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1

Sulfated polysaccharide of Caesalpinia ferrea inhibits herpes simplex virus and poliovirus.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most regular human pathogens, being a public health problem, and causal agent of several diseases. Poliovirus (PV) is an enteric virus and about 1% of infected individuals develop paralytic poliomyelitis due to viral invasion of the central nervous system and destruction of motor neurons. This work evaluated the activity of a sulfated polysaccharide of Caesalpinia ferrea (SPLCf) in HSV and PV replication. The antiviral effect of SPLCf at varying concentrations was tested by plaque assay under several protocols, such as time-of-addition, adsorption and penetration inhibition and virucidal. Syntheses of viral protein and nucleic acid were also monitored by the immunofluorescence assay and PCR. The SPLCf inhibited virus adsorption and steps after penetration, and inhibited the synthesis of viral protein. Virucidal effect was also shown and nucleic acid synthesis was concurrent with positive results. Our findings suggested that the substance with low toxicity represent a potential viral inhibitor. PMID:23707733

Lopes, Nayara; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Espada, Samantha Fernandes; Pacheco, Arcelina Cunha; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho; Nozawa, Carlos

2013-09-01

2

Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count.

Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie

2009-01-01

3

Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.  

PubMed

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

2010-05-01

4

Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex\\u000a and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all\\u000a of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced\\u000a colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety

Lee Koetzner; Gary Grover; Jamie Boulet; Henry I. Jacoby

2010-01-01

5

Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formu- lations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term

Lee Koetzner; Gary Grover; Jamie Boulet; Henry I. Jacoby

2009-01-01

6

Rising from the sea: correlations between sulfated polysaccharides and salinity in plants.  

PubMed

High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops. PMID:21552557

Aquino, Rafael S; Grativol, Clicia; Mourão, Paulo A S

2011-01-01

7

Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants  

PubMed Central

High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops.

Aquino, Rafael S.; Grativol, Clicia; Mourao, Paulo A. S.

2011-01-01

8

Sulfated modification and cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (POP1) was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Four sulfated derivatives of POP1 (POP1-s1, POP1-s2, POP1-s3 and POP1-s4) were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid method with N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a dehydration-condensation agent. FT-IR spectra and 13C NMR spectra indicated the sulfated groups had been introduced at the C-6 and C-2 positions of POP1. Sulfated derivatives had different degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 1.01 to 1.81, and different weight-average molecular mass (Mw) ranging from 41.4 to 48.5 KDa. Sulfated derivatives except POP1-s5 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and Hela cells in vitro significantly, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance cytotoxicity of POP1 on tumor cells. Flow cytometric studies revealed that sulfated derivatives could mediate the cell-cycle arrest of Hela cells in the S phase. PMID:20820911

Chen, Tong; Wang, Jin; Li, Yuanyuan; Shen, Jianmin; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Haixia

2010-08-01

9

Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

2011-01-01

10

Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote  

PubMed Central

The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites.

Pires, Camila Lehnhardt; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Farias, Wladimir Ronald Lobo; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

2013-01-01

11

Evaluation of macroalgae sulfated polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigote.  

PubMed

The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites. PMID:23519148

Lehnhardt Pires, Camila; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Lobo Farias, Wladimir Ronald; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

2013-03-01

12

Antiherpetic activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from Agaricus brasiliensis mycelia.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides are good candidates for drug discovery in the treatment of herpetic infections. Agaricus brasiliensis (syn A. subrufescens, A. blazei) is a Basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest region of Southeastern Brazil. Herein we report the chemical modification of a polysaccharide extracted from A. brasiliensis mycelia to obtain its sulfated derivative (MI-S), which presented a promising inhibitory activity against HSV-1 [KOS and 29R (acyclovir-resistant) strains] and HSV-2 strain 333, with selectivity indices (SI = CC50/IC50) higher than 439, 208, and 562, respectively. The mechanisms underlying this inhibitory activity were scrutinized by plaque assay with different methodological strategies. MI-S had no virucidal effects, but inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 attachment, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as reducing the expression of HSV-1 ICP27, UL42, gB, and gD proteins. MI-S also presented synergistic antiviral effect with acyclovir. These results suggest that MI-S presents multiple modes of anti-HSV action. PMID:21787804

Cardozo, Francielle Tramontini Gomes de Sousa; Camelini, Carla Maísa; Mascarello, Alessandra; Rossi, Márcio José; Nunes, Ricardo José; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; de Mendonça, Margarida Matos; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

2011-10-01

13

Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds inhibit proliferation of melanoma cells and induce apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 in vitro.  

PubMed

Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs products from Sargassumhenslowianum C. Agardh (FSAR) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVES), respectively, on proliferation of melanoma B16 cells and to investigate the underlying apoptosis promoting mechanisms. Cell viability analysis showed that both FCSPs products, i.e., FSAR and FVES, decreased the proliferation of the melanoma cells in a dose-response fashion, with FSAR being more potent at lower dosages, and FVES being relatively more anti-proliferative than FSAR at higher dosages. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V staining of the melanoma cells exposed to the FCSPs products confirmed that both FSAR and FVES induced apoptosis. The FCSPs-induced apoptosis was evidenced by loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and translocation of the cell membrane phospholipids and was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. The FCSPs bioactivity is proposed to be attributable to distinct structural features of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S.henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions that involve activation of caspase-3. PMID:22363242

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

2011-12-01

14

Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds Inhibit Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Induce Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-3 in Vitro  

PubMed Central

Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs products from Sargassum henslowianum C. Agardh (FSAR) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVES), respectively, on proliferation of melanoma B16 cells and to investigate the underlying apoptosis promoting mechanisms. Cell viability analysis showed that both FCSPs products, i.e., FSAR and FVES, decreased the proliferation of the melanoma cells in a dose-response fashion, with FSAR being more potent at lower dosages, and FVES being relatively more anti-proliferative than FSAR at higher dosages. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V staining of the melanoma cells exposed to the FCSPs products confirmed that both FSAR and FVES induced apoptosis. The FCSPs-induced apoptosis was evidenced by loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and translocation of the cell membrane phospholipids and was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. The FCSPs bioactivity is proposed to be attributable to distinct structural features of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S. henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions that involve activation of caspase-3.

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Mikkelsen, J?rn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

15

Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity  

PubMed Central

The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor).

Esteves, Ana I. S.; Nicolai, Marisa; Humanes, Madalena; Goncalves, Joao

2011-01-01

16

Antivirus and immune enhancement activities of sulfated polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis.  

PubMed

This study is to synthesize sulfated Angelica polysaccharides (APSs) and investigate the activity of one of the sulfated derivatives APS-1 on murine leukemia virus in vivo. Six sulfated derivatives with degree of sulfation ranging from 0.68 to 1.91 were obtained. And the virus replication was inhibited by APS-1 at the dose of 10 and 30 mg/kg (26% and 30% inhibition respectively). Furthermore, both the percentage of CD4(+) cells and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in peripheral blood cells were significantly enhanced by APS-1 at 3-30 mg/kg. In addition, the reduced thymus/body weight index by murine leukemia virus infection was increased by ASP-1 in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that APS-1 could not only inhibit virus replication, but also improve the immune function. APS-1 may be a potential new and better antiviral drug. PMID:22155400

Yang, Tiehong; Jia, Min; Zhou, Siyuan; Pan, Feng; Mei, Qibing

2012-04-01

17

Inhibition of lipase activities by basic polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Basic polysaccharide strongly inhibited the hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol (TO) emulsified with phosphatidylcholine and taurocholate by either pancreatic lipase or carboxylester lipase. DEAE-Sephadex dose-dependently inhibited the hydrolysis of TO by pancreatic lipase and carboxylester lipase; however, carboxymethyl-Sephadex and Sephadex G-50 did not inhibit the hydrolysis. Polydextrose (PD), a soluble polysaccharide, was a very weak inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. However, when a basic group, a DEAE group, was attached to PD, lipase inhibition by DEAE-PD was increased, and this was dependent on the substitution ratio of DEAE groups. The number of positive charges per PD molecule is important in lipase inhibition. Similar substitution effects were observed with other basic groups, such as piperidinoethyl and 3-triethylamino-2-hydroxypropyl. The natural basic polysaccharide, chitosan, also inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. Gel-filtration experiments suggested that DEAE-PD did not bind strongly to pancreatic lipase. The effect of DEAE-PD on TO hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase was studied using various emulsifiers: DEAE-PD (50 microg/ml) did not inhibit the hydrolysis of TO emulsified with arabic gum, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidic acid. In vivo, oral administration of DEAE-PD to rats reduced the peak plasma triacylglycerol concentration and increased fecal lipid excretion. These results suggest that basic polysaccharide is able to suppress dietary fat absorption from the small intestine by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity. PMID:17093292

Tsujita, Takahiro; Takaichi, Hiroe; Takaku, Takeshi; Sawai, Toshiya; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Hiraki, Jun

2007-02-01

18

Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)  

PubMed Central

Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 ?g/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively.

Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

2011-01-01

19

Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. PMID:21387013

Croci, Diego O; Cumashi, Albana; Ushakova, Natalia A; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Usov, Anatolii I; Grachev, Alexey A; Morozevich, Galina E; Berman, Albert E; Sanderson, Craig J; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

2011-01-01

20

Influence of red algal sulfated polysaccharides on blood coagulation and platelets activation in vitro.  

PubMed

The influence of sulfated polysaccharides (?-, ?-, and ?/?-carrageenan and porphyran) - on platelet activation was studied. Carrageenans were much weaker inhibitors of a coagulation process than heparin, while porphyran had not that effect. Results of the aPTT and PT assays suppose that carrageenans affected mostly intrinsic pathway of coagulation, while their effect on the extrinsic pathway is extremely low (? and ?/?) or absent (?, LMW derivative of ?-carrageenan). ?-Carrageenan was the most potent anticoagulant agent in TT, aPTT, PT, and anti-factor Xa activity. This sample was also the strongest inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Generally, the correlation of anticoagulant and antithrombotic action in PRP is preserved for carrageenans but not for heparin. Carrageenans and porphyran affected platelet adhesion to collagen by influencing glycoprotein VI. Low molecular weight ?-carrageenan had a similar effect on platelet adhesion mediated with both major collagen receptors: integrin ?2 ?1 and glycoprotein VI as native polysaccharide had. Carrageenans resulted in activation of platelets under platelet adhesion mediated by integrin ?IIb ?3 with less degree than heparin. The least sulfated ?/?-carrageenan that possessed an inhibiting effect on thrombin- and collagen-induced aggregation of washed platelets and on the PT test but it had no significant effect on TT was the weakest promoter of integrin ?IIb ?3 mediated platelet activation. In summary, our study showed that the polysaccharide action was complex, since it depended on its molecular mass, sulfation degree, and monosaccharide contents (3,6-anhydrogalactose). PMID:23765560

Sokolova, Ekaterina V; Byankina, Anna O; Kalitnik, Alexandra A; Kim, Yong H; Bogdanovich, Larisa N; Solov'eva, Tamara F; Yermak, Irina M

2014-05-01

21

Sulfated polysaccharides purified from two species of padina improve collagen and epidermis formation in the rat.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii using CaCl2 and ethanol precipitation. The sulfate content of each polysaccharide was determined. Two identical wounds (either burn or excision) were made on the back of 4 groups of male Wistar rats (10 rats per group) under anesthesia. The algal polysaccharide ointments (2%) were applied twice daily on one side and the other wound was treated with Eucerin (as control). The rats were sacrificed on day 7 or 14, and then the wound samples were examined for epidermal thickness by light microscope. Furthermore, hydroxyproline content (as a marker of collagen formation) was spectro-photometrically measured. The polysaccharides purified from P. boergesenii had higher sulfate content (32.6±1%) compared to P. tetrastromatica (19±1%). Both algal polysaccharides showed some improvements in collagen formation (hydroxyproline content) and epidermal thickness in both wound models compared to the vehicle. The sulfated polysaccharides purified from P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii seaweeds are able to induce collagen formation and epidermal regeneration in the two wound models. The superior healing properties of P. boergesenii polysaccharides might be correlated to its higher sulfate content. Both algal polysaccharides are good candidates for wound healing clinical trials. PMID:24551807

Kordjazi, Moazameh; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Feizi, Farideh; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Feghhi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas

2013-01-01

22

Chemical characterization and antiherpes activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Lithothamnion muelleri.  

PubMed

We report herein the chemical characterization and antiherpes activity of polysaccharides from the red alga Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae). The polysaccharide-rich fractions B1 and B2 were obtained by extraction with Na2CO3 and were purified by size exclusion chromatography to afford Fra-B1 and Fra-B2. The polysaccharides were characterized by FT-IR and chemical analysis (total contents of carbohydrates, proteins, sulfate and uronic acid), whereas their average molecular weights were estimated by high performance gel permeation chromatography. The monosaccharide analysis detected galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, rhamnose and arabinose in the four polysaccharide samples. Antiherpetic in vitro assays showed that B1 and B2 inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) when added simultaneously to viral infection affording selectivity indices (SI=CC50/EC50) higher than 20. Investigation of the mechanism of action indicated that B1 and B2 act on the initial steps of HSV replication, mainly inhibiting viral adsorption but also viral penetration into the cells. PMID:24608026

Malagoli, Bruna G; Cardozo, Francielle T G S; Gomes, Jose Hugo S; Ferraz, Vany P; Simões, Cláudia M O; Braga, Fernão C

2014-05-01

23

Sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida: isolation, structural characteristics, and antitumor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade brown seaweeds attracted much attention as a source of polysaccharides, namely laminarans, alginic acids, and sulfated polysaccharides—fucoidans, with various structures and biological activities.In this study, sulfated polysaccharides were isolated from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica (formerly named Laminaria) and Undaria pinnatifida and their antitumor activity was tested against human breast cancer T-47D and melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell lines.The

Olesya S. Vishchuk; Svetlana P. Ermakova; Tatyana N. Zvyagintseva

24

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum horneri.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (SHP30, SHP60, and SHP80) extracted from the Sargassum horneri were obtained by water extraction and radial flow chromatography. The high-performance gel-permeation chromatography analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of three polysaccharides were approximately 1.58×10(3), 1.92×10(3) and 11.2KDa, respectively. Their in vitro antioxidant activities, antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, SHP30 with the highest sulfate content and intermediate molecular weight exhibited excellent antioxidant and antitumor activities in the superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, reducing power assay, and MTT assay. Then, flow cytometry assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis suggested that the accumulation of cells in G0/G1 and S phase effecting apoptosis-associated gene expressions such as Bcl-2 and Bax might account for the growth inhibition of DLD cells by SHP30. Based on these results, we have inferred that sulfate content and molecular weight were the factors influencing antioxidant and antitumor activities. PMID:24708979

Shao, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Peilong

2014-05-25

25

Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2?8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

2014-01-01

26

Catalytic synthesis and antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L.  

PubMed

Sulfated derivatives of polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCPS) with different degree of sulfation (DS) were synthesized by chlorosulfonic acid method with ionic liquids as solvent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in MCPS compared with the C-2 position. Compared with the native polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCP), MCPS exhibited more excellent antioxidant activities in vitro, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance antioxidant activities of MCP. Furthermore, high DS and moderate molecular weight could improve the antioxidant activities of polysaccharide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 210-215, 2014. PMID:23765337

Liu, Xin; Chen, Tong; Hu, Yan; Li, Kexin; Yan, Liushui

2014-03-01

27

Chemically sulfated Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide derivatives as extracellular HIV1 Tat protein antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV-1 transactivating factor (Tat) acts as an extracellular cytokine on target cells, including endothelium. Here, we report about the Tat-antagonist capacity of chemically sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide. O-sulfated K5 with high sulfation degree (K5-OS(H)) and N,O-sulfated K5 with high (K5-N,OS(H)) or low (K5-N,OS(L)) sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with

Chiara Urbinati; Antonella Bugatti; Pasqua Oreste; Giorgio Zoppetti; Johannes Waltenberger; Stefania Mitola; Domenico Ribatti; Marco Presta; Marco Rusnati

2004-01-01

28

Enhancement of antitumor activities in sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Two water-soluble derivatives, sulfated and carboxymethylated Ganoderma lucidem polysaccharides, coded as S-GL and CM-GL, were prepared using derivatization of water-insoluble polysaccharides (GL-IV-I) extracted from the fruit body of G. lucidem . The degree of substitution (DS) of S-GL and CM-GL was 0.94 and 1.09, respectively. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of GL-IV-I, S-GL, and CM-GL was determined with light scattering to be 13.3x10(4), 10.1x10(4), and 6.3x10(4), respectively. S-GL and CM-GL inhibited the in vitro proliferation of Sarcoma 180 (S-180) tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 26 and 38 microg/mL, respectively. They also inhibited the growth of S-180 solid tumors implanted in BALB/c mice, with low toxicity to the animals. Flow cytometric studies revealed that treatment of S-GL and CM-GL with S-180 tumor cells could mediate the cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of Bax increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically, as shown by immuno-histochemical staining of S-180 tumor tissue excised from the animals. The sulfated and carboxmethylated groups in the polysaccharides played an important part in enhancing their antitumor activities, leading to the potential to be developed into antitumor drugs. PMID:19863048

Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Yonghui; Cheung, Peter C K

2009-11-25

29

Mesorhizobium loti Produces nodPQ-Dependent Sulfated Cell Surface Polysaccharides?  

PubMed Central

Leguminous plants and bacteria from the family Rhizobiaceae form a symbiotic relationship, which culminates in novel plant structures called root nodules. The indeterminate symbiosis that forms between Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa requires biosynthesis of Nod factor, a ?-1,4-linked lipochitooligosaccharide that contains an essential 6-O-sulfate modification. S. meliloti also produces sulfated cell surface polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The physiological function of sulfated cell surface polysaccharides is unclear, although mutants of S. meliloti with reduced LPS sulfation exhibit symbiotic abnormalities. Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified a homolog of the S. meliloti carbohydrate sulfotransferase, LpsS, in Mesorhizobium loti. M. loti participates in a determinate symbiosis with the legume Lotus japonicus. We showed that M. loti produces sulfated forms of LPS and capsular polysaccharide (KPS). To investigate the physiological function of sulfated polysaccharides in M. loti, we identified and disabled an M. loti homolog of the sulfate-activating genes, nodPQ, which resulted in undetectable amounts of sulfated cell surface polysaccharides and a cysteine auxotrophy. We concomitantly disabled an M. loti cysH homolog, which disrupted cysteine biosynthesis without reducing cell surface polysaccharide sulfation. Our experiments demonstrated that the nodPQ mutant, but not the cysH mutant, showed an altered KPS structure and a diminished ability to elicit nodules on its host legume, Lotus japonicus. Interestingly, the nodPQ mutant also exhibited a more rapid growth rate and appeared to outcompete wild-type M. loti for nodule colonization. These results suggest that sulfated cell surface polysaccharides are required for optimum nodule formation but limit growth rate and nodule colonization in M. loti.

Townsend, Guy E.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Keating, David H.

2006-01-01

30

Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions

Diego O. Croci; Albana Cumashi; Natalia A. Ushakova; Marina E. Preobrazhenskaya; Antonio Piccoli; Licia Totani; Nadezhda E. Ustyuzhanina; Maria I. Bilan; Anatolii I. Usov; Alexey A. Grachev; Galina E. Morozevich; Albert E. Berman; Craig J. Sanderson; Maeve Kelly; Patrizia di Gregorio; Cosmo Rossi; Nicola Tinari; Stefano Iacobelli; Gabriel A. Rabinovich; Nikolay E. Nifantiev; Donald Gullberg

2011-01-01

31

Anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharide isolated from fermented brown seaweed Sargassum fulvellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sulfated polysaccharide with anticoagulant properties was isolated from the fermented brown seaweed Sargassum fulvellum. Freeze-dried S. fulvellum was fermented in an incubator for 10th week at 25°C to convert seaweed macromolecules into anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides (ASP). Anticoagulant activity\\u000a was determined by an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test using citrated human blood plasma. The 8th week S. fulvellum crude

Mahanama De Zoysa; Chamilani Nikapitiya; You-Jin Jeon; Youngheun Jee; Jehee Lee

2008-01-01

32

Antiherpetic activity of an Agaricus brasiliensis polysaccharide, its sulfated derivative and fractions.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis is an edible mushroom, traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases. In this paper, a polysaccharide (PLS) from A. brasiliensis, its carboxymethylated (CPLS) and sulfated (SPLS) derivatives, as well as, fractions (F1-F3) obtained from the PLS were investigated for their effect in the replication of herpes simplex virus and bovine herpes virus in HEp-2 cell cultures. The PLS, SPLS and F3 inhibited both virus strains similarly, in a dose-dependent curve. F1, F2 and CPLS did not show significant effect even at higher concentrations. All the compounds showed neither virucidal or viral adsorption inhibition activities nor effect when cells were treated prior to infection. Our study demonstrated that the extracts of A. brasiliensis, can be promising for future antiviral drug design and its biotechnological production is economically feasible. PMID:23043759

Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi; Galhardi, Lígia Carla Faccin; Rincão, Vinícius Pires; Soares, Sandra de Aguiar; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2013-01-01

33

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major barrier to regenerating axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but the structural diversity of their polysaccharides has hampered efforts to dissect the structure-activity relationships underlying their physiological activity. By taking advantage of our ability to chemically synthesize specific oligosaccharides, we demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth. Removal of the CS-E motif significantly attenuates the inhibitory activity of CSPGs on axon growth. Furthermore, CS-E functions as a protein recognition element to engage receptors including the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP?, thereby triggering downstream pathways that inhibit axon growth. Finally, masking the CS-E motif using a CS-E-specific antibody reversed the inhibitory activity of CSPGs and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic strategies to regenerate axons after CNS injury. PMID:22411830

Brown, Joshua M; Xia, Jiang; Zhuang, BinQuan; Cho, Kin-Sang; Rogers, Claude J; Gama, Cristal I; Rawat, Manish; Tully, Sarah E; Uetani, Noriko; Mason, Daniel E; Tremblay, Michel L; Peters, Eric C; Habuchi, Osami; Chen, Dong F; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

2012-03-27

34

Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of ? and ?-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed ?-carrageenan and oversulfated ?-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity.

Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

2014-01-01

35

Precursor-Product Relationships during Sulfate Incorporation into Porphyridium Capsular Polysaccharide 1  

PubMed Central

This study describes the kinetics of 35S-incorporation during in vivo sulfate esterification of Porphyridium aerugineum capsular polysaccharide. Techniques were developed to isolate the precursor pool (free sulfate), cell-associated product, and extracellular product. Specific radioactivities of these three fractions were monitored during pulse-chase sequences. Label rapidly appeared in the pool during the pulse, then declined asymptotically during the chase as equilibrium was approached. Efflux of small quantities of isotope from the cell during chase periods was not the result of backleakage, but the result of washing untransported isotope from the free-space. During the pulse, intracellular product was labeled at 25% of the rate at which the pool was labeled. Fully 50% of the label which left the pool was incorporated into the polysaccharide as ester sulfate, indicating that polysaccharide esterification is a major metabolic pathway for sulfate. The specific radioactivity of the extracellular product increased slowly throughout pulse and chase periods. Porphyridium was shown to be highly dependent on exogenous supplies of sulfate, the cells lysing when denied adequate quantities of this nutrient. The free sulfate pool size was measured as 33 × 106 sulfate ions per cell in log phase. 3?-Phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate was tentatively identified in the water-soluble cell extract and is thought to be the “activitated” donor for sulfate transfer reactions.

Ramus, J.; Groves, S. T.

1974-01-01

36

In intro antioxidant activities of different sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.  

PubMed

Four different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3 and UFP4) were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, ABTS radical assay, and reducing power assay. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant properties, and UFP2 and UFP3, which have lower content of sulfate showed higher antioxidant activities than UFP1 and UFP4, which have higher content of sulfate. Besides, the content of protein, uronic acid and molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of UFP were not a function of a single factor but a combination of several factors. PMID:23643973

Shao, Ping; Chen, Meng; Pei, Yaping; Sun, Peilong

2013-08-01

37

Fatty acid binding protein inhibits glycolithocholate sulfation.  

PubMed

Sulfation of hepatotoxic monohydroxy bile salts is viewed as an important detoxification mechanism. Bile salts are bound by fatty acid binding protein (FABP) with decreasing affinity as the extent of their hydroxylation increases. This binding has the potential to interfere with sulfation of monohydroxy bile salts and to augment their toxicity. FABP inhibits monohydroxy bile salt sulfation via bile salt sulfotransferases BST 1 and 2. With BST 1, the main BST, we obtained a maximal reduction of sulfation by 42.8 +/- 8.1%, using 10 microM glycolithocholate as substrate. FABP had no effect on sulfation of either 10 microM glycodeoxycholate or glycochenodeoxycholate. FABP may therefore specifically alter hepatotoxicity of lithocholate and its metabolites. PMID:1417875

Singer, S S; Dravis, D; Henkels, K; Trulzsch, D V

1992-07-01

38

Sulfated Derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 Capsular Polysaccharide Are Potent Inhibitors of Human Cytomegalovirus?  

PubMed Central

To date, there are few drugs licensed for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, most of which target the viral DNA polymerase and suffer from many drawbacks. Thus, there is still a strong need for new anti-HCMV compounds with novel mechanisms of action. In this study, we investigated the anti-HCMV activity of chemically sulfated derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide. These compounds are structurally related to cellular heparan sulfate and have been previously shown to be effective against some enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. We demonstrated that two derivatives, i.e., K5-N,OS(H) and K5-N,OS(L), are able to prevent cell infection by different strains of HCMV at concentrations in the nanomolar range while having no significant cytotoxicity. Studies performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of their anti-HCMV activity revealed that these compounds do not interact with either the host cell or the viral particle but need a virus-cell interaction to exert antiviral effects. Furthermore, these K5 derivatives were able to inhibit the attachment step of HCMV infection, as well as the viral cell-to-cell spread. Since the mode of inhibition of these compounds appears to differ from that of the available anti-HCMV drugs, sulfated K5 derivatives could represent the basis for the development of a novel class of potent anti-HCMV compounds. Interestingly, our studies highlight that small variations of the K5 derivatives structure can modulate the selectivity and potency of their activities against different viruses, including viruses belonging to the same family.

Mercorelli, Beatrice; Oreste, Pasqua; Sinigalia, Elisa; Muratore, Giulia; Lembo, David; Palu, Giorgio; Loregian, Arianna

2010-01-01

39

Antiviral activity against dengue virus of diverse classes of algal sulfated polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Diverse classes of sulfated polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) Grateloupia indica, Scinaia hatei and Gracilaria corticata, the brown seaweeds (Phaeophyta) Stoechospermum marginatum and Cystoseira indica and the green seaweed (Chlorophyta) Caulerpa racemosa were assayed for antiviral activity against the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). DENV-2 was the most susceptible serotype to all polysulfates, with inhibitory concentration 50% values in the range 0.12-20 ?g/mL. The antiviral potency of the sulfated polysaccharides depended on the sulfate content, the position of sulfate group, the sugar composition, and the molar mass. Independently of the sugar composition, the antiviral effect was mainly exerted during DENV-2 adsorption and internalization. PMID:22652218

Pujol, Carlos A; Ray, Sayani; Ray, Bimalendu; Damonte, Elsa B

2012-11-01

40

Biological activities and potential health benefits of sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel bioactive compounds from marine resources because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. The cell walls of marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae and

Isuru Wijesekara; Ratih Pangestuti; Se-Kwon Kim

2011-01-01

41

Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives as wide-range inhibitors of genital types of human papillomavirus.  

PubMed

Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that O-sulfated K5 with a high degree of sulfation [K5-OS(H)] and N,O-sulfated K5 with a high [K5-N,OS(H)] or low [K5-N,OS(L)] sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with low levels of sulfation, prevented the interaction between HPV-16 pseudovirions and immobilized heparin. In cell-based assays, K5-OS(H), K5-N,OS(H), and K5-N,OS(L) inhibited HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-6 pseudovirion infection. Their 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.1 and 0.9 mug/ml, without evidence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insights into the design of novel, safe, and broad-spectrum microbicides against genital HPV infections. PMID:18250186

Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Cornaglia, Maura; Cappello, Paola; Giovarelli, Mirella; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo

2008-04-01

42

Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives as Wide-Range Inhibitors of Genital Types of Human Papillomavirus?  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that O-sulfated K5 with a high degree of sulfation [K5-OS(H)] and N,O-sulfated K5 with a high [K5-N,OS(H)] or low [K5-N,OS(L)] sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with low levels of sulfation, prevented the interaction between HPV-16 pseudovirions and immobilized heparin. In cell-based assays, K5-OS(H), K5-N,OS(H), and K5-N,OS(L) inhibited HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-6 pseudovirion infection. Their 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.1 and 0.9 ?g/ml, without evidence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insights into the design of novel, safe, and broad-spectrum microbicides against genital HPV infections.

Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Cornaglia, Maura; Cappello, Paola; Giovarelli, Mirella; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo

2008-01-01

43

Antiviral activity of sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharide against Newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of Paramyxovirinae subfamily and can infect most species of birds causing severe economic losses. The current control measure is vaccination, but infections cannot be completely prevented. It remains a constant threat to the poultry industry and new control measures are urgently needed. This study demonstrates that sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharides (sCVPSs) were potent inhibitors of NDV, with 50?% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 62.55 to 76.31 µg ml(-1) in Baby hamster kidney fibroblasts clone 21 (BHK-21) and from 101.57 to 125.90 µg ml(-1) in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). sCVPS is more effective than heparan sulfate (HS; as a positive control) with IC50 values of 99.28 µg ml(-1) in BHK-21 and 118.79 µg ml(-1) in CEF. sCVPSs and HS exhibit anti-NDV activity by prevention of the early stages of viral life. The mechanism of action study indicated that virus adsorption in BHK-21, and both virus adsorption and penetration in CEF were inhibited by sCVPSs. When the number of viruses was increased to an m.o.i. of 0.1 in the immunofluorescence study and to an m.o.i. of 1 in the fluorescent quantitative PCR study, viral infection was also significantly suppressed; the antiviral activity of sCVPSs was independent of the m.o.i. sCVPSs also prevented the cell-to-cell spread of NDV. In vivo tests carried out on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens showed that sCVPSs also inhibited virus multiplication in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. These results indicated that sCVPSs perform more effectively than HS as antiviral agents against NDV, and can be further examined for their potential as an alternative control measure for NDV infection. PMID:23884364

Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhao, Xinghong; Cheng, Anchun; Jia, Renyong; Yuan, Guiping; Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiaojia; Dai, Shujun; Lu, Hongke; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

2013-10-01

44

Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-?-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of ?-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups. PMID:24299838

Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

2014-01-30

45

In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from red seaweed Nemalion helminthoides.  

PubMed

Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides from the red seaweed Nemalion helminthoides: two xylomannan fractions (N3 and N4) and a mannan fraction (N6) were investigated to determine their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. N3 and N4 induced in vitro proliferation of macrophages of the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and significantly stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) in the same cells, whereas this response was not observed with the mannan N6. The cytokine production was also stimulated by sulfated xylomannans in vivo in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously with these polysaccharides. Remarkably, when mice were treated with N3 and N4 for 1 h before being infected with Herpes simplex virus type 2, they remained asymptomatic with no signs of disease. The in vitro and in vivo results suggest that sulfated xylomannans could be strong immunomodulators. PMID:24444887

Pérez-Recalde, Mercedes; Matulewicz, María C; Pujol, Carlos A; Carlucci, María J

2014-02-01

46

Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis  

PubMed Central

Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm?1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1?6)-(1?3)-?-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1?3)-?-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1?3)-?-D-gluco-(1?2)-?-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 ?g/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 ?g/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 ?g/mL).

Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simoes, C. M. O.

2014-01-01

47

The sulfated O-specific polysaccharide from the marine bacterium Cobetia pacifica KMM 3879(T.).  

PubMed

The O-specific polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Cobetia pacifica KMM 3879(T) and studied by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including 1D TOCSY and 2D (1)H, (1)H-COSY, ROESY, (1)H, (13)C-HSQC, HMBC, H2BC and HMQC-TOCSY experiments. The following new structure of the sulfated O-polysaccharide from the C. pacifica KMM 3879(T) containing rhamnose (Rha), glucose (Glc), and galactose (Gal) was established: where R is -SO3H. PMID:24518985

Kokoulin, Maxim S; Kalinovsky, Anatoliy I; Komandrova, Nadezhda A; Tomshich, Svetlana V; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Vaskovsky, Victor E

2014-03-31

48

Kinetics of inhibition of ribonuclease A by Pholiota Nameko polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pholiota nameko polysaccharide (PNPS-1) has been isolated and purified by enzyme hydrolysis, hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and gel-filtration column chromatography. The inhibition of bovine pancreas ribonuclease (RNase A) by PNPS-1 has been studied to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the decreased activity. PNPS-1 was effective in a linear mixed-type inhibition as suggested from the Lineweaver–Burk plot, Dixon

Haiping Li; Shuo Wang

2007-01-01

49

Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches.

Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, Joao F.; Reis, Rui L.

2012-01-01

50

Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes).  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2012-01-01

51

Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway.

Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Celia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Katia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2012-01-01

52

Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.  

PubMed

Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-? and IL-1? levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10?mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10?mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10?mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4?h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration. PMID:22830978

Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2013-02-01

53

Purification and Structural Characterization of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum and its Efficacy in Scavenging Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are one of the commercially beneficial compounds with a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. They are testified to be effective against free radicals and related health complications. This study aims to determine the antioxidant potential of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum, followed by its purification and structural characterization. Amount of extract obtained was 5% from 10 g of plant material. The carbohydrate and sulfate content were found to be 31 and 0.34 mg/10 g of plant material, respectively. Total sulfated polysaccharide extract showed a good radical scavenging activity at lower concentrations. The active principle from the total sulfated polysaccharide was fractionated in anion exchange and gel filtration columns followed by structural characterization using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fraction 12 closely matched with the Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of fucoidan. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum is identified as Fucoidan with potential radical scavenging activity compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene.

Badrinathan, S.; Shiju, T. M.; Sharon Christa, A. Suneeva; Arya, R.; Pragasam, V.

2012-01-01

54

Potential antioxidant capacity of sulfated polysaccharides from the edible marine brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.  

