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1

Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling.  

PubMed

Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-?B, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-?B activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

2014-01-01

2

Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling  

PubMed Central

Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-?B, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-?B activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

2014-01-01

3

Novel Sulfated Polysaccharides Disrupt Cathelicidins, Inhibit RAGE and Reduce Cutaneous Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Background Rosacea is a common disfiguring skin disease of primarily Caucasians characterized by central erythema of the face, with telangiectatic blood vessels, papules and pustules, and can produce skin thickening, especially on the nose of men, creating rhinophyma. Rosacea can also produce dry, itchy eyes with irritation of the lids, keratitis and corneal scarring. The cause of rosacea has been proposed as over-production of the cationic cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested a new class of non-anticoagulant sulfated anionic polysaccharides, semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) on key elements of the pathogenic pathway leading to rosacea. SAGEs were anti-inflammatory at ng/ml, including inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) proteases, P-selectin, and interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with four representative ligands. SAGEs bound LL-37 and inhibited interleukin-8 production induced by LL-37 in cultured human keratinocytes. When mixed with LL-37 before injection, SAGEs prevented the erythema and PMN infiltration produced by direct intradermal injection of LL-37 into mouse skin. Topical application of a 1% (w/w) SAGE emollient to overlying injected skin also reduced erythema and PMN infiltration from intradermal LL-37. Conclusions Anionic polysaccharides, exemplified by SAGEs, offer potential as novel mechanism-based therapies for rosacea and by extension other LL-37-mediated and RAGE-ligand driven skin diseases. PMID:21347371

Zhang, Jianxing; Xu, Xiaoyu; Rao, Narayanam V.; Argyle, Brian; McCoard, Lindsi; Rusho, William J.; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Krueger, Gerald

2011-01-01

4

Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions. PMID:24361592

Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-30

5

Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted

Rafael S. Aquino; Clicia Grativol; Paulo A. S. Mourão; Peter Meyer

2011-01-01

6

Structural analysis of immunostimulating sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from Ulva pertusa and fractionated to obtain the most immunostimulating fraction (F(2)). The glycosidic linkages of the polysaccharides in the fraction F(2) were determined using GC-MS and 2D-NMR spectroscopy after chemical modifications, including reduction and desulfation under various conditions. Methanol was used as a sulfate acceptor for the removal of sulfates from the polysaccharides. When desulfation was carried out at 120°C, the sulfates were removed upto 90.1% from the F(2) fraction without considerable backbone degradation. The GC-MS analysis as well as NMR spectra revealed that the backbone of the polysaccharides was mainly composed of ?-(1?4)-L-rhamnopyranosyl, ?-(1?4)-D-glucuronosyl, ?-(1?2)-L-rhamnopyranosyl, and ?-(1?4)-D-xylopyranosyl residues with branches at O-2 position of rhamnose. The sulfate groups were mostly found on glucuronic acid at O-3 position. PMID:23023040

Tabarsa, Mehdi; Lee, Sung-Joon; You, SangGuan

2012-11-01

7

Chemical structures and bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H Stephen

2011-01-01

8

Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

2011-01-01

9

Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote  

PubMed Central

The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites. PMID:23519148

Pires, Camila Lehnhardt; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Farias, Wladimir Ronald Lobo; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

2013-01-01

10

Sulfation of tea polysaccharides: Synthesis, characterization and hypoglycemic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutral polysaccharides (NTPS) and acid polysaccharides (ATPS) from tea leaves were obtained on a D315 macroporous anion-exchange resin column chromatography. NTPS and ATPS were sulfated by the pyridine–sulfonic acid method to obtain NTPS-S and ATPS-S. It was found that NTPS was easier sulfated than ATPS. There are strong characteristic absorption peaks located in 1258cm?1, 1146cm?1, 832cm?1 and 617cm?1 in the

Yuanfeng Wang; Yonghua Peng; Xinlin Wei; Zhiwei Yang; Jianbo Xiao; Zhengyu Jin

2010-01-01

11

Sulfated polysaccharides in marine sponges: extraction methods and anti-HIV activity.  

PubMed

The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor). PMID:21339952

Esteves, Ana I S; Nicolai, Marisa; Humanes, Madalena; Goncalves, Joao

2011-01-01

12

[Neuroprotective effects of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed].  

