulose sulfate sodium (Na-MCS) was carried out by sulfation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with chlorosulfonic acid-dimethylformamide complex as sulfating agent. As shown by FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis, the sulfation occurred mainly at C6, partially at C2, and no substitution at C3. The substitution degree ranged from 1.10 to 1.70 and the average molecular weight is between 1.1 and 3.5 x 10(4)Da. The anticoagulant efficacy and its possible mechanism were investigated using in vitro, in vivo coagulation assays and amidolytic tests in comparison with heparin. Results indicated that Na-MCS exhibited higher anticoagulation activity based on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay and prolonged the thrombin time (TT) to a lesser extent than heparin. No effect was detected on the prothrombin time (PT). Subcutaneous administration of Na-MCS to mice increased the clotting time (CT) in a moderate dose-dependent manner with a longer duration. Na-MCS exhibited anticoagulation activity mainly by accelerating the inhibition of antithrombin III (AT-III) on coagulation factors FIIa and FXa in plasma. PMID:17602735

  10. DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SULFATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impact of automotive sulfuric acid (or sulfate) aerosol has been made by analyzing the aerosol dynamics. This analysis leads to the prediction of ambient automotive sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations over and around a larg...

  11. Status of Copper Sulfate - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish - February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  12. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  13. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  14. Status of copper sulfate - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. The update will include information and dates for both the initial labe...

  15. Biological sulfate reduction using gas-lift reactors fed with hydrogen and carbon dioxide as energy and carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Houten, R.T. van; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-20

    Feasibility and engineering aspects of biological sulfate reduction in gas-lift reactors were studied. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide were used as energy and carbon source. Attention was paid to biofilm formation, sulfide toxicity, sulfate conversion rate optimization, and gas-liquid mass transfer limitations. Sulfate-reducing bacteria formed stable biofilms on pumice particles. Biofilm formation was not observed when basalt particles were used. However, use of basalt particles led to the formation of granules of sulfate-reducing biomass. The sulfate-reducing bacteria, grown on pumice, easily adapted to free H[sub 2]S concentrations up to 450 mg/L. Biofilm growth rate then equilibrated biomass loss rate. These high free H[sub 2]S concentrations caused reversible inhibition rather than acute toxicity. When free H[sub 2]S concentrations were kept below 450 mg/L, a maximum sulfate conversion rate of 30 g SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  16. Enterovirus 71 Uses Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan as an Attachment Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. PMID:23097443

  17. Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Federico E.; Gonzalez, Mark D.; Cheng, Jiye; Ahern, Philip P.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ?50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy US adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types of carbohydrates and sulfur sources. Diet was a major determinant of functions expressed by this artificial nine-member community and of the genes that impact D. piger fitness; the latter includes high- and low-affinity systems for using ammonia, a limiting resource for D. piger in mice consuming a polysaccharide-rich diet. Although genes involved in hydrogen consumption and sulfate reduction are necessary for its colonization, varying dietary-free sulfate levels did not significantly alter levels of D. piger, which can obtain sulfate from the host in part via cross-feeding mediated by Bacteroides-encoded sulfatases. Chondroitin sulfate, a common dietary supplement, increased D. piger and H2S levels without compromising gut barrier integrity. A chondroitin sulfate-supplemented diet together with D. piger impacted the assemblage’s substrate utilization preferences, allowing consumption of more reduced carbon sources and increasing the abundance of the H2-producing Actinobacterium, Collinsella aerofaciens. Our findings provide genetic and metabolic details of how this H2-consuming SRB shapes the responses of a microbiota to diet ingredients and a framework for examining how individuals lacking D. piger differ from those who harbor it. PMID:23898195

  18. Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium.

    PubMed

    Rey, Federico E; Gonzalez, Mark D; Cheng, Jiye; Wu, Meng; Ahern, Philip P; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-08-13

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ?50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy US adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types of carbohydrates and sulfur sources. Diet was a major determinant of functions expressed by this artificial nine-member community and of the genes that impact D. piger fitness; the latter includes high- and low-affinity systems for using ammonia, a limiting resource for D. piger in mice consuming a polysaccharide-rich diet. Although genes involved in hydrogen consumption and sulfate reduction are necessary for its colonization, varying dietary-free sulfate levels did not significantly alter levels of D. piger, which can obtain sulfate from the host in part via cross-feeding mediated by Bacteroides-encoded sulfatases. Chondroitin sulfate, a common dietary supplement, increased D. piger and H2S levels without compromising gut barrier integrity. A chondroitin sulfate-supplemented diet together with D. piger impacted the assemblage's substrate utilization preferences, allowing consumption of more reduced carbon sources and increasing the abundance of the H2-producing Actinobacterium, Collinsella aerofaciens. Our findings provide genetic and metabolic details of how this H2-consuming SRB shapes the responses of a microbiota to diet ingredients and a framework for examining how individuals lacking D. piger differ from those who harbor it. PMID:23898195

  19. Safety of hepatitis B, pneumococcal polysaccharide and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines in pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Makris, Marinos C; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Mavros, Michael N; Athanasiou, Stavros; Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-01-01