PubMed

Fucus vesiculosus was sequentially extracted with water at 22 degrees C (fraction 1 (F1)) and 60 degrees C (F2), and with 0.1 M HCl (F3) and 2 M KOH (F4) at 37 degrees C. Soluble fractions (42.3% yield) were composed of neutral sugars (18.9-48 g/100 g), uronic acids (8.8-52.8 g/100 g), sulfate (2.4-11.5 g/100 g), small amounts of protein (< 1-6.1 g/100 g), and nondialyzable polyphenols (0.1-2.7 g/100 g). The main neutral sugars were fucose, glucose, galactose, and xylose. Infrared (IR) spectra of the fractions showed absorption bands at 820-850 and 1225-1250 cm(-1) for sulfate. F1, F2, and F4 also exhibited an absorption band at 1425 cm(-1), due to uronic acids, and their IR spectra resembled that of alginate. F3 had an IR spectrum similar to that of fucoidan with an average molecular weight of 1.6 x 10(6) Da, calculated by molecular exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of fucose in this polysaccharide was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. This fraction showed the highest potential to be antioxidant by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, followed by the alkali- and water-soluble fractions. Sulfated polysaccharides from edible seaweeds potentially could be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry. PMID:11829654

Rupérez, Pilar; Ahrazem, Oussama; Leal, J Antonio

2002-02-13

55

Catalytic synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides. II: Comparative studies of solution conformation and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Sulfated derivatives of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (ASP) with high degree of substitution (DS) were synthesized using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)/dimethylcyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as catalyst. Size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-LLS) results showed a decrease in fractal dimension (df) values of sulfated ASP (SASP). Compared to ASP and SASP with low DS (0.51-1.01), SASPcata2 exhibited an internal structure between rigid rod and random coil with a DS of 1.24. DS had greater influence on its conformation in aqueous solution. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed that the degradation of ASP and SO3H groups improved significantly the stiffness of the chains due to the electrostatic effect. Furthermore, antioxidant experiments revealed that high DS could enhance the scavenging activities of radicals and reducing power of SASP in vitro. The extended chain conformation was beneficial to enhance the biological activity of sulfated polysaccharides. PMID:24702939

Wang, Junlong; Niu, Shengfan; Zhao, Baotang; Luo, Tian; Liu, Die; Zhang, Ji

2014-07-17

56

Sulfated modification of longan polysaccharide and its immunomodulatory and antitumor activity in vitro.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LP1) was prepared from Dimocarpus longan Lour. by hot water extraction, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its sulfated derivative (LP1-S) was prepared by the sulfuric acid method. Preliminary tests in vitro showed LP1 and LP1-S could stimulate murine lymphocytes proliferation, increase pinocytic activity of murine macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in macrophages. Furthermore, LP1-S exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells in vitro than LP1, which might be caused by the sulfate group in its structures. These results indicated that the LP1-S might be useful for developing safe antitumor drugs or health food. PMID:24680807

Jiang, Jie; Meng, Fa-Yan; He, Zhou; Ning, Yuan-Ling; Li, Xue-Hua; Song, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

57

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan from Ascophyllum nodosum was investigated in vitro by various assays, and compared with those of fucoidan. A chemiluminescence (CL) analysis using a luminol analog, L-012, showed that ascophyllan scavenges superoxide, and the activity is greater than fucoidan. However, in the presence of 10?g/ml of ascophyllan or 10?g/ml and 100?g/ml of fucoidan, slightly enhanced CL-responses were observed. Since EDTA-treatment resulted in disappearance of the enhancement effects, it was suggested that metal ions especially iron ions in the polysaccharides might be involved in this phenomenon. In fact, metal element analysis revealed that ascophyllan and fucoidan inherently contain iron and other metal elements. EDTA-treatment resulted in significant increase in Fe(2+)-chelating activities of these polysaccharides. In an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping analysis in which direct UV-radiation to hydrogen peroxide was used as a source of hydroxyl radical, ascophyllan and fucoidan showed potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with similar extent. Reducing power of ascophyllan was stronger than that of fucoidan. Our results indicate that ascophyllan can exhibit direct and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:23643974

Abu, Ryogo; Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

2013-08-01

58

A sulfated-polysaccharide fraction from seaweed Gracilaria birdiae prevents naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats.  

PubMed

Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group-vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation. PMID:23342384

Silva, Renan O; Santana, Ana Paula M; Carvalho, Nathalia S; Bezerra, Talita S; Oliveira, Camila B; Damasceno, Samara R B; Chaves, Luciano S; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P; Soares, Pedro M G; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R

2012-12-01

59

Polysaccharides isolated from Digenea simplex inhibit inflammatory and nociceptive responses.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides (PLS) have notably diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we investigated the previously unexplored anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the PLS fraction isolated from the marine red alga Digenea simplex. We found that the PLS fraction reduced carrageenan-induced edema in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited inflammation induced by dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The fraction also inhibited neutrophil migration into both mouse paw and peritoneal cavity. This effect was accompanied by decreases in IL1-? and TNF-? levels in the peritoneal fluid. Pre-treatment of mice with PLS (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. This same dose of PLS also reduced total licking time in both phases of a formalin test, and increased latency in a hot plate test. Therefore, we conclude that PLS extracted from D. simplex possess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and can be useful as therapeutic agents against inflammatory diseases. PMID:24751242

Pereira, Juliana G; Mesquita, Jacilane X; Aragão, Karoline S; Franco, Alvaro X; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Brito, Tarcisio V; Dias, Jordana M; Silva, Renan O; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Abreu, Clara Myrla W S; de Paula, Regina Célia M; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P

2014-08-01

60

Pharmacological profiles of animal- and nonanimal-derived sulfated polysaccharides - comparison of unfractionated heparin, the semisynthetic glucan sulfate PS3, and the sulfated polysaccharide fraction isolated from Delesseria sanguinea  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) such as heparin are known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, e.g., anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastastic effects. However, since the anticoagulant activity of heparin is dominating, its therapeutic use for other medical indications is limited due to an associated risk of bleeding. Further disadvantages of heparin are its animal origin, the shortage of resources, and its complex and variable composition. However, SP without these limitations may represent a substance class with good prospects for applications other than anticoagulation. In this study, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of two nonanimal-derived SP were investigated in comparison with unfractionated heparin. One is the natural SP fraction from the red algae Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP). The other one is the chemically defined PS3, a semisynthetic ?-1,3-glucan sulfate with proven in vivo anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities. All three polysaccharides were examined in vitro for their inhibitory effects on the coagulation and complement system, polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase, hyaluronidase, matrix metalloproteinase-1, heparanase, and p-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Compared with heparin, the nonanimal-derived polysaccharides have a four times weaker anticoagulant activity, but mostly exhibit stronger (1.4–224 times) effects on test systems investigating targets of inflammation or metastasis. According to their different structures, PS3 and D.s.-SP differ in their pharmacological profile with PS3 being the strongest inhibitor of heparanase and cell adhesion and D.s.-SP being the strongest inhibitor of hyaluronidase and complement activation. Considering both pharmacological profile and pharmaceutical quality parameters, PS3 represents a candidate for further development as an anti-inflammatory or antimetastatic drug whereas D.s.-SP might have perspectives for cosmetic applications.

Groth, Inken; Grunewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

2009-01-01

61

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis sulfated polysaccharides in experimental animal models.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (Sw-SP) and seagrass Halophila ovalis (Ho-SP) in nociceptive and inflammatory models. In the formalin test, Sw-SP and Ho-SP significantly reduced licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 10 mg/kg of Sw-SP and 5, 10 mg/kg of Ho-SP, suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism at the higher dose. Sw-SP and Ho-SP (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration by 53% and 52%, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, there was a significant increase in the rat paw volume and decrease in body weight, but in Sw-SP- and Ho-SP-treated groups (10 mg/kg), a significant reduction in paw volume and a normal gain in body weight were observed. The present results indicate that Sw-SP and Ho-SP possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and have potential usefulness for development as therapeutic agents. PMID:23957357

Yuvaraj, Neelakandan; Kanmani, Paulraj; Satishkumar, Ramraj; Paari, Alagesan; Pattukumar, Vellaiyan; Arul, Venkatesan

2013-08-01

62

Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori Adhesion by Acidic Polysaccharide Isolated from Artemisia capillaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicobacter pylori specifically adhere to host cells through a number of putative receptors and ligands, mainly based on carbohydrate-protein interactions. Polysaccharide fractions isolated from the leaves of Artemisia capillaris showed different inhibitory activities against H. pylori adhesion by using hemagglutination assay. Among these fractions, an acidic polysaccharide fraction F1A showed highly effective inhibitory activity, and its minimum inhibition concentration was

BYUNG H. HA; TAE G. KIM; YOONGHO LIM

2003-01-01

63

Effect of high-pressure on surface behaviour of adsorbed films formed from mixtures of sulfated polysaccharides with various proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the influence of high pressure (200–600 MPa) on surface tensions and surface shear viscosities of protein layers adsorbed at pH 6.5 or 8.0 from mixtures of sulfated polysaccharides with ?-lactoglobulin (?-Lg), bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA) or 11S globulin Vicia faba under low ionic strength conditions favouring electrostatic interaction. Time-dependent measurements at the air–water interface for pressure-treated

Vanda B. Galazka; Eric Dickinson; Dave Ledward

2000-01-01

64

Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.  

PubMed

In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-?B signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?-B?. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-?B, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. PMID:24626144

Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

2014-06-01

65

Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of chondroitin-4-sulfate polysaccharide by chromic acid in aqueous perchlorate solutions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of chromic acid oxidation of chondroitin-4-sulfate polysaccharide as sulfated carbohydrates at a constant ionic strength of 4.0 mol dm(-3) has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The reaction kinetics showed a first-order dependence in chromic acid and fractional-first-order kinetics with respect to the chondroitin-4-sulfate concentration. The influence of [H(+)] on the reaction rates showed that the oxidation process is acid-catalyzed. Added Mn(2+) ions indicated the formation of Cr(IV) as intermediate species. A kinetic evidence for formation of 1:1 intermediate complex was revealed. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and a tentative reaction mechanism in good consistent with the kinetic results obtained is discussed. PMID:23399294

Hassan, Refat; Ibrahim, Samia; Dahy, Abdel Rahman; Zaafarany, Ishaq; Tirkistani, Fahd; Takagi, Hideo

2013-02-15

66

A Mycoplasma strain F38 growth-inhibiting monoclonal antibody (WM-25) identifies an epitope on a surface-exposed polysaccharide antigen.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibody (MAb) WM-25 differentiates by in vitro growth inhibition Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mycoplasma strain F38), which causes contagious carpine pleuropneumonia, from other Mycoplasma spp. (F. R. Rurangirwa, T. C. McGuire, A. J. Musoke, and A. Kibor, Infect. Immun. 55:3219-3220, 1987). The antigen identified by MAb WM-25 was isolated from solubilized Mycoplasma strain F38 organisms by MAb WM-25 affinity chromatography and was stained with Schiff's reagent, but not with Coomassie blue, after separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment of purified F38 polysaccharide with periodate abolished binding with MAb WM-25, and MAb WM-25 binding was blocked with laminarin, a complex oligosaccharide with beta(1-->3) sugar linkages. Purified F38 polysaccharide blocked both growth inhibition and agglutination of live F38 organisms caused by MAb WM-25 and rabbit antiserum to F38 organisms. The results in this paper demonstrate that MAb WM-25 binds a periodate-sensitive epitope on the F38 polysaccharide which is also exposed on the surface of Mycoplasma strain F38. Because MAb WM-25 also causes in vitro growth inhibition of F38, the reactive polysaccharide epitope may induce protective immune responses.

Rurangirwa, F R; Wambugu, A; Kihara, S M; McGuire, T C

1995-01-01

67

The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells?  

PubMed

The antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated focusing on the inhibition on human liver cancer cells. The polysaccharides inhibited human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 during earlier phase with lower dosage but obviously became less functional in later phase regardless of the dosage applied. However, apoptosis of the drugged HepG2 cells appeared in later incubation phase with high dosage, and the apoptosis could be enhanced by supplemental dose of the intracellular polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the intracellular polysaccharides inhibited other human hepatocarcinoma cells such as BEL-7402 and Huh-7 but luckily stimulated human normal liver cell L02 only in a positive dose- and time-dependent manner; so did the sulfated extracellular polysaccharides when it inhibited HepG2 and L02 cells. However, the toxicity of sulfated extracellular polysaccharides to L02 cells can be eliminated by the intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:22939333

Liu, Yu-jun; Shen, Jie; Xia, Yong-mei; Zhang, Jue; Park, Hyeon-soo

2012-10-15

68

Inhibition of Naja naja venom hyaluronidase by plant-derived bioactive components and polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of several bioactive compounds on the activity of hyaluronidase enzyme purified from Naja naja venom was investigated in vitro. Compounds were found to inhibit the hyaluronidase activity dose dependently. Among glycosaminoglycans, heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate showed maximum inhibition compared to chondroitin sulfates. Different molecular forms of chitosan inhibit the enzyme, and inhibition appears to depend on the chain length. In addition, plant-derived bioactive compounds also inhibited the activity of hyaluronidase dose dependently. Among those tested, aristolochic acid, indomethacin, quercetin, curcumin, tannic acid, and flavone exhibited inhibition, with aristolochic acid and quercetin completely inhibiting the enzyme activity. It is concluded that the inhibitors of hyaluronidase could be used as potent first aid agents in snakebite therapy. Furthermore, these inhibitors not only reduce the local tissue damage but also retard the easy diffusion of systemic toxins and hence increase survival time. PMID:16212553

Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

2005-08-01

69

Simple and Rapid Quality Control of Sulfated Glycans by a Fluorescence Sensor Assay--Exemplarily Developed for the Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Delesseria sanguinea  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from algae are of great interest due to their manifold biological activities. Obstacles to commercial (especially medical) application include considerable variability and complex chemical composition making the analysis and the quality control challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple microplate assay for screening the quality of SP. It is based on the fluorescence intensity (FI) increase of the sensor molecule Polymer-H by SP and was originally developed for direct quantification of SP. Exemplarily, 65 SP batches isolated from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP) and several other algae polysaccharides were investigated. Their FI increase in the Polymer-H assay was compared with other analytical parameters. By testing just one concentration of a D.s.-SP sample, quality deviations from the reference D.s.-SP and thus both batch-to-batch variability and stability can be detected. Further, structurally distinct SP showed to differ in their concentration-dependent FI profiles. By using corresponding reference compounds, the Polymer-H assay is therefore applicable as identification assay with high negative predictability. In conclusion, the Polymer-H assay showed to represent not only a simple method for quantification, but also for characterization identification and differentiation of SP of marine origin.

Luhn, Susanne; Grimm, Juliane C.; Alban, Susanne

2014-01-01

70

Focoidin, a polysaccharide inhibiting leukocyte rolling, attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is presumed that adjuvant therapy rather than new antibiotics will improve the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis. We investigated the effect of fucoidin, a polysaccharide inhibiting leukocyte rolling, on inflammatory changes in experimental meningitis in rats. After induction of meningitis by pneumococcal cell wall components, regional cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure increased over the observation period of 6 h.

K. Angstwurm; J. R. Weber; A. Segert; W. Bürger; M. Weih; D. Freyer; K. M. Einhäpl; U. Dirnagl

1995-01-01

71

Broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition by a secreted bacterial polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

The development of surface-attached biofilm bacterial communities is considered an important source of nosocomial infections. Recently, bacterial interference via signaling molecules and surface active compounds was shown to antagonize biofilm formation, suggesting that nonantibiotic molecules produced during competitive interactions between bacteria could be used for biofilm reduction. Hence, a better understanding of commensal/pathogen interactions within bacterial community could lead to an improved control of exogenous pathogens. To reveal adhesion or growth-related bacterial interference, we investigated interactions between uropathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli in mixed in vitro biofilms. We demonstrate here that the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and all E. coli expressing group II capsules release into their environment a soluble polysaccharide that induces physicochemical surface alterations, which prevent biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We show that the treatment of abiotic surfaces with group II capsular polysaccharides drastically reduces both initial adhesion and biofilm development by important nosocomial pathogens. These findings identify capsular polymers as antiadhesion bacterial interference molecules, which may prove to be of significance in the design of new strategies to limit biofilm formation on medical in dwelling devices.

Valle, Jaione; Da Re, Sandra; Henry, Nelly; Fontaine, Thierry; Balestrino, Damien; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

2006-01-01

72

Isolation, purification, and characterization of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome and their blood-anticoagulant activities.  

PubMed

A sulfated polysaccharide fraction, obtained from the hot-water extract of the brown seaweed, Ecklonia kurome by removing laminaran and the major part of alginic acid, gave sulfated polysaccharides (B-I, B-II, C-I, and C-II) by both anion-exchange chromatography on a column of Ecteola-cellulose and by fractional precipitation with ethanol containing 0.3% calcium acetate, and then by gel-filtration chromatography on a Sepharose 4B column. B-I and B-II are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, glucuronic acid, and ester sulfate in the approximate molar ratios of 1.00:0.36:0.48:1.08:1.85:2.35 and 1.00:0.81:0.18:0.45:0.61:2.00, respectively. C-I and C-II are composed of fucose, galactose, glucuronic acid, and ester sulfate in approximate molar ratios of 1.00:0.03:0.03:1.61 and 1.00:0.19:0.07:1.48, respectively. Blood-anticoagulant activities with respect to activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were approximately 24, 19, 81, and 85% of that of heparin for B-I, B-II, C-I, and C-II, respectively. All the polysaccharides showed slight antithrombin activity. No antifactor Xa activity was observed for any of the polysaccharides. PMID:2720702

Nishino, T; Yokoyama, G; Dobashi, K; Fujihara, M; Nagumo, T

1989-02-15

73

Anti-Kaposi's Sarcoma and Antiangiogenic Activities of Sulfated Dextrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of the sulfated polysaccharide dextrin 2-sulfate by the intraperitoneal route to the lymphatic circulation resulted in a clinically significant improvement in Kaposi's sarcoma in three patients. Our in vitro studies show that although sulfated dextrins do not interfere with the growth of isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, they do inhibit the morphological differentiation of endothelial cells into tubes

MARK THORNTON; LAURA BARKLEY; JUSTIN C. MASON; SUNIL SHAUNAK

74

A Murine Model of Inflammatory Bladder Disease: Cathelicidin Peptide Induced Bladder Inflammation and Treatment With Sulfated Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies show that LL-37 is a naturally occurring urinary defensin peptide that is up-regulated during urinary tract infections. Although normal urinary LL-37 levels are antimicrobial, we propose that increased LL-37 may trigger bladder inflammation. We further suggest that anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides known as semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether compounds can treat/prevent LL-37 mediated bladder inflammation. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were catheterized/instilled with LL-37 (320 ?M at 150 ?l) for 45 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 12 and 24 hours, and tissues were examined using hematoxylin and eosin. Separate experiments were performed for myeloperoxidase to quantify inflammation. GM-1111 semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatments involved instillation of 10 mg/ml for 45 minutes directly before or after LL-37. Tissues were harvested at 24 hours. To compare semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether efficacy experiments were performed using 10 mg/ml heparin. Finally, tissue localization of semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether was examined using a fluorescent GM-1111-Alexa Fluor® 633 conjugate. Results Profound bladder inflammation developed after LL-37. Greater tissue inflammation occurred after 24 hours compared to that at 12 hours. Myeloperoxidase assays revealed a 21 and 61-fold increase at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatment after LL-37 showed mild attenuation of inflammation with myeloperoxidase 2.5-fold below that of untreated bladders. Semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatment before LL-37 demonstrated almost complete attenuation of inflammation. Myeloperoxidase results mirrored those in controls. In heparin treated bladders minimal attenuation of inflammation occurred. Finally, instillation of GM-1111-Alexa Fluor 633 revealed urothelial coating, significant tissue penetration and binding to endovasculature. Conclusions We developed what is to our knowledge a new model of inflammatory bladder disease by challenge with the naturally occurring urinary peptide LL-37. We also noted that a new class of anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides prevents and mitigates bladder inflammation.

Oottamasathien, Siam; Jia, Wanjian; McCoard, Lindsi; Slack, Sean; Zhang, Jianxing; Skardal, Aleksander; Job, Kathleen; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Dull, Randal O.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

2013-01-01

75

[Effect of an acidic sulfated polysaccharide on whole blood coagulability. In vivo study in rats].  

PubMed

Armatan, an acid sulphated polysaccharide isolated from a red marine seaweed Asparagopsis armata (Harv.), increases the coagulation time of the rat plasma in vivo assays. This property presents, with administration, time and dose, some variations. Among the three ways studied, subcutaneous injection gives more interesting results than the others. At high concentrations (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg), intravenous administration induces plasma and organic (liver-spleen) diseases. PMID:6242035

Caporiccio, B; Braun, M; Vignaud, M; Chalet, M; Codomier, L; Teste, J; Catayée, G

1984-01-01

76

Inhibition of lipolytic activity in milk by polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The effect of gums on the activity of milk lipase and a Pseudomonas lipase in milk was investigated. Gums were hydrated in water and mixed with whole milk. Lipase was added to the gum-milk mixture and hydrolysis was determined after 48 h at 4 degrees C by the acid degree value method. Of the gums tested, the anionically charged lambda-, t- and kappa-carrageenan, furcellaran, and sodium alginate significantly inhibited milk lipase activity by 93.7, 81.2, 46.8, 50.6, and 62.1%, respectively. Furthermore, lambda-carrageenan was 87.6% effective in inhibiting lipolysis by a purified Pseudomonas fluorescens MC50 lipase in milk. The other gums tested, tragacanth, carboxymethyl cellulose, locust bean, propylene glycol alginate, xanthan, microcrystalline cellulose, guar, and arabic did not significantly inhibit milk lipase. Commonly used stabilizers can inhibit lipolytic activity in milk. PMID:3372807

Stern, K K; Foegeding, E A; Hansen, A P

1988-01-01

77

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans inhibit oligodendrocyte myelination through PTP?.  

PubMed

CNS damage often results in demyelination of spared axons due to oligodendroglial cell death and dysfunction near the injury site. Although new oligodendroglia are generated following CNS injury and disease, the process of remyelination is typically incomplete resulting in long-term functional deficits. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in CNS grey and white matter following injury and disease and are a major component of the inhibitory scar that suppresses axon regeneration. CSPG inhibition of axonal regeneration is mediated, at least in part, by the protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTP?) receptor. Recent evidence demonstrates that CSPGs inhibit OL process outgrowth, however, the means by which their effects are mediated remains unclear. Here we investigate the role of PTP? in CSPG inhibition of OL function. We found that the CSPGs, aggrecan, neurocan and NG2 all imposed an inhibitory effect on OL process outgrowth and myelination. These inhibitory effects were reversed by degradation of CSPGs with Chondroitinase ABC prior to OL exposure. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of PTP? reversed the inhibitory effect of CSPGs on OL process outgrowth and myelination. Likewise, CSPG inhibition of process outgrowth and myelination was significantly reduced in cultures containing PTP?(-/-) OLs. Finally, inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) increased OL process outgrowth and myelination during exposure to CSPGs. These results suggest that in addition to their inhibitory effects on axon regeneration, CSPGs have multiple inhibitory actions on OLs that result in incomplete remyelination following CNS injury. The identification of PTP? as a receptor for CSPGs, and the participation of ROCK downstream of CSPG exposure, reveal potential therapeutic targets to enhance white matter repair in the damaged CNS. PMID:23588220

Pendleton, James C; Shamblott, Michael J; Gary, Devin S; Belegu, Visar; Hurtado, Andres; Malone, Misti L; McDonald, John W

2013-09-01

78

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

79

Strong cellulase inhibition by Mannan polysaccharides in cellulose conversion to sugars.  

PubMed

Cellulase enzymes contribute a major fraction of the total cost for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Although a several fold reduction in cellulase production costs and enhancement of cellulase activity and stability have been reported in recent years, sugar yields are still lower at low enzyme doses than desired commercially. We recently reported that hemicellulose xylan and its oligomers strongly inhibit cellulase and that supplementation of cellulase with xylanase and ?-xylosidase would significantly reduce such inhibition. In this study, mannan polysaccharides and their enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were discovered to be strongly inhibitory to fungal cellulase in cellulose conversion (>50% drop in % relative conversion), even at a small concentration of 0.1?g/L, and inhibition was much greater than experienced by other known inhibitors such as cellobiose, xylooligomers, and furfural. Furthermore, cellulase inhibition dramatically increased with heteromannan loading and mannan substitution with galactose side units. In general, enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were less inhibitory than their respective mannan polysaccharides except highly substituted ones. Supplementation of cellulase with commercial accessory enzymes such as xylanase, pectinase, and ?-glucosidase was effective in greatly relieving inhibition but only for less substituted heteromannans. However, cellulase supplementation with purified heteromannan specific enzymes relieved inhibition by these more substituted heteromannans as well, suggesting that commercial preparations need to have higher amounts of such activities to realize high sugar yields at the low enzyme protein loadings needed for low cost fuels production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1341-1353. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24522973

Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

2014-07-01

80

Sulfated Polysaccharide, Curdlan Sulfate, Efficiently Prevents Entry/Fusion and Restricts Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection In Vitro: A Possible Candidate for Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

Curdlan sulfate (CRDS), a sulfated 1?3-?-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV). CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E) protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion). The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the ?-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

Zhang, Li Feng; Chin, Wei Xin; Muschin, Tegshi; Heinig, Lars; Suzuki, Youichi; Nanjundappa, Haraprasad; Yoshinaka, Yoshiyuki; Ryo, Akihide; Nomura, Nobuo; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Naoki

2013-01-01

81

Lycium ruthenicum polysaccharide attenuates inflammation through inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide has been reported to possess diverse biological activities, however, the inflammatory activity of polysaccharide isolated from Lycium ruthenicum remains unknown so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. ruthenicum polysaccharide (LRGP3) on inflammatory reaction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and some potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that LRGP3 treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production and the mRNA expression of iNOS, as well as the level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Furthermore, LRGP3 treatment prevented the I?B? degradation and reduced phospho-NF-?B p65 protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were suppressed by LRGP3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, our results suggested that LRGP3 attenuated LPS-induced inflammation via inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24680899

Peng, Qiang; Liu, Huajing; Shi, Shihui; Li, Ming

2014-06-01

82

Sulfated-polysaccharide fraction from red algae Gracilaria caudata protects mice gut against ethanol-induced damage.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg(-1), p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g(-1), p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg(-1), i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg(-1), p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg(-1), i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg(-1), p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25 g(-1), p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/K(ATP) pathway. PMID:22163181

Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; Chaves, Luciano de Souza; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2011-01-01

83

Dextran sulfate sodium inhibits alanine synthesis in caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. PMID:21731444

Ye, Zhong; Mishchuk, Darya O; Stephens, Natasha S; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2011-01-01

84

Sulfate inhibits ( sup 14 C)phosphonoformic acid binding to renal brush-border membranes  

SciTech Connect

To examine the specificity of the phosphonoformic acid (PFA) interaction with the Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporter of mouse renal brush-border membrane vesicles, we compared the effects of anions on Na(+)-dependent (14C)PFA binding and Na(+)-dependent phosphate transport. Inhibition of PFA binding was achieved by PFA (% control = 0 +/- 1), sulfate (15 +/- 2), arsenate (35 +/- 1), phosphate (59 +/- 2), and nitrate (68 +/- 4), whereas inhibition of phosphate transport was only apparent with phosphate (0 +/- 1), PFA (22 +/- 4), and arsenate (37 +/- 5). Succinate and gluconate had no effect on either Na(+)-dependent process. Under conditions where Na(+)-dependent PFA binding was maximally inhibited by phosphate (% control = 65 +/- 4), further inhibition could be achieved by sulfate (26 +/- 5%). Na(+)-dependent PFA binding was competitively inhibited by phosphate (apparent Ki = 8.9 +/- 1.2 mM) and noncompetitively inhibited by sulfate (apparent Ki = 2.6 +/- 0.5 mM). We found that PFA inhibited Na(+)-dependent sulfate transport (50% inhibition at 9 mM PFA) as well as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transport (50% inhibition at 0.5 mM PFA). We also examined the pH dependence of Na(+)-dependent PFA binding and Na(+)-dependent phosphate and sulfate transport. PFA binding was optimal at pH = 7.4, whereas phosphate transport increased with increasing pH, and sulfate transport increased with decreasing pH.

Tenenhouse, H.S.; Lee, J. (McGill Univ.-Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute, Quebec (Canada))

1990-08-01

85

Separation, purification, and ?-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia.  

PubMed

Intracellular polysaccharides (iPs) were separated and purified from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia and characterized for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties. Three iP fractions (iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1) were extracted, separated, and purified from LH1 mycelia using microwave extraction technology, a DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column, a Diaion HP20 macroporous adsorption column, and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel-permeation column. The principal constituents of iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1 were saponins and polyphenoic compound mixtures. The enzyme inhibition activity, IC(50) values, of these three fractions were 1.7, 1.8, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties were related to the presence of ?-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharide structure and the total relative percentage of d-glucose and d-galactose in the structure of polysaccharides, other than triterpenoids. PMID:23218298

Hsu, Wen-kuang; Hsu, Tai-hao; Lin, Fang-yi; Cheng, Yuan-kai; Yang, John Po-wen

2013-01-30

86

Inhibition of Rhizobium etli Polysaccharide Mutants by Phaseolus vulgaris Root Compounds  

PubMed Central

Crude bean root extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris were tested for inhibition of the growth of several polysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli CE3. Mutants deficient only in exopolysaccharide and some mutants deficient only in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide were no more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the extracts, whereas mutants defective in both lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide were much more sensitive. The inhibitory activity was found at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in stems or leaves. Inoculation with either wild-type or polysaccharide-deficient R. etli did not appear to affect the level of activity. Sequential extractions of the crude root material with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water partitioned inhibitory activity into each solvent except methanol. The major inhibitors in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were purified by C18 high-performance liquid chromatography. These compounds all migrated very similarly in both liquid and thin-layer chromatography but were distinguished by their mass spectra. Absorbance spectra and fluorescence properties suggested that they were coumestans, one of which had the mass spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonances of coumestrol. These results are discussed with regard to the hypothesis that one role of rhizobial polysaccharides is to protect against plant toxins encountered during nodule development. Images

Eisenschenk, Linda; Diebold, Ronald; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Peterson, Andrew C.; Kent Peters, N.; Noel, K. Dale

1994-01-01

87

Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA) and 5 heterozygous (GA) PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p < 0.05). The following genes were up-regulated over 2 fold: IL18, CTSS, LUM, CD44, FN1, GST01. The most down-regulated genes were the following: mitochondrial tRNA, SLC2A2, PRKC?, VEGF?. Data mining analysis showed that protein synthesis, apoptosis, cellular movement, growth and proliferation were the main cellular functions significantly associated with the modulated genes (p < 0.05). Several up-regulated genes, especially IL18, revealed a severe muscular inflammation in PSSM muscles. The up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3?) under its active form could be responsible for glycogen synthase (GYS1) inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1?) destabilization. Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.

Barrey, Eric; Mucher, Elodie; Jeansoule, Nicolas; Larcher, Thibaut; Guigand, Lydie; Herszberg, Berenice; Chaffaux, Stephane; Guerin, Gerard; Mata, Xavier; Benech, Philippe; Canale, Marielle; Alibert, Olivier; Maltere, Peguy; Gidrol, Xavier

2009-01-01

88

Cicletanine sulfate: inhibition of anion transport systems and natriuretic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with cicletanine, its urinary sulfoconjugate metabolite (cicletanine sulfate) was active on membrane ion transport in human red blood cells. Cicletanine sulfate was a more potent inhibitor of the Na+ dependent [Cl-\\/HC03-] exchanger (IC50 = 9±3 × 10-5 mol\\/l; mean±SD of 4 experiments) than cicletanine (IC50 = 10-3 mol\\/l). This inhibitory potency was intermediate between that of xipamide (IC50

R. P. Garay; C. Rosati; C. Nazaret; A. Esanu; T. Tarrade; P. Braquet

1992-01-01

89

Glufosinate and ammonium sulfate inhibit atrazine degradation in adapted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine cometabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s\\u000a residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate,\\u000a and the combination of glufosinate and ammonium sulfate on atrazine mineralization in a Dundee silt loam exhibiting enhanced\\u000a atrazine degradation. Application of glufosinate at rates

Robert M. Zablotowicz; L. Jason Krutz; Mark A. Weaver; Cesare Accinelli; Krishna N. Reddy

2008-01-01

90

Effect and mechanisms of curdlan sulfate on inhibiting HBV infection and acting as an HB vaccine adjuvant.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect and mechanisms of curdlan sulfate (CS3) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and promoting immune response of the mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) were investigated. The results showed that CS3 could inhibit HBV infection of HepG2 and HepaRG cells, especially the process of HBV particle binding to the cell surfaces. The surface plasmon response (SPR) technology indicated that CS3 could bind with recombinant HBsAg and the binding ability depended on the content of sulfate groups on the polysaccharide chains. Co-administration of CS3 to BALB/c mice immunized with HBsAg significantly enhanced the influx of macrophages and dendritic cells in spleen, increased antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell numbers, and promoted splenocyte proliferation. The titer of HBsAg-specific antibodies was also augmented by use of CS3 as a vaccine adjuvant. The higher expression of interferon (IFN)-?, lower expression of interleukin (IL)-4, and higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratio within the anti-HBsAg antibodies in mice immunized with HBsAg plus CS3 than those in mice receiving HBsAg alone indicated that CS3 induced a shift toward a Th1-biased immune response. These results presented that CS3 could be developed as an immunotherapy agent or vaccine adjuvant for HBV infection treatment or prevention. PMID:24906778

Li, Pingli; Tan, Haining; Xu, Dongqing; Yin, Fengxin; Cheng, Yanna; Zhang, Xinke; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Fengshan

2014-09-22

91

Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

2001-01-01

92

Polysaccharide Isolated from Angelica sinensis Inhibits Hepcidin Expression in Rats with Iron Deficiency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A novel polysaccharide named Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was obtained from the powdered and defatted roots of A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. The molecular weight of ASP was determined to be 78?kDa and was 95.0% sugars consisting of mostly arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1:5.68:3.91. A previous study indicated that ASP may increase plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression in rat models of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and clarify the mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further downregulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5. The results indicate that ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in rats with IDA, and may be useful for the treatment of IDA.

Liu, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Zeng, Fang; Guo, Dan

2012-01-01

93

Polysaccharide isolated from Angelica sinensis inhibits hepcidin expression in rats with iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

A novel polysaccharide named Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was obtained from the powdered and defatted roots of A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. The molecular weight of ASP was determined to be 78?kDa and was 95.0% sugars consisting of mostly arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1:5.68:3.91. A previous study indicated that ASP may increase plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression in rat models of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and clarify the mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further downregulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5. The results indicate that ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in rats with IDA, and may be useful for the treatment of IDA. PMID:22985399

Liu, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Zeng, Fang; Guo, Dan; Wang, Kai-Ping

2012-10-01

94

Inhibition of inflammatory injure by polysaccharides from Bupleurum chinense through antagonizing P-selectin.  

PubMed

P-selectin-mediated adhesion between endothelium and neutrophils is a crucial process leading to acute inflammatory injure. Thus, P-selectin has been considered as promising target for therapeutics of acute inflammatory-related diseases. In the present study, the water-soluble polysaccharides (BCPs) were isolated from Bupleurum chinense, and we evaluated their therapeutical effects on acute inflammatory injure and antagonistic function against P-selectin-mediated neutrophil adhesion. Our results showed that BCPs significantly impaired the leukocyte infiltration and relieve lung injury in LPS-induced acute pneumonia model. BCPs significantly blocked the binding of P-selectin to neutrophils and inhibited P-selectin-mediated neutrophils rolling along CHO-P cell monolayer. The result from in vitro protein binding assay showed a direct evidence indicating that BCPs-treatment significantly eliminated the interaction between rhP-Fc and its physiological ligand PSGL-1 at protein level. Together, these results provide a novel therapeutical strategy for amelioration of inflammation-related disease processes by polysaccharides from B. chinense. PMID:24708947

Tong, Haibin; Tian, Dan; Li, Tianbao; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Guiquan; Sun, Xin

2014-05-25

95

Competitive mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of ferric iron reduction in sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of Fe(III) reduction in sediments were investigated. Addition of amorphic iron(III) oxyhydroxide to sediments in which sulfate reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process inhibited sulfate reduction 86 to 100%. The decrease in electron flow to sulfate reduction was accompanied by a corresponding increase in electron flow to

D. R. Lovley; E. J. P. Phillips

1987-01-01

96

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNase H by sulfated polyanions.  