PubMed

Currently, neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) occupy a significant place in the structure of disease of the elderly, which dictates the need to find new and effective treatment and prevention of this pathology. At the heart of NDD development is a violation of the metabolism and the conformational change of cellular proteins with subsequent accumulation and aggregation of their in certain groups of neurons. The immediate cause of the death of the affected neurons in NDD is initiated by intracellular proteins apoptosis, during which a large number ofneurotransmitter glutamate is released. The consequence of an imbalance in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters are related the memory impairment, motor coordination and cognitive abilities of human. Based on the analysis of the extensive literature domestic and predominantly foreign authors of the last decade the modern data on the effect of sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) of algae in vivo and in vitro in degenerative processes of the nervous system. Found that due to its multi-point impact, SPS have on the body antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-toxic effects. Consequently, SPS can arrest a number of secondary pathological effects observed in neurodegenerative diseases (oxidative stress, inflammation, the phenomenon of increased neuronal apoptosis, toxic effects etc.). Varieties of pathogenic mechanisms underlying NDD makes possible the combined use of neuroprotective compounds acting sequentially in different stages of a pathological process. Accumulated a lot of experimental evidence to assume that the SPS may be the basis for the creation of next-generation drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24000668

Besednova, N N; Somova, L M; Guliaev, S A; Zaporozhets, T S

2013-01-01

13

Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Porphyra haitanesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated from Porphyra haitanesis, an important economic alga in China, through anion-exchange column chromatography and their in vitro antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Galactose was the main sugar unit of the three fractions. The analytical results indicated that polysaccharide fractions from P. haitanesis had similar chemical components to porphyran

Quanbin Zhang; Pengzhan Yu; Zhien Li; Hong Zhang; Zuhong Xu; Pengcheng Li

2003-01-01

14

Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. PMID:21387013

Ushakova, Natalia A.; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E.; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Bilan, Maria I.; Usov, Anatolii I.; Grachev, Alexey A.; Morozevich, Galina E.; Berman, Albert E.; Sanderson, Craig J.; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

2011-01-01

15

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum horneri.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (SHP30, SHP60, and SHP80) extracted from the Sargassum horneri were obtained by water extraction and radial flow chromatography. The high-performance gel-permeation chromatography analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of three polysaccharides were approximately 1.58×10(3), 1.92×10(3) and 11.2KDa, respectively. Their in vitro antioxidant activities, antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, SHP30 with the highest sulfate content and intermediate molecular weight exhibited excellent antioxidant and antitumor activities in the superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, reducing power assay, and MTT assay. Then, flow cytometry assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis suggested that the accumulation of cells in G0/G1 and S phase effecting apoptosis-associated gene expressions such as Bcl-2 and Bax might account for the growth inhibition of DLD cells by SHP30. Based on these results, we have inferred that sulfate content and molecular weight were the factors influencing antioxidant and antitumor activities. PMID:24708979

Shao, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Peilong

2014-05-25

16

Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2?8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

2014-01-01

17

Sulfated modification, characterization and antitumor activities of Radix hedysari polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Sulfated modification of a polysaccharide obtained from Radix hedysari (RHP) was studied. Four sulfated derivatives (RHPS) with variable degrees of substitution (DS) were obtained by the chlorosulfonic acid method with ionic liquids (ILs) as solvent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as catalyst. The structures of RHPS were characterized by FT-IR spectra and ¹³C NMR spectra, and the results indicated that the sulfated groups were modified mainly at the C-6 position and C-2 position. Four kinds of RHPS showed different DS ranging from 0.63 to 1.45, and different weight-average molecular mass (Mw) ranging from 60.8 to 71.1 kDa with a little degradation. Compared with RHP, all of RHPS exhibited obvious antitumor activity on A549 cells and BGC-823 cells in vitro. However, they had no obvious influence on HEK293 cells, which indicated that they had low toxicity to normal cells. Flow cytometric studies indicated that the treatment of RHPS against A549 cells and BGC-823 cells could mediate the cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase. PMID:22705472

Wei, Dongfeng; Wei, Yanxia; Cheng, Weidong; Zhang, Lifeng

2012-11-01

18

Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.  