    Immunization during pregnancy has the potential to protect the mother and the newborn from preventable diseases. Current recommendations suggest that inactivated vaccines might be considered during pregnancy when the benefits outweigh the risks. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the safety of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV) administration during pregnancy by systematically reviewing the available evidence in PubMed and Scopus databases, as well as postmarketing surveillance data (including the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System [VAERS] database). A total of 18 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Six studies provided data on HB vaccine, six on PPSV and three on MPSV; three additional studies compared PPSV with MPSV. Additionally, 91 reports on vaccinations of pregnant women were identified from postmarketing surveillance data (88 on HB vaccine, 2 on PPSV, 1 on MPSV). The most common complaints were local reactions, including tenderness and swelling. Overall, immunization during pregnancy did not seem to be associated with a teratogenic effect on the fetus, preterm labour or spontaneous abortion. However, the lack of randomized, placebo-controlled trials, or even large cohort studies, in addition to the inherent limitations of the reviewed observational studies with small statistical power, precluded safe conclusions. Large, prospective, population-based cohort studies are needed to elucidate this issue. PMID:22149417

  20. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianfei; Zou, Guolin; Li, Chenghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (CSP) was successfully purified from Chaenomeles speciosa by DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. CSP had a weight-average molecular weight of about 6.3 × 10(4)Da and was composed of glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), rhamnose (Rha) and arabinose (Ara) with a relative molar ratio of 4.6:1.3:0.8:0.5. CSP could not only inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice, but also increase the relative spleen index and body weight of tumor bearing mice. Moreover, concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced splenocyte proliferation and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis were also enhanced after CSP administration. Furthermore, CSP treatment could improve delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and promote the secretion of IL-2, TNF-? and IFN-? in serum. The overall findings suggest that the antitumor effect of CSP is might be associated with its potent immunostimulatory activity. PMID:26256355

  1. Structural characterization and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharide produced by Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Fang, Xiao-Na; Sun, Hui-Qing; Yang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-01-01

    HSP-III, a novel homogeneous polysaccharide with 513.89kDa molecular weight, was fractionated from submerged cultures of Hirsutella sinensis by Sevag and chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The total sugar content of HSP-III was amounted to 89.87%. Based on the results of high performance gel permeation chromatogram (HPGPC), FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy, GC, periodate oxidation-smith degradation and methylation analysis, it showed that HSP-III was mainly composed of mannose and galactose, and a small amount of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The molar ratio of Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Glu:Gal was 1.00:2.44:13.11:74.13:13.80:54.39. The main chain of HSP-III was majorly composed of (1?3) glucose. The tumor inhibition ratio on H22 cell was 79.04% at 100?g/mL of HSP-III. PMID:26517958

  2. Purification and characterization of an antitumor polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huan; Tang, Guo; Zeng, Guang; Yang, Yongjin; Cai, Xingwei; Li, Dongli; Liu, Hongchen; Zhou, Ningxin

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component (POP) from Portulaca oleracea and found that it had pronounced anti-tumor effects in vivo model. Tumor weight, immune organ index and T lymphocyte subsets were employed to detect the immunoregulatory and antitumor effects of POP after administration. Hematological and biochemical analyses were also investigated in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects related to POP treatment. POP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable sarcoma 180 and potentiate the animal's immune responses including an increase in the number of white blood cell (WBC) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, as well as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+). Furthermore the serum aspartate transanimase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels in S180-bearing mice were significantly reversed by POP. Considering all these results, it is suggested that the anti-tumor effect elicited by POP could be associated with its immunostimulating properties. PMID:23499074

  3. Immunopontentiating and antitumor activities of a polysaccharide from Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Ye, Leiguang; Guan, Xueqing; Liang, Xiaoshuan; Li, Cong; Sun, Qian; Liu, Yang; Chen, Shiru; Bang, Fa; Liu, Baogang

    2013-03-01

    One water-soluble polysaccharide (PCPw) was isolated and purified from the roots of Pulsatilla chinensis by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and its antitumor activity was evaluated on 4T1 tumor-bearing mice through transplantable animal tumor. After 10 days of PCPw (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment once daily in tumor-bearing mice, PCPw oral administration could not only significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable 4T1 tumor in mice but also promote concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocytes proliferation, the serum lysozyme level and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions, especially at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, significant improvements in peripheral blood abnormality and anemia were observed in PCPw-treated group. These results suggested that PCPw could improve both cellular and humoral immune response and might be explored as a potential natural antitumor drug. PMID:23246414

  4. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate produces ferrous sulfate (dried). Ferrous...

  17. Marine Polysaccharide Networks and Diatoms at the Nanometric Scale

    PubMed Central

    Svetli?i?, Vesna; Žuti?, Vera; Pletikapi?, Galja; Radi?, Tea Miši?