PubMed Central

The reverse transcriptase (RT) activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other retroviruses is closely associated with a hybrid-degrading RNase H activity which is essential for retroviral replication. We have analyzed the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant RT and RNase H activities in vitro. Heparin, dextran sulfates, and xylan polysulfate were found to be much more potent inhibitors of RNase H than of RT and exhibit 50% infective doses of 0.04 to 0.1 micrograms/ml (corresponding to 0.1 to 25 nM) which is up to 5,000-fold more efficient than that for RT. Inhibitors of RNase H activity are attractive as antiviral drugs.

Moelling, K; Schulze, T; Diringer, H

1989-01-01

97

Aqueous Garlic Extract Inhibits Protamine Sulfate-Induced Bladder Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This morphological and biochemical study aims to investigate the antioxidant effects of chronic administration of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) on protamine sulfate (PS)-induced bladder injury. Wistar albino female rats were catheterized and intravesically infused with phosphate-buffered solution (control group) or PS (PS group) dissolved in phosphate-buffered solution. In the PS + AGE group after the PS instillation, AGE (1 ml\\/kg,

Ali Zeybek; Esra Çikler; Feriha Ercan

2006-01-01

98

Sulfated polyanions inhibit invasion of erythrocytes by plasmodial merozoites and cytoadherence of endothelial cells to parasitized erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Sulfated proteoglycans have been shown to be involved in the binding of sporozoites of malaria parasites to hepatocytes. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of sulfated glycosaminoglycans on the invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes (PRBC) to endothelial cells. Invasion of erythrocytes by HB3EC-6 (an HB3 line selected for high binding to endothelial cells) was inhibited by dextran sulfate 500K, dextran sulfate 5K, sulfatides, fucoidan, and heparin but not by chondroitin sulfate A. With the exception of sulfatides, the invasion-inhibitory effect was not mediated by killing of parasites. Cytoadherence of HB3EC-6 to human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and inhibited by these sulfated glycoconjugates. The highly sulfated dextran sulfate 500K had the highest inhibitory effect on both invasion and cytoadherence, whereas the positively charged protamine sulfate promoted cytoadherence. Because preincubation of PRBC with sulfated glycosaminoglycans and treatment of target cells with heparinase had no significant inhibition on cytoadherence, it is unlikely that sulfated glycoconjugates are used directly by endothelial cells as cytoadhesion receptors. In an vivo experiment, we found that the administration of dextran sulfate 500K to CBA/Ca mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA reduced parasitemia and delayed the death associated with anemia. These observations suggest that sulfated polyanions inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites and cytoadherence of PRBC to endothelial cells by increasing negative repulsive charge and sterically interfering with the ligand-receptor interaction after binding to target cells.

Xiao, L; Yang, C; Patterson, P S; Udhayakumar, V; Lal, A A

1996-01-01

99

Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds  

PubMed Central

Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1?3)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1?6)-?-d-galacto- and/or (1?2)-?-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups.

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, J?rn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

100

Antibiofilm polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides have been shown to mediate many of the cell-to cell and cell-to-surface interactions that are required for the formation, cohesion and stabilization of bacterial biofilms. However, recent studies have identified several bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit biofilm formation by a wide-spectrum of bacteria and fungi both in vitro and in vivo. This review discusses the composition, modes of action, and potential biological roles of antibiofilm polysaccharides recently identified in bacteria and eukaria. Some of these molecules may have technological applications as antibiofilm agents in industry and medicine.

Rendueles, Olaya; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

101

Inhibition of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and glyceryl trinitrate biotransformation by diphenyleneiodonium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium sulfate (DPI) irreversibly inhibited the metabolic activation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in isolated aorta, possibly through inhibition of vascular NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). We report that the content of CPR represents 0.03 to 0.1% of aortic microsomal protein and that DPI caused a concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of purified cDNA-expressed rat liver

John J. McGuire; Diane J. Anderson; Bernard J. McDonald; Ramani Narayanasami; Brian M. Bennett

1998-01-01

102

2-Bromoethanesulfonate, Sulfate, Molybdate, and Ethanesulfonate Inhibit Anaerobic Dechlorination of Polychlorobiphenyls by Pasteurized Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by pasteurized microorganisms was inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), sulfate, molybdate, and ethanesulfonate. Consumption of these anions and production of sulfide from BES were detected. The inhibition could not be relieved by hydrogen. Taken together these results suggest that pattern M dechlorination is mediated by spore-forming sulfidogenic bacteria. These results also suggest that BES may inhibit anaerobic dechlorination by nonmethanogens by more than one mechanism.

Ye, Dingyi; Quensen, John F.; Tiedje, James M.; Boyd, Stephen A.

1999-01-01

103

Sulfated cyclodextrins inhibit the entry of Plasmodium into red blood cells. Implications for malarial therapy.  

PubMed

The effect of sulfated cyclodextrins on Plasmodium falciparum cultures was determined. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Cyclodextrins having equal degrees of sulfation inhibited parasite viability to a similar degree, a result suggesting that the ring size of the cyclodextrin is not a critical factor for inhibitory activity. beta-Cyclodextrins containing fewer than two sulfate groups had no inhibitory activity, however, compounds containing 7-17 sulfates were found to be active in the microM range. Examination of treated cultures indicated that intracellular forms of the parasite were unaffected; however, increased numbers of extracellular merozoites were present. Active compounds produced enhanced erythrocyte staining with cationic dyes that could be reduced by stilbene disulfonates, a result suggesting that sulfated cyclodextrins inhibit parasite growth by interacting with the anion transport protein, AE1. Compounds that were found to be active in P. falciparum cultures were also found to inhibit P. berghei merozoite entry and could reduce the parasitemia of P. berghei infection in a mouse model, results suggesting that these compounds inhibit a common step in the merozoite invasion process of at least two Plasmodium species. PMID:17166484

Crandall, Ian E; Szarek, Walter A; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Xu, Yiming; Vohra, Rahul; Sui, Jie; Kisilevsky, Robert

2007-03-01

104

Mechanisms of heparanase inhibition by the heparan sulfate mimetic PG545 and three structural analogues?  

PubMed Central

The tetrasaccharide heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic PG545, a clinical anti-cancer candidate, is an inhibitor of the HS-degrading enzyme heparanase. The kinetics of heparanase inhibition by PG545 and three structural analogues were investigated to understand their modes of inhibition. The cholestanol aglycon of PG545 significantly increased affinity for heparanase and also modified the inhibition mode. For the tetrasaccharides, competitive inhibition was modified to parabolic competition by the addition of the cholestanol aglycon. For the trisaccharides, partial competitive inhibition was modified to parabolic competition. A schematic model to explain these findings is presented.

Hammond, Edward; Handley, Paul; Dredge, Keith; Bytheway, Ian

2013-01-01

105

Competitive mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of ferric iron reduction in sediments  

SciTech Connect

Mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of Fe(III) reduction in sediments were investigated. Addition of amorphic iron(III) oxyhydroxide to sediments in which sulfate reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process inhibited sulfate reduction 86 to 100%. The decrease in electron flow to sulfate reduction was accompanied by a corresponding increase in electron flow to Fe(III) reduction. In a similar manner, Fe(III) additions also inhibited methane production in sulfate-depleted sediments. The inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production was the result of substrate limitation, because the sediments retained the potential for sulfate reduction and methane production in the presence of excess hydrogen and acetate. Sediments in which Fe(III) reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process had much lower concentrations of hydrogen and acetate than sediments in which sulfate reduction or methane production was the predominant terminal process. The low concentrations of hydrogen and acetate in the Fe(III)-reducing sediments were the result of metabolism by Fe(III)-reducing organisms of hydrogen and acetate at concentrations lower than sulfate reducers or methanogens could metabolize them. The results indicate that when Fe(III) is in a form that Fe(III)-reducing organisms can readily reduce, Fe(III)-reducing organisms can inhibit sulfate reduction and methane production by outcompeting sulfate reducers and methanogens for electron donors.

Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

1987-11-01

106

VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS  

EPA Science Inventory

VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina V...

107

Mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium sulfate inhibit mycotoxigenic fungi.  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate inhibits mycotoxigenic fungi. Elevated extracellular pH, alone, was not responsible for the antifungal activity. Although conidia of Penicillium griseofulvum and Fusarium graminearum had internal pH (pHi) values as high as 8.0 in buffer at an external pH (pHo) of 9.5, their viability was not markedly affected. The pHi values from conidia equilibrated in glycine-NaOH-buffered treatments without ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate were similar to values obtained from buffered treatments containing the ammonium salts. Thus, inhibition did not appear to be directly related to increased pHi. Ammonium sulfate in buffered media at pH greater than or equal to 8.7 was as inhibitory as ammonium bicarbonate, but was completely ineffective at pH less than or equal to 7.8. The hypothesis that free ammonia caused the fungal inhibition was tested by using ammonium sulfate as a model for ammonium bicarbonate. Viability, expressed as log CFU/ml, and percent germination of P. griseofulvum and F. graminearum decreased dramatically as the free ammonia concentration increased. Germination rate ratios (the germination rate in buffered ammonium sulfate divided by the germination rate in buffer alone) decreased linearly as the free ammonia concentration increased, further establishing NH3 as the toxic agent. Ammonium bicarbonate inhibits fungi because the bicarbonate anion supplies the alkalinity necessary to establish an antifungal concentration of free ammonia.

DePasquale, D A; Montville, T J

1990-01-01

108

Ctr2 Links Copper Homeostasis to Polysaccharide Capsule Formation and Phagocytosis Inhibition in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a human opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for ?1/3 of HIV/AIDS deaths worldwide. This budding yeast expresses a polysaccharide capsule necessary for virulence. Capsule production inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Here we describe results that link copper homeostasis to capsule production and the inhibition of phagocytosis. Specifically, using Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis, we identified an insertion in the promoter region of the putative copper transporter-encoding gene CTR2 that results in reduced expression of CTR2 and increased phagocytosis by murine RAW264.7 macrophages. The mutant also displayed sensitivity to copper starvation and defects in polysaccharide capsule production and melanization. These defects were all reversed by genetic correction of the promoter insertion by homologous targeting. Several melanization-defective mutants identified previously, those in the RIM20, RIM101, and VPS25 genes, also display sensitivity to copper starvation, reduced capsule production and increased phagocytosis. Together these results indicate a previously undescribed link between copper homeostasis to polysaccharide capsule production and phagocytosis inhibition in Cryptococcus neoformans.

Chun, Cheryl D.; Madhani, Hiten D.

2010-01-01

109

SGP-2, an acidic polysaccharide from Sarcandra glabra, inhibits proliferation and migration of human osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

An acidic polysaccharide (SGP-2), with a molecular weight of 1880 kDa, was purified from the defatted whole-plant of Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai. SGP-2 is mainly composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 12.19 : 8.68 : 6.03 : 1.00 : 15.24. The primary structure analysis reveals that SGP-2 consists of 1,4-linked ?-D-galacturonic acid, methyl-esterified 1,4-linked ?-D-galacturonic acid, 1,5-linked ?-L-arabinose, 1,4-linked ?-D-mannose, 1,6-linked ?-D-glucose and 1,3-linked ?-D-galactose with branch chains of 1,4,6-linked ?-D-glucose, 1,3,6-linked ?-D-mannose and 1,4,6-linked ?-D-galactose. The results of a cell viability assay and colony formation assay indicate that SGP-2 has a potent anti-proliferation activity on human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. SGP-2 increases the proportion of apoptotic cells and activates caspase-3. In addition, the anti-proliferation effect induced by SGP-2 is blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor. Moreover, SGP-2 inhibits the migratory capacity of MG-63 cells accompanied with the inhibition of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). Taken together, these results suggest that SGP-2 has anti-cancer potential in the treatment of human osteosarcoma. PMID:24336744

Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Jin, Lei; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

2014-01-01

110

Synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals carrying tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands and inhibition of alphavirus infection.  

PubMed

We present two facile approaches for introducing multivalent displays of tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands on the surface of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for application as viral inhibitors. We tested the efficacy of cellulose nanocrystals, prepared either from cotton fibers or Whatman filter paper, to inhibit alphavirus infectivity in Vero (B) cells. Cellulose nanocrystals were produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis leading to nanocrystal surfaces decorated with anionic sulfate groups. When the fluorescent marker expressing Semliki Forest virus vector, VA7-EGFP, was incubated with CNCs, strong inhibition of virus infectivity was achieved, up to 100 and 88% for cotton and Whatman CNCs, respectively. When surface sulfate groups of CNCs were exchanged for tyrosine sulfate mimetic groups (i.e. phenyl sulfonates), improved viral inhibition was attained. Our observations suggest that the conjugation of target-specific functionalities to CNC surfaces provides a means to control their antiviral activity. Multivalent CNCs did not cause observable in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero (B) cells or human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells, even within the 100% virus-inhibitory concentrations. Based on the similar chemistry of known polyanionic inhibitors, our results suggest the potential application of CNCs as inhibitors of other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex viruses. PMID:24628489

Zoppe, Justin O; Ruottinen, Ville; Ruotsalainen, Janne; Rönkkö, Seppo; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Hinkkanen, Ari; Järvinen, Kristiina; Seppälä, Jukka

2014-04-14

111

Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found

Yu-Peng Hu; Shu-Yi Lin; Cheng-Yen Huang; Medel Manuel L. Zulueta; Jing-Yuan Liu; Wen Chang; Shang-Cheng Hung

2011-01-01

112

Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury. PMID:24667694

Prinz, Robert D; Willis, Catherine M; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Klüppel, Michael

2014-01-01

113

Sequence determination of a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide from melanin-free ink of the squid Ommastrephes bartrami by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A non-sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the ink sac of squid Ommastrephes bartrami after removal of the melanin granules. The carbohydrate sequence of this polysaccharide was assigned by negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation of the oligosaccharide fractions produced by partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharide. The structural determination was completed by NMR for assignment of anomeric configuration and confirmation of linkage information and it was unambiguously identified as a glycosaminoglycan-like polysaccharide containing a glucuronic acid-fucose (GlcA-Fuc) disaccharide repeat in the main chain and a N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) branch at Fuc position 3: -[3GlcAbeta1-4(GalNAcalpha1-3)Fucalpha1](n)-. Partial hydrolysis of the polysaccharide to obtain several oligosaccharide fractions with different numbers of the repeating unit assisted the assignment. In the negative-ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis, the unique (0,2)A type fragmentation was important to establish the presence of a 4-linked fucose in the main polysaccharide chain and a GalNAc branch at the Fuc position-3 of the disaccharide repeat. PMID:18219573

Chen, Shiguo; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Dong, Ping; Sheng, Wenjing; Yu, Guangli; Chai, Wengang

2008-07-01

114

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms by expressing the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and bactenecin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  To identify novel, less-toxic compounds capable of inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in suspension cultures were exposed to several antimicrobial peptides. The bacterial peptide antimicrobials gramicidin S,\\u000a gramicidin D, and polymyxin B as well as the cationic peptides indolicidin and bactenecin from bovine neutrophils decreased\\u000a the viability of both SRB by 90% after a 1-h exposure

A Jayaraman; F B Mansfeld; T K Wood

1999-01-01

115

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on steel with antimicrobial peptides generated in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

In batch and continuous fermentations, the reduction in corrosion of SAE 1018 mild steel and 304 stainless steel caused by\\u000a inhibition of the reference sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris by a protective, antimicrobial-producing Bacillus brevis biofilm was investigated. The presence of D. vulgaris produced a thick black precipitate on mild steel and a higher corrosion rate in batch cultures than

A. Jayaraman; P. J. Hallock; R. M. Carson; C.-C. Lee; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

1999-01-01

116

[Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].  

PubMed

Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz. PMID:24720230

Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Tong

2014-01-01

117

The Escherichia coli CysZ is a pH dependent sulfate transporter that can be inhibited by sulfite.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli inner membrane protein CysZ mediates the sulfate uptake subsequently utilized for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds in cells. Here we report the purification and functional characterization of CysZ. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, we have observed interactions between CysZ and its putative substrate sulfate. Additional sulfur-containing compounds from the cysteine synthesis pathway have also been analyzed for their abilities to interact with CysZ. Our results suggest that CysZ is dedicated to a specific pathway that assimilates sulfate for the synthesis of cysteine. Sulfate uptake via CysZ into E. coli whole cells and proteoliposome offers direct evidence of CysZ being able to mediate sulfate uptake. In addition, the cysteine synthesis pathway intermediate sulfite can interact directly with CysZ with higher affinity than sulfate. The sulfate transport activity is inhibited in the presence of sulfite, suggesting the existence of a feedback inhibition mechanism in which sulfite regulates sulfate uptake by CysZ. Sulfate uptake assays performed at different extracellular pH and in the presence of a proton uncoupler indicate that this uptake is driven by the proton gradient. PMID:24657232

Zhang, Li; Jiang, Wangshu; Nan, Jie; Almqvist, Jonas; Huang, Yafei

2014-07-01

118

Direct inhibition of the transforming growth factor-? pathway by protein-bound polysaccharide through inactivation of Smad2 signaling.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Inhibition of the TGF-? pathway is an attractive strategy for the treatment of cancer. We recently screened for novel TGF-? inhibitors among commercially available drugs and identified protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) as a strong inhibitor of the TGF-?-induced reporter activity of 3TP-lux, a TGF-?1-responsive luciferase reporter. Protein-bound polysaccharide is used as a non-specific immunostimulant for the treatment of gastric and colorectal cancers in Japan. The anticancer activity of this agent may involve direct regulation of growth factor production and enzyme activity in tumors in addition to its immunomodulatory effect. Although several clinical studies have shown the beneficial therapeutic effects of PSK on various types of tumors, its mechanism of action is not clear. In the present study, Western blot analysis showed that PSK suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the Smad2 protein, thereby suggesting that PSK inhibits the Smad and MAPK pathways. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that PSK decreased the expression of several TGF-? pathway target genes. E-cadherin and vimentin immunohistochemistry showed that PSK suppressed TGF-?1-induced EMT, and FACS analysis showed that PSK inhibited the EMT-mediated generation of CD44(+) /CD24(-) cells. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms mediating the TGF-?-inhibiting activity of PSK and suggest that PSK can effectively treat diseases associated with TGF-? signaling. PMID:22034928

Ono, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Tetsu; Konagai, Ayano; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Miyao, Kazuhiro; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Tanabe, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitajima, Masaki; Kitagawa, Yuko

2012-02-01

119

Multiple carbohydrate receptors on lymphocytes revealed by adhesion to immobilized polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphomannan polysaccharides and fucoidan, a polymer of fucose 4-sulfate, have been demonstrated to inhibit adhesion of lymphocytes to tis- sue sections that contain high endothelial venules (Stoolman, L. M., T. S. Tenforde, and S. D. Rosen, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1535-1540). We have inves- tigated the potential cell surface carbohydrate receptors involved by quantitating adhesion of rat cervical lymph node

Brian K. Brandley; Theodora S. Ross; Ronald L. Schnaar

1987-01-01

120

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

1984-07-01

121

Sulfated hexasaccharides attenuate metastasis by inhibition of P-selectin and heparanase.  

PubMed

Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs) endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation. PMID:21532885

Borsig, Lubor; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

2011-05-01

122

Sulfated Hexasaccharides Attenuate Metastasis by Inhibition of P-selectin and Heparanase1  

PubMed Central

Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs) endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation.

Borsig, Lubor; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

2011-01-01

123

Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Levels of Sulfated Progesterone Metabolites Inhibit Farnesoid X Receptor Resulting in a Cholestatic Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3?-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here we report that the 3?-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate is supraphysiologically raised in the serum of ICP patients. Mice challenged with cholic acid developed hypercholanemia and a hepatic gene expression profile indicative of FXR activation. However, coadministration of epiallopregnanolone sulfate with cholic acid exacerbated the hypercholanemia and resulted in aberrant gene expression profiles for hepatic bile acid-responsive genes consistent with cholestasis. We demonstrate that levels of epiallopregnanolone sulfate found in ICP can function as a partial agonist for FXR, resulting in the aberrant expression of bile acid homeostasis genes in hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, epiallopregnanolone sulfate inhibition of FXR results in reduced FXR-mediated bile acid efflux and secreted FGF19. Using cofactor recruitment assays, we show that epiallopregnanolone sulfate competitively inhibits bile acid-mediated recruitment of cofactor motifs to the FXR-ligand binding domain. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel molecular interaction between ICP-associated levels of the 3?-sulfated progesterone metabolite epiallopregnanolone sulfate and FXR that couples the endocrine component of pregnancy in ICP to abnormal bile acid homeostasis. (Hepatology 2013;)

Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lovgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G; Williamson, Catherine

2013-01-01

124

Polysaccharide Isolated from Zizyphus jujuba (?? H?ng Z?o) Inhibits Interleukin-2 Production in Jurkat T Cells  

PubMed Central

Zizyphus jujuba (?? Hóng Z?o), a traditional Chinese herb widely used in many Asian countries, has been shown to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of deproteinated polysaccharide (DP) isolated from Z. jujuba. The DP isolated from Z. jujuba consisted of two polysaccharide fractions and their molecular weights (MWs) were found to be 143,108 and 67,633 Da, respectively. The DP could significantly decrease interleukin (IL)-2 production in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner after 48 h of incubation, with the inhibition being 47.5%, 61.2%, and 81.7% for DP concentrations of 0.75, 1.75, and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. Thus, our study showed that DP isolated from Z. jujuba may possess anti-inflammatory activity as it could significantly reduce IL-2 production in activated Jurkat T cells.

Hsu, Bo-Yang; Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Chen, Bing-Huei

2014-01-01

125

Berberine Sulfate Inhibits Tumor-Promoting Activity of Teleocidin in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis on Mouse Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine sulfate, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Hydrastis canadensis L., inhibited the effects of the tumor promoters 12–O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and teleocidin, such as increased 32Pi-incorporation into phospholipids of cell membrane and hexose transport. Berberine sulfate also markedly suppressed the promoting effect of teleocidin on skin tumor formation in mice initiated with 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene.Copyright © 1986 S. Karger AG, Basel

H. Nishino; K. Kitagawa; H. Fujiki; A. Iwashima

1986-01-01

126

Specific sulfation and glycosylation--a structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates  

PubMed Central

Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in ?-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in ?-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs.

Pomin, Vitor H.; Mourao, Paulo A. S.

2014-01-01

127

Cyclic di-GMP inhibits Vibrio cholerae motility by repressing induction of transcription and inducing extracellular polysaccharide production.  

PubMed

Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls the transition between sessility and motility in many bacterial species. This regulation is achieved by a variety of mechanisms including alteration of transcription initiation and inhibition of flagellar function. How c-di-GMP inhibits the motility of Vibrio cholerae has not been determined.?FlrA, a homologue of the c-di-GMP binding Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility regulator FleQ, is the master regulator of the V.?cholerae flagellar biosynthesis regulon. Here we show that binding of c-di-GMP to FlrA abrogates binding of FlrA to the promoter of the flrBC operon, deactivating expression of the flagellar biosynthesis regulon. FlrA does not regulate expression of extracellular Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) synthesis genes. Mutation of the FlrA amino acids R135 and R176 to histidine abrogates binding of c-di-GMP to FlrA, rendering FlrA active in the presence of high levels of c-di-GMP. Surprisingly, c-di-GMP still inhibited the motility of V.?cholerae only expressing the c-di-GMP blind FlrA(R176H) mutant. We determined that this flagellar transcription-independent inhibition is due to activation of VPS production by c-di-GMP. Therefore, c-di-GMP prevents motility of V.?cholerae by two distinct but functionally redundant mechanisms. PMID:24134710

Srivastava, Disha; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Khataokar, Atul; Neiditch, Matthew B; Waters, Christopher M

2013-12-01

128

Inhibition of UV-induced immune suppression and interleukin-10 production by plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Application of Aloe barbadensis poly/oligosaccharides to UV-irradiated skin prevents photosuppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in mice. We tested the hypothesis that these carbohydrates belong to a family of biologically active, plant-derived polysaccharides that can regulate responses to injury in animal tissues. C3H mice were exposed to 5 kJ/m2 UVB from unfiltered FS40 sunlamps and treated with between 1 pg and 10 micrograms tamarind xyloglucans or control polysaccharides methylcellulose or dextran in saline. The mice were sensitized 3 days later with Candida albicans. Tamarind xyloglucans and purified Aloe poly/oligosaccharides prevented suppression of DTH responses in vivo and reduced the amount of interleukin (IL)-10 observed in UV-irradiated murine epidermis. Tamarind xyloglucans were immunoprotective at low picogram doses. In contrast, the control polysaccharides methylcellulose and dextran had no effect on immune suppression or cutaneous IL-10 at any dose. Tamarind xyloglucans and Aloe poly/oligosaccharides also prevented suppression of immune responses to alloantigen in mice exposed to 30 kJ/m2 UVB radiation. To assess the effect of the carbohydrates on keratinocytes, murine Pam212 cells were exposed to 300 J/m2 UVB radiation and treated for 1 h with tamarind xyloglucans or Aloe poly/oligosaccharides. Treatment of keratinocytes with immunoprotective carbohydrates reduced IL-10 production by approximately 50% compared with the cells treated with UV radiation alone and completely blocked suppressive activity of the culture supernatants in vivo. The tamarind xyloglucans also blocked UV-activated phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK protein but had no effect on p38 phosphorylation. These results indicate that animals, like plants, may use carbohydrates to regulate responses to environmental stimuli. PMID:10048309

Strickland, F M; Darvill, A; Albersheim, P; Eberhard, S; Pauly, M; Pelley, R P

1999-02-01

129

Physicochemical properties and inhibition effect on iron deficiency anemia of a novel polysaccharide-iron complex (LPPC).  

PubMed

Porphyran (P) was extracted from red algae Porphyra by boiling water. A novel polysaccharide-iron complex (LPPC) was prepared under the alkaline condition by adding a ferric chloride solution to the low molecular weight porphyran (LP) solution. Physicochemical properties and inhibition effect on iron deficiency anemia of this complex were studied. The content of iron(III) in the complex is 21.57% determined with iodometry. The results indicate that LPPC was product required. The complex can increase red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), Serum iron (SI), spleen index, spleen mass and mass of mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Although the structure and deeper mechanisms on hemolytic anemia of LPPC should be further studied, LPPC is hoped to be developed as a late-model iron supplement which has a synergism on anemia. PMID:22153938

Zhang, Zhong-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Han, Zhi-Ping; Yin, Li; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Yu, Shu-Chi

2012-01-01

130

Cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol sulfotransferase inhibit gluconeogenesis by targeting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?.  

PubMed

Sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated sulfation represents a critical mechanism in regulating the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1b catalyzes the sulfoconjugation of cholesterol to synthesize cholesterol sulfate (CS). In this study, we showed that the expression of SULT2B1b in the liver was induced in obese mice and during the transition from the fasted to the fed state, suggesting that the regulation of SULT2B1b is physiologically relevant. CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by targeting the gluconeogenic factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) in both cell cultures and transgenic mice. Treatment of mice with CS or transgenic overexpression of the CS-generating enzyme SULT2B1b in the liver inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and alleviated metabolic abnormalities both in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. Mechanistically, CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by suppressing the expression of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acss), leading to decreased acetylation and nuclear exclusion of HNF4?. Our results also suggested that leptin is a potential effector of SULT2B1b in improving metabolic function. We conclude that SULT2B1b and its enzymatic by-product CS are important metabolic regulators that control glucose metabolism, suggesting CS as a potential therapeutic agent and SULT2B1b as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. PMID:24277929

Shi, Xiongjie; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xu, Leyuan; Yan, Jiong; Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Xu, Meishu; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Sipula, Ian; O'Doherty, Robert Martin; Ren, Shunlin; Xie, Wen

2014-02-01

131

Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.  

PubMed

Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin, TGF-?1, TGF-?1 receptor (T?R)-I, T?R-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression. PMID:23918878

Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

2013-06-01

132

EDTA Inhibits Biofilm Formation, Extracellular Vesicular Secretion, and Shedding of the Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan by Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can grow as a biofilm on a range of synthetic and prosthetic materials. Cryptococcal biofilm formation can complicate the placement of shunts used to relieve increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis and can serve as a nidus for chronic infection. Biofilms are generally advantageous to pathogens in vivo, as they can confer resistance to antimicrobial compounds, including fluconazole and voriconazole in the case of C. neoformans. EDTA can inhibit biofilm formation by several microbes and enhances the susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sublethal concentrations of EDTA on the growth of cryptococcal biofilms. EDTA inhibited biofilm growth by C. neoformans, and the inhibition could be reversed by the addition of magnesium or calcium, implying that the inhibitory effect was by divalent cation starvation. EDTA also reduced the amount of the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan shed into the biofilm matrix and decreased vesicular secretion from the cell, thus providing a potential mechanism for the inhibitory effect of this cation-chelating compound. Our data imply that the growth of C. neoformans biofilms requires the presence of divalent metals in the growth medium and suggest that cations are required for the export of materials needed for biofilm formation, possibly including extracellular vesicles.

Robertson, Emma J.; Wolf, Julie M.

2012-01-01

133

A New Role for RPTP{sigma} in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Inhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and regeneration. In the adult nervous system, CSPGs are enriched in perineuronal nets, and their abundance is increased in reactive astrocytes following injury to brain or spinal cord. Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) enhances experience-dependent neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex and results in substantially improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the positive effects of ChaseABC treatment on neuronal plasticity have been known for some time, the underlying mechanisms remained enigmatic. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) has now been identified as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs. Similarly to ChaseABC treatment, functional ablation of Ptprs, the gene encoding RPTPσ, promotes neurite outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs in vitro and enhances axonal growth into CSPG-rich scar tissue following SCI in vivo. The discovery of neuronal RPTPσ as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs not only provides important mechanistic clues about CSPG function, but also identifies a potential new target for enhancing axonal growth and plasticity after nervous system injury.

Yuntao Duan (University of Michigan School of Medicine;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV); Roman J. Giger (University of Michigan School of Medicine;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV)

2010-02-23

134

Heavy metals mercury, cadmium, and chromium inhibit the activity of the mammalian liver and kidney sulfate transporter sat-1.  

PubMed

Heavy metal intoxication leads to defects in cellular uptake mechanisms in the mammalian liver and kidney. We have studied the effects of several heavy metals, including mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium (at concentrations of 1 to 1000 microM), on the activity of the mammalian sulfate transporter sat-1(2) in Xenopus oocytes. sat-1 encodes a sulfate/bicarbonate anion exchanger expressed in the rat liver and kidney. Mercury (10 microM) strongly inhibited sat-1 transport by reducing Vmax by eightfold but not its Km for inorganic sulfate (Si). Lead (up to 1 mM) was unable to significantly inhibit sat-1 transporter activity. Cadmium (500 microM) showed weak inhibition of sat-1 transport by decreasing only sat-1 Vmax. Chromium (100 microM) strongly inhibited sat-1 transport by reducing Km for Si by sevenfold, most probably by binding to the Si site, due to the strong structural similarity between the CrO2-4 and SO2-4 substrates. This study presents the first characterization of heavy metal inhibition of the hepatic and renal sulfate/bicarbonate transporter sat-1, through various mechanisms, which may lead to sulfaturia following heavy metal intoxication. PMID:9925802

Markovich, D; James, K M

1999-01-15

135

Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit model cytochrome P450 enzyme probe substrates metabolism in human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited rat CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation and in human CYP2C9. In this study, the effects of the water extractable fraction of PSP on the metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates were investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. PSP (1.25-20?M) dose-dependently decreased CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of phenacetin to paracetamol (IC(50) 19.7?M) and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone (IC(20) 7.06?M). Enzyme kinetics studies showed the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity was competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=18.4?M). Inhibition of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone was also competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=31.8?M). Metabolism of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6-mediated) and chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1-mediated) was only minimally inhibited by PSP, with IC(20) values at 15.6?M and 11.9?M, respectively. This study demonstrated that PSP competitively inhibited the CYP1A2- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of model probe substrates in human liver microsomes in vitro. The relatively high K(i) values for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction related to these CYP isoforms. PMID:22305191

Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

2012-03-15

136

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 ?M regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

2013-01-01

137

Inhibition of catalytic activities of botulinum neurotoxin light chains of serotypes A, B and E by acetate, sulfate and calcium  

PubMed Central

The catalytic domain, known as light chain (Lc), of the most poisonous botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), possesses endoprotease activity that triggers the ultimate poisonous effect to animals and humans. X-ray crystallographic structure of Lc of several BoNT serotypes has identified at least four small ligands at or near the respective active sites. They are sulfate ions in LcA, LcB, and LcE; an acetate ion in LcA; a calcium ion in LcB; and a potassium ion in LcD. Roles of these ligands on the structure and function of the proteins are not known. We have investigated the roles of sulfate, acetate, and calcium on the catalytic activities of LcA, LcB, and LcE using 17-35-residue synthetic peptide substrates. All three ligands inhibited all Lc activities. For LcA and LcB, the order of inhibition effectiveness was calcium>sulfate>acetate. The inhibition effectiveness expressed as IC50, did not correlate with the occurrence or proximity of the ions to the active site. Moreover, addition of acetate or sulfate to LcA did not affect the near-UV circular dichroism spectra, tryptophan, and tyrosine fluorescence spectra, and mid points of thermal denaturation of LcA. Our results suggest that acetate, sulfate, and calcium nonspecifically interact with BoNT Lc, and their occurrence in the crystal structures could have been due to opportunistic binding to complementary pockets.

Mizanur, Rahman M; Gorbet, John; Swaminathan, S; Ahmed, S Ashraf

2012-01-01

138

Tremella Polysaccharides attenuated sepsis through inhibiting abnormal CD4?CD25(high) regulatory T cells in mice.  

PubMed

Tremella Polysaccharides (TPS) have been reported to play an important role in regulating immune responses. Tregs are widely identified as the critical reason for immune dysfunction during sepsis. However, whether TPS could influence the immunomodulatory activities of Tregs in post-burn sepsis mice remains unclear. In this experiment, we researched the effects of TPS on peripheral blood Tregs in sepsis mouse induced by burn plus Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Results showed that TPS reversed the influences of Tregs on CD4?T cells proliferation and polarization and declined the level of IL-10 in burn plus P. aeruginosa infection mice. In addition, TPS notably reduced the mortality of post-burn sepsis mice. Therefore, TPS could inhibit the abnormal activities of CD4?CD25(high) Tregs in burn with P. aeruginosa infection mice, at least in part via inhibiting IL-10 secretion, and trigger a shift of Th2 to Th1 with activation of CD4?T cells in burn with P. aeruginosa infection mice. PMID:24662726

Shi, Zhen-wei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Yan; Hong, Yu-rong; Liu, Qi; Li, Xiao-lu; Wang, Zhi-gang

2014-01-01

139

Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of promyelomonocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.  