PubMed

Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. PMID:23994790

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

2013-11-01

19

A 2-sulfated, 3-linked ?- l-galactan is an anticoagulant polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine alga is an abundant source of sulfated polysaccharides with potent anticoagulant activity. However, several attempts to identify the specific structural features in these compounds, which confer the biological activity, failed due to their complex, heterogeneous structure. We isolated and characterized several sulfated ?-l-galactans and sulfated ?-l-fucans from marine invertebrates. In contrast to the algal fucans and galactans, these invertebrate

Mariana S Pereira; Ana-Cristina E. S Vilela-Silva; Ana-Paula Valente; Paulo A. S Mourão

2002-01-01

20

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major barrier to regenerating axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but the structural diversity of their polysaccharides has hampered efforts to dissect the structure-activity relationships underlying their physiological activity. By taking advantage of our ability to chemically synthesize specific oligosaccharides, we demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth. Removal of the CS-E motif significantly attenuates the inhibitory activity of CSPGs on axon growth. Furthermore, CS-E functions as a protein recognition element to engage receptors including the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP?, thereby triggering downstream pathways that inhibit axon growth. Finally, masking the CS-E motif using a CS-E-specific antibody reversed the inhibitory activity of CSPGs and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic strategies to regenerate axons after CNS injury. PMID:22411830

Brown, Joshua M.; Xia, Jiang; Zhuang, BinQuan; Cho, Kin-Sang; Rogers, Claude J.; Gama, Cristal I.; Rawat, Manish; Tully, Sarah E.; Uetani, Noriko; Mason, Daniel E.; Tremblay, Michel L.; Peters, Eric C.; Habuchi, Osami; Chen, Dong F.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

2012-01-01

21

Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of ? and ?-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed ?-carrageenan and oversulfated ?-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

2014-01-01

22

A wide diversity of sulfated polysaccharides are synthesized by different species of marine sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from four species of marine sponges by exhaustive papain digestion. These compounds were purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Analysis of the purified polysaccharides revealed a species-specific variation in their chemical composition and also in their molecular masses. In the species Aplysinafulva we found a sulfated glucan with a glycogen-like structure. The other three species contained

Maximiliano S. Zierer; Paulo A. S. Mourão

2000-01-01

23

Antioxidant activity of different sulfate content derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) in vitro.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) is a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharide; for simplicity, the sulfated polysaccharide is referred to as ulvan in this paper. In this study, different sulfate content ulvans were prepared with sulfur trioxide/N,N-dimethylformamide (SO3-DMF) in formamide, and their antioxidant activities were investigated including scavenging activity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power and metal chelating ability. As expected, we obtained several satisfying results, as follows: firstly, high sulfate content ulvans had more effective scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical than natural ulvan. Secondly, comparing with natural ulvan, high sulfate content ulvans exhibited stronger reducing power. Thirdly, HU4 (sulfate content, 30.8%) and HU5 (sulfate content, 32.8%) showed more pronounce chelating ability on ferrous ion at high concentration than other samples. PMID:16310843

Qi, Huimin; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Hong; Niu, Xizhen; Li, Zhien

2005-12-15

24

A NOVEL ALLOSTERIC PATHWAY OF THROMBIN INHIBITION Exosite II Mediated Potent Inhibition of Thrombin by Chemo-Enzymatic, Sulfated  

E-print Network

, bovine heparin, enoxaparin, and a heparin octasaccharide suggest that CDSO3 preferentially binds of these pro-coagulant enzymes and requires the presence of heparin to exhibit its anticoagulant potential (3,4). Heparin is a highly sulfated, polysaccharide that greatly enhances the rate of antithrombin inhibition

Desai, Umesh R

25

In vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities of different sulfated polysaccharides isolated from three algae.  

PubMed

Three sulfated polysaccharides(Ulva fasciata (UFP), Gloiopeltis furcata (GFP), Sargassum henslouianum (SHP))were isolated from three algae including green alga Ulva fasciata, red alga Gloiopeltis furcata and brown alga Sargassum henslouianum by ultrasonic extraction and radial flow chromatography. Their in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated and compared. Among these three polysaccharides, UFP, with relatively lower sulfate content, exhibited excellent antioxidant activities in superoxide radical assay, ABTS assay and DPPH assay; however, it demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of MKN45 gastric cancer cells and DLD intestinal cancer cells. SHP with the lowest sulfate content gained relatively lower radical scavenging rates but showed significantly higher antitumor activities. These results indicated that the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides may be related to combined effects of sulfate content and uronic acid content. PMID:23994786

Shao, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Peilong

2013-11-01

26

Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells.  