    2013-01-01

    Despite many advances in research on photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine diatoms, the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharide production remain significant challenges to be resolved at the molecular scale in order to proceed toward an understanding of their functions at the cellular level, as well as their interactions and fate in the ocean. This review covers studies of diatom extracellular polysaccharides using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the quantification of physical forces. Following a brief summary of the basic principle of the AFM experiment and the first AFM studies of diatom extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), we focus on the detection of supramolecular structures in polysaccharide systems produced by marine diatoms. Extracellular polysaccharide fibrils, attached to the diatom cell wall or released into the surrounding seawater, form distinct supramolecular assemblies best described as gel networks. AFM makes characterization of the diatom polysaccharide networks at the micro and nanometric scales and a clear distinction between the self-assembly and self-organization of these complex systems in marine environments possible. PMID:24113585

  18. Masquerading microbial pathogens: Capsular polysaccharides mimic host-tissue molecules

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Brady F.; Englaender, Jacob A.; He, Wenqin; Kasper, Dennis; Linhardt, Robert J.; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial pathogens bearing capsular polysaccharides identical to mammalian glycans benefit from an additional level of protection from host immune response. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria portends an impending post-antibiotic age, characterized by diminishing efficacy of common antibiotics and routine application of multifaceted, complementary therapeutic approaches to treat bacterial infections, particularly multidrug-resistant organisms. The first line of defense for most bacterial pathogens consists of a physical and immunological barrier known as the capsule, commonly composed of a viscous layer of carbohydrates that are covalently bound to the cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria or often to lipids of the outer membrane in many Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are a diverse class of high molecular weight polysaccharides contributing to virulence of many human pathogens in the gut, respiratory tree, urinary tract, and other host tissues, by hiding cell-surface components that might otherwise elicit host immune response. This review highlights capsular polysaccharides that are structurally identical or similar to polysaccharides found in mammalian tissues, including polysialic acid and glycosaminoglycan capsules hyaluronan, heparosan, and chondroitin. Such non-immunogenic coatings render pathogens insensitive to certain immune responses, effectively increasing residence time in host tissues and enabling pathologically relevant population densities to be reached. Biosynthetic pathways and capsular involvement in immune system evasion are described providing a basis for potential therapies aimed at supplementing or replacing antibiotic treatment. PMID:24372337

  19. Chemical studies on the polysaccharides of Salicornia brachiata.

    PubMed

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Siddhanta, A K

    2014-11-01

    A group of 12 polysaccharide extracts were prepared from the tips, stem and roots of an Indian halophyte Salicornia brachiata Roxb. obtained by sequential extractions with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), aqueous ammonium oxalate (OX) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (ALK) solutions. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that all the polysaccharide extract samples consisted primarily of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose, whereas ribose and xylose were present only in some of the extracts. All the extracts exhibited low apparent viscosity (1.47-2.02 cP) and sulphate and contained no prominent toxic metal ions. Fucose was detected only in OX extract of the roots. These polysaccharides were found to be heterogeneous and highly branched (glycoside linkage analysis, size-exclusion chromatography, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, circular dichroism and optical rotation data). Physico-chemical analyses of these polysaccharides including uronic acid, sulphate and protein contents were also carried out. This constitutes the first report on the profiling of Salicornia polysaccharides. PMID:25129748

  20. Designing Hydrophobically Modified Polysaccharide Derivatives for Highly Efficient Enzyme Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Tamilselvan; Rathner, Raffael; Reishofer, David; Koller, Martin; Elschner, Thomas; Spirk, Stefan; Heinze, Thomas; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Kargl, Rupert

    2015-08-10

    In this contribution, a hydrophobically modified polysaccharide derivative is synthesized in an eco-friendly solvent water by conjugation of benzylamine with the backbone of the biopolymer. Owing to the presence of aromatic moieties, the resulting water-soluble polysaccharide derivative self-assembles spontaneously and selectively from solution on the surface of nanometric thin films and sheets of polystyrene (PS). The synthetic polymer modified in this way bears a biocompatible nanolayer suitable for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), a heme-containing metalloenzyme often employed in biocatalysis and biosensors. Besides the detailed characterization of the polysaccharide derivative, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to investigate the binding efficiency and interaction of HRP with the tailored polysaccharide interfaces. Subsequent enzyme activity tests reveal details of the interaction of HRP with the solid support. The novel polysaccharide derivative and its use as a material for the selective modification of PS lead to a beneficial, hydrophilic environment for HRP, resulting in high enzymatic activities and a stable immobilization of the enzyme for biocatalytic and analytic purposes. PMID:26200740

  1. Extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

    PubMed

    Du, Ningning; Tian, Wei; Zheng, Dongfang; Zhang, Xinyi; Qin, Pinyan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc in Atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. The total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. The activities of CAT and POD as protective enzymes in A. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. The purified polysaccharides exhibited strong CAT and POD activities in inoculated with S. rolfsii in A. macrocephala leaves, attained the maximum value 568.3Ug(-1)min(-1) and 604.4Ug(-1)min(-1)respectively. Whereas, when compared with the control plants, 20mg/ml purified polysaccharides exhibited the strongest CAT and POD activities. Notably, the treatments of A. macepcephalae seedlings with C. indicum polysaccharides (CIP) decreased disease index development caused by S. rolfsii. The disease index after 10 days was significantly reduced when the seedlings treated with 20mg/ml CIP, 4.41 compared to the control plants 32.00. Given together, these results indicated that purified polysaccharides derived from C. indicum may be useful as a natural inducer. PMID:26562553