PubMed

Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is clinically used in combination therapy for gastrointestinal cancer and small cell lung carcinoma. PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated, by modulating host immune systems, such as the activation of immune effector cells and the neutralization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. Direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation has been reported as another mechanism, but how PSK induces such an effect remains to be elucidated. Here, the anti-proliferative activity of PSK was examined using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to clarify the mechanism of anti-proliferative activity. Caspase-3 activation followed by apoptosis are involved at least in part in the PSK-induced anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells. PMID:21868514

Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujioka, Masaki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Sekine, Fujio; Wada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Tsuneo

2011-09-01

140

Axonal Regeneration through Regions of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Deposition after Spinal Cord Injury: A Balance of Permissiveness and Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased expression of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules after CNS injury is believed to restrict axonal regeneration. The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are one such class of ECM molecules that inhibit neurite outgrowth in vitro and are upregu- lated after CNS injury. We examined growth responses of several classes of axons to this inhibitory environment in the presence of a

Leonard L. Jones; Dana Sajed; Mark H. Tuszynski

2003-01-01

141

A polysaccharide from Agaricus blazei inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Many reports have proved that traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM) have become popular used in disease prevention and as alternatives to cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we purified a polysaccharide (ABP-Ia) from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei and identified its molecular weight to be 4.2×10(5)Da. ABP-Ia was a heteropolysaccharide fraction consisting of glucose, mannose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:1:1, along with trace of rhamnose. The effect of ABP-Ia at three concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 ?g/mL on the cell growth and apoptosis was evaluated in osteosarcoma cell lines HOS and a normal human osteoblast cell line NHOst. ABP-Ia had a significant inhibitory effect against the growth of HOS cells, whereas a mild cytotoxicity to the HOS cells mediated by ABP-Ia was observed, which was in accordance with the results that ABP-Ia substantially induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion in the HOS cells. However ABP-Ia had no or minor inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on the viability of NHOst cells even at the high concentration of 400 ?g/mL. Base on all the observations, we could conclude that ABP-Ia had an evident inhibitory effect on the growth of HOS cells mainly through induction of apoptosis, with a minor toxicity to normal human osteoblast cell. PMID:22390851

Wu, Bei; Cui, Juncheng; Zhang, Chaogui; Li, Zhihong

2012-05-01

142

Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5: CO2 inhibition in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5 (CP5) expression was investigated in lung tissue and nasal polyps of two cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, in rats, and in vitro using ELISA and IFA. In CF tissues, S. aureus expressed protein A and teichoic acid but only 1%-5% of cells expressed CP5. When rats were challenged with CP5-positive S. aureus in the granuloma pouch model, only 1%-5% of CP5-positive cells were detectable in pouch exudates. CF and pouch isolates, however, reexpressed CP5 (70%-90% of cells) when grown in vitro with air. Addition of > or = 1% CO2 to air or to O2/N2 gas mixtures reduced CP5 expression significantly (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner (6%-1% CP5-positive cells). The results show that S. aureus does not produce CP5 in CF airways and in rat granuloma pouches and that CO2 is an environmental signal that regulates CP5 expression. PMID:9237709

Herbert, S; Worlitzsch, D; Dassy, B; Boutonnier, A; Fournier, J M; Bellon, G; Dalhoff, A; Döring, G

1997-08-01

143

A Purified Capsular Polysaccharide Markedly Inhibits Inflammatory Response during Endotoxic Shock  

PubMed Central

Capsular material of the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is composed mainly of a polysaccharide named glucuronoxylomannan (GXM). In this study, the effects of GXM were analyzed in an in vivo experimental system of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock. Endotoxic shock was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS from Escherichia coli. GXM treatment reduced the mortality of mice at early stages. Mice treated with LPS alone showed markedly increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6, whereas mice that were also treated with GXM showed significantly lower plasma levels of these cytokines. This effect was related to a marked suppression of Akt and I?B? activation. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of GXM on proinflammatory cytokine secretion was reproduced by treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of the Akt transcription pathway. Our results indicate that GXM has a beneficial effect on endotoxic shock, resulting in a significant increase in the rate of survival by dampening the hyperinflammatory response.

Piccioni, M.; Monari, C.; Kenno, S.; Pericolini, E.; Gabrielli, E.; Pietrella, D.; Perito, S.; Bistoni, F.; Kozel, T. R.

2013-01-01

144

Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

2011-07-01

145

Heparin-like properties of sulfated alginates with defined sequences and sulfation degrees.  

PubMed

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans have a vast range of protein interactions relevant to the development of new biomaterials and pharmaceuticals, but their characterization and application is complicated mainly due to a high structural variability and the relative difficulty to isolate large quantities of structurally homogeneous samples. Functional and versatile analogues of heparin/heparan sulfate can potentially be created from sulfated alginates, which offer structure customizability through targeted enzymatic epimerization and precise tuning of the sulfation degree. Alginates are linear polysaccharides consisting of ?-d-mannuronic acid (M) and ?-l-guluronic acid (G), derived from brown algae and certain bacteria. The M/G ratio and distribution of blocks are critical parameters for the physical properties of alginates and can be modified in vitro using mannuronic-C5-epimerases to introduce sequence patterns not found in nature. Alginates with homogeneous sequences (poly-M, poly-MG, and poly-G) and similar molecular weights were chemically sulfated and structurally characterized by the use of NMR and elemental analysis. These sulfated alginates were shown to bind and displace HGF from the surface of myeloma cells in a manner similar to heparin. We observed dependence on the sulfation degree (DS) as well as variation in efficacy based on the alginate monosaccharide sequence, relating to relative flexibility and charge density in the polysaccharide chains. Co-incubation with human plasma showed complement compatibility of the alginates and lowering of soluble terminal complement complex levels by sulfated alginates. The sulfated polyalternating (poly-MG) alginate proved to be the most reproducible in terms of precise sulfation degrees and showed the greatest relative degree of complement inhibition and HGF interaction, maintaining high activity at low DS values. PMID:24844124

Arlov, Oystein; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Sundan, Anders; Espevik, Terje; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund

2014-07-14

146

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (Gl-PP) has shown some effects as anti-tumors in mice and potential anti-angiogenesis. In this study, we elucidated the possible mechanism of Gl-PP action on anti-angiogenesis of tumor. Our research indicated that the proliferation of HUVECs was inhibited by Gl-PP in a dose-dependent fashion, but not because of cytotoxicity. Flow cytometric studies revealed that Gl-PP treatment of

Qi-zhen Cao; Zhi-Bin Lin

2006-01-01

147

Streptococcus suis capsular polysaccharide inhibits phagocytosis through destabilization of lipid microdomains and prevents lactosylceramide-dependent recognition.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis type 2 is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent, causing meningitis in both swine and humans. S. suis infects the host through the respiratory route, reaches the bloodstream, and persists until breaching into the central nervous system. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis type 2 is considered a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Though CPS allows S. suis to adhere to the membrane of cells of the immune system, it provides protection against phagocytosis. In fact, nonencapsulated mutants are easily internalized and killed by macrophages and dendritic cells. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms by which the CPS of S. suis prevents phagocytosis. By using latex beads covalently linked with purified CPS, it was shown that CPS itself was sufficient to inhibit entry of both latex beads and bystander fluorescent beads into macrophages. Upon contact with macrophages, encapsulated S. suis was shown to destabilize lipid microdomains at the cell surface, to block nitric oxide (NO) production during infection, and to prevent lactosylceramide accumulation at the phagocytic cup during infection. In contrast, the nonencapsulated mutant was easily internalized via lipid rafts, in a filipin-sensitive manner, leading to lactosylceramide recruitment and strong NO production. This is the first report to identify a role for CPS in lipid microdomain stability and to recognize an interaction between S. suis and lactosylceramide in phagocytes. PMID:22124659

Houde, Mathieu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Fleur; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Segura, Mariela

2012-02-01

148

Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels.

Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

2012-01-01

149

Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels. PMID:22408412

Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

2012-01-01

150

Inhibition of SARS Pseudovirus Cell Entry by Lactoferrin Binding to Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that lactoferrin (LF) participates in the host immune response against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) invasion by enhancing NK cell activity and stimulating neutrophil aggregation and adhesion. We further investigated the role of LF in the entry of SARS pseudovirus into HEK293E/ACE2-Myc cells. Our results reveal that LF inhibits SARS pseudovirus infection in a dose-dependent manner. Further analysis suggested that LF was able to block the binding of spike protein to host cells at 4°C, indicating that LF exerted its inhibitory function at the viral attachment stage. However, LF did not disrupt the interaction of spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor of SARS-CoV. Previous studies have shown that LF colocalizes with the widely distributed cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Our experiments have also confirmed this conclusion. Treatment of the cells with heparinase or exogenous heparin prevented binding of spike protein to host cells and inhibited SARS pseudovirus infection, demonstrating that HSPGs provide the binding sites for SARS-CoV invasion at the early attachment phase. Taken together, our results suggest that, in addition to ACE2, HSPGs are essential cell-surface molecules involved in SARS-CoV cell entry. LF may play a protective role in host defense against SARS-CoV infection through binding to HSPGs and blocking the preliminary interaction between SARS-CoV and host cells. Our findings may provide further understanding of SARS-CoV pathogenesis and aid in treatment of this deadly disease.

Lang, Jianshe; Yang, Ning; Deng, Jiejie; Liu, Kangtai; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Guigen; Jiang, Chengyu

2011-01-01

151

Inhibition of catalytic activities of botulinum neurotoxin light chains of serotypes A, B and E by acetate, sulfate and calcium.  

PubMed

The catalytic domain, known as light chain (Lc), of the most poisonous botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), possesses endoprotease activity that triggers the ultimate poisonous effect to animals and humans. X-ray crystallographic structure of Lc of several BoNT serotypes has identified at least four small ligands at or near the respective active sites. They are sulfate ions in LcA, LcB, and LcE; an acetate ion in LcA; a calcium ion in LcB; and a potassium ion in LcD. Roles of these ligands on the structure and function of the proteins are not known. We have investigated the roles of sulfate, acetate, and calcium on the catalytic activities of LcA, LcB, and LcE using 17-35-residue synthetic peptide substrates. All three ligands inhibited all Lc activities. For LcA and LcB, the order of inhibition effectiveness was calcium>sulfate>acetate. The inhibition effectiveness expressed as IC(50), did not correlate with the occurrence or proximity of the ions to the active site. Moreover, addition of acetate or sulfate to LcA did not affect the near-UV circular dichroism spectra, tryptophan, and tyrosine fluorescence spectra, and mid points of thermal denaturation of LcA. Our results suggest that acetate, sulfate, and calcium nonspecifically interact with BoNT Lc, and their occurrence in the crystal structures could have been due to opportunistic binding to complementary pockets. PMID:23097747

Mizanur, Rahman M; Gorbet, John; Swaminathan, S; Ahmed, S Ashraf

2012-01-01

152

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more

Rongjun Zuo; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

153

Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) promotes MIN6 cells insulin secretion via inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase.  

PubMed

Derived from adrenal cortical, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is a precursor to androgens and estrogens, with various bioactivities. Although it has the property of anti-diabetes, the long-term effect of DHEAS on insulin secretion in beta-cells is still unclear. In this study, the effect of DHEAS on the insulin secretion activity in MIN6 cell lines in vitro was assessed. Insulin biosynthesis and secretion were stimulated by DHEAS for 24h. DHEAS inhibited the AMPK activation and upregulated the expression of ACC-1. These findings indicate that DHEAS may exert prominent stimulatory effects on insulin secretion partly via AMPK inhibition and ACC-1 upregulation. PMID:24120945

Yue, Jiang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Rong; Li, Shengxian; Ma, Jing; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Wei

2013-11-01

154

Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

2000-02-01

155

[Characteristics of the action of an acidic sulfated polysaccharide on global blood coagulation in vitro. Preliminary study in various species of mammals and in man].  

PubMed

An acid sulphated polysaccharide, isolated from a red marine seaweed, Asparagopsis armata ( Harv .), increases the coagulation time of the plasma in vitro studies. This property, compared with the anticoagulant activity of pentosan polysulphate and heparin, pr esents , with concentration and temperature, some variations in man and other mammals . The rat and human plasma seem to behave in the same way with this substance. PMID:6202380

Caporiccio, B; Braun, M; Vignaud, M; Chalet, M; Teste, J; Codomier, L; Catayée, G

1983-01-01

156

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits plasma thrombin generation via targeting of the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite  

PubMed Central

Depolymerized holothurian glycosaminoglycan (DHG) is a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate with antithrombin-independent antithrombotic properties. Heparin cofactor II (HCII)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for DHG inhibition of plasma thrombin generation were evaluated. When thrombin generation was initiated with 0.2 pM tissue factor (TF), the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for DHG inhibition was identical in mock- or HCII-depleted plasma, suggesting a serpin-independent mechanism. In the presence of excess TF, the EC50 for DHG was increased 13- to 27-fold, suggesting inhibition was dependent on intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) components. In factor VIII–deficient plasma supplemented with 700 pM factor VIII or VIIIa, and factor IX–deficient plasma supplemented with plasma-derived factor IX or 100 pM factor IXa, the EC50 for DHG was similar. Thus, cofactor and zymogen activation did not contribute to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation. Factor IX–deficient plasma supplemented with mutant factor IX(a) proteins demonstrated resistance to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation [factor IX(a) R233A > R170A > WT] that inversely correlated with protease-heparin affinity. These results replicate the effect of these mutations with purified intrinsic tenase components, and establish the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite as the relevant molecular target for inhibition by DHG. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated intrinsic tenase inhibition is a novel antithrombotic mechanism with physiologic and therapeutic applications.

Buyue, Yang

2009-01-01

157

[Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].  

PubMed

Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

2014-01-01

158

Inhibition of vascular inflammation by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in human aortic endothelial cells: roles of PPAR? and NF-?B  

PubMed Central

Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland and is a precursor for both androgens and estrogens. Atherosclerosis is a well characterized inflammatory disease, but little is known about the role of DHEAS in vascular inflammation. We hypothesize that DHEAS can reduce inflammation in vascular endothelial cells and the mechanism involves the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), thereby inhibiting transcription factors involved in endothelial cell inflammation. To test our hypothesis, aortic endothelial cells were pretreated for 48 hours with DHEAS, then with TNF-?. TNF-?-induced upregulation of the expression of inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)-8 and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 was attenuated by incubation with DHEAS. DHEAS inhibited the TNF-?-induced surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. This effect was abolished by the addition of MK866, a PPAR? inhibitor, indicating that PPAR? is involved in the mechanism of this inhibition. The addition of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole had no effect on the inhibition of TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 expression by DHEAS. Treatment of endothelial cells with DHEAS dramatically inhibited the TNF-?-induced activation of NF-?B, an inflammatory transcription factor, and increased protein levels of the NF-?B inhibitor, I?B-?. These results signify the ability of DHEAS to directly inhibit the inflammatory process and show a potential direct effect of DHEAS on vascular inflammation that has implications for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Altman, Robin; Motton, Deborah D.; Kota, Rama S.; Rutledge, John C.

2009-01-01

159

Inhibition of vascular inflammation by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in human aortic endothelial cells: roles of PPARalpha and NF-kappaB.  

PubMed

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland and is a precursor for both androgens and estrogens. Atherosclerosis is a well characterized inflammatory disease, but little is known about the role of DHEAS in vascular inflammation. We hypothesize that DHEAS can reduce inflammation in vascular endothelial cells and the mechanism involves the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), thereby inhibiting transcription factors involved in endothelial cell inflammation. To test our hypothesis, aortic endothelial cells were pretreated for 48 h with DHEAS, then with TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha-induced upregulation of the expression of inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)-8 and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 was attenuated by incubation with DHEAS. DHEAS inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. This effect was abolished by the addition of MK866, a PPARalpha inhibitor, indicating that PPARalpha is involved in the mechanism of this inhibition. The addition of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole had no effect on the inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression by DHEAS. Treatment of endothelial cells with DHEAS dramatically inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB, an inflammatory transcription factor, and increased protein levels of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaB-alpha. These results signify the ability of DHEAS to directly inhibit the inflammatory process and show a potential direct effect of DHEAS on vascular inflammation that has implications for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:18255343

Altman, Robin; Motton, Deborah D; Kota, Rama S; Rutledge, John C

2008-01-01

160

Biological activities of fucose-containing polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.  

PubMed

A fucose-containing, sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Composition analysis demonstrated that ascophyllan mainly contains uronic acid, xylose, fucose, and sulfate half ester in approximately equimolecular proportions, which are evidently distinct from those of alginate and fucoidan. Ascophyllan inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and DNA-fragmentation and typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed in the ascophyllan-treated cells. Furthermore, ascophyllan induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. PMID:19352011

Nakayasu, Seiichirou; Soegima, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

2009-04-23

161

Effect of antiscalants for inhibition of calcium sulfate deposition in thermal desalination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiscalants are used in desalination and water treatment plants to reduce or prevent scale formation on heat transfer equipments surfaces. For this purpose, an experimental apparatus has been designed to study the effect of various types of antiscalants on the deposition of calcium sulfate on the surface of stainless steel tubes. Three antiscalants are used in this study, sodium hexametaphosphate

Nawaf N. Al-Mutairi; Farag Abdul Aleem; Malik I. Al-Ahmad

2009-01-01

162

Tumor cell surface heparan sulfate as cryptic promoters or inhibitors of tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix that surrounds cells, are important mediators of complex biological processes. Furthermore, it is now apparent that cells dynamically regulate the structure of their heparan sulfate “coat” to differentially regulate extracellular signals. In the present study, the importance of sequence information contained within tumor cell-surface heparan sulfate was investigated. Herein, we demonstrate that the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan coat present on tumor cells contains bioactive sequences that impinge on tumor-cell growth and metastasis. Importantly, we find that growth promoting as well as growth inhibiting sequences are contained within the polysaccharide coat. Furthermore, we find that the dynamic balance between these distinct polysaccharide populations regulates specific intracellular signal-transduction pathways. This study not only provides a framework for the development of polysaccharide-based anti-cancer molecules but also underscores the importance of understanding a cell's polysaccharide array in addition to its protein complement, to understand how genotype translates to phenotype in this postgenomic age.

Liu, Dongfang; Shriver, Zachary; Venkataraman, Ganesh; El Shabrawi, Yosuf; Sasisekharan, Ram

2002-01-01

163

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail's pace. The methods of strain identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous molds from fruit body which was collected from birch wood on Changbai Mountain, cultivated mycelia on an inclined plane, and examined its micromorphology based on macroscopic examination. The strain was identified as I. obliquus by sequencing its ITS (internal transcribed spacer) domain. We subsequently investigated some of the mycelium polysaccharides' biological activities. The strain used in this study as the producers of antioxidation and anticancer polysaccharides was LNUF008. After fermentation in a 30-L fermenter, mycelia were obtained. The polysaccharides were extracted by transonic recirculation and ethanol precipitation. In order to identify the antioxidation effect, we designed an assay to test the inhibition of endogenous and Fe(2+)-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation as well as ferrous sulfate/ascorbate (Fe(2+)-VC)-induced mitochondrial swelling. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method was used to study the antiproliferation activity of the polysaccharides on SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. The results indicate that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. The submerged culture method of growing I. obliquus will enable large-scale production of the polysaccharides. PMID:18795365

Song, Yana; Hui, Jing; Kou, Wei; Xin, Ru; Jia, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hu, Fengqing; Zhang, Huili; Liu, Hongsheng

2008-11-01

164

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.  

PubMed

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

2004-11-01

165

A RG-II Type Polysaccharide Purified from Aconitum coreanum Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Inhibiting the NF-?B Signal Pathway  

PubMed Central

Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [?6) -?-D-Galp (1?3)-?-L-Rhap-(1?4)-?-D-GalpA-(1?3)-?-D-Galp-(1?] with the side chain ?5)-?-D-Arap (1?3, 5)-?-D-Arap (1? attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1?3,4)-L-Rhap. T-?-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1?3,6)-?-D-Galp residues and T-?-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-?B–p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-I?B-? expression as well as the degradation of I?B-? and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-?B signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-?B DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation.

Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

2014-01-01

166

Anti-diabetic effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharide by inhibiting pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and ameliorating insulin secretory capacity in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a clinically complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLPII) on pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and insulin secretory function in diabetic rats induced by a high fat diet and streptozotocin. Our results showed that MLPII treatment inhibited pancreatic islet cell apoptosis and ameliorated insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic rats. And further study demonstrated that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with MLPII resulted in up-regulation of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl2-associated X (Bax) and caspase-3 protein in pancreatic islet cells. Moreover, MLPII significantly restored pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) protein nuclear localization, and increased mRNA and protein expression of PDX-1 and its downstream targets, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and glucokinase (GCK) in pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. These findings suggested that MLPII might play a critical role in protecting pancreatic islet cell from apoptosis via elevation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and ameliorating insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic ?-cells via restoration of PDX-1 nuclear localization and expression levels in diabetic rats. This is the first report to explore the potential molecular mechanism involved in the hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide from mulberry leaves. PMID:25023123

Zhang, Yao; Ren, Chunjiu; Lu, Guobing; Mu, Zhimei; Cui, Weizheng; Gao, Huiju; Wang, Yanwen

2014-09-01

167

Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides derivatives.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides extracted from the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum were sulfated and carboxymethylated as reported. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory effects of sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides were studied. Generally, sulfated polysaccharides showed better bioactivities than that of carboxymethylated polysaccharides. The two derivatives were injected intraperitoneally with or without 5-fluorouracil over a period of 7 days in BALB/c female mice. The polysaccharide derivatives increased mouse thymus and spleen index, an indication of improved immunity in mice. At the same time, they improved superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase contents in the mice body. PMID:23044102

Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

2013-01-01

168

Inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a flow-through column system by (per)chlorate treatment  

PubMed Central

Microbial sulfate reduction is a primary cause of oil reservoir souring. Here we show that amendment with chlorate or perchlorate [collectively (per)chlorate] potentially resolves this issue. Triplicate packed columns inoculated with marine sediment were flushed with coastal water amended with yeast extract and one of nitrate, chlorate, or perchlorate. Results showed that although sulfide production was dramatically reduced by all treatments, effluent sulfide was observed in the nitrate (10 mM) treatment after an initial inhibition period. In contrast, no effluent sulfide was observed with (per)chlorate (10 mM). Microbial community analyses indicated temporal community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Nitrate addition stimulated Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae growth, supporting their role in nitrate metabolism. (Per)chlorate showed distinct effects on microbial community structure compared with nitrate and resulted in a general suppression of the community relative to the untreated control combined with a significant decrease in sulfate reducing species abundance indicating specific toxicity. Furthermore, chlorate stimulated Pseudomonadaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, members of which are known chlorate respirers, suggesting that chlorate may also control sulfidogenesis by biocompetitive exclusion of sulfate-reduction. Perchlorate addition stimulated Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfomonadaceae, which contain sulfide oxidizing and elemental sulfur-reducing species respectively, suggesting that effluent sulfide concentrations may be controlled through sulfur redox cycling in addition to toxicity and biocompetitive exclusion. Sulfur isotope analyses further support sulfur cycling in the columns, even when sulfide is not detected. This study indicates that (per)chlorate show great promise as inhibitors of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms and respiratory processes are involved.

Engelbrektson, Anna; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Tom, Lauren M.; Boussina, Aaron; Jin, Yong T.; Wong, Hayden; Piceno, Yvette M.; Carlson, Hans K.; Conrad, Mark E.; Anderson, Gary; Coates, John D.

2014-01-01

169

Characterization and antioxidant activities of degraded polysaccharides from two marine Chrysophyta.  

PubMed

Water-soluble polysaccharides from Pavlova viridis and Sarcinochrysis marina Geitler (P0 and S0, respectively) and their degradation fragments (P1, P2, S1, S2 and S3) were screened for their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl-radical (OH) scavenging, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition and the mouse red blood cells (RBCs) hemolysis assay. The physicochemical properties of the polysaccharides were also determined. Chemical analysis showed the presence of sulfate groups and uronic acids. Degradation increased the sulfate group content, but also, in part, damaged the uronic acids. FTIR spectroscopy showed that P0 and S0 had ?-pyranose and ?-pyranose configurations, respectively. The low molecular weight fragments after degradation exhibited higher antioxidant capacities, of which P2 and S3 showed the strongest antioxidant activity in the given assay system. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of P2 on DPPH, OH, LPO and RBCs hemolysis assays were 0.45, 0.42, 0.88, and 1.51 mg/ml, respectively, and the corresponding IC50 values of S3 were 0.41, 0.41, 0.79, and 1.04 mg/ml, respectively. All the polysaccharide fragments evoked a significant dose dependent inhibitory effect or scavenging ability. Altogether, these results suggest that the polysaccharide of two marine Chrysophyta could be considered as a potential antioxidant. PMID:24799200

Sun, Liqin; Wang, Ling; Li, Jing; Liu, Honghui

2014-10-01

170

Sulfated glycolipids and cell adhesion.  

PubMed

The adhesive glycoproteins laminin, thrombospondin, and von Willebrand factor bind specifically and with high affinity to sulfatides, and it is this binding that probably accounts for their ability to agglutinate glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes. The three proteins differ, however, in the inhibition of their binding to sulfatides by sulfated polysaccharides. Fucoidan strongly inhibits binding of both laminin and thrombospondin, but not of von Willebrand factor, suggesting the involvement of laminin or thrombospondin, or other unknown sulfatide-binding proteins in specific cell interactions that are also inhibited by fucoidan. Thrombospondin adsorbed on plastic promotes the attachment and spreading of some melanoma cells. Interestingly, fucoidan and an antibody against the sulfatide-binding domain of thrombospondin selectively inhibit spreading but not attachment to thrombospondin-coated surfaces. Sulfatides, but not neutral glycolipids or gangliosides, when adsorbed on plastic also promote attachment and spreading of some cultured cell lines. Direct adhesion of melanoma cells requires high densities of adsorbed sulfatide. In the presence of laminin, however, specific adhesion of some cell types to sulfatide is strongly stimulated and requires only low densities of adsorbed lipid, suggesting that laminin is mediating adhesion by crosslinking receptors on the cell surface to sulfatide adsorbed on the plastic. Although thrombospondin also binds to sulfatides and to melanoma cells, it does not enhance but rather inhibits direct and laminin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion to sulfatide, presumably because it is unable to bind simultaneously to ligands on opposing surfaces. Thus, sulfated glycolipids can participate in both laminin- and thrombospondin-mediated cell adhesion, but their mechanisms of interaction are different. PMID:3063211

Roberts, D D; Ginsburg, V

1988-12-01

171

Polysaccharide structure of tetrasporic red seaweed Tichocarpus crinitus.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from tetrasporic plants of Tichocarpus crinitus was investigated. The polysaccharide was isolated by two methods: with water extraction at 80 °C (HT) and with a mild alkaline extraction (AE). The extracted polysaccharides were presented by non-gelling ones only, while galactose and 3,6-AG were the main monosaccharides, at the same time amount of 3,6-AG in AE polysaccharides was the similar to that of HT. According to methods of spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, the polysaccharide from tetrasporic T. crinitus contains main blocks of 1,3-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyl-2,4-disulfates and 1,4-linked 3,6-anhydro-?-D-galactopyranosyl while 6-sulfated 4-linked galactopyranosyl resudies are randomly distributed along the polysaccharide chain. The alkaline treatment of HT polysaccharide results in obtaining polysaccharide with regular structure that composed of alternating 1,3-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyl-2,4-disulfates and 1,4-linked 3,6-anhydro-?-D-galactopyranosyl residues. Native polysaccharide (HT) possessed both high anticoagulant and antiplatelet activity measured by fibrin clotting and platelet aggregation induced by collagen. This activity could be connected with peculiar chemical structure of HT polysaccharide which has high sulfation degree and contains also 3,6-anhydrogalactose in the polymer chain. PMID:23987313

Byankina Barabanova, A O; Sokolova, E V; Anastyuk, S D; Isakov, V V; Glazunov, V P; Volod'ko, A V; Yakovleva, I M; Solov'eva, T F; Yermak, I M

2013-10-15

172

Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens. The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens.

2013-01-01

173

Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens.The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens. PMID:23786718

Kallon, Sanpha; Li, Xiaorong; Ji, Jun; Chen, Cuiying; Xi, Qianyun; Chang, Shuang; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei; Zhang, Youngliang

2013-01-01

174

Immune response to influenza vaccine and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine under IL-6 signal inhibition therapy with tocilizumab.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. To evaluate humoral immune response to influenza vaccine and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or Castleman's disease (CD) during tocilizumab therapy. Methods. Thirty-eight patients (28 RA and 10 CD) receiving tocilizumab and 39 RA patients receiving TNF inhibitors and/or synthetic DMARDs subcutaneously received a single dose of a split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine containing A(New Caledonia (NC):H1N1), A(Hiroshima (HIR):H3N2) and B(Malaysia (MAL)) strains. Twenty-one RA patients using tocilizumab also received 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Antibody titers were measured every 4 weeks for a total of 12 weeks after vaccination. Results. In the tocilizumab group, seroprotective titers (40-fold or more) were obtained in 36/38(95%) for A(NC), 35/38(92%) for A(HIR) and 32/38(84%) for B(MAL). In the patients with baseline antibody titer < 40-fold, 11/11(100%), 7/8(88%) and 18/20(90%) patients showed four-fold or more increase in the titer from baseline to A(NC), A(HIR) and B(MAL), respectively. Patients using TNF inhibitors and/or DMARDs showed similar responses. Pneumococcal antibody titers increased at least two-fold in more than 9 of 12 serotypes, which continued for longer than 12 weeks in all the patients. Conclusion. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) blocking therapy with tocilizumab did not affect the humoral immune response to both influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:24252023

Tsuru, Tomomi; Terao, Kimio; Murakami, Miho; Matsutani, Takaji; Suzaki, Midori; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Akiyama, Azusa; Nishimoto, Norihiro

2014-05-01

175

Iron oxyhydroxide colloids stabilized with polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralization of iron salts in aqueous solutions of ?-carrageenan and cellulose sulfate results in iron oxyhydroxide–polysaccharide\\u000a hybrid colloids with unusual pH stability up to pH 13. It is shown that both polysaccharides form a tight polymer layer surrounding\\u000a the inorganic particles, which in the case of ?-carrageenan is cross-linked by helical domains forming a self-assembled nanoreactor.\\u000a The stabilized iron oxyhydroxide

F. Jones; H. Cölfen; M. Antonietti

2000-01-01

176

Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1997-07-01

177

Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Binds to Chemokines and Inhibits Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Mediated Signaling in Activated T Cells  

PubMed Central

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation.

Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

2014-01-01

178

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate binds to chemokines and inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediated signaling in activated T cells.  

PubMed

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation. PMID:24718687

Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

2014-01-01

179

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo.

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

2012-01-01

180

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell's microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt's imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?(v)?(3) was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

2012-01-01

181

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.

1984-07-01

182

Heparan Sulfate, Including that in Bruch's Membrane, Inhibits the Complement Alternative Pathway: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

An imbalance between activation and inhibition of the complement system has been implicated in the etiologies of numerous common diseases. Allotypic variants of a key complement fluid phase regulatory protein, complement factor H (CFH), are strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of worldwide visual dysfunction, although its specific role in AMD pathogenesis is still not clear. CFH was isolated from individuals carrying combinations of two of the non-synonymous coding variants most strongly associated with AMD risk, V62/H402 (risk haplotype variants), I62/Y402 (non-risk haplotype variants), and V62/Y402. These proteins were used in two functional assays (cell surface- and fluid phase-based) measuring cofactor activity of CFH in the factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. Though no variant-specific differences in the cofactor activity were detected, when heparan sulfate (HS) was added to these assays it accelerated the rate of C3b cleavage and this effect could be modulated by degree of HS sulfation. Bruch’s membrane/choroid, a site of tissue damage in AMD, contains high concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, including HS. Addition of human Bruch’s membrane/choroid to the fluid phase assay accelerated the C3b cleavage and this effect was lost after treatment of the tissue with heparinase III. Binding of CFH variants to Bruch’s membrane/choroid isolated from elderly, non-AMD donor eyes, was similar, as was the functional activity of bound CFH. These findings refine our understanding of interactions of HS and complement and support the hypothesis that these interactions play a role in the transition between normal aging and AMD in Bruch’s membrane/choroid.

Kelly, Una; Yu, Ling; Kumar, Pallavi; Ding, Jin-Dong; Jiang, Haixiang; Hageman, Gregory S.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Frank, Michael M.; Hauser, Michael A.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes

2013-01-01

183

Inhibition of human respiratory syncytial virus infectivity by a dendrimeric heparan sulfate-binding peptide.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to initiate infection. The interaction of RSV with HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In the present study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was screened with the aim of identifying peptides able to bind HSPGs and thus block RSV attachment and infectivity. Of the compounds identified, the dendrimer SB105-A10 was the most potent inhibitor of RSV infectivity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) of 0.35 ?M and 0.25 ?M measured in Hep-2 and A549 cells, respectively. SB105-A10 was found to bind to both cell types via HSPGs, suggesting that its antiviral activity is indeed exerted by competing with RSV for binding to cell surface HSPGs. SB105-A10 prevented RSV infection when added before the viral inoculum, in line with its proposed HSPG-binding mechanism of action; moreover, antiviral activity was also exhibited when SB105-A10 was added postinfection, as it was able to reduce the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. The antiviral potential of SB105-A10 was further assessed using human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. SB105-A10 strongly reduced RSV infectivity in this model and exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or proinflammatory effects. Together, these features render SB105-A10 an attractive candidate for further development as a RSV inhibitor to be administered by aerosol delivery. PMID:22850525

Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

2012-10-01

184

Inhibition of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity by a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to initiate infection. The interaction of RSV with HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In the present study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was screened with the aim of identifying peptides able to bind HSPGs and thus block RSV attachment and infectivity. Of the compounds identified, the dendrimer SB105-A10 was the most potent inhibitor of RSV infectivity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0.35 ?M and 0.25 ?M measured in Hep-2 and A549 cells, respectively. SB105-A10 was found to bind to both cell types via HSPGs, suggesting that its antiviral activity is indeed exerted by competing with RSV for binding to cell surface HSPGs. SB105-A10 prevented RSV infection when added before the viral inoculum, in line with its proposed HSPG-binding mechanism of action; moreover, antiviral activity was also exhibited when SB105-A10 was added postinfection, as it was able to reduce the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. The antiviral potential of SB105-A10 was further assessed using human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. SB105-A10 strongly reduced RSV infectivity in this model and exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or proinflammatory effects. Together, these features render SB105-A10 an attractive candidate for further development as a RSV inhibitor to be administered by aerosol delivery.

Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Landolfo, Santo

2012-01-01

185

Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in specific human CYP2C9 isoform and pooled human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of water extractable fraction of PSP on tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes and in specific human CYP2C9 isoform. PSP (2.5-20?M) dose-dependently decreased the biotransformation of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide. Enzyme kinetics studies showed inhibition of tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity was competitive and concentration-dependent. In pooled human liver microsomes, PSP had a K(i) value of 14.2?M compared to sulfaphenazole, a human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a K(i) value of 0.32?M. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the K(i) value of PSP was 29.5?M and the K(i) value of sulfaphenazole was 0.04?M. This study demonstrated that PSP can competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in both pooled human liver microsomes and specific human CYP2C9 in vitro. This study compliments previous findings in the rat that PSP can inhibit human tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase, but the relatively high K(i) values in human CYP2C9 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction. PMID:21757329

Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

2011-10-15

186

Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

2013-12-01

187

[Regulation of Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5: in vitro and in vivo inhibition by CO2].  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5 (CP5) expression was investigated in lung tissue and nasal polyps of two cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, in rats and in vitro using ELISA and immunofluorescence. In CF tissues, S. aureus expressed protein A and teichoic acid but only 1-5% of cells expressed CP5. When rats were challenged with CP5-positive S. aureus in the granuloma pouch model, only 1-5% CP5-positive cells were detectable in pouch exsudates. CF and pouch isolates, however, re-expressed CP5 (70-90% of cells) when grown in vitro with air. Addition of 1% CO2 or more to air or to O2/N2 gas mixtures reduced CP5 expression significantly (p < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner (1-6% CP5-positive cells). The results show that S. aureus does not produce CP5 in CF airways and in rat granuloma pouches and that CO2 is an environmental signal which regulates CP5 expression. PMID:9471626

Herbert, S; Worlitzsch, D; Dassy, B; Boutonnier, A; Fournier, J M; Bellon, G; Dalhoff, A; Döring, G

1997-11-01

188

Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by ursolic acid and polysaccharides via the downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a multi-functional molecule, is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas. In order to understand cell proliferation and its association with COX-2 in HepG2 cells in the presence of ursolic acid (UA), viili exopolysaccharides (VEPS) and Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), the cell proliferation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and metabolic malondialdehyde (MDA) of fatty acids, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as apoptotic morphology and rate were investigated. The results revealed that the activities of SOD, COX-2 and PGE2 were reduced, MDA was markedly decreased, apoptotic blebs were induced, and HepG2 cells were accumulated in the G1 and sub G1/apoptotic phases in test groups. The results indicated that UA, VEPS, APS and any combination of these possess anticancer properties, particularly by downregulating COX-2 expression, which may have increased internal oxidation and triggered apoptosis together with a change in internal antioxidant response elements, leading to a reduction in cell proliferation. PMID:24638056

Liu, Ling; Zhang, Jingkai; Li, Meiling; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jinlu; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Likui; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

2014-06-01

189

Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven polysaccharides have been isolated from the leaves of Arctium lappa var. herkules, Aloe barbadensis, Althaea officinalis var. robusta, Plantago lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts and roots of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii, stems of Mahonia aquifolium, and peach-tree (Prunus persica) gum exudates. The polysaccharides were investigated for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of soyabean lecithin liposomes by OH radicals. The

A. Kardošová; E. Machová

2006-01-01

190

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans potently inhibit invasion and serve as a central organizer of the brain tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most pervasive and lethal of all brain malignancies. One factor that contributes to this poor prognosis is the highly invasive character of the tumor. GBM is characterized by microscopic infiltration of tumor cells throughout the brain, whereas non-neural metastases, as well as select lower grade gliomas, develop as self-contained and clearly delineated lesions. Illustrated by rodent xenograft tumor models as well as pathological human patient specimens, we present evidence that one fundamental switch between these two distinct pathologies--invasion and noninvasion--is mediated through the tumor extracellular matrix. Specifically, noninvasive lesions are associated with a rich matrix containing substantial amounts of glycosylated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), whereas glycosylated CSPGs are essentially absent from diffusely infiltrating tumors. CSPGs, acting as central organizers of the tumor microenvironment, dramatically influence resident reactive astrocytes, inducing their exodus from the tumor mass and the resultant encapsulation of noninvasive lesions. Additionally, CSPGs induce activation of tumor-associated microglia. We demonstrate that the astrogliotic capsule can directly inhibit tumor invasion, and its absence from GBM presents an environment favorable to diffuse infiltration. We also identify the leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase receptor (PTPRF) as a putative intermediary between extracellular glycosylated CSPGs and noninvasive tumor cells. In all, we present CSPGs as critical regulators of brain tumor histopathology and help to clarify the role of the tumor microenvironment in brain tumor invasion. PMID:24068827

Silver, Daniel J; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A; Schildts, Michela J; Yachnis, Anthony T; Smith, George M; Smith, Amy A; Scheffler, Bjorn; Reynolds, Brent A; Silver, Jerry; Steindler, Dennis A

2013-09-25

191

Inhibition of Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) Induces Resistance to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP?/? and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP?/? and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n=22), PG 97–269 (n=9), or vehicle (n=31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP?/? mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97–269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP?/? and VIPHyb or PG 97–269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

Vu, John P.; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R.

2014-01-01

192

Oligomannurarate sulfate sensitizes cancer cells to doxorubicin by inhibiting atypical activation of NF-?B via targeting of Mre11.  

PubMed

Aberrant regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factor is involved in cancer development, progression and resistance to chemotherapy. JG3, a marine-derived oligomannurarate sulfate, was reported as a heparanase and NF-?B inhibitor to significantly block tumor growth and metastasis in various animal models. However, the detailed functional mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that JG3 inhibits NF-?B activation by specifically antagonizing the doxorubicin-triggered Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and the sequential MEK/ERK/p90Rsk/IKK signaling pathway but does not interfere with TNF-?-mediated NF-?B activation. This selective inactivation of the specific NF-?B cascade is attributed to the binding capacity of JG3 for Mre11, a major sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Based on this selective mechanism, JG3 showed synergistic effect with doxorubicin in a panel of tumor cells and did not affect immune system function as shown in the in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and hemolysis assays. All these highlight the clinical potential of JG3 as a favorable sensitizer in cancer therapy. In addition, identification of Mre11 as a potential target in the development of NF-?B inhibitors provides a platform for the further development of effective anticancer agents. PMID:21387297

Zhang, Jing; Xin, Xianliang; Chen, Qin; Xie, Zuoquan; Gui, Min; Chen, Yi; Lin, Liping; Feng, Jianming; Li, Qiuning; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu

2012-01-15

193

Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP(-/-) and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP(-/-) and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n?=?22), PG 97-269 (n?=?9), or vehicle (n?=?31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP(-/-) mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97-269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP(-/-) and VIPHyb or PG 97-269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

Vu, John P; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

2014-01-01

194

Potential antipsoriatic effect of chondroitin sulfate through inhibition of NF-?B and STAT3 in human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a natural glycosaminoglycan, formed by the 1-3 linkage of d-glucuronic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine, present in the extracellular matrix. It is used as a slow acting disease modifying agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and part of its beneficial effects are due to its antiinflammatory properties that result from an inhibitory effect on NF-?B signaling pathway. This ability raises the hypothesis that CS might be effective in other chronic inflammatory processes such as psoriasis, in which a deregulation of NF-?B is a key feature. In addition, psoriasis is characterized by an upregulation of STAT3 signaling pathway that is related to the epidermal hyperplasia. In the present study we report the pharmacological modulation of the NF-?B and STAT3 signaling pathways by CS in normal human keratinocytes. CS inhibited NF-?B activation and the release of some of the key psoriatic cytokines such as TNF?, IL-8, IL-6 and CCL27. Moreover, it impaired STAT3 translocation to the nucleus and significantly reduced STAT3 transcriptional activity by a mechanism that was independent from STAT3 phosphorylation. Our results confirm the interest of CS as a candidate for future drug research in the therapeutics of psoriasis given the need of more effective and safer oral medications for these patients. PMID:23276728

Andrés, Rosa M; Payá, Miguel; Montesinos, M Carmen; Ubeda, Amalia; Navalón, Pedro; Herrero, Marta; Vergés, Josep; Terencio, M Carmen

2013-04-01

195

Covalent binding of a mercaptan S-sulfate to hepatic cytosolic proteins and its inhibition by glutathione.  

PubMed

4-Nitrobenzyl mercaptan (NBM) S-sulfate, a new type of the sulfate conjugate enzymatically formed from NBM in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate in rat liver cytosol, bound covalently to rat liver cytosolic proteins at pH 7.4. The protein binding of NBM S-sulfate was strongly retarded by GSH. GSH not only played a role as a scavenger for NBM S-sulfate with formation of NBM and GSSG via S-(4-nitrobenzyl)thioglutathione, but also cleaved the covalent bonds, possibly disulfides formed from NBM S-sulfate and sulfhydryl groups of the cytosolic proteins. Thus, evidence was provided that NBM S-sulfate be a new type of the reactive metabolite. PMID:3509957

Watabe, T; Okuda, H; Hiratsuka, A; Miwa, K

1986-06-30

196

In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni  

SciTech Connect

Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

Cheng, P.-C. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-Y. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-C. [Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lee, K.-M. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kmlee@ctust.edu.tw

2008-03-01

197

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

198

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris)

R. Zuo; D. Örnek; B. C. Syrett; R. M. Green; C.-H. Hsu; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

2004-01-01

199

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and inhibits prostate cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model of human prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are important functional constituents in red-colored fruits of L. barbarum (Guo Qi Zi, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant commonly known as Goji berry or wolfberry). The influence of LBP on human prostate cancer cells was systematically investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro effects of LBP on two cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) were examined by using trypan blue exclusion staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and immunohistochemical assay (assessment of Bcl-2 and Bax expression). The in vivo effect of LBP on PC-3 cells was assessed in the nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The in vitro results showed that LBP can dose- and time-dependently inhibit the growth of both PC-3 and DU-145 cells. LBP caused the breakage of DNA strands of PC-3 and DU-145 cells; the tail frequency and tail length were significantly higher than that of control cells. LBP also markedly induced PC-3 and DU-145 cell apoptosis, with the highest apoptosis rates at 41.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression following LBP treatments decreased significantly with a dose-effect relationship, which suggested that LBP can regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax to induce apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The in vivo experimental results indicate that LBP might significantly inhibit PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice. Both the tumor volume and weight of the LBP treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group. PMID:19735167

Luo, Qiong; Li, Zhuoneng; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Fan; Xu, Ruo-Jun; Cai, Yi-Zhong

2009-08-01

200

Heparan sulfate: a piece of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACI' The sulfated glycosaminoglycans, heparan sulfate and heparin, are increasingly impli- cated in cell-biological processes such as cytokine action, cell adhesion, and regulation of enzyniic catalysis. These activities generally depend on inter- actions of the polysaccharides with proteins, medi- ated by distinct saccharide sequences, and expressed at various levels of specificity, selectivity, and mo- lecular organization. The formation of hepa-

MARKKU SALMIVIRTA; KERSTIN UDHOLT; ULF LINDAHL

201

The potent activity of sulfated polysaccharide, ascophyllan, isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum to induce nitric oxide and cytokine production from mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells: Comparison between ascophyllan and fucoidan.  

PubMed

Ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide, which has similar but distinct characteristic monosaccharide composition and entire chemical structure to fucoidan. In this study, we examined the effects of ascophyllan, fucoidan isolated from A. nodosum (A-fucoidan), and fucoidan from Sigma (S-fucoidan) as a representative fucoidan derived from other source (Fucus vesiculosus) on mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. No significant cytotoxic effects of ascophyllan and A-fucoidan on RAW264.7 cells were observed up to 1000?g/ml, while S-fucoidan showed cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Ascophyllan induced extremely higher level of nitric oxide (NO) production from RAW264.7 cells than those induced by fucoidans over the concentration range tested (0-200?g/ml). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis revealed that expression level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in ascophyllan-treated RAW264.7 cells was much higher than the levels detected in the cells treated with fucoidans. Furthermore, the activities of ascophyllan to induce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from RAW264.7 cells were also greater than those induced by fucoidans especially at lower concentration range (3.1-50?g/ml). The activities of ascophyllan to induce NO and cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages were also stronger than those of fucoidans. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using infrared dye labeled nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and AP-1 consensus sequences suggested that ascophyllan can strongly activate these transcription factors. Marked increase in the nuclear translocation of p65, and the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-? were also observed in ascophyllan-treated RAW264.7 cells. Analysis using mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors and western blot analysis suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase are mainly involved in ascophyllan-induced NO production. PMID:22024029

Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

2011-11-30

202

Modification of Low Molecular Weight Polysaccharides from Tremella Fuciformis and Their Antioxidant Activity in Vitro  

PubMed Central

In this study, sulfated low molecular-weight Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (SLTP) with different sulfate contents were synthesized and their antioxidant activities, including superoxide anion radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities were investigated. The results indicated that, compared to natural Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TP) and low molecular weight Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (LTP), sulfated LTP (SLTP) exhibited stronger scavenging activity towards superoxide anion, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. In all the cases the effect was found to be dose dependent. The scavenging activity of SLTP was found to be in parallel with the degree of sulfation of SLTP.

Wu, Qiong; Zheng, Cheng; Ning, Zheng-Xiang; Yang, Bao

2007-01-01

203

Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of a chemically sulfated galactoglucomannan obtained from the lichen Cladonia ibitipocae.  

PubMed

A galactoglucomannan (GGM), isolated from the lichen Cladonia ibitipocae, consisted of a (1-->6)-linked main chain of alpha-mannopyranose units, substituted by alpha- and beta-D-galacto (alpha- and beta-D-Galp)-, beta-D-gluco (beta-D-Glcp)- and alpha-D-mannopyranosyl (alpha-D-Manp) groups, and was sulfated giving a sulfated polysaccharide (GGM-SO4) with 42.2% sulfate corresponding to a degree of substitution of 1.29. NMR studies indicated that after sulfation, the OH-6 groups of galactopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl units were preferentially substituted. GGM-SO4 was investigated in terms of its in vitro anticoagulant and in vivo antithrombotic properties. Those of the former were evaluated by its activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), using pooled normal human plasma, and compared with that of 140 USP units mg(-1) for a porcine intestinal mucosa heparin. Anticoagulant activity was detected in GGM-SO4, but not in GGM. The in vivo antithrombotic properties of GGM-SO4 were evaluated using a stasis thrombosis model in Wistar rats, intravenous administration of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight totally inhibiting thrombus formation. It caused dose-dependent increases in tail transection bleeding time. The results obtained showed that this sulfated polysaccharides is a promising anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent. PMID:15769521

Martinichen-Herrero, J C; Carbonero, E R; Sassaki, G L; Gorin, P A J; Iacomini, M

2005-03-01

204

Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers  

PubMed Central

In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral ?-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua

2013-01-01

205

In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by an ?-(1 ? 4)-glucan–?-(1 ? 6)-glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazei Murill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agaricus blazei Murrill, a native mushroom of Brazil, has been widely consumed in different parts of the world due to its anticancer potential.\\u000a This effect is generally attributed to its polysaccharides; however, the precise structure of these has not been fully characterized.\\u000a To better understand the relationship between polysaccharide structures and antitumor activity, we investigated the effect\\u000a of the intraperitoneally

Maria Leônia Costa Gonzaga; Daniel Pereira Bezerra; Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves; Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar; Rodney de Oliveira Mesquita; Michael Will Lima; Sandra de Aguiar Soares; Cláudia Pessoa; Manoel Odorico de Moraes; Letícia Veras Costa-Lotufo

2009-01-01

206

Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cells by aqueous extracts and pectic polysaccharides from the roots of Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich. and Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp.  

PubMed

In Malian traditional medicine infusions of the roots of Vernonia kotschyana or Cochlospermum tinctorium in water are used for treating gastric ulcer. Helicobacter pylori is known to play a major role in gastric ulcer development, and it was of interest to evaluate a potential anti-adhesive activity towards H. pylori by crude water extracts and isolated polysaccharide fractions from the roots of V. kotschyana and C. tinctorium. The inhibitory effects were examined by an in vitro flow cytometric assay using human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cells, where fluorescent-labeled H. pylori were pre-treated with the test fractions. The crude extract Ctw50 from C. tinctorium, containing a mixture of inulin, pectic polysaccharides, phenols and protein, led to a 43% reduction of bacterial attachment. The isolated pectic type fractions CtwA1 and CtwA2 from C. tinctorium, and Vko-I from V. kotschyana resulted in approximately 30% inhibition of H. pylori adhesion. These fractions consist of rhamnogalacturonan backbones with side chains of arabinogalactans and/or arabinans. The low degree of uronic acids in the fractions compared to anti-adhesive polysaccharides reported previously, suggests that the neutral side chains might play a role in the binding of bacterial adhesins. The fraction Vko-III.1 from V. kotschyana consisting mainly of galacturonic acid resulted only in a 19% inhibition of H. pylori adhesion. The anti-adhesive properties shown by the crude water extracts and isolated polysaccharide fractions in the present study might partly explain the anti-ulcer activities by the roots of V. kotschyana and C. tinctorium. PMID:24657817

Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Thöle, Christian; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Hensel, Andreas

2014-06-01

207

Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII ? in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II ? expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated. Method Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II ? protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The CaMK II ? expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes. Conclusion GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II ? expression to protect epileptic neurons.

Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Simon, Maria; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei; Di, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Shaobo

2014-01-01

208

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

1985-05-01

209

Unique extracellular matrix heparan sulfate from the bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) safely inhibits arterial thrombosis after photochemically induced endothelial lesion.  

PubMed

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing approximately 4.6 mg g(-1) of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional (1)H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg(-1), 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg(-1)), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC(50) = 0.835 microg ml(-1)) and thrombin (IC(50) = 9.3 microg ml(-1)) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg(-1), the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

Gomes, Angélica M; Kozlowski, Eliene O; Pomin, Vitor H; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L; Pavão, Mauro S G

2010-03-01

210

An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of ?-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS), composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of 20-kDaPS inhibits endocytosis by human macrophages, whereas, preincubation of 20-kDaPS-producing strain ATCC35983 with 20-kDaPS antiserum enhances bacterial endocytosis by human macrophages. Conclusions In conclusion, icaADBC is not involved in 20-kDaPS synthesis, while the chemical and chromatographic properties of PIA and 20-kDaPS are distinct. 20-kDaPS exhibits anti-phagocytic properties, whereas, 20-kDaPS antiserum may have a beneficial effect on combating infection by 20-kDaPS-producing S. epidermidis.

2012-01-01

211

Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Functions as Receptor for Specific Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, and Anti-RAGE Antibody or Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Delivered in Vivo Inhibit Pulmonary Metastasis of Tumor Cells*  

PubMed Central

Altered expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) at the surfaces of tumor cells plays a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived tumor cell line with high metastatic potential had a higher proportion of E-disaccharide units, GlcUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate), in CS chains than low metastatic LLC cells and that such CS chains are involved in the metastatic process. The metastasis was markedly inhibited by the pre-administration of CS-E from squid cartilage rich in E units or by preincubation with a phage display antibody specific for CS-E. However, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition remains to be investigated. In this study the receptor molecule for CS chains containing E-disaccharides expressed on LLC cells was revealed to be receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predominantly expressed in the lung. Interestingly, RAGE bound strongly to not only E-disaccharide, but also HS-expressing LLC cells. Furthermore, the colonization of the lungs by LLC cells was effectively inhibited by the blocking of CS or HS chains at the tumor cell surface with an anti-RAGE antibody through intravenous injections in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide the clear evidence that RAGE is at least one of the critical receptors for CS and HS chains expressed at the tumor cell surface and involved in experimental lung metastasis and that CS/HS and RAGE are potential molecular targets in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis.

Mizumoto, Shuji; Takahashi, Jun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

2012-01-01

212

Structural diversity of N-sulfated heparan sulfate domains: distinct modes of glucuronyl C5 epimerization, iduronic acid 2-O-sulfation, and glucosamine 6-O-sulfation.  

PubMed

The N-sulfated regions (NS domains) represent the modified sequences of heparan sulfate chains and mediate interactions of the polysaccharide with proteins. We have investigated the relationship between the type/extent of polymer modification and the length of NS domains in heparan sulfate species from human aorta, bovine kidney, and cultured NMuMG and MDCK cells. C5 epimerization of D-glucuronic acid to L-iduronic acid was found to be extensive and essentially similar in all heparan sulfate species studied, regardless of domain size, whereas the subsequent 2-O-sulfation of the formed iduronic acid residues varies appreciably. In aorta heparan sulfate, up to 90% of the formed iduronate residues were 2-O-sulfated, whereas in kidney heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfation occurred only in sulfation was consistently increased with increasing NS domain length, suggesting a correlation between 2-O-sulfation efficiency and length of the polymeric substrate during heparan sulfate biosynthesis. By contrast, 6-O-sulfation of glucosamine units did not correlate to domain size. 6-O-Sulfation exceeded 2-O-sulfation in NS domains from kidney heparan sulfate, but was very low in aorta heparan sulfate. Remarkably, total O-sulfation of NS domains, i.e., the sum of 2-O- and 6-O-sulfate groups, was highly similar in all heparan sulfate samples investigated. The results reveal marked tissue-specific variation in the sulfation patterns of NS domains and indicate previously unrecognized distinctions in the coordination of the three polymer modification reactions during heparan sulfate biosynthesis. PMID:10978168

Safaiyan, F; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

2000-09-01

213

Inhibition of vascular inflammation by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in human aortic endothelial cells: Roles of PPAR? and NF-?B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland and is a precursor for both androgens and estrogens. Atherosclerosis is a well characterized inflammatory disease, but little is known about the role of DHEAS in vascular inflammation. We hypothesize that DHEAS can reduce inflammation in vascular endothelial cells and the mechanism involves the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?),

Robin Altman; Deborah D. Motton; Rama S. Kota; John C. Rutledge

2008-01-01

214

Sulfated alpha-L-galactans from the sea urchin ovary: selective 6-desulfation as eggs are spawned.  

PubMed

The sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a jelly coat, which contains sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. These molecules are responsible for inducing the species-specific acrosome reaction, an obligatory event for the binding of sperm and fusion with the egg. The mechanism of biosynthesis of these sulfated polysaccharides is virtually unknown. The egg jelly of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a simple 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan. Here, we pulse labeled the sea urchin ovary in vitro with (35)S-sulfate to follow the biosynthesis of the sulfated alpha-L-galactan. We found that the ovary contains a 2,6-disulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan, which incorporates (35)S-sulfate more avidly than the 2-sulfated isoform. The 2,6-disulfated alpha-L-galactan was purified by anion exchange chromatography, analyzed by electrophoresis and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We also investigated the location of the sulfated polysaccharides on the oocytes using histochemical procedures. The stain revealed high amounts of sulfated polysaccharide in mature oocytes and accessory cells. The amount of intracellular sulfated polysaccharides decreased as oocytes are spawned. We speculate that 2,6-disulfated galactan is initially synthesized in the ovary and that 6-sulfate ester is removed when the polysaccharide is secreted into the egg jelly. Similar events related to remodeling of sulfated polysaccharides have been reported in other biological systems. PMID:20147451

Cinelli, Leonardo P; Andrade, Leonardo; Valente, Ana Paula; Mourão, Paulo A S

2010-06-01

215

Designing Allosteric Regulators of Thrombin. Exosite 2 Features Multiple Sub-Sites That Can Be Targeted By Sulfated Small Molecules for Inducing Inhibition  

PubMed Central

We recently designed a group of novel exosite 2-directed, sulfated, small, allosteric inhibitors of thrombin. To develop more potent inhibitors, monosulfated benzofuran tri- and tetrameric homologs of the parent designed dimers were synthesized in 7–8 steps and found to exhibit a wide range of potencies. Among these, trimer 9a was found to be nearly 10-fold more potent than the first generation molecules. Michaelis-Menten studies indicated an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Competitive studies using a hirudin peptide (exosite 1 ligand) and, unfractionated heparin, heparin octasaccharide and ??-fibrinogen peptide (exosite 2 ligands), demonstrated exosite 2 recognition in a manner different from the parent dimers. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of 12 Arg/Lys residues of exosite 2 revealed a defect in 9a potency for Arg233Ala thrombin only confirming the major difference in site of recognition between the two structurally related sulfated benzofurans. The results suggest that multiple avenues are available within exosite 2 for inducing thrombin inhibition.

Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Abdel Aziz, May H.; Sarkar, Aurijit; Mehta, Akul Y.; Zhou, Qibing; Desai, Umesh R.

2013-01-01

216

Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1->3)-?-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*  

PubMed Central

A highly sulfated 3-linked ?-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans.

Fernandez, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, Jose M.; Ciancia, Marina

2013-01-01

217

Polysaccharide Production by Microalgae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing ov...

J. R. Benemann J. C. Weissman

1980-01-01

218

Resveratrol and Piceatannol Inhibit iNOS Expression and NF-? B Activation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mouse Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory tissue injury has been implicated in tumor promotion and progression. 3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (resveratrol) and 3,4,3?, 5?-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene (piceatannol), 2 structurally related plant polyphenols, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. This study was aimed at investigating the possible protective effects of resveratrol and piceatannol against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation in mouse colonic mucosa. Administration of DSS (2.5%)

Jin Youn; Jeong-Sang Lee; Hye-Kyung Na; Joydeb Kumar Kundu; Young-Joon Surh

2009-01-01

219

MS80, a novel sulfated oligosaccharide, inhibits pulmonary fibrosis by targeting TGF-?1 both in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:The pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) has attracted much attention for its potential role in the etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we demonstrate that MS80, a novel sulfated oligosaccharide extracted from seaweed, can bind TGF-?1. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MS80 is capable of combating TGF-?1-mediated pulmonary fibrotic events both in

Han-dong Jiang; Hua-shi Guan

2009-01-01

220

Substrate-dependent inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1: comparative analysis with prototypical probe substrates estradiol-17?-glucuronide, estrone-3-sulfate, and sulfobromophthalein.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 plays an important role in the hepatic uptake of many drugs, and the evaluation of OATP1B1-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is emphasized in the latest DDI (draft) guidance documents from U.S. and E.U. regulatory agencies. It has been suggested that some OATP1B1 inhibitors show a discrepancy in their inhibitory potential, depending on the substrates used in the cell-based assay. In this study, inhibitory effects of 14 compounds on the OATP1B1-mediated uptake of the prototypical substrates [³H]estradiol-17?-glucuronide (E?G), [³H]estrone-3-sulfate (E?S), and [³H]sulfobromophthalein (BSP) were studied in OATP1B1-transfected cells. Inhibitory potencies of tested compounds varied depending on the substrates. Ritonavir, gemfibrozil, and erythromycin caused remarkable substrate-dependent inhibition with up to 117-, 14-, and 13-fold difference in their IC?? values, respectively. Also, the clinically relevant OATP inhibitors rifampin and cyclosporin A exhibited up to 12- and 6-fold variation in their IC?? values, respectively. Regardless of the inhibitors tested, the most potent OATP1B1 inhibition was observed when [³H]E?G was used as a substrate. Mutual inhibition studies of OATP1B1 indicated that E?G and E?S competitively inhibited each other, whereas BSP noncompetitively inhibited E?G uptake. In addition, BSP inhibited E?S in a competitive manner, but E?S caused an atypical kinetics on BSP uptake. This study showed substrate-dependent inhibition of OATP1B1 and demonstrated that E?G was the most sensitive in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrate among three substrates tested. This will give us an insight into the assessment of clinically relevant OATP1B1-mediated DDI in vitro with minimum potential of false-negative prediction. PMID:23920221

Izumi, Saki; Nozaki, Yoshitane; Komori, Takafumi; Maeda, Kazuya; Takenaka, Osamu; Kusano, Kazutomi; Yoshimura, Tsutomu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

2013-10-01

221

Modulations of glypican-1 heparan sulfate structure by inhibition of endogenous polyamine synthesis. Mapping of spermine-binding sites and heparanase, heparin lyase, and nitric oxide/nitrite cleavage sites.  

PubMed

Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans facilitate uptake of growth-promoting polyamines (Belting, M., Persson, S., and Fransson, L.-A. (1999) Biochem. J. 338, 317-323; Belting, M., Borsig, L., Fuster, M. M., Brown, J. R., Persson, L., Fransson, L.-A., and Esko, J. D. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., in press). Here, we have analyzed the effect of polyamine deprivation on the structure and polyamine affinity of the heparan sulfate chains in various glypican-1 glycoforms synthesized by a transformed cell line (ECV 304). Heparan sulfate chains of glypican-1 were either cleaved with heparanase at sites embracing the highly modified regions or with nitrite at N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues. The products were separated and further degraded by heparin lyase to identify sulfated iduronic acid. Polyamine affinity was assessed by chromatography on agarose substituted with the polyamine spermine. In heparan sulfate made by cells with undisturbed endogenous polyamine synthesis, free amino groups were restricted to the unmodified, unsulfated segments, especially near the core protein. Spermine high affinity binding sites were located to the modified and highly sulfated segments that were released by heparanase. In cells with up-regulated polyamine uptake, heparan sulfate contained an increased number of clustered N-unsubstituted glucosamines and sulfated iduronic acid residues. This resulted in a greater number of NO/nitrite-sensitive cleavage sites near the potential spermine-binding sites. Endogenous degradation by heparanase and NO-derived nitrite in polyamine-deprived cells generated a separate pool of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with an exceptionally high affinity for spermine. Spermine uptake in polyamine-deprived cells was reduced when NO/nitrite-generated degradation of heparan sulfate was inhibited. The results suggest a functional interplay between glypican recycling, NO/nitrite-generated heparan sulfate degradation, and polyamine uptake. PMID:11577085

Ding, K; Sandgren, S; Mani, K; Belting, M; Fransson, L A

2001-12-14

222

Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.  

PubMed

The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health. PMID:22909979

Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, So?a; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

223

The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail.

Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

2012-01-01

224

Heparin sequences in the heparan sulfate chains of an endothelial cell proteoglycan  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the glycosaminoglycan chain of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan isolated from the conditioned medium of an endothelial cell line has been analyzed by using various degradative enzymes (heparitinase I, heparitinase II, heparinase, glycuronidase, sulfatases) from Flavobacterium heparinum. (/sup 35/S)sulfuric acid and/or (/sup 3/H) glucosamine ucre used in preparing heparan sulfate proteoglycan. This proteoglycan inhibits the thromboplastin-activated pathway of coagulation; as a consequence, the catalytic conversion of prothrombin to thrombin is arrested. Heparitinase I, an enzyme with specificity restricted to the heparan sulfate portion of the polysaccharide, releases fragments with the electrophoretic mobility and the structure of heparin. Conversely, as assessment of the size and distribution of the heparan sulfate regions has been provided by the use of heparinase, which, by degrading the heparin sections of the chain, releases two segments that exhibit the structure of heparan sulfate. One of these segments is attached to the protein core. On the basis of these findings, the heparan sulfate chain can be defined as a copolymer containing heparin regions in its structure. The combined use of these enzymes has made it possible to establish the disaccharide sequence of parts of the glycosaminoglycan moiety of this proteoglycan.

Nader, H.B.; Dietrich, C.P.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

1987-06-01

225

New Bacterial Polysaccharide from Arthrobacter1  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain (NRRL B-1973) isolated from soil at Guatemala City and tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter species produced a polysaccharide with unusual properties. Conditions were studied for the production of this microbial gum in shaken flasks and 20-liter fermentors. Suitable nutrients for optimal polysaccharide production included 3% glucose, 0.3% enzyme-hydrolyzed casein, magnesium sulfate, manganese sulfate, and potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Polysaccharide yields ranged from 40 to 45%, based on initial dextrose in the medium in 3- or 4-day fermentations. The gum was readily recovered from culture fluid by alcohol precipitation in the presence of an electrolyte. The Arthrobacter gum exhibited characteristics unique for a polyelectrolyte. Viscosity of solutions was not decreased by heating in the presence of salt, and the gum withstood a temperature of 121 C for 30 min. At polysaccharide levels above 0.75%, gels were formed when solutions were autoclaved with KCl. There was no significant change in viscosity over a pH range of 5.0 to 10.0.

Cadmus, M. C.; Gasdorf, Helen; Lagoda, A. A.; Anderson, R. F.; Jackson, R. W.

1963-01-01

226

Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase\\/Akt signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a remedy to promote health and longevity in China. The polysaccharide component with a branched (133)--D-glucan moiety from G. luci- dum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor ef- fects. In this study, we investigated the effect of PS-G on neutrophil viability, which is manifested by spontaneous

Ming-Jen Hsu; Shiuh-Sheng Lee; Wan-Wan Lin

227

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The polyanionic linear polysaccharide heparan sulfate specifically interacts with a multitude of extracellular ligands relevant\\u000a to all steps of tumor progression. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as coreceptors for cytokine and chemokine signaling,\\u000a modulating tumor cell growth and survival, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. As matrix receptors, they act in concert with integrins\\u000a to regulate tumor cell motility. As binding partners for matrix

Ezeddin Salem Gassar; Sherif A. Ibrahim; Martin Götte

228

A polysaccharide isolated from the brown seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum exerts antivasculogenic effects evidenced by modified morphogenesis.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide (Sarg) extracted from the brown marine alga Sargassum stenophyllum was studied for its antivasculogenic effects in both in vivo and in vitro assays, as well as for its capacity to modify embryonic morphogenetic processes endogenously regulated by bFGF, a well-known angiogenic stimulator. The antivasculogenic activity of Sarg (6-1500 microg/implant) was evaluated in a chick yolk sac membrane assay and the embryonic morphogenesis was measured as the percentage cephalic length. Sarg alone (96-1500 microg/implant) and co-administered with hydrocortisone (HC; 156 microg/implant) decreased the vitelline vessel number by 23-100% and 54-100% respectively. The polysaccharide potentiated the antivasculogenic effect of HC (42% inhibition). Basic fibroblast growth factor-stimulated vasculogenesis (141% of vessels as compared to control) was partially reversed by Sarg. The treatment with Sarg also decreased the percentage cephalic length of 3.5- and 4-day chick embryos (as cultured in vivo and in vitro, respectively), uncoupled from any impairment in the body shape or embryotoxic effect. Due to polyanionic characteristics of Sarg, which are similar to those seen in the heparin molecule, we suggest that this polysaccharide should modulate the activity of heparin-binding vascular growth factors (such as bFGF, which also acts as a morphogen) mimetically interfering with heparan sulfate proteoglycans during microvessel formation. PMID:17585952

Dias, Paulo Fernando; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Antônio Gilberto; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

2008-01-01

229

Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class  

PubMed Central

Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known.

Rzeski, Wojciech

2012-01-01

230

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.  

PubMed

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

2004-04-01

231

Modular automated solid phase synthesis of dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Dermatan sulfates are glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides that serve a multitude of biological roles as part of the extracellular matrix. Orthogonally protected D-galactosamine and L-iduronic acid building blocks and a photo-cleavable linker are instrumental for the automated synthesis of dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides. Conjugation-ready oligosaccharides were obtained in good yield. PMID:24402061

Kandasamy, Jeyakumar; Schuhmacher, Frank; Hahm, Heung Sik; Klein, James C; Seeberger, Peter H

2014-02-21

232

Structure of a sulfated xylofucan from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide composed of l-fucose, d-xylose, and sulfate in a molar proportion of about 5:2:3 was isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Polysaccharide structure was elucidated by methylation analysis, Smith degradation, as well as by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to contain a backbone of 3-linked ?-l-fucopyranose residues, about two thirds of which are sulfated at O-2 forming trisaccharide repeating units ?3)-?-l-Fucp2S-(1?3)-?-l-Fucp2S-(1?3)-?-l-Fucp-(1?. This structural regularity is masked by random distribution of non-sulfated ?-d-Xylp residues attached to position 4 of the backbone. The polysaccharide is a new representative of a complex 'fucoidan' family of sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweeds. PMID:24879011

Bilan, Maria I; Shashkov, Alexander S; Usov, Anatolii I

2014-07-01

233

Method for producing capsular polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

234

THE ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OF THE PROTEIN-POLYSACCHARIDES OF CARTILAGE  

PubMed Central

1. Protein-polysaccharides isolated from bovine, human, and porcine cartilage are antigenic in the rabbit. 2. PP-L from each of these species contains a minimum of two antigenic determinants; one is species specific, and one is common to all three species. Human PP-H also contains these two determinants. 3. Both antigenic determinants are in, or closely associated with, the protein moiety of the compound. Chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate were not demonstrated to be antigenic in these studies.