  2. Pregnenolone sulfate normalizes schizophrenia-like behaviors in dopamine transporter knockout mice through the AKT/GSK3? pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wong, P; Sze, Y; Chang, C C R; Lee, J; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    Pregnenolone sulfate, an endogenous neurosteroid in the central nervous system, is a positive allosteric modulator of the NMDA receptor, and plays a role in the modulation of learning and memory. Here, we study the actions of pregnenolone sulfate using the dopamine transporter knockout (DAT-KO) mice, which exhibit endophenotypes that recapitulate certain symptoms of schizophrenia, including the psychomotor agitation, stereotypy, prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits and cognitive impairments. We found that acute treatment with pregnenolone sulfate normalized the hyperlocomotion and stereotypic bouts, and rescued the PPI deficits of DAT-KO mice. In addition, long-term treatment with pregnenolone sulfate rescued the cognitive deficits of DAT-KO mice in the novel object recognition and social transmission of food preference tests. We also showed that pregnenolone sulfate normalized behavioral abnormalities in MK801-treated wild-type mice, whereas pregnenolone, its precursor, only partially rescued MK801-induced behavioral abnormalities. This indicates that there are distinct mechanisms of action between pregnenolone sulfate and pregnenolone, and the involvement of NMDA receptor signaling in the action of pregnenolone sulfate. Moreover, we found that acute treatment with pregnenolone sulfate increased the phosphorylation levels of striatal AKT and GSK3? in DAT-KO mice, and that long-term treatment with pregnenolone sulfate increased expression levels of NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in hippocampus. Thus, pregnenolone sulfate was able to rescue the behavioral anomalies of DAT-KO mice through the NMDA receptor-mediated, AKT/GSK3? signaling pathway. PMID:25781227

  3. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  4. Inhibitory effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis on corneal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lingling; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yiqiang; Wang, Ye; Liu, Ting

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis (PSP) on corneal neovascularization (CNV) in vivo and in vitro. Methods PSP was extracted from dry powder of Spirulina platensis. Its anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in the mouse corneal alkali burn model after topical administration of PSP four times daily for up to seven days. Corneal samples were processed for histochemical, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analyses. The effects of PSP on proliferation, migration, tube formation, and serine threonine kinase (AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling levels in vascular endothelial cells were determined using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeling assays, wound healing assay, Matrigel tube formation assay, and western blot. Results Topical application of PSP significantly inhibited CNV caused by alkali burn. Corneas treated with PSP showed reduced levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) proteins, reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), SDF1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) mRNAs, and an increased level of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) mRNA. These are parameters that have all been related to CNV and/or inflammation. In human vascular endothelial cells, PSP significantly inhibited proliferation, migration, and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PSP also decreased the levels of activated AKT and ERK 1/2. Conclusions These data suggest that polysaccharide extract from Spirulina platensis is a potent inhibitor of CNV and that it may be of benefit in the therapy of corneal diseases involving neovascularization and inflammation. PMID:19784394

  5. Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide

    E-print Network

    Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide Keeton St., Austin, Texas 78712, United States ABSTRACT: Nanocomposites of polysaccharide matrices), and the thermomechanical properties were examined using dynamic mechanical analysis. The nanocomposites of the chitosan

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... nutrient supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... nutrient supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredients are used in food as...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... nutrient supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined...

  15. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues...

  16. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues...

  17. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues...

  18. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues...

  19. 21 CFR 556.300 - Gentamicin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate. 556.300 Section 556.300 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.300 Gentamicin sulfate. (a) A tolerance of 0.1 part per million is established for negligible residues of gentamicin sulfate in the uncooked edible tissues...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. Substrate Specificity of Streptococcal Unsaturated Glucuronyl Hydrolases for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycan*

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Yukie; Nakamichi, Yusuke; Itoh, Takafumi; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (UGL) categorized into the glycoside hydrolase family 88 catalyzes the hydrolytic release of an unsaturated glucuronic acid from glycosaminoglycan disaccharides, which are produced from mammalian extracellular matrices through the ?-elimination reaction of polysaccharide lyases. Here, we show enzyme characteristics of pathogenic streptococcal UGLs and structural determinants for the enzyme substrate specificity. The putative genes for UGL and phosphotransferase system for amino sugar, a component of glycosaminoglycans, are assembled into a cluster in the genome of pyogenic and hemolytic streptococci such as Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes, which produce extracellular hyaluronate lyase as a virulent factor. The UGLs of these three streptococci were overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells, purified, and characterized. Streptococcal UGLs degraded unsaturated hyaluronate and chondroitin disaccharides most efficiently at approximately pH 5.5 and 37 °C. Distinct from Bacillus sp. GL1 UGL, streptococcal UGLs preferred sulfated substrates. DNA microarray and Western blotting indicated that the enzyme was constitutively expressed in S. agalactiae cells, although the expression level increased in the presence of glycosaminoglycan. The crystal structure of S. agalactiae UGL (SagUGL) was determined at 1.75 ? resolution by x-ray crystallography. SagUGL adopts ?6/?6-barrel structure as a basic scaffold similar to Bacillus UGL, but the arrangement of amino acid residues in the active site differs between the two. SagUGL Arg-236 was found to be one of the residues involved in its activity for the sulfated substrate through structural comparison and site-directed mutagenesis. This is the first report on the structure and function of streptococcal UGLs. PMID:19416976

  11. Effects of polysaccharides from Pholiota nameko on maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiping; Liu, Lizeng; Tao, Yongqing; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Fengling; Huai, Lihua; Zhi, Dexian; Liu, Jiangmei; Li, Guoliang; Dang, Chunlan; Xu, Yufeng

    2014-02-01

    This paper studied some structure characters of the Pholiota nameko polysaccharides (PNPS-1), including morphology under SEM and AFM, also the effects of PNPS-1 on the maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) via concrete changes both inside and outside BMDCs. These impacts on BMDCs were assessed with use of inverted phase contrast microscope for morphology, flow cytometry for key surface molecules, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) for allogeneic T cells proliferation, and bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine production. We found that PNPS-1 could inhibit phenotypic maturation as evidenced by decreasing expression of CD11c, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, and I-A/I-E. Functional maturation inhibition was further confirmed by decreased naive T cell stimulatory activity of BMDCs. Finally, PNPS-1 also stimulated production of more cytokine IL-10 and less IL-12 and TNF-?. These data indicated that PNPS-1 could markedly inhibit the maturation of BMDCs and had potential significant down-regulation immunity. PMID:24216086

  12. Protective Role of Rheum Tanguticum Polysaccharide 1 in Radiation- induced Intestinal Mucosal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-Na; Shi, Lei; Li, Shi-Cao; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Pei

    2015-01-01

    The protective effects of Rheum tanguticum polysaccharide 1 (RTP1), which is extracted from the Chinese traditional medicine Rheum tanguticum, on radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury was investigated. Rat intestinal crypt epithelial cells (IEC-6 cells) and Sprague-Dawley rats were each divided into control, irradiated and RTP1-pretreated irradiated groups. After irradiation, cell survival was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide). assay, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by fluorescent probe method. Apoptosis was observed by acridine orange staining, and cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry. Histological analysis of the rat intestinal mucosa was conducted by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Irradiation at 8 Gy(Gray) decreased cell survival rate to only 54%, significantly increased intracellular ROS levels and induced apoptosis. RTP1 pretreatment significantly inhibited cell death, reduced the formation of intracellular ROS and partially inhibited apoptosis. Irradiation markedly reduced the height and quantity of rat intestinal villi, but it could be antagonised by RTP1 pretreatment. RTP1 can promote the recovery of intestinal mucosa damage, possibly by inhibiting radiation-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and intracellular ROS production. PMID:26330871

  13. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-05-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  14. Reviews on Mechanisms of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26682009

  15. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  16. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  17. Modulation of surgical fibrosis by microbial zwitterionic polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Perez, Begonia; Chung, Doo R.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Yagita, Hideo; Kalka-Moll, Wiltrud M.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Tzianabos, Arthur O.

    2005-11-01

    Bacterial carbohydrates have long been considered T cell-independent antigens that primarily induce humoral immune responses. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bacterial capsules that possess a zwitterionic charge motif can activate CD4+ T cells after processing and presentation by antigen-presenting cells. Here we show that these zwitterionic polysaccharides can prevent T helper 1-mediated fibrosis by signaling for the release of IL-10 from CD4+ T cells in vivo. IL-10 production by these T cells and their ability to prevent fibrosis is controlled by the inducible costimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand pathway. These data demonstrate that the interaction of the zwitterionic polysaccharides with T cells results in modulation of surgical fibrosis in vivo and suggest a previously undescribed approach to "harnessing" T cell function to prevent inflammatory tissue disorders in humans. IL-10 | microbial polysaccharides | inducible costimulator

  18. Release of polysaccharide by sonication of cells ( Porphyridium sp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faerman, V.; Mukmenev, I.; Shreiber, I.

    2009-03-01

    The paper deals with experimental data concerning the interaction of acoustical waves with microbial cell (Porphyridium sp.). The aim of the present paper was to increase the amount of biopolymer released from the microorganisms biomass with the aid ultrasound irradiation without scission or a decrease in the molecular weight. The results indicated that the amount of polysaccharide (for example) released from the cell pellet could be enhanced by ultrasound, depending on the frequency and energy of the ultrasound. The sugar composition remain the same, but the apparent viscosity of polysaccharide aqueous solutions decreased, indicated that some changes in the molecular shape and size occurred. When ultrasound irradiation was applied in the presence of either CO2 or CO2 + H2, the apparent viscosity of polysaccharide aqueous solutions increased (versus usual ultrasound treatment).

  19. Bioactivity and applications of sulphated polysaccharides from marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; Bernardo de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  20. Reviews on Mechanisms of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26682009

  1. Thermal properties of freezing bound water restrained by polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tatsuko; Tanaka, Masaru; Hatakeyama, Hyoe

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the thermal properties of bound water restrained by various kinds of polysaccharides and several synthetic polymers. The characteristic features of freezing bound water which is closely related with biocompatibility of polymers are summarized based on results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition, cold crystallization and melting of water-polysaccharide systems were observed. Three kinds of water, non-freezing, freezing bound and free water, were quantified from the enthalpy of melting of water in the system. Freezing bound water restrained by polysaccharides is in a metastable state. The equilibrium melting temperature of freezing bound water is lower than 0°C and the temperature decreases with decreasing water content. Nucleation and growth rate of freezing bound water were calculated from isothermal crystallization and the values were compared with those of free water. PMID:20557717