Sandson, John; Rosenberg, Lawrence; White, David

1966-01-01

235

Ginsenoside metabolite compound K promotes recovery of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and inhibits inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

2014-01-01

236

Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-?B Activation  

PubMed Central

Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

2014-01-01

237

Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives.

Cumpstey, Ian

2013-01-01

238

Anti-viral activity of red microalgal polysaccharides against retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Red microalgal polysaccharides significantly inhibited the production of retroviruses (murine leukemia virus- MuLV) and cell transformation by murine sarcoma virus(MuSV-124) in cell culture. The most effective inhibitory effect of these polysaccharides against both cell transformation and virus production was obtained when the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. Although, addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection.The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that microalgal polysaccharides inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. In conclusion, our findings could support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in the virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration.

Talyshinsky, Marina M; Souprun, Yelena Y; Huleihel, Mahmoud M

2002-01-01

239

Sulfate inhibition of molybdenum-dependent nitrogen fixation by planktonic cyanobacteria under seawater conditions: a non-reversible effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace element molybdenum is a central component of several enzymes essential to bacterial nitrogen metabolism, including nitrogen fixation. Despite reasonably high dissolved concentrations (for a trace metal) of molybdenum in seawater, evidence suggests that its biological reactivity and availability are lower in seawater than in freshwater. We have previously argued that this difference is related to an inhibition in

Roxanne Marino; Robert W. Howarth; Francis Chan; Jonathan J. Cole; Gene E. Likens

2003-01-01

240

Identification of a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide That Inhibits Infectivity of Genital Types of Human Papillomaviruses?  

PubMed Central

Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections.

Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

2010-01-01

241

Identification of a dendrimeric heparan sulfate-binding peptide that inhibits infectivity of genital types of human papillomaviruses.  

PubMed

Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

2010-10-01

242

Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan  

SciTech Connect

Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, (/sup 35/S)-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall.

Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

1986-03-05

243

Sulfate inhibition of molybdenum-dependent nitrogen fixation by planktonic cyanobacteria under sea water conditions: a non-reversible effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The trace element molybdenum is a central component of several enzymes essential to bacterial nitrogen metabolism, including\\u000a nitrogen fixation. Despite reasonably high dissolved concentrations (for a trace metal) of molybdenum in seawater, evidence\\u000a suggests that its biological reactivity and availability are lower in seawater than in freshwater. We have previously argued\\u000a that this difference is related to an inhibition in

Roxanne Marinol; Robert W. Howarth-v; Francis Chan; Jonathan J. Cole; Gene E. Likens

244

Antibiofilm Activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 Capsular Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

2013-01-01

245

Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

2012-06-01

246

Chemically engineered sulfated glucans from rice bran exert strong antiviral activity at the stage of viral entry.  

PubMed

Attachment and entry of many viruses are mediated by their affinity for polysaccharides present on the surface of target cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that sulfated glucans isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) can be utilized as experimental drugs exerting strong antiviral activity. In particular, oleum-DMF-based extraction is described as a procedure for the generation of chemically engineered glucans from commercially available rice bran. The one-step procedure has the potential to provide a spectrum of related glucans with varying molecular masses and modifications, including sulfation. The sulfated glucans P444, P445, and P446 possess increased antiviral activity compared to a previously described glucan (S1G). P444, P445, and P446 were highly active against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), moderately active against other members of the family Herpesviridae, while not active against unrelated viruses. Specific experimentation with HCMV-infected cells provided evidence that antiviral activity was based on inhibition of viral entry and that inhibition occurred in the absence of drug-induced cytotoxicity. These findings underline the high potential of sulfated glucans for antiviral research and drug development. In addition, the procedure described for the efficient transformation of glucan hydroxy groups to sulfate groups may be similarly beneficial for the chemical alteration of other natural products. PMID:24279818

Ray, Bimalendu; Hutterer, Corina; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Kanika; Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Sayani; Zeitträger, Isabel; Wagner, Sabrina; Marschall, Manfred

2013-12-27

247

Inhibition of attachment of human gingival fibroblast-like cells in vitro by saliva and salivary-sulfated glycoprotein in the presence of serum.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that human whole saliva and a high molecular weight sulfated glycoprotein (SGP) salivary component inhibits attachment of human gingival fibroblast-like cells to plastic substrata in serum-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of saliva on attachment of these cells to tissue culture plastic in the presence of serum. Individual wells of multiwell dishes were coated with either sterile whole saliva or SGP, sequentially with fetal bovine serum followed by saliva or SGP, sequentially with the latter agents applied in the reverse order, with mixtures of saliva and serum or SGP and serum. Washed wells were seeded with 1.0 x 10(5) fibroblasts in alpha-MEM and numbers of adhering cells determined after 30 minutes. Saliva or SGP inhibited cell adherence as previously reported. Cell adherence in wells treated sequentially with saliva or SGP followed by serum, or with the latter followed by the salivary agents, was reduced significantly compared with that in untreated control wells. Wells treated with mixtures of serum and saliva or SGP exhibited progressive reduction in numbers of adhering cells as the concentration of the salivary agents increased. Significant suppression of attachment compared with controls also occurred when cells in alpha-MEM containing 15% serum were plated onto saliva- or SGP-treated wells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that adsorbed salivary glycoprotein may bring about periodontal wound healing by repair rather than by regeneration by inhibiting fibroblast attachment to root surfaces in vivo. PMID:2391628

Heaney, T G

1990-08-01

248

Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

249

Capillary electrophoresis of complex natural polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Complex natural polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), are a class of ubiquitous macromolecules that exhibit a wide range of biological functions and participate and regulate multiple cellular events and (patho)physiological processes. They are generally present either as free chains (hyaluronic acid and bacterial acidic polysaccharides) or as side chains of proteoglycans (PGs; chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, heparin/heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate) and are most often found in cell membranes and in the extracellular matrix. The recent emergence of modern analytical tools for their study has produced a virtual explosion in the field of glycomics. CE, due to its high resolving power and sensitivity, has been useful in the analysis of intact GAGs and GAG-derived oligosaccharides and disaccharides affording concentration and structural characterization data essential for understanding the biological functions of GAGs. In this review, novel off-line and on-line CE-MS and MS/MS methods for screening of GAG-derived oligosaccharides and disaccharides will be discussed.

Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Linhardt, Robert J.

2009-01-01

250

Facile synthesis of multilayered polysaccharidic vesicles.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed facile synthesis method of multilayered polysaccharidic vesicles (hereafter termed 'mPSVs') using polysaccharides such as starch, hyaluronate (HA), and glycol chitosan (GC) via simple chemistry and using enzymatic reactions among polysaccharides. The enzymatic degradation of the HA shell by hyaluronidase (HYAL) enzyme contributed to accelerate the release of protein/peptide from the mPSVs. The mPSVs containing folate ligand and apoptotic cell death-inducing D-(KLAKLAK)2 peptide were effectively accumulated in in vivo KB tumor cells, primarily owing to passive tumor penetration via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting via specific binding to folate receptors expressed on KB tumor cells. These mPSVs resulted in a significant increase in the in vivo tumor inhibition. This vesicle system is expected to exhibit great potential as an advanced platform technology for biomedical applications involving small molecular drugs with protein/gene targets. PMID:24878178

Kwag, Dong Sup; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lee, Eun Seong

2014-08-10

251

Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study.

Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

2013-01-01

252

Effects of two sulfated triterpene saponins echinoside A and holothurin A on the inhibition of dietary fat absorption and obesity reduction.  

PubMed

Two similarly sulfated triterpene saponins from Pearsonothuria graeffei were prepared to investigate the anti-obesity effects of echinoside A (EA) and holothurin A (HA). The in vitro inhibitory activities of EA and HA toward pancreatic lipase were investigated, and two in vivo studies were performed: (i) Male Wistar rats were orally administered the lipid emulsion with or without a saponin (HA or EA). The serum's total triglyceride concentration was measured at various times. (ii) C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups, high fat (HF), EA (0.03%), HA (0.04%), and orlistat (0.01%), and the weight of adipose tissue and level of fatty acids excreted in the feces were determined. Both EA and HA repressed the pancreatic lipase activity and increased fatty acid excretion in the feces. Treatment with EA and HA significantly decreased the adipose tissue accumulation in mice. EA and HA manifested different inhibitory activities in vitro, but each of them dramatically inhibited lipid absorption in vivo and showed strong anti-obesity activity. PMID:25036496

Wang, Yuming; Wang, Jiahui; Yanagita, Ryo C; Liu, Chunhua; Hu, Xiaoqian; Dong, Ping; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong

2014-01-01

253

Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

(14C)benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2from ( 14 C)benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted,andbenzeneuptakeresumedwhensulfatewasaddedagain.Thestoichiometryofbenzeneuptakeand sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for

DEREK R. LOVLEY; JOHN D. COATES; JOAN C. WOODWARD; ANDELIZABETH J. P. PHILLIPS

1995-01-01

254

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation  

PubMed Central

Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy.

SUN, LI-XIN; LIN, ZHI-BIN; DUAN, XIN-SUO; LU, JIE; GE, ZHI-HUA; LI, MIN; XING, EN-HONG; LAN, TIAN-FEI; JIANG, MIAO-MIAO; YANG, NING; LI, WEI-DONG

2013-01-01

255

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation.  

PubMed

Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Lu, Jie; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Li, Min; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Yang, Ning; Li, Wei-Dong

2013-04-01

256

Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of a chemically sulfated galactoglucomannan obtained from the lichen Cladonia ibitipocae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A galactoglucomannan (GGM), isolated from the lichen Cladonia ibitipocae, consisted of a (1?6)-linked main chain of ?-mannopyranose units, substituted by ?- and ?-d-galacto (?- and ?-d-Galp)-, ?-d-gluco (?-d-Glcp) - and ?-d-mannopyranosyl (?-d-Manp) groups, and was sulfated giving a sulfated polysaccharide (GGM-SO4) with 42.2% sulfate corresponding to a degree of substitution of 1.29. NMR studies indicated that after sulfation, the OH-6

J. C. Martinichen-Herrero; E. R. Carbonero; G. L. Sassaki; P. A. J. Gorin; M. Iacomini

2005-01-01

257

Effect of Nitrogen on Polysaccharide Production in a Porphyridium sp  

PubMed Central

Porphyridium cultures grown on either nitrate or ammonium as the nitrogen source showed similar patterns of growth and cell wall polysaccharide production. The effect of nitrogen on growth and cell wall polysaccharide production was studied by applying three regimens of supply: batch mode, in which nitrate was supplied at the beginning of the experiment and became depleted at day 6; continual mode, in which nitrate was added daily; and deficient mode, in which the cells were cultured in a nitrate-free medium. Growth was similar in the batch- and continual-mode cultures, whereas it was totally inhibited in the deficient-mode culture. Polysaccharide content (per volume) was highest in the batch-mode culture and lowest in the deficient-mode culture. However, polysaccharide production per cell was similar in the continual- and deficient-mode cultures, the highest value being found in the batch-mode culture. In addition to its effect on polysaccharide content, nitrogen affected the polysaccharide distribution between soluble and bound polysaccharides. In the deficientmode culture, most of the cell wall polysaccharide was dissolved in the medium.

Arad, Shoshana (Malis); Friedman, Orit (Dahan); Rotem, Avi

1988-01-01

258

Cooperative Anti-Diabetic Effects of Deoxynojirimycin-Polysaccharide by Inhibiting Glucose Absorption and Modulating Glucose Metabolism in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

We had previously shown that deoxynojirimycin-polysaccharide mixture (DPM) not only decreased blood glucose but also reversed the damage to pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. However, the mechanisms behind these effects were not fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of DPM on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. Diabetic mice were treated with DPM (150 mg/kg body weight) for 90 days and continued to be fed without DPM for an additional 30 days. Strikingly, decrease of blood glucose levels was observed in all DPM treated diabetic mice, which persisted 30 days after cessation of DPM administration. Significant decrease of glycosylated hemoglobin and hepatic pyruvate concentrations, along with marked increase of serum insulin and hepatic glycogen levels were detected in DPM treated diabetic mice. Results of a labeled 13C6-glucose uptake assay indicated that DPM can restrain glucose absorption. Additionally, DPM down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of jejunal Na+/glucose cotransporter, Na+/K+-ATPase and glucose transporter 2, and enhanced the activities as well as mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glycolysis enzymes (glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, private kinase and pyruvate decarboxylas E1). Activity and expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) were also found to be attenuated in diabetic mice treated with DPM. Purified enzyme activity assays verified that the increased activities of glucose glycolysis enzymes resulted not from their direct activation, but from the relative increase in protein expression. Importantly, our histopathological observations support the results of our biochemical analyses and validate the protective effects of DPM on STZ-induced damage to the pancreas. Thus, DPM has significant potential as a therapeutic agent against diabetes.

Li, You-Gui; Ji, Dong-Feng; Zhong, Shi; Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Tian-Bao

2013-01-01

259

Polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus inhibits migration and invasion in B16-F10 cells by suppressing MMP?2 and MMP?9 via downregulation of NF-?B signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides derived from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) are known to possess multiple pharmacological activities including antitumor activity. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of these activities are unknown. In the present study, we determined the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PIO in the highly metastatic B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line in vitro. We found that PIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of B16-F10 cells and decreased the expression levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In addition, PIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); PIO also decreased the expression level of cyclooxygenase (COX)?2 and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that PIO could suppress the invasion and migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells by reducing the expression levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through suppressing MAPK, COX-2 and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:24677090

Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Hong, Eock Kee

2014-05-01

260

Release of O-sulfate groups under mild acid hydrolysis conditions used for estimation of N-sulfate content.  

PubMed

The treatment of chondroitin sulfate isolated from cultured B16 mouse melanoma cells with 0.04 M HCl at 100 degrees C for 90 min released up to 45% of O-sulfate residues as free inorganic sulfate. In addition to the release of inorganic sulfate, extensive degradation of this polysaccharide as well as of cartilage chondroitin sulfate, pig rib cartilage proteoglycan, heparin and hyaluronic acid was also evident under these conditions. The above hydrolysis conditions are used for characterizing 35S-labeled heparan sulfates synthesized by cultured cells and to calculate ratio of N- and O-sulfates in these molecules. Our results suggest that caution is necessary in interpreting the results of mild acid hydrolysis of glycosaminoglycans. PMID:884153

Bhavanandan, V P; Breindel, D; Davidson, E A

1977-06-23

261

Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-L-lysine.  

PubMed

A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-L-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-L-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-10-15

262

Synthesis of disaccharide methyl glycosides related to the polysaccharide from Klebsiella serotype 40 and a study of their inhibition in the precipitin reaction.  

PubMed

The methyl glycosides of alpha-D-Manp-(1----4)-alpha-L-Rhap (3), alpha-L-Rhap-(1----3)-beta-D-Galp (4), beta-L-Rhap-(1----3)-beta-D-Galp (5), beta-D-Galp-(1----2)-alpha-L-Rhap (6), and beta-D-GlcpA-(1----2)-alpha-L-Rhap (7) have been synthesised and their inhibition reactions in the Klebsiella serotype 40 immune system have been studied. The results obtained accord with only one of two structures proposed for the repeating unit of the K40 antigen. PMID:2085817

Maddali, U B; Ray, A K; Roy, N

1990-12-15

263

Antioxidation and anti-microorganism activities of purification polysaccharide from Lygodium japonicum in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we extracted polysaccharides from fern Lygodium japonicum and obtained purification polysaccharides by a DEAE-52 cellulose column (1.6×30cm). The antioxidant activity of the purification polysaccharides was evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including DPPH? radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities, and inhibition against liposome peroxidation. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard

XiaoLan Li; AiGuo Zhou; Yong Han

2006-01-01

264

Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20?mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2012-01-01

265

Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of ?-glucosidase.  

PubMed

The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 °C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The ?-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mg·mL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mg·mL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. PMID:24863354

Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

2014-04-01

266

A new procedure for the isolation of anti-HIV compounds (polysaccharides and polyphenols) from the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus.  

PubMed

Anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus by hot H2O extraction of both the intact and the homogenized algae. This was followed by XAD2 chromatography and by sequential precipitation of the non-adsorbed compounds with glacial HOAc and thereafter with EtOH. The precipitate was solubilized, dialyzed against distilled H2O, and chromatographed on SP-Sephadex C25 and on QAE-Sephadex A25. This was followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G50 and Sephadex G100 and finally by hplc on a Shodex Ionpak S-804 column. For comparison, the commercial product fucoidan, a sulfated algal polysaccharide, was also further purified by the chromatographic techniques mentioned above. The isolated freeze-dried fractions obtained by these procedures were tested for inhibition of both HIV-induced syncytium formation and HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme activity. Some of these fractions inhibited both of these activities at concentrations that were not cytotoxic. PMID:7684438

Béress, A; Wassermann, O; Tahhan, S; Bruhn, T; Béress, L; Kraiselburd, E N; Gonzalez, L V; de Motta, G E; Chavez, P I

1993-04-01

267

Medium optimization for polysaccharide production of Cordyceps sinensis.  

PubMed

As a potential anticarcinogenic agent, polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to possess strong antioxidation activity. The aim of the present research was to study the optimal medium to produce polysaccharides of C. sinensis by using response surface methodology (RSM). The composition of optimized medium for polysaccharide production calculated from the regression model of RSM was 6.17% sucrose, 0.53% corn steep powder, 0.5% (NH4)2HPO4, and 0.15% KH2PO4 at pH 4.44, with a predicted maximum polysaccharide production of 3.17 g/L. When applying this optimal medium, the maximum polysaccharide production was 3.05 and 3.21 g/L in a shake flask and a 5-L jar fermentor, respectively. When the pH was controlled at a higher level such as pH 5.0, both cell growth and polysaccharide production were inhibited. A low pH of 2.85 was required for maximum production of polysaccharides. PMID:15695843

Hsieh, Chienyan; Tsai, Ming-Jin; Hsu, Tai-Hao; Chang, Der-Ming; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen

2005-02-01

268

O-acetylation of low-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide extracted from green algae Enteromorpha linza (EP) is a sulfated polysaccharide, which possesses excellent antioxidant activities. In present study, the acetylated derivatives of low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (LEP) was prepared with the method of response surface quadratic model. And then the antioxidant activities of the derivatives were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The results of chemical analysis and FT-IR spectrum showed the acetylation was successful. And in addition, certain derivative with different degree of substitution (DS) exhibited different antioxidant activity. PMID:24854210

Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Mingxing; Qi, Huimin

2014-08-01

269

Structure and affinity for antithrombin of heparan sulfate chains derived from basement membrane proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Metabolically /sup 35/S- or /sup 3/H-labeled heparan sulfate was isolated from murine Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic basement membrane produced by parietal endoderm cells, and from the basement membrane-producing Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse tumor. The polysaccharides were subjected to structural analysis involving identification of products formed on deamination of the polysaccharides with nitrous acid. The polysaccharide from Reichert's membrane contained N- and O-sulfate groups in approximately equal proportions. It bound almost quantitatively and with high affinity to antithrombin. A high proportion of antithrombin-binding sequence was also indicated by the finding that 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues accounted for about 10% of the total O-sulfate groups. In contrast, at least 80% of the sulfate residues in the heparan sulfate isolated from the mouse tumor were N-substituents. Only a minor proportion of this polysaccharide bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and no 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues were detected. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functional role of heparan sulfate in basement membranes.

Pejler, G.; Baeckstroem, G.Li.; Lindahl, U.; Paulsson, M.; Dziadek, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Timpl, R.

1987-04-15

270

Heparan sulfate: decoding a dynamic multifunctional cell regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heparan sulfates are a family of cell-surface and matrix polysaccharides with an incredible degree of structural diversity that are distributed widely in virtually all metazoan organisms. Recent genetic, biochemical and cell-biological studies have led to increased understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms that produce these complex molecules, as well as their functional versatility in regulating protein activities. The dynamic expression

Jeremy Turnbull; Andrew Powell; Scott Guimond

2001-01-01

271

A single protein catalyzes both N-deacetylation and N-sulfation during the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate is a highly sulfated carbohydrate polymer that binds to and modulates the activities of numerous proteins. The formation of these protein-binding domains in heparan sulfate is dependent on a series of biosynthetic reactions that modify the polysaccharide backbone; the initiating and rate-limiting steps of this process are the N-deacetylation and N-sulfation of N-acetylglucosamine residues in the polymer. We now report that in the rat liver, biosynthesis of heparan sulfate utilizes a single protein that possesses both N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase activities. This was accomplished by demonstrating that both activities resided in a purified soluble fusion protein containing the Golgi-lumenal portion of the enzyme. We propose that this protein be renamed the rat liver Golgi heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase. Images Fig. 1

Wei, Z; Swiedler, S J; Ishihara, M; Orellana, A; Hirschberg, C B

1993-01-01

272

Selective effects of sodium chlorate treatment on the sulfation of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the effect of sodium chlorate treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells on the structure of heparan sulfate (HS), to assess how the various sulfation reactions during HS biosynthesis are affected by decreased availability of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. Metabolically [(3)H]glucosamine-labeled HS was isolated from chlorate-treated and untreated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and subjected to low pH nitrous acid cleavage. Saccharides representing (i) the N-sulfated domains, (ii) the domains of alternating N-acetylated and N-sulfated disaccharide units, and (iii) the N-acetylated domains were recovered and subjected to compositional disaccharide analysis. Upon treatment with 50 mM chlorate, overall O-sulfation of HS was inhibited by approximately 70%, whereas N-sulfation remained essentially unchanged. Low chlorate concentrations (5 or 20 mM) selectively reduced the 6-O-sulfation of HS, whereas treatment with 50 mM chlorate reduced both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. Analysis of saccharides representing the different domain types indicated that 6-O-sulfation was preferentially inhibited in the alternating domains. These data suggest that reduced 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate availability has distinct effects on the N- and O-sulfation of HS and that O-sulfation is affected in a domain-specific fashion. PMID:10593915

Safaiyan, F; Kolset, S O; Prydz, K; Gottfridsson, E; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

1999-12-17

273

Chemically sulfated galactomannan from Dimorphandra gardneriana seed: characterization and toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

Dimorphandra gardneriana galactomannan (DG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the sulfation agent. The degree of substitution was 0.32, determined from the sulfur percentage. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by FTIR spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical SO stretching vibration at 1,259 cm(-1). NMR data showed that the sulfation occurred on primary hydroxyl groups. NMR and GPC data indicate degradation during reaction with elimination of galactose. At the maximum tested concentration of 1,000 ?g/mL, unmodified DG polysaccharide did not show a statistically significant cytotoxicity in Vero cells by the MTT method. Therefore, the CC50>1,000 ?g/mL obtained for the sulfated polysaccharides from D. gardneriana in Vero cells point to its lower cytotoxicity than the sulfated galactomannan from Mimosa scabrella. PMID:24299869

Moura Neto, E; Sombra, V G; Richter, A R; Abreu, C M W S; Maciel, J S; Cunha, P L R; Ono, L; Sierakowski, M R; Feitosa, J P A; de Paula, R C M

2014-01-30

274

Modified Aloe barbadensis polysaccharide with immunoregulatory activity.  

PubMed

Aloe barbadensis polysaccharide was partially digested with cellulase and further purified by dialysis, stepwise ethanol precipitation, and size exclusion chromatography. Crude modified Aloe polysaccharide (MAP) activated macrophage cells and stimulated fibroblast growth. Under the same conditions, native Aloe barbadensis gel had no effect on macrophage activation. MAP prevented ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced immune suppression as determined by contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response in C3H/HeN mice. This in vivo activity was correlated with the activity of MAP to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) release from human epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB cells). MAP with an average molecular weight of 80,000 Dalton (Da) contained mannose, galactose, and glucose in a ratio of 40:1.4:1.0. MAP was likely a linear, highly acetylated molecule. PMID:10763590

Qiu, Z; Jones, K; Wylie, M; Jia, Q; Orndorff, S

2000-03-01

275

Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 3, below the pK{sub a} of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

Welch, S.A.; Barker, W.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Banfield, J.F. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Mineralogical Inst.] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Mineralogical Inst.

1999-05-01

276

Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH ? 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH ? 3, below the pK a of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

Welch, S. A.; Barker, W. W.; Banfield, J. F.

1999-05-01

277

Sulfated glycosaminoglycans enhance tumor cell invasion in vitro by stimulating plasminogen activation.  

PubMed

Metastasizing tumor cells invade host tissues by degrading extracellular matrix constituents. We report here that the highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans, heparin and heparan sulfate, as well as the sulfated polysaccharide, fucoidan, significantly enhanced tumor cell invasion in vitro into fibrin, the basement membrane extract, Matrigel, or through a basement membrane-like extracellular matrix. The enhancement of tumor cell invasion was due to a stimulation of the proteolytic cascade of plasminogen activation since the effect required plasminogen activation and was abolished by inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) or plasmin. Sulfated polysaccharides enhanced five reactions of tumor-cell initiated plasminogen activation in a dose-dependent manner. They amplified plasminogen activation in culture supernatants up to 70-fold by stimulating (i) pro-uPA activation by plasmin and (ii) plasminogen activation by uPA. (iii) In addition, sulfated polysaccharides partially protected plasmin from inactivation by alpha 2-antiplasmin. Sulfated polysaccharides also stimulated tumor-cell associated plasminogen activation, e.g., (iv) cell surface pro-uPA activation by plasmin and (v) plasminogen activation by cell surface uPA. These results suggest that sulfated glycosaminoglycans liberated by tumor-cell mediated extracellular matrix degradation in vivo might amplify pericellular plasminogen activation and locally enhance tumor cell invasion in a positive feedback manner. PMID:9521847

Brunner, G; Reimbold, K; Meissauer, A; Schirrmacher, V; Erkell, L J

1998-03-15

278

Specificity of antibodies to O-acetyl-positive and O-acetyl-negative group C meningococcal polysaccharides in sera from vaccinees and carriers.  

PubMed Central

Most group C Neisseria meningitidis strains produce an O-acetyl-positive polysaccharide, a homopolymer of alpha-2----9-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid with O-acetyl groups at the C-7 and C-8 of its sialic acid residues. The majority of disease isolates have been reported to contain this polysaccharide. Some strains produce group C polysaccharide lacking O-acetyl groups. The licensed vaccine contains the O-acetyl-positive polysaccharide. We have measured the antibody specificities to the two polysaccharides in sera from asymptomatic group C meningococcal carriers and vaccinated adults by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using methylated human serum albumin for coating the group C polysaccharide onto microtiter plates. Inhibition of binding of serum antibodies to polysaccharide-coated plates was measured by ELISA after incubation with O-acetyl-positive and O-acetyl-negative group C polysaccharides. Greater inhibition of binding of carrier sera was observed with the homologous polysaccharide. There was substantial inhibition of binding of vaccinee sera to the O-acetyl-positive polysaccharide-coated plate following preincubation with O-acetyl-positive polysaccharide, but homologous inhibition on plates coated with the O-acetyl-negative polysaccharide required much higher concentrations of polysaccharide. Carrier sera may have a higher proportion of antibodies with greater specificity for the O-acetyl-negative polysaccharide, while vaccinee sera contain antibodies with greater affinity for the O-acetyl-positive polysaccharide. Studies with monoclonal antibodies specific for O-acetyl-positive and O-acetyl-negative polysaccharides reveal that the percentage of group C meningococcal disease caused by O-acetyl-negative strains remains about 15%, as found over 15 years ago.

Arakere, G; Frasch, C E

1991-01-01

279

Inhibition of amyloid A amyloidogenesis in vivo and in tissue culture by 4-deoxy analogues of peracetylated 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha- and beta-d-glucose: implications for the treatment of various amyloidoses.  

PubMed

Two novel sugars, 2-acetamido-1,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-alpha- and beta-D-xylo-hexopyranoses, have been synthesized and their effects on heparan sulfate biosynthesis using primary mouse hepatocytes in tissue culture have been assessed. At concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/L a mixture of both anomers significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate by 60% and 99%, respectively. At 1.0 mmol/L the average molecular weight of the heparan sulfate synthesized is reduced from 77 kd to 40 kd. The biosynthetic inhibition is apparent within 1 hour (the earliest time point examined) of exposure of the hepatocytes to the analogues and appears virtually complete throughout a 24-hour incubation period. Using a radiolabeled version of the beta-anomer we demonstrate that the analogue is incorporated into growing heparan sulfate chains. The nature of the analogue, the quantity of analogue isotope incorporated, and the reduction in the size of the heparan sulfate polysaccharide are consistent with UDP activation and incorporation of the analogue and truncation of the growing heparan sulfate chain. At 0.1 mmol/L, and in the presence of a constant concentration of serum amyloid A (the precursor to AA amyloid), each analogue inhibited amyloid deposition (by 95 to 99%) in a tissue culture model of AA amyloidogenesis. At 6 mg/dose twice daily each analogue inhibited in vivo splenic AA amyloid deposition by 65 to 70% when using a rapid induction model of mouse AA amyloidogenesis. These data indicate that polysaccharides, such as heparan sulfate, play an integral part in the pathogenesis of AA amyloid deposition, and potentially other forms of amyloid. These data support our previous work that demonstrated that agents that mimic aspects of heparan sulfate structure and that interfere with heparan sulfate:amyloid protein binding inhibit AA amyloid deposition. They emphasize that heparan sulfate likely plays a critical role in amyloidogenesis, and compounds that interfere with heparan sulfate biosynthesis may provide leads for the development of anti-amyloid therapeutic agents. PMID:15161647

Kisilevsky, Robert; Szarek, Walter A; Ancsin, John B; Elimova, Elena; Marone, Sandra; Bhat, Shridhar; Berkin, Ali

2004-06-01

280

Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity.

JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN; MENG, DE-YOU

2013-01-01

281

Polysaccharide-carbon nanotube complex  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a complex which comprises a carbon nanotube and a modified polysaccharide having a backbone chain with the side thereof being introduced with monosaccharide or oligosaccharide residues. The polysaccharide is preferably .beta.-1,3-glucan. The complex is prepared by admixing a solution of the modified polysaccharide dissolved in an aprotic polar solvent or a strong alkali solution with an aqueous dispersion of the carbon nanotube, and incubating the mixture.

2011-05-03

282

Clopidogrel Effectively Suppresses Endothelial Microparticle Generation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate via Inhibition of the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are closely associated with vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of several drugs on EMP generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in EMP generation. Methods: CD31+CD42-EMP counts were measured by flow cytometry in supernatants of HUVECs incubated with indoxyl sulfate. The EMP responses to losartan,

Jung-Hwa Ryu; Seung-Jung Kim

2011-01-01

283

Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

2012-06-20

284

Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

2013-03-01

285

Scavenging and antioxidant activities of immunomodulating polysaccharides isolated from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

Crude polysaccharides, isolated from the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) by sequential extraction with water (A), hot ammonium oxalate (B), dimethyl sulfoxide (C), 1M (D) and 4M (E) potassium hydroxide solutions, and six ion-exchange fractions of A were examined for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of liposome lipid by hydroxyl radicals and to reduced DPPH radical content. The highest inhibition of liposome lipid peroxidation was found with crude polysaccharides A, B and D, antioxidant activities reached approximately 37%. The purified fractions A1 and A2 inhibited the liposome peroxidation to approximately 35%. However, the radical scavenging abilities of the most active crude polysaccharides A, B and C on DPPH radicals were found in the range 80-90%, while the most active purified fractions A3-A6 in three or fourfold doses achieved 75-92%. The least effective tested polysaccharides succeeded 20% inhibition using both methods. PMID:19014965

Capek, P; Machová, E; Turjan, J

2009-01-01

286

Selectin blocking activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber. Effect on tumor metastasis and neutrophil recruitment.  

PubMed

Heparin is an excellent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to the carbohydrate determinant, sialyl Lewis(x). As a consequence of its anti-selectin activity, heparin attenuates metastasis and inflammation. Here we show that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber composed of a chondroitin sulfate backbone substituted at the 3-position of the beta-D-glucuronic acid residues with 2,4-disulfated alpha-L-fucopyranosyl branches, is a potent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to immobilized sialyl Lewis(x) and LS180 carcinoma cell attachment to immobilized P- and L-selectins. Inhibition occurs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, FucCS was 4-8-fold more potent than heparin in the inhibition of the P- and L-selectin-sialyl Lewis(x) interactions. No inhibition of E-selectin was observed. FucCS also inhibited lung colonization by adenocarcinoma MC-38 cells in an experimental metastasis model in mice, as well as neutrophil recruitment in two models of inflammation (thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation). Inhibition occurred at a dose that produces no significant change in plasma activated partial thromboplastin time. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches on the FucCS abolished the inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results suggest that invertebrate FucCS may be a potential alternative to heparin for blocking metastasis and inflammatory reactions without the undesirable side effects of anticoagulant heparin. PMID:17371880

Borsig, Lubor; Wang, Lianchun; Cavalcante, Moises C M; Cardilo-Reis, Larissa; Ferreira, Paola L; Mourão, Paulo A S; Esko, Jeffrey D; Pavão, Mauro S G

2007-05-18

287

Fermentation of mucin and plant polysaccharides by strains of Bacteroides from the human colon.  

PubMed Central

Ten Bacteroides species found in the human colon were surveyed for their ability to ferment mucins and plant polysaccharides ("dietary fiber"). A number of strains fermented mucopolysaccharides (heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfate) and ovomucoid. Only 3 of the 188 strains tested fermented beef submaxillary mucin, and none fermented porcine gastric mucin. Many of the Bacteroides strains tested were also able to ferment a variety of plant polysaccharides, including amylose, dextran, pectin, gum tragacanth, gum guar, larch arabinogalactan, alginate, and laminarin. Some plant polysaccharides such as gum arabic, gum karaya, gum ghatti and fucoidan, were not utilized by any of the strains tested. The ability to utilize mucins and plant polysaccharides varied considerably among the Bacteroides species tested.

Salyers, A A; Vercellotti, J R; West, S E; Wilkins, T D

1977-01-01

288

Structural peculiarities of polysaccharide from sterile form of Far Eastern red alga Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis.  

PubMed

KCl-insoluble sulfated polysaccharide from sterile alga Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis was investigated. Partial reductive hydrolysis and NMR spectroscopy showed that the polysaccharide comprises disaccharide units of carrabiose only. According to FT-IR-, 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopies and mass-spectrometry this polysaccharide is kappa/beta-carrageenan with ratio of kappa- and beta-types units 3:1 and contains minor amounts of iota- and gamma-carrageenans (precursor of beta-carrageenan). In addition, ESIMS/MS data suggested that xylose (minor amount) is present in the polysaccharide as a substituent one of hydroxyl group of galactose. According to aPTT and PT assays the studied carrageenan affected mostly intrinsic pathway of coagulation, while it effect on the extrinsic pathway is absent. PMID:25037322

Kravchenko, Anna O; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Isakov, Vladimir V; Sokolova, Ekaterina V; Glazunov, Valery P; Yermak, Irina M

2014-10-13

289

Involvement of heparan sulfate and related molecules in sequestration and growth promoting activity of fibroblast growth factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues [1,2]. The basic HSPG structure consists of a protein core to which several linear heparan sulfate (HS) chains are covalently attached. The polysaccharide chains are typically composed of repeating hexuronic and D-glucosamine disaccharide

Israel Vlodavsky; Hua-Quan Miao; Benjamin Medalion; Pamela Danagher; Dina Ron

1996-01-01

290

Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging  

SciTech Connect

Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Fogler, H.S.