  2. Carboxymethylated hyperbranched polysaccharide: Synthesis, solution properties, and fabrication of hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yongzhen; Zhang, Ruquan; Yang, Wei; Liu, Hongtao; Yang, Hongjun; Zhao, Qinghua

    2015-09-01

    The periphery of hyperbranched polysaccharides has many end groups that can be functioned and used as sites to interact with their surroundings. A water-insoluble hyperbranched ?-d-glucan, coded as TM3a, extracted from sclerotia of an edible fungus (Pleurotus tuber-regium), was fractionated and modified chemically to obtain carboxymethylated derivatives (CTM3a). The solution properties of the carboxymethylated polysaccharides were studied systematically in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C. The results indicated that the carboxymethylated glucans still kept hyperbranched structure after carboxymethylation, and existed as a swollen sphere-like chain conformation. The introduction of carboxymethylated groups permitted the formation of hydrogels through crosslinking CTM3a and silk fibroin with carbodiimide chemistry. The resultant hydrogels with porous and interconnected structure displayed good mechanical and swelling properties. This work provides some valuable and fundamental information of the natural hyperbranched polysaccharide from mushroom for further application in biomedical devices and tissue engineering. PMID:26005154

  3. Preparation and characterization of mucilage polysaccharide for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Archana, G; Sabina, K; Babuskin, S; Radhakrishnan, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, the polysaccharide/mucilage from waste of Abelmoscus esculentus by modification in hot extraction using two different solvents (Acetone, Methanol) were extracted, characterized and further compared with seaweed polysaccharide for their potential applications. The percentage yield, emulsifying capacity and swelling index of this mucilage were determined. The macro algae and okra waste, gave high % yield (22.2% and 8.6% respectively) and good emulsifying capacity (EC%=52.38% and 54.76% respectively) with acetone, compared to methanol (11.3% and 0.28%; EC%=50%) (PH=7) while swelling index was greater with methanol than acetone extracts respectively. The infrared (I.R.) spectrum of the samples was recorded to investigate the chemical structure of mucilage. Thermal analysis of the mucilage was done with TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer) and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) which showed both okra and algal polysaccharide were thermostable hydrogels. PMID:23987320

  4. Sulfate ingress in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick; Leterrier, Nikos

    2010-08-15

    The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

  5. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  6. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  7. Cement compositions containing a polysaccharide and a salt and method of cementing casing in a well

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

    1987-05-05

    A cement composition is described for the preparation of an aqueous cement slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising a cement selected from Class A through Class H; at least one polysaccharide or mixture of polysaccharides having a solution time greater than about 10 minutes; and at least one salt and wherein the amount of the polysaccharide or mixture of polysaccharides is sufficient so that the viscosity of the aqueous slurry increases with an increase in temperature.

  8. Dermatan Sulfate-Free Mice Display Embryological Defects and Are Neonatal Lethal Despite Normal Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stachtea, Xanthi N; Tykesson, Emil; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Feinstein, Ricardo; Malmström, Anders; Reijmers, Rogier M; Maccarana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting mice, termed DKO mice, were completely devoid of iduronic acid, and the resulting chondroitin sulfate chains were structurally different from the wild type chains, from which a different protein binding specificity can be expected. As a consequence, a vast majority of the DKO mice died perinatally, with greatly variable phenotypes at birth or late embryological stages such as umbilical hernia, exencephaly and a kinked tail. However, a minority of embryos were histologically unaffected, with apparently normal lung and bone/cartilage features. Interestingly, the binding of the chemokine CXCL13, an important modulator of lymphoid organogenesis, to mouse DKO embryonic fibroblasts was impaired. Nevertheless, the development of the secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, was normal. Altogether, our results indicate an important role of dermatan sulfate in embryological development and perinatal survival. PMID:26488883

  9. Dermatan Sulfate-Free Mice Display Embryological Defects and Are Neonatal Lethal Despite Normal Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stachtea, Xanthi N.; Tykesson, Emil; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Feinstein, Ricardo; Malmström, Anders; Reijmers, Rogier M.; Maccarana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting mice, termed DKO mice, were completely devoid of iduronic acid, and the resulting chondroitin sulfate chains were structurally different from the wild type chains, from which a different protein binding specificity can be expected. As a consequence, a vast majority of the DKO mice died perinatally, with greatly variable phenotypes at birth or late embryological stages such as umbilical hernia, exencephaly and a kinked tail. However, a minority of embryos were histologically unaffected, with apparently normal lung and bone/cartilage features. Interestingly, the binding of the chemokine CXCL13, an important modulator of lymphoid organogenesis, to mouse DKO embryonic fibroblasts was impaired. Nevertheless, the development of the secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, was normal. Altogether, our results indicate an important role of dermatan sulfate in embryological development and perinatal survival. PMID:26488883

  10. Characterization of sulfate ion in travertine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Bokuichiro; Asano, Yasuhiro; Watanuki, Kunihiko

    1980-04-01

    The mode of incorporation of sulfate ion in travertine was discussed on the basis of chemical compositions, i.r. and laser Raman spectra. These data strongly suggest that most of the sulfate ions in the calcitic travertine replace carbonate ions. This conclusion is in good harmony with the facts that calcite incorporates more sulfate ions than aragonite does and that the sulfate content of manganoan calcite decreases with increasing manganese content (Takano et al. 1977). Based on this conclusion, retarding effect of sulfate ion on the precipitation of calcite from solution was discussed.

  11. The framework of polysaccharide monooxygenase structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Span, Elise A; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases, or PMOs (also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs), are a group of enzymes discovered in recent years to catalyze the oxidative degradation of carbohydrate polymers. The PMO catalytic domain has a ?-sandwich fold that bears a strong resemblance to both immunoglobulin (Ig) and fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains. PMOs are secreted by fungi and bacteria, and there is recent evidence for their roles in pathogenesis, in addition to biomass processing. This review addresses the biological origins and functions of emerging PMO families, as well as describes the aspects of PMO structure that support the chemistry of copper-catalyzed, oxidative polysaccharide degradation. PMID:26615470

  12. Monohydrated Sulfates in Aurorae Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Aurorae Chaos was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0653 UTC (2:53 a.m. EDT) on June 10, 2007, near 7.5 degrees south latitude, 327.25 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aurorae Chaos lies east of the Valles Marineris canyon system. Its western edge extends toward Capri and Eos Chasmata, while its eastern edge connects with Aureum Chaos. Some 750 kilometers (466 miles) wide, Aurorae Chaos is most likely the result of collapsed surface material that settled when subsurface ice or water was released.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area featuring several knobs of erosion-resistant material at one end of what appears to be a large teardrop shaped plateau. Similar plateaus occur throughout the interior of Valles Marineris, and they are formed of younger, typically layered rocks that post-date formation of the canyon system. Many of the deposits contain sulfate-rich layers, hinting at ancient saltwater.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals a swath of light-colored material draped over the knobs. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 5 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the monohydrated sulfate-containing deposits drape over the knobs and also an outcrop in lower-elevation parts of the plateau.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  13. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  14. Simultaneous sulfate and zinc removal from acid wastewater using an acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wenkai; Liu, Guangli; Luo, Haiping; Zhang, Renduo; Xiang, Yinbo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a novel acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode for treatment of acid wastewater. A biocathode was developed using acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria as the catalyst. Artificial wastewater with 200mgL(-1) sulfate and different Zn concentrations (0, 15, 25, and 40mgL(-1)) was used as the MEC catholyte. The acidophilic biocathode dominated by Desulfovibrio sp. with an abundance of 66% (with 82% of Desulfovibrio sequences similar to Desulfovibrio simplex) and achieved a considerable sulfate reductive rate of 32gm(-3)d(-1). With 15mgL(-1) Zn added, the sulfate reductive rate of MEC improved by 16%. The formation of ZnS alleviated the inhibition from sulfide and sped the sulfate reduction. With 15 and 25mgL(-1) Zn added, more than 99% of Zn was removed from the wastewater. Dissolved Zn ions in the catholyte were converted into insoluble Zn compounds, such as zinc sulfide and zinc hydroxide, due to the sulfide and elevated pH produced by sulfate reduction. The MEC with acidophilic and autotrophic biocathode can be used as an alternative to simultaneously remove sulfate and metals from acid wastewaters, such as acid mine drainage. PMID:26561748

  15. Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses the Expression of Adhesion Molecules through the Regulation of the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in Human Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells after Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hai-Yan, Zhu; Yong-Hong, Gao; Zhi-Yao, Wang; Bing, Xu; Ai-Ming, Wu; Yan-Wei, Xing; Bei, Liu; Li-Xia, Lou; Li-Xin, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide is a major component of radix astragali, a vital qi-reinforcing herb medicine with favorable immune-regulating effects. In a previous animal experiment, we demonstrated that astragalus polysaccharide effectively alleviates ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of cardiac muscle through the regulation of the inflammatory reactions. However, the relationship between this herb and the cohesion molecules on the cell surface remains controversial. In this study, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) were used to validate the protective effects of astragalus under an IRI scheme simulated through hypoxia/reoxygenation in vitro. The results indicated that astragalus polysaccharide inhibited the cohesion between HCMECs and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) during IRI through the downregulation of p38 MAPK signaling and the reduction of cohesive molecule expression in HCMECs. PMID:24302961

  16. Chondroitin Lyase from a Marine Arthrobacter sp. MAT3885 for the Production of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kale, Varsha; Friðjónsson, Ólafur; Jónsson, Jón Óskar; Kristinsson, Hörður G; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó

    2015-08-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. Studies have shown that depolymerized CS saccharides may display enhanced bioactivity. The objective of this study was to isolate a CS-degrading enzyme for an efficient production of CS oligo- or disaccharides. CS-degrading bacteria from marine environments were enriched using in situ artificial support colonization containing CS from shark cartilage as substrate. Subsequently, an Arthrobacter species (strain MAT3885) efficiently degrading CS was isolated from a CS enrichment culture. The genomic DNA from strain MAT3885 was pyro-sequenced by using the 454 FLX sequencing technology. Following assembly and annotation, an orf, annotated as family 8 polysaccharide lyase genes, was identified, encoding an amino acid sequence with a similarity to CS lyases according to NCBI blastX. The gene, designated choA1, was cloned in Escherichia coli and expressed downstream of and in frame with the E. coli malE gene for obtaining a high yield of soluble recombinant protein. Applying a dual-tag system (MalE-Smt3-ChoA1), the MalE domain was separated from ChoA1 with proteolytic cleavage using Ulp1 protease. ChoA1 was defined as an AC-type enzyme as it degraded chondroitin sulfate A, C, and hyaluronic acid. The optimum activity of the enzyme was at pH 5.5-7.5 and 40 °C, running a 10-min reaction. The native enzyme was estimated to be a monomer. As the recombinant chondroitin sulfate lyase (designated as ChoA1R) degraded chondroitin sulfate efficiently compared to a benchmark enzyme, it may be used for the production of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides for the food industry or health-promoting products. PMID:25912370