1991-11-01

291

Staphylococcus aureus Capsular Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Serotype 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides predominate among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. The results of experiments in animal models of infection have revealed that staphylococcal capsules are important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections. The capsule enhances staphylococcal virulence by impeding phagocytosis, resulting in bacterial persistence in the bloodstream of infected hosts. S. aureus capsules also promote abscess formation in rats. Although the capsule has been shown to modulate S. aureus adherence to endothelial surfaces in vitro, animal studies suggest that it also promotes bacterial colonization and persistence on mucosal surfaces. S. aureus capsular antigens are surface associated, limited in antigenic specificity, and highly conserved among clinical isolates. With the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus in the United States in 2002, new strategies are needed to combat staphylococcal infections. Purified serotype 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides offer promise as target antigens for a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections, although the inclusion of other antigens is likely to be essential in the development of an effective S. aureus vaccine. The genetics and mechanisms of capsule biosynthesis are complex, and much work remains to enhance our understanding of capsule biosynthesis and its regulation.

O'Riordan, Katherine; Lee, Jean C.

2004-01-01

292

Heparin-derived heparan sulfate mimics that modulate inflammation and cancer  

PubMed Central

The heparan sulfate (HS) chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are “ubiquitous” components of the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (EC) and play important roles in the physiopathology of developmental and homeostatic processes. Most biological properties of HS are mediated by interactions with “heparin-binding proteins” and can be modulated by exogenous heparin species (unmodified heparin, low molecular weight heparins, shorter heparin oligosaccharides and various non-anticoagulant derivatives of different sizes). Heparin species can promote or inhibit HS activities to different extents depending, among other factors, on how closely their structure mimics the biologically active HS sequences. Heparin shares structural similarities with HS, but is richer in “fully sulfated” sequences (S domains) that are usually the strongest binders to heparin/HS-binding proteins. On the other hand, HS is usually richer in less sulfated, N-acetylated sequences (NA domains). Some of the functions of HS chains, such as that of activating proteins by favoring their dimerization, often require short S sequences separated by rather long NA sequences. The biological activities of these species cannot be simulated by heparin, unless this polysaccharide is appropriately chemically/enzymatically modified or biotechnologically engineered. This mini review covers some information and concepts concerning the interactions of HS chains with heparin-binding proteins and some of the approaches for modulating HS interactions relevant to inflammation and cancer. This is approached through a few illustrative examples, including the interaction of HS and heparin-derived species with the chemokine IL-8, the growth factors FGF1 and FGF2, and the modulation of the activity of the enzyme heparanase by these species. Progresses in sequencing HS chains and reproducing them either by chemical synthesis or semi-synthesis, and in the elucidation of the 3D structure of oligosaccharide–protein complexes, are paving the way for rational approaches to the development of HS-inspired drugs in the field of inflammation and cancer, as well in other therapeutic fields.

Casu, Benito; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo

2011-01-01

293

Engineering of routes to heparin and related polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Anticoagulant heparin has been shown to possess important biological functions that vary according to its fine structure. Variability within heparin's structure occurs owing to its biosynthesis and animal tissue-based recovery, and adds another dimension to its complex polymeric structure. The structural variations in chain length and sulfation patterns mediate its interaction with many heparin-binding proteins, thereby, eliciting complex biological responses. The advent of novel chemical and enzymatic approaches for polysaccharide synthesis coupled with high throughput combinatorial approaches for drug discovery have facilitated an increased effort to understand heparin's structure-activity relationships. An improved understanding would offer potential for new therapeutic development through the engineering of polysaccharides. Such a bioengineering approach requires the amalgamation of several different disciplines including carbohydrate synthesis, applied enzymology, metabolic engineering, and process biochemistry.

Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Sterner, Eric; Hickey, Anne Marie; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

2011-01-01

294

Polysaccharides in some industrially important softwood species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and composition of carbohydrates comprising polysaccharides in sapwood and heartwood of 12 industrially important pulpwood species were analysed. The polysaccharide content was between 60% and 80% (w\\/w) for all species, with cellulose as the predominant polysaccharide type. The carbohydrate composition suggested that the main non-cellulose polysaccharides were galactoglucomannans, except in Larix heartwood, where arabinogalactans were predominant, while the

S. Willför; A. Sundberg; J. Hemming; B. Holmbom

2005-01-01

295

Polysaccharide from Aspalathus linearis with strong anti-HIV activity.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide that has been extracted with 1% sodium carbonate from Rooibos leaves (Aspalathus linearis) showed strong anti-HIV activity. Du-Zhong leaves also showed anti-HIV activity, although lower than the extract of Aspalathus linearis, but Japanese tea leaves and a hot water extract of Aspalathus linearis did not. The anti-HIV activity of the alkaline extract from Aspalathus linearis was recovered mainly in the 25-75% ethanol-precipitated fraction. The polysaccharide almost completely inhibited the binding of HIV-1 to MT-4 cells. It is inferred from these results that the polysaccharide from Aspalathus linearis is involved in the mechanism for virus binding to T cells. PMID:9058964

Nakano, M; Itoh, Y; Mizuno, T; Nakashima, H

1997-02-01

296

Glycoconjugates and cell adhesion: the adhesive proteins laminin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand's factor bind specifically to sulfated glycolipids.  

PubMed

The adhesive glycoproteins laminin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand's factor bind specifically and with high affinity to sulfated glycolipids, and it is this binding that probably accounts for their ability to agglutinate glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes. The 3 proteins differ, however, in the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on their binding to sulfatides. Fucoidan strongly inhibits binding of both laminin and thrombospondin, but not of von Willebrand's factor, suggesting the involvement of laminin or thrombospondin or other unknown sulfatide-binding proteins in specific cell interactions that are also inhibited by fucoidan. Thrombospondin adsorbed onto plastic promotes the attachment and spreading of G361 melanoma cells. Interestingly, fucoidan and an antibody directed against the sulfatide-binding domain of thrombospondin selectively inhibit spreading but not attachment. Sulfatides, but not neutral glycolipids or gangliosides, when adsorbed onto plastic also promote attachment and spreading of G361 melanoma cells. Direct adhesion of G361 cells requires high densities of sulfatide. In the presence of laminin, however, specific adhesion of G361 cells to sulfatide is strongly stimulated and requires only low densities of adsorbed lipid, suggesting that laminin mediates adhesion by cross-linking receptors on the melanoma cell surface to sulfatide adsorbed onto the plastic. Although thrombospondin binds to sulfatide and to G361 cells, it does not enhance but rather inhibits direct and laminin-dependent G361 cell adhesion to sulfatide, presumably because it is unable to bind simultaneously to ligands on opposing surfaces. Thus, sulfated glycoconjugates participate in both laminin- and thrombospondin-mediated cell adhesion, but their mechanisms of interaction are different. PMID:3149529

Ginsburg, V; Roberts, D D

1988-11-01

297

Malaria sporozoites and circumsporozoite proteins bind specifically to sulfated glycoconjugates  

PubMed Central

Circumsporozoite (CS) proteins, which densely coat malaria (Plasmodia) sporozoites, contain an amino acid sequence that is homologous to segments in other proteins which bind specifically to sulfated glycoconjugates. The presence of this homology suggests that sporozoites and CS proteins may also bind sulfated glycoconjugates. To test this hypothesis, recombinant P. yoelii CS protein was examined for binding to sulfated glycoconjugate-Sepharoses. CS protein bound avidly to heparin-, fucoidan-, and dextran sulfate-Sepharose, but bound comparatively poorly to chondroitin sulfate A- or C-Sepharose. CS protein also bound with significantly lower affinity to a heparan sulfate biosynthesis-deficient mutant cell line compared with the wild- type line, consistent with the possibility that the protein also binds to sulfated glycoconjugates on the surfaces of cells. This possibility is consistent with the observation that CS protein binding to hepatocytes, cells invaded by sporozoites during the primary stage of malaria infection, was inhibited by fucoidan, pentosan polysulfate, and heparin. The effects of sulfated glycoconjugates on sporozoite infectivity were also determined. P. berghei sporozoites bound specifically to sulfatide (galactosyl[3-sulfate]beta 1-1ceramide), but not to comparable levels of cholesterol-3-sulfate, or several examples of neutral glycosphingolipids, gangliosides, or phospholipids. Sporozoite invasion into hepatocytes was inhibited by fucoidan, heparin, and dextran sulfate, paralleling the observed binding of CS protein to the corresponding Sepharose derivatives. These sulfated glycoconjugates blocked invasion by inhibiting an event occurring within 3 h of combining sporozoites and hepatocytes. Sporozoite infectivity in mice was significantly inhibited by dextran sulfate 500,000 and fucoidan. Taken together, these data indicate that CS proteins bind selectively to certain sulfated glycoconjugates, that sporozoite infectivity can be inhibited by such compounds, and that invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites may involve interactions with these types of compounds.

1992-01-01

298

Heparan sulfate expression in polarized epithelial cells: the apical sorting of glypican (GPI-anchored proteoglycan) is inversely related to its heparan sulfate content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several processes that occur in the luminal compartments of the tissues are modulated by heparin- like polysaccharides. To identify proteins responsible for the expression of heparan sulfate at the apex of po- larized cells, we investigated the polarity of the expres- sion of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans in CaCo-2 cells. Domain-specific biotinylation of the api- cal and basolateral

Griet Mertens; Bernadette Van der Schueren; Herman van den Berghe; Guido David

1996-01-01

299

Surface polysaccharide of Moraxella non-liquefaciens identical to Neisseria meningitidis group B capsular polysaccharide. A chemical and immunological investigation.  

PubMed

In whole cell preparations of 27 nonmucoid strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens neuraminic acid was detected by gas chromatography (GC) in 16 (59%) of the strains. Seven neuraminic-acid-containing strains were tested for agglutination with diagnostic group-specific meningococcal antisera produced in rabbits, and all were positive with group B serum. Counter-immunoelectrophoresis of bacterial suspensions of the three strains with the strongest reaction with such anti-group B serum gave distinct precipitation lines. When tested by double immunodiffusion in agarose with monoclonal antibody to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, suspension of a strain of M nonliquefaciens gave identity reaction with a strain of Neisseria meningitidis, and reacted even more strongly than the latter. Phenol extracts of M nonliquefaciens strains generally contained higher amounts of neuraminic acid than N meningitidis group B strains. Neuraminic-acid-containing polysaccharides of M nonliquefaciens strains sedimented more slowly by ultra-centrifugation than the group-specific B polysaccharide of N meningitidis strains. They also reacted more strongly with a monoclonal anti-group B antiserum than did N meningitidis group B capsular polysaccharide in an antibody binding inhibition test (solid phase radioimmunoassay). Immunological reactivity of the polysaccharides of both species was lost if extraction was performed with unbuffered phenol at 68 degrees C, instead of with neutral phenol at 4 degrees C. The results show that several strains of M nonliquefaciens, often inhabiting the human nose, have high levels of a surface polysaccharide chemically and immunologically closely similar to N meningitidis group B capsular polysaccharide. The cross-reactivity may have immunological implications for meningococcal disease. PMID:6413906

Bøvre, K; Bryn, K; Closs, O; Hagen, N; Frøholm, L O

1983-06-01

300

The Adsorption of Bacterial Polysaccharides by Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and `O' somatic antigens usually require treatment with alkali for maximal adsorption on erythrocytes in preparation for indirect haemagglutination. Although heating enhances sensitizing activity, owing partly to increasing dispersion, it is always less effective than alkali treatment. The presence of a protein component or of the chloroform soluble lipid `A' does not inhibit erythrocyte sensitizing activity and no change in sugar constituents has been detected as a result of treatment. The specific polysaccharide of Aerobacter aerogenes, which contains no lipid, requires alkali treatment for activity; in this case the effect of alkali is to remove O-acetate (4 per cent). The loss of weight on treatment is also 4 per cent and no other differences can be detected by examining the infrared-absorption spectra of treated and untreated samples. For other materials investigated a loss of O-acetyl has been detected, except where alkali treatment is not required to elicit maximal activity, e.g. the Pasteurella pestis lipopolysaccharide which contains about 50 per cent of lipid `A'. By reacetylation of alkali treated polysaccharides it has been shown that O-acetyl residues inhibit adsorption on to erythrocytes, but in some instances higher fatty acids are also removed to some extent by treatment with alkali.

Davies, D. A. L.; Crumpton, M. J.; Macpherson, I. A.; Hutchison, Ann M.

1958-01-01

301

Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles is considered.

Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

2013-01-01

302

The bacteriophage kh receptor of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris KH is the rhamnose of the extracellular wall polysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

A receptor for bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris KH, was found on the cell wall and not on the cell membrane, as determined by a phage-binding assay of sodium dodecyl sulfate- and mutanolysin-treated cell walls. The cell wall carbohydrates of L. lactis subsp. cremoris KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and found to contain rhamnose, galactose, glucose and N-acetylglucosamine. Similar analysis of mutants that were reduced in the ability to bind phages kh, 643, c2, ml3, and 1 indicated that galactose was essential for binding all phages. In addition, rhamnose was required for binding phages kh and ml3. Inhibition studies of phage binding by using two different lectins with a specificity for galactose indicated that phage kh may not bind directly to galactose. Rather, galactose may be an essential structural component located in the vicinity of the receptor. Incubation of any of the five phages with rhamnose or of phage kh with purified cell walls inactivated the phages. Inactivation required divalent cations and was irreversible. Inactivation of phages was stereospecific for rhamnose, as neither L-(+)- nor D-(-)-fucose (the stereoisomers of rhamnose) inhibited the phage. Furthermore, phage infection of a culture was completely inhibited by the addition of rhamnose to the medium. Therefore, the receptor for phage kh appears to be a rhamnose component of the extracellular wall polysaccharide.

Valyasevi, R; Sandine, W E; Geller, B L

1990-01-01

303

Gums and Related Polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of carbohydrates, gums are usually considered to be non-starch, water-soluble polysaccharides with commercial importance. When used as ingredients in processed foods, they may be called hydrocolloids . Gums are used because of the functionalities they impart to whatever system or product into which they are incorporated. As with other polymers, their chemical structures, together with the nature of the aqueous environment surrounding the molecules (pH, types and concentrations of salts or other solutes, temperature, shear, etc.) determines the shapes of the molecules; the chemical nature and shapes of the molecules determines the gum's physiochemical properties, and their physicochemical properties determines their functionalities. All gums have one similar property, i. e., the ability to thicken water and aqueous systems, but they may impart different rheological properties to the systems they thicken. Certain gums provide certain functionalities better than do other gums.

Bemiller, James N.

304

Surface properties of polyurethanes modified by bioactive polysaccharide-based polyelectrolyte multilayers.  

PubMed

Lentinan, a mushroom polysaccharide, isolated from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake mushroom) was sulfated in dimethylsulfoxide to obtain a water-soluble derivative coded as LS. Then, two polysaccharide-based polyelectrolytes, polyanionic lentinan sulfate (LS) and polycationic chitosan (CS), were alternatively deposited onto the surfaces of polyurethane (PU) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The surfaces modified by polysaccharide-based multilayers were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion to the surfaces, cytocompatibility to L-929 cells, and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa of unmodified PU and LbL-modified PU were tested in vitro, respectively. The results showed that the water contact angle decreased gradually during the successive buildup of the polysaccharide-based multilayers, and decreased slowly after four bilayers were assembled. The surface roughness of PU modified by five bilayers (LS as topmost layer) increased compared with that of unmodified PU. The fibrinogen adsorption on the surface decreased 81% after assembly of five bilayers (LS as topmost layer). The number of adherent platelets on the surface modified by five bilayers (LS as topmost layer) is reduced, in comparison with that of the unmodified PU. The tests of L-929 cells indicated that LbL-modified PU surfaces had better cytocompatibility than unmodified PU. In addition, PU modified by polysaccharide-based multilayers showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. PMID:22771524

Wang, Yifeng; Hong, Qunfeng; Chen, Yanjun; Lian, Xinxin; Xiong, Yanfei

2012-12-01

305

Marine Polymers. IV, Diatom Polysaccharides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part of a program designed to investigate the properties and utilization of marine-derived polymers, this study is a preliminary examination of the polysaccharide constituents of a number of diatom species. The objective was to identify and characterize t...

G. G. Allans J. Lewin P. G. Johnson

1971-01-01

306

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and nitrosative/oxidative stresses by Ziziphora clinopoides (Kahlioti); a molecular mechanism of protection against dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition of the intestine with unknown etiology involving multiple immune genetic and environmental factors. The authors were interested in examining the protective effect of Ziziphora clinopoides methanolic extract, an Iranian folk herbal medicine, on inflammatory mediators in experimental colitis. Colitis in NMRI mice was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%). Z. clinopoides was administrated orally at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTM), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and nitric oxide (NO) as a marker of nitrosative stress, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as a mediator of inflammation and apoptosis were measured in the colon homogenate. Treatment by DSS increased bowel LP, NO, and TNF-alpha while decreasing TAC, SOD, CAT, and TTM. All measured parameters were improved by Z. clinopoides treatment and reached close to normal levels. The present study further supports the role of oxidative/nitrosative stresses and TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of colitis and protective effects of this herb. The data are promising for further preclinical studies directed towards understanding mechanism of action and cross-species and cross-model comparisons for potential protective effects. PMID:19778264

Amini-Shirazi, Noushin; Hoseini, Asieh; Ranjbar, Akram; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Khoshakhlagh, Pooneh; Yasa, Nargues; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2009-02-01

307

Zinc sulfate inhibited inflammation of Der p2-induced airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 and NF-?B phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Inflammation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is believed to be important in causing airway hyperresponsiveness. However, zinc has been reported to be implicated in many kinds of cell inflammation. Little is known about the effect of zinc treatment on Der p2 (group II Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)-induced inflammation from ASMCs. This study investigated effects and mechanisms of zinc in Der p2-treated ASMCs. Der p2-treated primary ASMCs were cultured with various concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO?) 6 ?M, 12 ?M, 24 ?M, and 96 ?M. The proteins and mRNAs of cytokines in ASMCs were examined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Intracellular zinc was stained with Zinquin fluorescence. The cell signaling protein expression was detected by Western blot. Der p2 was used to induce interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production of ASMCs. However, we found that 24 ?M ZnSO? reduced these inflammatory mediators production of Der p2-treated primary ASMCs. Der p2-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) phosphorylation were suppressed by supplementation of 24 ?M ZnSO?. Zinc is an anti-inflammatory agent that reduces inflammation of Der p2-treated ASMCs through the suppression of the ERK and NF-?B pathway. The results may be helpful for the development of effective treatments. PMID:23264166

Shih, Chia-Ju; Chiou, Ya-Ling

2013-06-01

308

Development of novel self-assembled DS-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for improving oral bioavailability of vincristine sulfate by P-gp inhibition.  

PubMed

To improve the encapsulation efficiency and oral bioavailability of vincristine sulfate (VCR), novel self-assembled dextran sulphate-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles (DPNs) were successfully developed using self-assembly and nanoprecipitation method. By introducing the negative polymer of dextran sulphate sodium (DS), VCR was highly encapsulated (encapsulation efficiency up to 93.6%) into DPNs by forming electrostatic complex. In vitro release of VCR solution (VCR-Sol) and VCR-loaded DPNs (VCR-DPNs) in pH 7.4 PBS showed that about 80.4% of VCR released from VCR-DPNs after 96h and burst release was effectively reduced, indicating pronounced sustained-release characteristics. In vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration of VCR-Sol and VCR-DPNs indicated that the apparent bioavailability of VCR-DPNs was increased to approximate 3.3-fold compared to that of VCR-Sol. The cellular uptake experiments were conducted by quantitative assay of VCR cellular accumulation and fluorescence microscopy imaging of fluorescent labeled DPNs in two human breast cancer cells including MCF-7 and P-glycoprotein over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells. The relative cellular uptake of VCR-DPNs was 12.4-fold higher than that of VCR-Sol in MCF-7/Adr cells implying that P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux was diminished by the introduction of DPNs. The new DPNs might provide an effective strategy for oral delivery of VCR with improved encapsulation efficiency and oral bioavailability. PMID:20727928

Ling, Guixia; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Wenping; Sun, Jin; Meng, Xiaoxue; Qin, Yimeng; Deng, Yihui; He, Zhonggui

2010-12-01

309

Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed C-Terminal Domains of Plasmodium falciparum Variant Surface Antigen 2-Chondroitin Sulfate A (VAR2CSA) Inhibit Binding of CSA-Adherent Parasites to Placental Tissue  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains.

Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V.; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J.; Fried, Michal

2013-01-01

310

Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-07-15

311

Finely dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes for polysaccharide hydrogels.  

PubMed

Here we demonstrate a polysaccharide hydrogel reinforced with finely dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using biocompatible dispersants O-carboxymethylchitosan (OC) and chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) as a structural support. Both of the dispersants can disperse SWNTs in aqueous solutions and hydrogel matrix as individual tubes or small bundles. Additionally, we have found that compressive modulus and strain of the hydrogels reinforced with SWNTs were enhanced as much as two times by the addition of a few weight percent of SWNTs. Moreover, the SWNT-incorporated hydrogels exhibited lower impedance and higher charge capacity than the alginate/dispersant hydrogel without SWNTs. The OC and the CS-A demonstrated much higher reinforcing enhancement than a commercially available dispersant, sodium dodecyl sulfate. Combined with the experimental data on the mechanical and electrical properties, the biocompatibility of OC and CS-A can provide the possibility of biomedical application of the SWNT-reinforced hydrogels. PMID:22909447

Yan, Liang Yu; Chen, Hailan; Li, Peng; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chan-Park, Mary B

2012-09-26

312

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide promotes osteoclast-like cell formation by interleukin-1 alpha production in mouse marrow cultures.  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of osteoclast-like cell formation induced by periodontopathic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) capsular-polysaccharide-like polysaccharide (capsular-like polysaccharide) was examined in a mouse bone marrow culture system. When mouse bone marrow cells were cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide for 9 days, many multinucleated cells were formed. The multinucleated cells showed several characteristics of osteoclasts, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) and the ability to resorb the calcified dentine. In this study, we examined the effects of antisera to interleukins on the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. Monospecific anti-mouse recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) serum completely inhibited the formation of osteoclast-like cells in the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. However, anti-mouse rIL-1 beta and anti-mouse rIL-6 sera showed no effect on osteoclast-like cell formation. IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly inhibited the osteoclast-like cell formation mediated by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide in mouse marrow cultures. The bioactive IL-1 was detected in the culture media of mouse bone marrow cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. These results indicate that IL-1 alpha is involved in the mechanism of the formation of osteoclast-like cells induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. We sought to determine whether osteoclast-like cell formation induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide could be modulated by the protein kinase inhibitors H8 and HA1004. The formation of osteoclast-like cells was suppressed by H8 and HA1004. These findings suggest that the signals by protein kinases may regulate osteoclast-like cell formation induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide. Furthermore, a correlation between IL-1 alpha and prostaglandin E2 in the osteoclast recruitment induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4 capsular-like polysaccharide is discussed.

Nishihara, T; Ueda, N; Amano, K; Ishihara, Y; Hayakawa, H; Kuroyanagi, T; Ohsaki, Y; Nagata, K; Noguchi, T

1995-01-01

313

Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and total gas production and sulfate-reducing bacteria in in vitro swine manure by tannins, with focus on condensed quebracho tannins.  

PubMed

Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Odor and emissions produced during storage have increased the tension among rural neighbors and among urban and rural residents. Production of these compounds from stored manure is the result of microbial activity of the anaerobic bacteria populations during storage. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of condensed quebracho tannins on in vitro swine manure for reduction of microbial activity and reduced production of gaseous emissions, including the toxic odorant hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was examined. Swine manure was collected from a local swine facility, diluted in anaerobic buffer, and mixed with 1 %?w/v fresh feces. This slurry was combined with quebracho tannins, and total gas and hydrogen sulfide production was monitored over time. Aliquots were removed periodically for isolation of DNA to measure the SRB populations using quantitative PCR. Addition of tannins reduced overall gas, hydrogen sulfide, and methane production by greater than 90 % after 7 days of treatment and continued to at least 28 days. SRB population was also significantly decreased by tannin addition. qRT-PCR of 16S rDNA bacteria genes showed that the total bacterial population was also decreased in these incubations. These results indicate that the tannins elicited a collective effect on the bacterial population and also suggest a reduction in the population of methanogenic microorganisms as demonstrated by reduced methane production in these experiments. Such a generalized effect could be extrapolated to a reduction in other odor-associated emissions during manure storage. PMID:23149758

Whitehead, Terence R; Spence, Cheryl; Cotta, Michael A

2013-09-01

314

Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

1993-01-01

315

Preparation of polysaccharides from wax gourd.  

PubMed

Preparation of polysaccharides from the wax gourd was studied. The crude polysaccharides were extracted by ethanol precipitation, and deproteinized by the hydrochloric acid method. The deproteinized polysaccharides were separated by column chromatography to obtain the pure polysaccharides. The pure polysaccharides have a ?-D-pyranosidic bond, and their molecular weight distribution is about 22,500. It was indicated that the final product had much more purity by IR spectrum analysis, UV absorption spectrum analysis, and phenol-sulfuric acid method, respectively. It was proved that wax gourd polysaccharides were composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose by thin layer chromatography. PMID:21355748

Huang, Gangliang; Tan, Jiantao; Tan, Xianchun; Peng, Daquan

2011-08-01

316

^-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-IS-acetate-induced Changes in Sulfated Proteoglycan Synthesis in Cultured Chondroblasts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) rapidly blocks the terminal differentiation of normal cul tured Chondroblasts. In TPA, the chondroblasts lose their char acteristic polygonal morphology and initiate the synthesis of an atypical type IV sulfated proteoglycan. This atypical proteogly- can has lower molecular size, shorter polysaccharide chains, and different 4S-disaccharide:6S-disaccharide ratio in com parison with type IV sulfated proteoglycan from

Maurizio Pacifici; Howard Holtzer

317

Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies and dietary supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in their search for relief. Glucosamine is ... Over-the-counter supplements come from animal sources. Chondroitin sulfate is another natural substance found in the ...

318

Cell surface polysaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum and a nonnodulating mutant.  

PubMed Central

The cell surface polysaccharides of wild-type Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and a nonnodulating mutant, strain HS123, were analyzed. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) of the wild type and the mutant strain do not differ in their sugar composition. CPS and EPS are composed of mannose, 4-O-methylgalactose/galactose, glucose, and galacturonic acid in a ratio of 1:1:2:1, respectively. H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the EPS and CPS of the wild type and mutant strain are very similar, but not identical, suggesting minor structural variation in these polysaccharides. The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the above two strains were purified, and their compositions were determined. Gross differences in the chemical compositions of the two LPS were observed. Chemical and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that strain HS123 is a rough-type mutant lacking a complete LPS. The LPS of mutant strain HS123 is composed of mannose, glucose, glucosamine, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, and lipid A. The wild-type LPS is composed of fucose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, fucosamine, quinovosamine, glucosamine, uronic acid, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, and lipid A. Preliminary sugar analysis of lipid A from B. japonicum identified mannose, while traces of glucosamine were detected. 3-Hydroxydodecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acids formed a major portion of the fatty acids in lipid A. Lesser quantities of nonhydroxylated 16:0, 18:0, 22:0, and 24:0 acids also were detected. Images

Puvanesarajah, V; Schell, F M; Gerhold, D; Stacey, G

1987-01-01

319

Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate  

PubMed Central

The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler–Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease.

Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Ake; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

2013-01-01

320

The Manufacture of Specific Immunogenic Polysaccharide Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research are to prepare 100 grams of purified polysaccharides for each of the following pneumococcus serotypes: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, XII, XIV, XVIII, XIX. The biggest problem in preparing purified polysaccharide antigen...

R. S. Baker R. J. Driesens

1969-01-01

321

Bacteriophage polysaccharide depolymerases and biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide depolymerase, a polysaccharide hydrolase encoded by bacteriophages (or 'phages'), can specifically degrade the macromolecule carbohydrates of the host bacterial envelope. This enzyme assists the bacteriophage in adsorbing, invading, and disintegrating the host bacteria. Polysaccharide depolymerase activity continues even within biofilms. This effectiveness means phages are promising candidates for novel antibiotic scaffolds. A comprehensive compendium of bacteriophage polysaccharide depolymerases has been compiled, together with their potential biomedical applications, such as novel antibiotics, adjuvants for antibiotics, bacterial biofilm disruptants, and diagnostic kits. PMID:24352884

Yan, Jianlong; Mao, Jiaoxiao; Xie, Jianping

2014-06-01

322

In vitro antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Tricholoma lobayense.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of three polysaccharide components (TLH-1, TLH-2, TLH-3) extracted from Tricholoma lobayense were evaluated by three different in vitro methods, namely superoxide radical (O(2)(-)) scavenging activity, inhibition of mice erythrocyte hemolysis (MEH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and investigation of oxidative modification of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) through fluorescence spectroscopy. The antioxidant experiments showed that the polysaccharides had a notable activity in scavenging O(2)(-) in a concentration-dependent manner; H(2)O(2)-induced MEH and formation of MDA were effectively inhibited; by fluorescence spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the polysaccharides could obviously inhibit AAPH-induced oxidative modification of HSA. The experimental data obtained from the in vitro models clearly revealed that TLH-3 had stronger antioxidant potency than TLH-1 and TLH-2, which indicated that TLH-3 might be exploited as effective natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative stress. PMID:22305884

Wang, Cui; Chen, Yan; Hu, Meili; Ding, Jingna; Xu, Cunji; Wang, Ruijun

2012-04-01

323

Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

1989-01-01

324

Complex coacervation of proteins and anionic polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coacervation of proteins and anionic polysaccharides is both of practical and theoretical interest. From a large body of literature, it seems that the phase separation is mainly entropically driven, and may most probably be attributed to the delocalisation of the counter ions of the protein and the polysaccharide. The protein and polysaccharide appear to form complexes in solution, which can

Cornelus G. de Kruif; Fanny Weinbreck; Renko de Vries

2004-01-01

325

Bacterial polysaccharide which binds Rhizobium trifolii to clover root hairs.  

PubMed Central

Immunofluorescence, quantitative immunoprecipitation, and inhibition of bacterial agglutination and passive hemagglutination indicate that cross-reactive antigenic determinants are present on the surface of Rhizobium trifolii and clover roots. These determinants are immunochemically unique to this Rhizobium-legume cross-inoculation group. The multivalent lectin trifoliin and antibody to the clover root antigenic determinants bind competitively to two acidic heteropolysaccharides isolated from capsular material of R. Trifolii 0403. The major polysaccharide is an antigen which lacks heptose, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, and endotoxic lipid A. The minor polysaccharide in the capsular material of R. Trifolii 0403 contains the same antigen in addition to heptose, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate, and lipid A. The acidic polysaccharides of two strains of R. trifolii share the clover r-ot cross-reactive antigenic determinant despite other differences in their carbohydrate composition. Studies with monovalent antigen-binding fragments of anti-clover root antibody and Azotobacter vinelandii hybrid transformants carrying the unique antigenic determinant suggest that these polysaccharides bind R. trifolii to the clover root hair tips which contain trifoliin. Images

Dazzo, F B; Brill, W J

1979-01-01

326

Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

Lovley, D. R.; Coates, J. D.; Woodward, J. C.; Phillips, E. J. P.

1995-01-01

327

In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferation Activities of Polysaccharides from Various Extracts of Different Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides were extracted from eight kinds of Chinese mushrooms using three solvents and were evaluated for their total carbohydrate, polyphenolic and protein contents, and antioxidant and anti-proliferation activities. The results suggested that all the polysaccharides had significant antioxidant capacities (EC50 ranged from 1.70 ± 0.42 to 65.98 ± 1.74 ?M TE/g crude polysaccharide inhibition of ABTS+, EC50 ranged from 5.06 ± 0.12 to 127.38 ± 1.58 mg VCE/g CP scavenging of OH· and EC50 ranged from 0.70 ± 0.04 to 33.54 ± 0.49 mg VCE/g CP inhibition of lipid peroxidation) (TE: trolox equivalent; VCE: VC equivalent; CP: crude polysaccharide). The acid extracts of Russula vinosa Lindblad had the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. Aqueous extracts of Dictyophora indusiata and Hohenbuehelia serotina possessed, respectively, the highest OH· scavenging capacity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Mushroom extracts also inhibited proliferation of HeLa and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the mushroom polysaccharides might be potential antioxidant resources.

Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lu; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hua

2012-01-01

328

Isolation and chemical characterization of algal polysaccharides from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain information on the content and composition of the water-soluble polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata, an extraction at 60°C, in different media, was performed: water, EDTA and HCl (F-I), each followed by a sequential extraction\\u000a in NaOH 0.1 M (F-II). The extracts were recovered and analyzed for total carbohydrates, proteins, rhamnose, uronic acids and\\u000a sulfate content. Differences were obtained

Enrique Hernández-Garibay; Jose A. Zertuche-González; Isai Pacheco-Ruíz

2011-01-01

329

Structural characterization of a homogalacturonan from Capparis spinosa L. fruits and anti-complement activity of its sulfated derivative.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide CSPS-2B-2 with a molecular mass of 8.8 kDa, was obtained from the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. Chemical and NMR spectral analysis verified CSPS-2B-2 was a linear poly-(1-4)-?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 12.9±0.4% of carboxyl groups existed as methyl ester and 2.6±0.1% of D-GalpA residues were acetylated. A sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 with a sulfation degree of 0.88±0.02 was prepared via the substitution of C-2 and/or C-3 of GalpA residues in CSPS-2B-2. Bioassay on the complement and coagulation system demonstrated that Sul-2B-2 (CH(50): 3.5±0.2 ?g/mL) had a stronger inhibitory effect on the activation of complement system through the classic pathway than that of heparin (CH(50): 8.9±0.3 ?g/mL). Interestingly, Sul-2B-2 at low dose even middle dose (for example 52 ?g/mL) had no effect on coagulation system, which was totally different from heparin. Thus, our observation indicated that Sul-2B-2 was more efficient than heparin in inhibiting the activation of the complement system through classical pathway and exhibiting a relatively less anti-coagulant activity. These results suggested that the sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 prepared from the homogalacturonan in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L, might be a promising drug candidate in case of necessary therapeutic complement inhibition. PMID:22752400

Wang, Huijun; Wang, Hongwei; Shi, Songshan; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

2012-08-01

330

Antibody recognition of the type 14 pneumococcal capsule. Evidence for a conformational epitope in a neutral polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Oligosaccharides consisting of one or more tetrasaccharide repeating units were derived from the capsular polysaccharide of type 14 pneumococcus (Pn14) by endo-beta-galactosidase digestion. The relative affinity of anticapsular antibody binding to derivative oligosaccharides of different chain lengths was measured in a Pn 14 ELISA inhibition assay. The concentration of inhibiting antigen required to achieve 50% inhibition of IgG binding increased progressively from 5.6 x 10(-4) M to 7.0 x 10(-11) M as the inhibiting saccharide chain length increased from 1 tetrasaccharide repeating unit to 2,500 repeating units. These data indicate that antibodies directed against the Pn14 polysaccharide recognize a conformational epitope fully expressed only in high molecular weight forms of the antigen. Similar results were found for inhibition of Fab fragment binding, suggesting that recognition of the conformational epitope is largely dependent on the intrinsic affinity of the Fab combining region. Unlike previously reported polysaccharides for which conformational epitopes have been described, the Pn14 polysaccharide does not contain negatively charged residues, indicating that expression of conformational determinants is not limited to acidic polysaccharides. Antibody recognition of conformational epitopes may be a common mechanism by which the host immune response discriminates between bacterial polysaccharides and host oligosaccharides of similar structure.

1989-01-01

331

Structural characterization of polysaccharide obtained from red seaweed Gracilaria caudata (J Agardh).  

PubMed

Seaweeds are considered an important source of bioactive molecules. In this work the marine red alga Gracilaria caudata was submitted to aqueous extraction of their polysaccharides for 2 h at 100 °C. The polysaccharide fraction (PGC) presented a recovery of 32.8%. The sulfate content of PGC, calculated by S%, is 1 ± 0.2% and the degree of sulfation accounts for 0.13 ± 0.2. High-Performance Size-Exclusion Chromatography demonstrated that PGC consists of a high molecular weight polysaccharide (2.5 × 10(5)gmol(-1)). Chemical analysis of PGC was performed by microanalysis, infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 1 and 2D) spectroscopy. The structure of PGC is mainly constituted by the alternating residues 3-linked-?-D-galactopyranose and 4-linked-3,6-?-L-anhydrogalactose; however some hydroxyl groups were substituted by methyl groups and pyruvic acid acetal. The biological precursor of 3,6-?-L-anhydrogalactose (6-sulfate-?-l-galactose) was also detected. PMID:23218341

Barros, Francisco C N; da Silva, Draulio C; Sombra, Venicios G; Maciel, Jeanny S; Feitosa, Judith P A; Freitas, Ana L P; de Paula, Regina C M

2013-01-30

332

Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential Mechanism.  

PubMed

The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe(2+)-Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O(2) (•-)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-Fe(2+) system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na(2)S(2)O(3) titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H(2)O(2). APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O(2) (•-), •OH and H(2)O(2) significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health. PMID:22408421

Li, Xing-Tai; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Jin, Feng-Xin; Liu, De-Wen; Gao, Ming-Bo; Liu, Ze; Xin, Xiao-Juan

2012-01-01

333

Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development  

SciTech Connect

In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

Noonan, D.M.

1985-01-01

334

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level.

Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

335

Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

2003-11-01

336

Chemoenzymatic synthesis and structural characterization of 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate hexasaccharides.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides that consist of a repeating disaccharide unit of glucosamine and glucuronic or iduronic acid. The 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid (IdoA2S) residue is commonly found in heparan sulfate and heparin; however, 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid (GlcA2S) is a less abundant monosaccharide (?<5% of total saccharides). Here, we report the synthesis of three GlcA2S-containing hexasaccharides using a chemoenzymatic approach. For comparison purposes, additional IdoA2S-containing hexasaccharides were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to obtain full chemical shift assignments for the GlcA2S- and IdoA2S-hexasaccharides. These data show that GlcA2S is a more structurally rigid saccharide residue than IdoA2S. The antithrombin (AT) binding affinities of a GlcA2S- and an IdoA2S-hexasaccharide were determined by affinity co-electrophoresis. In contrast to IdoA2S-hexasaccharides, the GlcA2S-hexasaccharide does not bind to AT, confirming that the presence of IdoA2S is critically important for the anticoagulant activity. The availability of pure synthetic GlcA2S-containing oligosaccharides will allow the investigation of the structure and activity relationships of individual sites in heparin or heparan sulfate. PMID:24770491

Hsieh, Po-Hung; Xu, Yongmei; Keire, David A; Liu, Jian

2014-08-01

337

Roles of heparan sulfate sulfation in dentinogenesis.  

PubMed

Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. PMID:22351753

Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

2012-04-01

338

Roles of Heparan Sulfate Sulfation in Dentinogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix.

Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md. Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

2012-01-01

339

Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction.  

PubMed Central

We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 mumol liter-1 day-1. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol greater than 3-chlorophenol greater than 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol.

Haggblom, M M; Young, L Y

1990-01-01

340

A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2012-09-07

341

Secondary Storage of Dermatan Sulfate in Sanfilippo Disease*  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of genetically inherited disorders that result from the defective activity of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, causing their intralysosomal accumulation. Sanfilippo disease describes a subset of mucopolysaccharidoses resulting from defects in heparan sulfate catabolism. Sanfilippo disorders cause severe neuropathology in affected children. The reason for such extensive central nervous system dysfunction is unresolved, but it may be associated with the secondary accumulation of metabolites such as gangliosides. In this article, we describe the accumulation of dermatan sulfate as a novel secondary metabolite in Sanfilippo. Based on chondroitinase ABC digestion, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels in fibroblasts from Sanfilippo patients were elevated 2–5-fold above wild-type dermal fibroblasts. Lysosomal turnover of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in these cell lines was significantly impaired but could be normalized by reducing heparan sulfate storage using enzyme replacement therapy. Examination of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate catabolic enzymes showed that heparan sulfate and heparin can inhibit iduronate 2-sulfatase. Analysis of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fraction by chondroitinase ACII digestion showed dermatan sulfate storage, consistent with inhibition of iduronate 2-sulfatase. The discovery of a novel storage metabolite in Sanfilippo patients may have important implications for diagnosis and understanding disease pathology.

Lamanna, William C.; Lawrence, Roger; Sarrazin, Stephane; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

342

Regulation of sulfate transport and synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that several sulfate transporters — exhibiting different tissue specificities and modes of expression — may play distinct roles in sulfate uptake within specific tissues and in long-distance sulfate translocation. The transcription levels of particular genes and feedback inhibition of serine acetyltransferase play major roles in regulating sulfur assimilation and cysteine synthesis. O-acetylserine and glutathione presumably act within

Kazuki Saito

2000-01-01

343

Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways.  

PubMed

St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

Abakuks, S; Deters, A M

2012-01-01

344

Automotive sulfate emission data.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions.

Somers, J H

1975-01-01

345

Molybdate transport through the plant sulfate transporter SHST1.  

PubMed

Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient required by plants. The mechanism of molybdenum uptake in plants is poorly understood, however, evidence has suggested that sulfate transporters may be involved. The sulfate transporter from Stylosanthes hamata, SHST1, restored growth of the sulfate transport yeast mutant, YSD1, on media containing low amounts of molybdate. Kinetic analysis using 99MoO4(2-) demonstrated that SHST1 enhanced the uptake of molybdate into yeast cells at nM concentrations. Uptake was not inhibited by sulfate, but sulfate transport via SHST1 was reduced with molybdate. These results are the first measurement of molybdate transport by a characterised plant sulfate transport protein. PMID:18396170

Fitzpatrick, Kate L; Tyerman, Stephen D; Kaiser, Brent N

2008-04-30

346

Significance of protein elicitor isolated from Tuber melanosporum on the production of ganoderic acid and Ganoderma polysaccharides during the fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from the culture mycelia of Tuber melanosporum, the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) was significantly stimulated during Ganoderma lucidum fermentation. Compared with our previous results that, GA content was inhibited by polysaccharide elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum, while improved by the elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, protein was identified to be the exact component inducing GA biosynthesis in this work. G. lucidum cell growth was significantly inhibited by elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, and polysaccharide elicitor did not inhibit the cell growth. In this work, the remarkable inhibition on the cell growth was considerably eliminated under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum. These suggested maybe the interaction of polysaccharide and protein components existed in the inhibition on the cell growth of G. lucidum. Not only GA content but also total GA accumulation obtained the highest values after the elicitation of protein elicitor. The maximal GA production of 260.5 ± 5.6 mg/L was 31.2% higher than the control. Under the elicitation of protein elicitor, the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and the content of intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) were also enhanced; however, total IPS accumulation was lower. GA biosynthesis was also significantly affected by the addition time of protein elicitor, whose optimal value was the culture of day 4. PMID:20369259

Zhu, Li-Wen; Tang, Ya-Jie

2010-10-01

347

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides eradicates the blocking effect of fibrinogen on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity is an effective defense against metastatic tumor cells or viruses in the blood. However, NK cytotoxicity against tumor cells may be inhibited by a fibrinogen coat adhered to the surface of tumor cells. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides have been reported for their inhibitory ability on the adhesion of type I collagen, hyaluronan, fibronectin and laminin to integrins that were highly expressed on melanoma cells, and were therefore capable of enhancing NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides on fibrinogen's adhesion to melanoma cells and NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Melanoma cells B16 and A375 were cultured and analyzed using flow cytometry. Human NK cells were isolated and analyzed using an NK cytotoxic assay. The results showed that polysaccharides extracted from G. lucidum inhibit the adhesion of fibrinogen to melanoma cells, and reverse the blocking effect of the fibrin coat on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma cells.

ZHENG, SHENG; JIA, YANPING; ZHAO, JUN; WEI, QUN; LIU, YUEHUA

2011-01-01

348

Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

349

Na+-sulfate cotransporter SLC13A1.  

PubMed

Sulfate is essential for normal physiology. The kidney plays a major role in sulfate homeostasis. Sulfate is freely filtered and strongly reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The apical membrane Na(+)-sulfate cotransporter NaS1 (SLC13A1) mediates sulfate (re)absorption across renal proximal tubule and small intestinal epithelia. NaS1 encodes a 595-amino acid (? 66 kDa) protein with 13 putative transmembrane domains. Its substrate preferences are sodium and sulfate, thiosulfate, and selenate, and its activity is inhibited by molybdate, selenate, tungstate, thiosulfate, succinate, and citrate. NaS1 is primarily expressed in the kidney (proximal tubule) and intestine (duodenum to colon). NaS1 expression is down-regulated in the renal cortex by high sulfate diet, hypothyroidism, vitamin D depletion, glucocorticoids, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and NSAIDs and up-regulated by low sulfate diet, thyroid hormone, vitamin D supplementation, growth hormone, chronic renal failure, and during post-natal growth. Disruption of murine NaS1 gene leads to hyposulfatemia and hypersulfaturia, as well as changes in metabolism, growth, fecundity, behavior, gut physiology, and liver detoxification. This suggests that NaS1 is an important sulfate transporter and its disruption leads to perturbed sulfate homeostasis, which contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24193406

Markovich, Daniel

2014-01-01

350

Silage supports sulfate reduction in the treatment of metals- and sulfate-containing waste waters.  

PubMed

Silage was used as source of carbon and electrons for enrichment of silage-degrading and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from boreal, acidic, metals-containing peat-bog samples and to support their use in batch and semi-batch systems in treatment of synthetic waste water. Sulfidogenic silage utilization resulted in a rapid decrease in lactate concentrations; concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate increased concomitantly. Synthetic waste water consisting of Mn, Mg and Fe (II) ions inhibited sulfate reduction at concentrations of 6 g/l, 8 g/l and 1 g/l respectively. During treatment, Mn and Mg ions remained in solution while Fe ions partially precipitated. Up to 87 mg sulfate was reduced per gram of silage. Sulfate reduction rates of 34, 22 and 6 mg/l/day were obtained at temperatures of 30, 20 and 9 °C respectively. In semi-batch reactors operated at low pH, the iron precipitation capacity was controlled by sulfate reduction rates and by partial loss of hydrogen sulfide to the gas phase. Passive reactor systems should, therefore, be operated at neutral pH. Metals tolerant, silage-fermenting (predominantly species belonging to genus Clostridium) and sulfate reducing bacteria (including a species similar to the psychrotolerant Desulfovibrio arcticus) were obtained from the peat bog samples. This work demonstrates that silage supports sulfate reduction and can be used as a low cost carbon and electron source for SRB in treatment of metals-containing waste water. PMID:20708212

Wakeman, Kathryn D; Erving, Leena; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja L; Puhakka, Jaakko A

2010-09-01

351

[Antitussive action of extracts and polysaccharides of marsh mallow (Althea officinalis L., var. robusta)].  

PubMed

The complex extract and the polysaccharide isolated from the roots of marsh mallow were tested for antitussive activity in unanaesthetized cats of both sexes. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous area of the respiratory system with a Nylon fibre (diameter 0.35 mm). Cough was evaluated on the basis of the changes in lateral tracheal pressure. The polysaccharide and the complex extract were administered p.o. in a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The efficiency of the mentioned compounds was compared with the cough-suppressing effect of drugs belonging to the non-narcotic antitussics. The results of the experiments showed that administration of the polysaccharide led to a statistically significant decrease of the number of cough efforts both from laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial areas of the the respiratory system. The polysaccharide in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was as effective in inhibition of the cough reflex as Sirupus Althaeae in a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. and more effective than prenoxdiazine in a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. However, the cough-suppressing effect of the polysaccharide was lower than that of dropropizine. The extract was less effective than the polysaccharide. PMID:1615030

Nosál'ova, G; Strapková, A; Kardosová, A; Capek, P; Zathurecký, L; Bukovská, E

1992-03-01

352

A novel antinociceptive sulphated polysaccharide of the brown marine alga Spatoglossum schroederi.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) of brown algae (Phaeophyta) are composed mainly of alpha- L-fucose, being classified as fucans, with recognized role in inflammation but not in nociception, which was already described for SP obtained from red algae. Here the SP of the brown marine alga S. schroederi (named Ss-SP) was isolated and assayed for the antinociceptive effect. Ss-SP was isolated by DEAE-cellulose, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and evaluated in nociception models (Formalin, Hot plate, Von Frey) using Swiss mice (20-25g). Anion exchange chromatography provided four major fractions being F1 (Ss-SP) that of highest metachromatic activity and sugar content. Ss-SP inhibited both phases of the formalin test. In the first phase the paw licking (55.2 +/- 8.07s) was reduced by 45% (30.5 +/- 6.51s) and 40% (32.85 +/- 8.66s) at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. In the second phase, Ss-SP was also inhibitory about 39%, but only at 1 mg/kg (83.0 +/- 15.70s) compared to formalin (136.8 +/- 10.27s). This inhibitory effect suggests a mixed mechanism similar to morphine, which was not confirmed in the hot plate test, a model of pain associated with central neurotransmission. However, Ss-SP reduced the animal reaction in response to stimulation withVon Frey filament at the 2nd and 3rd h (20.8 +/- 6.86% versus carrageenan: 47.9 +/- 5.83%; 33.3 +/- 7.71% versus carrageenan: 62.5 +/- 9.83%). Accordingly, the paw edema induced by carrageenan (0.08 +/- 0.01g) was potently reduced in 45.35% by Ss-SP pre-treatment (0.02 +/- 0.003g), corroborating the anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated for brown seaweed polysaccharides. In conclusion our data revealed for the first time the antinociceptive effect of Ss-SP which could be used as a new source of analgesic substances. PMID:21815427

Farias, Wladimir R L; Lima, Paula Cristina W C; Rodrigues, Natália Velloso F C; Siqueira, Rômmulo Celly L; Amorim, Renata M F; Pereira, Maria G; Assreuy, Ana Maria S

2011-06-01

353

Improvement of the Digestibility of Sulfated Hyaluronans by Bovine Testicular Hyaluronidase: A UV Spectroscopic and Mass Spectrometric Study  

PubMed Central

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are important, natural polysaccharides which occur in biological (connective) tissues and have various biotechnological and medical applications. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that chemically (over)sulfated GAGs possess promising properties and are useful as implant coatings. Unfortunately, a detailed characterization of these GAGs is challenging: although mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most powerful tools to elucidate the structures of (poly)saccharides, MS is not applicable to high mass polysaccharides, but characteristic oligosaccharides are needed. These oligosaccharides are normally generated by enzymatic digestion. However, chemically modified (particularly sulfated) GAGs are extremely refractive to enzymatic digestion. This study focuses on the investigation of the digestibility of GAGs with different degrees of sulfation by bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH). It will be shown by using an adapted spectrophotometric assay that all investigated GAGs can be basically digested if the reaction conditions are carefully adjusted. However, the oligosaccharide yield correlates reciprocally with the number of sulfate residues per polymer repeating unit. Finally, matrix-laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) MS will be used to study the released oligosaccharides and their sulfation patterns.

Becher, Jana; Moller, Stephanie

2014-01-01

354

Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia

Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau

2008-01-01

355

Chelating Properties ofExtracellular Polysaccharides from  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella stigmatophora LB993was grown inartificial seawaterundercontrolled conditions. Theproduction ofcell wallpolysaccharides attached tothecells anddissolved inthegrowthmediumwas monitored during algal growth. Preliminary characterization ofthedissolved polysaccharides ofC.stigmatophora andother Chlorella species ispresented. Thecapacity ofdissolved polysaccharides ofC.stigmatophora tobindtoxic heavy metals was also studied andcomparedwiththatofpolysaccharides produced byothermarineChlorella species. Thedifferences inmetal-complexing capacity observed fordissolved polysaccharides obtained fromvarious Chlorella species isattributable todifferences inthecomposition ofthepolysaccharides, notably theuronic acids content. Production

DRORA KAPLAN; DANIEL CHRISTIAEN

1987-01-01

356

Involvement of the antiplatelet activity of magnesium sulfate in suppression of protein kinase C and the Na + \\/H + exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium sulfate is widely used to prevent seizures in pregnant women with hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory mechanisms of magnesium sulfate in platelet aggregation in vitro. In this study, magnesium sulfate concentration-dependently (0.6–3.0 mM) inhibited platelet aggregation in human platelets stimulated by agonists. Magnesium sulfate (1.5 and 3.0 mM) also concentration-dependently inhibited phosphoinositide breakdown

George Hsiao; Ming-Yi Shen; Duen-Suey Chou; Chien-Huang Lin; Tzeng-Fu Chen; Joen-Rong Sheu

2004-01-01

357

Immunopotentiating effects of four Chinese herbal polysaccharides administered at vaccination in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 4 Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the production of serum antibodies and the proliferation of peripheral T lymphocytes, including subpopulations in vaccinated chickens. A total of 450 chickens were randomly assigned to 9 groups at 14 d of age and vaccinated first with live Newcastle disease (ND)-infectious bronchitis virus vaccine, and second with ND-infectious bronchitis oil adjuvant vaccine at 28 d of age. At the same time as the first vaccination, the chickens in groups 1 to 8 were intramuscularly injected with 4 polysaccharides at high and low dosages, respectively, once a day for 3 successive days starting on the day of the first vaccination. Group 9 (control group) was injected in the same manner with saline instead of a polysaccharide. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after the first vaccination, the temporal changes in serum ND hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer were determined by the micromethod. On d 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 after the first vaccination, the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to concanavalin A stimulation as well as the proportions of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and flow cytometry, respectively. The results showed that astragalus polysaccharide and isatis root polysaccharide at low dosages, and achyranthes root polysaccharide and Chinese yam polysaccharide at high dosages significantly enhanced the ND antibody titers, concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and ratio of CD4(+) to CD8(+) (P <0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that the 4 polysaccharides possess significant immune-enhancing properties in chickens. This finding may have direct application in vaccine design and other strategies designed to potentiate immune system development and function in chickens. PMID:18029798

Qiu, Y; Hu, Y L; Cui, B A; Zhang, H Y; Kong, X F; Wang, D Y; Wang, Y G

2007-12-01

358

Structural characterization of an arabinogalactan from Platycodon grandiflorum roots and antiangiogenic activity of its sulfated derivative.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide, PGAW1, with an average molecular mass of 9.2 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), was isolated from radix of Platycodon grandiflorum . Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that PGAW1 contains Ara and Gal in the molar ratio of 1.42:1.0. Using methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis, endo-1,4-?-d-galactanase digestion, NMR and ESI-MS, PGAW1 was determined to possess a backbone consisting of 1,4- and 1,6-linked galactopyranosyl residues, with branches attached to O-3 of 1,6-linked galactose residues. By the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method we produced a sulfated derivative of PGAW1, Sul-w1, with a substitution degree of 1.52. The substitution was at O-6 on 1,4-linked Gal residues according to the (13)C NMR spectra. Bioactivity test showed that Sul-w1 could inhibit tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:20839877

Xu, Yuxia; Dong, Qun; Qiu, Hong; Cong, Renhuai; Ding, Kan

2010-10-11

359

Polysaccharide production by microalgae. Final report on phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing overall biomass production rates. Three different algae were studied--unicellular blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis, filamentous blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and a green colonial alga, Scenedesmus sp. Batch cultures were grown with varying amounts of nitrate to limit nitrogen uptake at various stages in the batch growth curve. In the presence of high nitrate concentrations, the Synechococcus culture became stationary within four days, whereas both Spirulina and Scenedesmus maintained an appreciable growth rate and high daily productivities, for at least a week. With limiting nitrate concentrations, the cellular content of polysaccharide (measured as total carbohydrates) increased markedly, from 20-25 percent to 70-80 percent in Synechococcus and Spirulina. Depending on the level of nitrate used, onset of nitrogen limitation could be set at various culture densities. In all cases, little or no inhibition of total biomass production was noted.

Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

1980-04-01

360

O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production.

Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

2011-01-01

361

ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF ANTIOXIDATIVE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM Crassostrea hongkongensis.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of oyster extract against various disorders and diseases induced by oxidative stress have aroused great interest. In this article, ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis was employed to produce polysaccharides of Crassostrea hongkongensis (CHP) and their antioxidant activity was investigated. A single-factor experiment and then a four-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design were first used to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. On the basis of ridge analysis, the optimum conditions are obtained as ultrasonic treatment time of 24 min, power of 876 W, temperature of 49°C, and material-solvent ratio of 1:6 (w/v). It is found that ultrasound pretreatment before protease hydrolysis was a great help to improve CHP yield and purity, especially more favorable with flavorzyme, neutrase, alcalase, and pepsin. Furthermore, the polysaccharide fraction, which was obtained by ultrasonic pretreatment and then alcalase hydrolysis at the conditions of 3000 U/g, 55°C, pH 8.0, for 4 hr, exhibited an obvious scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (98.48 ± 0.55% and 99.20 ± 0.12%, respectively) and a lenoleic acid peroxidation inhibition effect (85.48 ± 0.65%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. These results reveal the potential application of CHP in functional food and nutraceuticals. PMID:24905048

Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Long, Shujun; Sun, Huili

2014-10-01

362

Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... English | En español Search NCI Home Cancer Topics Clinical Trials Cancer Statistics Research & Funding News About NCI ... of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Overview Hydrazine sulfate is ...

363

A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.  

PubMed

A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

1994-03-01

364

Heparan sulfate in angiogenesis: a target for therapy.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS), a long linear polysaccharide of alternating disaccharide residues, interacts with a wide variety of proteins, including many angiogenic factors. The involvement of HS in signaling of pro-angiogenic factors (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2), as well as interaction with anti-angiogenic factors (e.g. endostatin), warrants its role as an important modifier of (tumor) angiogenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of HS in angiogenic growth factor signaling, and discusses therapeutic strategies to target HS and modulate angiogenesis. PMID:24146040

van Wijk, Xander M R; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

2014-07-01

365

Controlling barium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though for several years success has been realized in controlling barium sulfate scale deposition in relatively shallow, low pressure oil wells--by squeezing an organic phosphonate scale inhibitor into the producing zone--barium sulfate scale depositon in deep, high pressure\\/high temperature wells usually meant an expensive workover operation. A case history of a deep (16,000 ft) well in St. Mary Parish,

Greenley

2009-01-01

366

Tumor attenuation by combined heparan sulfate and polyamine depletion  

PubMed Central

Cells depend on polyamines for growth and their depletion represents a strategy for the treatment of cancer. Polyamines assemble de novo through a pathway sensitive to the inhibitor, ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). However, the presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans may provide a salvage pathway for uptake of circulating polyamines, thereby sparing cells from the cytostatic effect of DFMO. Here we show that genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of proteoglycan synthesis in the presence of DFMO inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, mutant cells lacking heparan sulfate were more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of DFMO than wild-type cells or mutant cells transfected with the cDNA for the missing biosynthetic enzyme. Moreover, extracellular polyamines did not restore growth of mutant cells, but completely reversed the inhibitory effect of DFMO in wild-type cells. In a mouse model of experimental metastasis, DFMO provided in the water supply also dramatically diminished seeding and growth of tumor foci in the lungs by heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells compared with the controls. Wild-type cells also formed tumors less efficiently in mice fed both DFMO and a xylose-based inhibitor of heparan sulfate proteoglycan assembly. The effect seemed to be specific for heparan sulfate, because a different xyloside known to affect only chondroitin sulfate did not inhibit tumor growth. Hence, combined inhibition of heparan sulfate assembly and polyamine synthesis may represent an additional strategy for cancer therapy.

Belting, Mattias; Borsig, Lubor; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Persson, Lo; Fransson, Lars-?ke; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2002-01-01

367

Tumor attenuation by combined heparan sulfate and polyamine depletion.  

PubMed

Cells depend on polyamines for growth and their depletion represents a strategy for the treatment of cancer. Polyamines assemble de novo through a pathway sensitive to the inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). However, the presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans may provide a salvage pathway for uptake of circulating polyamines, thereby sparing cells from the cytostatic effect of DFMO. Here we show that genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of proteoglycan synthesis in the presence of DFMO inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, mutant cells lacking heparan sulfate were more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of DFMO than wild-type cells or mutant cells transfected with the cDNA for the missing biosynthetic enzyme. Moreover, extracellular polyamines did not restore growth of mutant cells, but completely reversed the inhibitory effect of DFMO in wild-type cells. In a mouse model of experimental metastasis, DFMO provided in the water supply also dramatically diminished seeding and growth of tumor foci in the lungs by heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells compared with the controls. Wild-type cells also formed tumors less efficiently in mice fed both DFMO and a xylose-based inhibitor of heparan sulfate proteoglycan assembly. The effect seemed to be specific for heparan sulfate, because a different xyloside known to affect only chondroitin sulfate did not inhibit tumor growth. Hence, combined inhibition of heparan sulfate assembly and polyamine synthesis may represent an additional strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:11752393

Belting, Mattias; Borsig, Lubor; Fuster, Mark M; Brown, Jillian R; Persson, Lo; Fransson, Lars-Ake; Esko, Jeffrey D

2002-01-01

368

Verrucomicrobia are candidates for polysaccharide-degrading bacterioplankton in an arctic fjord of svalbard.  

PubMed

In Arctic marine bacterial communities, members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are consistently detected, although not typically abundant, in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrotag surveys of the marine water column and in sediments. In an Arctic fjord (Smeerenburgfjord) of Svalbard, members of the Verrucomicrobia, together with Flavobacteria and smaller proportions of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, constituted the most frequently detected bacterioplankton community members in 16S rRNA gene-based clone library analyses of the water column. Parallel measurements in the water column of the activities of six endo-acting polysaccharide hydrolases showed that chondroitin sulfate, laminarin, and xylan hydrolysis accounted for most of the activity. Several Verrucomicrobia water column phylotypes were affiliated with previously sequenced, glycoside hydrolase-rich genomes of individual Verrucomicrobia cells that bound fluorescently labeled laminarin and xylan and therefore constituted candidates for laminarin and xylan hydrolysis. In sediments, the bacterial community was dominated by different lineages of Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria but also included members of multiple phylum-level lineages not observed in the water column. This community hydrolyzed laminarin, xylan, chondroitin sulfate, and three additional polysaccharide substrates at high rates. Comparisons with data from the same fjord in the previous summer showed that the bacterial community in Smeerenburgfjord changed in composition, most conspicuously in the changing detection frequency of Verrucomicrobia in the water column. Nonetheless, in both years the community hydrolyzed the same polysaccharide substrates. PMID:24727271

Cardman, Z; Arnosti, C; Durbin, A; Ziervogel, K; Cox, C; Steen, A D; Teske, A

2014-06-15

369

[Immunological study on the antitumor effects of fungus polysaccharides compounds].  

PubMed

Fungus polysaccharides compounds (FPC) are the mixture of procyanidins oligomers, glycyrrhetinicacid and polysaccharides of hericium erinaceus, lentinus edodes and poria cocos. The antitumor effects of FPC and its immunity regulating effects as an immunostimulant on the mice burdened with sarcoma 180 (S-180) were studied. FPC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW) was gavaged to mice for 31 days. S-180 was transplanted to these mice on the 21th day. Lentinus edodes group was gavaged 200 mg/kg BW saccharine of lentinus edodes. The results showed that FPC could inhibit the growth of S-180 effectively. The inhibitory rates were 37.74%, 44.73% and 48.32% respectively. The antineoplastic activity of FPC (200 mg/kg. BW) was more effective than polysaccharide of lentinus edodes at the same dose. In S-180 burdened mice, the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2, NK activity and the induced IL-2, IFN-gamma levels were decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. As an immunostimulant, FPC could increase the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2 in S-180 burdened mice, but had no significant effects on the percentage of Lyt-2. Polysaccharide of lentinus edodes alone could also increase the immunity competence of mice burdened with S-180, but was not better than that of FPC at the same dose. It could be concluded that the compound of antineoplastic component could be synergetic. PMID:12725070

Liu, C; Gao, P; Qian, J; Yan, W

2000-05-30

370

The polysaccharide composition of Poales cell walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocotyledon families can be divided into two groups depending on the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of ferulic acid ester-linked to their unlignified cell walls. The two groups also differ in the major types of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in their unlignified cell walls: in Group A they are glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAXs), and in Group B they are pectic polysaccharides. Previous

Bronwen G Smith; Philip J Harris

1999-01-01

371

[Radioprotective effect of Corynebacterium michiganense polysaccharide].  

PubMed

Antiradiation activity of polysaccharide isolated from phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria Corynebacterium michiganense has been established. It is shown that the introduction of polysaccharide immediately or 2 h after irradiation with the lethal dose promotes maximum survivability of experimental animals (30 and 20%, respectively). PMID:8162197

Varbanets, L D; Barabo?, V A

1993-01-01

372

Modulating production of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to methods of modulating capsular polysaccharide production in pneumococci such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The invention further relates to methods of alleviating pneumococcal infections in animals, and to methods of identifying both agents capable of modulating pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis and agents useful for alleviating pneumococcal infections in animals.

2003-11-04

373

The Manufacture of Specific Immunogenic Polysaccharide Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives of the research are to prepare 100 grams of purified polysaccharides for each of the following pneumococcus serotypes: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, XII, XIV, XVIII and XIX. The amount of some of the polysaccharide types produced has been i...

R. S. Baker D. H. Berg R. J. Driesens

1970-01-01

374

[Study on the mustard of polysaccharides].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to isolate and purify the polysaccharides fractions from mustard and to determine the constituent characters. Hot water extracting and ethanol precipitating method were employed to isolate polysaccharides. After the removal of protein by Sevag method, the purified mustard polysaccharides were dried by frozen drier. The amount of total carbohydrates of mustard polysaccharides was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. IR spectrometry, UV-spectrophotometer, and automatic spectropolarimeter were used to determine the characteristic absorption and optical rotation of the polysaccharides, respectively. Size exclusion chromatography with laser light scattering technology was employed to measure the molecular masses. The monosaccharides contained in the mustard polysaccharides were analysed by HPLC. The amount of total carbohydrates in mustard polysaccharides is 98.96%. The molecular weight distribution was 1.42 x 10(4)-2.55 x 10(6), and eighty percent was distributed in 2.1 x 10(5). The monosaccharide constituent of mustard polysaccharides were glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and xylose, and their molar proportions are 21.4 : 12.89 : 5.6 : 4.1 : 2.5, respectively. PMID:16826917

He, Feng-Ga; Hasenqimeng

2006-02-01

375

Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot cells and Arabidopsis wound sites is correlated with the presence of a cell-associated, acidic polysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

An early step in crown gall tumor formation involves the attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. A. tumefaciens C58::A205 (C58 attR) is a Tn3HoHo1 insertion mutant that was found to be avirulent on Bryophyllum daigremontiana and unable to attach to carrot suspension cells. The mutation mapped to an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 247 amino acids which has significant homology to transacetylases from many bacteria. Biochemical analysis of polysaccharide extracts from wild-type strain C58 and the C58::A205 mutant showed that the latter was deficient in the production of a cell-associated polysaccharide. Anion-exchange chromatography followed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the polysaccharide produced by strain C58 was an acetylated, acidic polysaccharide and that the polysaccharide preparation contained three sugars: glucose, glucosamine, and an unidentified deoxy-sugar. Application of the polysaccharide preparation from strain C58 to carrot suspension cells prior to inoculation with the bacteria effectively inhibited attachment of the bacteria to the carrot cells, whereas an identical preparation from strain C58::A205 had no inhibitory effect and did not contain the acidic polysaccharide. Similarly, preincubation of Arabidopsis thaliana root segments with the polysaccharide prevented attachment of strain C58 to that plant. This indicates that the acidic polysaccharide may play a role in the attachment of A. tumefaciens to host soma plant cells.

Reuhs, B L; Kim, J S; Matthysse, A G

1997-01-01

376

Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

2012-09-01

377

Salicylate-induced depletion of endogenous inorganic sulfate. Potential role in the suppression of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in murine articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Sodium salicylate has been shown to suppress glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by articular hyaline cartilage in vitro. We investigated the in vivo effect of sodium salicylate on murine patellar cartilage, using incorporation of intraperitoneally administered 35S-sulfate as a measure of sulfated GAG synthesis. Our results indicated that a single dose of sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) inhibited in vivo sulfated GAG synthesis by 56%, compared with controls, and had no effect on sulfated GAG breakdown. A striking finding was that sodium sulfate treatment reduced the serum concentration of inorganic sulfate from 1.1 mM to approximately 0.3 mM, and that this serum reduction was associated with a twofold increase in urinary excretion of sulfate. Using anatomically intact patellar cartilage, in vitro studies clearly showed that, in concentrations reached in vivo (greater than or equal to 1 mM), salicylate suppressed murine chondrocyte GAG synthesis. However, in the presence of serum, the effects of 1 mM salicylate were abolished. We also found that sulfated GAG synthesis was clearly inhibited at low concentrations of sulfate (less than 0.5 mM). Our data indicate that sodium salicylate can suppress articular chondrocyte sulfated GAG synthesis in vivo, and that this effect may particularly be due to a drug-induced reduction of endogenous sulfate. PMID:4026888

de Vries, B J; van den Berg, W B; van de Putte, L B

1985-08-01

378

Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells. PMID:24507248

Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

2014-02-15

379

Dietary fibre in cocoa shell: characterisation of component polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharides were isolated from cocoa shells and characterised by compositional and linkage analysis. The polysaccharide types were diverse and included pectic polysaccharides (?45%) which were made up of a heterogeneous mixture of rhamnogalacturonans with variable degrees of branching. Hemicelluloses (?20%) consisted of a mixture of a fucosylated xyloglucan, galactoglucomannans, and glucuronoarabinoxylan. Cellulose accounted for ?35% of the cell wall polysaccharides.

R Redgwell; V Trovato; S Merinat; D Curti; S Hediger; A Manez

2003-01-01

380

Extraction, partial characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from boat-fruited sterculia seeds.  

PubMed

Three polysaccharides (water-soluble (WSP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and insoluble (IMP)) from boat-fruited sterculia seeds were obtained using different extraction methods. Moisture, ash, protein and total carbohydrate content of WSP, ASP and IMP were analyzed. WSP was rich in glucose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose while small amount of xylose was also detected. The monosaccharide composition as well its relative content for WSP and ASP were similar. The intrinsic viscosity results demonstrated that ASP had much lower intrinsic viscosity than WSP, indicating partial polysaccharides were degraded into low molecular weight polymers during alkaline extraction. The acute anti-inflammatory bioactive results of polysaccharides indicated that WSP demonstrated an inhibitive effect toward acute inflammation. PMID:22910576

Ai, Lianzhong; Wu, Jinhong; Che, Na; Wu, Yan; Cui, Steve W

2012-12-01