  17. A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia exhibits potential antitumor activity on laryngeal squamous cancer cell line Hep-2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiangyu; Liu, Ruihua; Liu, Jianli; Huo, Yapeng; Yang, Wei; Zeng, Meng; Yang, Chao

    2013-11-01

    A novel polysaccharide [Lentinus edodes mycelia polysaccharide 2 (LMP2)] with a molecular weight of 2.27?×?10(4) Da was isolated from the Lentinus edodes mycelia and purified by Sephadex G-200 and diethylaminoethyl-32 column chromatography. HPLC results indicated that LMP2 contained mannose, arabinose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose with a relative molar ratio of 1:0.74:3.23:1.18:10.98. Its antitumor activity was evaluated in vitro by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay. LMP2 showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Hep-2 cells, and at the concentration of 200 mg/ml, the inhibition ratio was 37.2 % after 72 h. Furthermore, colony formation of Hep-2 cells was reduced significantly after treatment with LMP2. Invasion of Hep-2 cells was inhibited significantly by LMP2. These results suggested that LMP2 could be explored as a potential antitumor material for laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:23955351

  18. Antioxidant activity of carboxymethyl (1?3)-?-d-glucan (from the sclerotium of Poria cocos) sulfate (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Sha; Han, Lin; Lian, Mengting; Wen, Zhili; Jiayinaguli, Telieke; Liu, Lina; Sun, Renqiang; Cao, Yu

    2014-08-01

    (1?3)-?-d-glucan derived from Poria cocos hardly exhibits bioactivities. To extend its use, three types of (1?3)-?-d-glucan derivatives, which were sulfated (1?3)-?-d-glucan (S-P), carboxymethyl (1?3)-?-d-glucan (CMP) and carboxylmethyl (1?3)-?-d-glucan sulfate (S-CMP), were synthesized. Potential antioxidant activities of S-P, CMP and S-CMP were evaluated in vitro. The experiments of scavenging abilities of free radicals were carried out, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion and hydroxyl. Deeply study of the derivatives' inhibitory effect for lipid peroxidation, DNA oxidative damage, erythrocyte hemolysis, and malondialdehyde (MDA) production were determined. And S-CMP significantly (P<0.01) increased the antioxidant activity of ?-glucan. These results showed that multiple modifications of polysaccharides may bring the derivatives with excellent properties and various applications. PMID:24875321

  19. Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Passos, Cláudia P; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2013-04-15

    The spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a food industry by-product that can be used as a rich source of polysaccharides. In the present work, the feasibility of microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from SCG was studied. Different ratios of mass of SCG to water, from 1:30 to 1:5 (g:mL) were used for a total volume of 80 mL. Although the amount of material extracted/batch (MAE1) increased with the increase of the concentration of the sample, the amount of polysaccharides achieved a maximum of 0.57 g/batch for 1:10. Glycosidic-linkage composition showed that all extraction conditions allowed to obtain mainly arabinogalactans. When the unextracted insoluble material was re-extracted under the same conditions (MAE2), a further extraction of polysaccharides was observed (0.34 g/batch for 1:10), mainly galactomannans. Also, a high amount of oligosaccharides, mainly derived from galactomannans, can be obtained in MAE2 (0.96 g/batch for 1:10). This technology allows to obtain galactomannans and arabinogalactans in proportions that are dependent on the operating conditions. PMID:23544583

  20. Genotoxicity Study of Polysaccharide Fraction from Astragalus membranaceus's Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong-Chul; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Jung Woo; Kim, Jong-Bong; Lee, Jae Geun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill Min; Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Ri Na

    2014-01-01

    Radix Astragali, the root of Astragalus (A.) membranaceus, has been applied in a variety of diseases for a long time in Asian countries such as Korea and China. In addition, the aerial parts such as leaves and stems of A. membranaceus have received a great deal of attention. Recently, the polysaccharide fraction showing a potent immunomoduating activity was isolated from the aerial parts of A. membranaceus. Thus, the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be worthy enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. However, they should be safe even though valuable. In our previous study, it was estimated that NOAEL for female rats are 5000 mg/kg/day of the crude polysaccharide fraction from A. membranaceus-aboveground parts. As a series of safety evaluation, genotoxicity test for the crude polysaccharide fraction was carried out in this study. In conclusion, the three genotoxicity assays provided strong overall support that the crude polysaccharide fraction lacks mutagenic and/or clastogenic potential under the GLP-based test conditions. This indicates the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be safe enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. PMID:25071923