PubMed

Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; Rechenchoski, Daniele Zendrini; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

27

Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection.

de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Ligia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

28

Evaluation of sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyopteris justii as antioxidant agents and as inhibitors of the formation of calcium oxalate crystals.  

PubMed

Oxalate crystals and other types of crystals are the cause of urolithiasis, and these are related to oxidative stress. The search for new compounds with antioxidant qualities and inhibitors of these crystal formations is therefore necessary. In this study, we extracted four sulfated polysaccharides, a fucoglucoxyloglucuronan (DJ-0.3v), a heterofucan (DJ-0.4v), and two glucans (DJ-0.5v and DJ-1.2v), from the marine alga Dictyopteris justii. The presence of sulfated polysaccharides was confirmed by chemical analysis and FT-IR. All the sulfated polysaccharides presented antioxidant activity under different conditions in some of the in vitro tests and inhibited the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Fucan DJ-0.4v was the polysaccharide that showed the best antioxidant activity and was one of the best inhibitors of the crystallization of calcium oxalate. Glucan DJ-0.5v was the second most potent inhibitor of the formation of oxalate crystals, as it stabilized dehydrated oxalate crystals (less aggressive form), preventing them from transforming into monohydrate crystals (more aggressive form). The obtained data lead us to propose that these sulfated polysaccharides are promising agents for use in the treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:24287990

Melo, Karoline Rachel Teodosio; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Vidal, Arthur Anthunes Jacome; Lima, Camila Renata Machado; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2013-01-01

29

Biological properties of ulvan, a new source of green seaweed sulfated polysaccharides, on cultured normal and cancerous colonic epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Ulvans (from Ulva lactuca) constitute a dietary fiber structurally similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycans but with unexplored biological or cytotoxic activities. From native low-viscosity preparations containing 33.5 molar % and 18.4 molar % of sulfate residues and uronic acid residues, respectively, we derived desulfated, reduced and desulfated-reduced polysaccharides with respectively 5.2, 2.9, and 4.5-4.9 molar % of sulfate residues and uronic acid residues. The effects of these preparations were examined on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of normal or tumoral colonic epithelial cells cultured in conventional (0.3-0.8 x 10(6) cells/ml) or rotating bioreactor (3-8 x 10(6) cells/ml) culture conditions. In conventional culture conditions, ulvan modified the adhesion phase and the proliferation of normal colonic cells and undifferentiated HT-29 cells according to their molecular weights and to the relative molar proportion of sulfate residues. From the native polysaccharides, we have screened sulfated ulvans (MW < 5,000) which inhibited the Caco-2 cell proliferation/differentiation program by inducing a low cell reactivity to Ulex europeaus-1 lectins in defined (p < 0.001) or serum-supplemented media (p < 0.01) but were inactive on normal colonocytes. In conclusion, this dietary fiber could be a source of oligosaccharides with a bioactivity, a cytotoxicity or a cytostaticity targeted to normal or cancerous epithelial cells. PMID:10483372

Kaeffer, B; Bénard, C; Lahaye, M; Blottière, H M; Cherbut, C

1999-08-01

30

Anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activities of sulfated polysaccharide of Sepiella maindroni ink.  

PubMed

A previous study demonstrated that SIP-SII, a sulfated Sepiella maindroni ink polysaccharide, suppressed the invasion and migration of cancer cells via the inhibition of the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Therefore, this study investigated the anti-metastatic effect of SIP-SII in vivo. SIP-SII (15 and 30 mg/kg d) markedly decreased B16F10 pulmonary metastasis in mice models by 85.9% and 88.0%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that SIP-SII decreased the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in lung metastasis nodules. In addition, SIP-SII inhibited neovascularization in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay at 0.08-2 mg/mL. In the in vitro experiments, SIP-SII (0.8-500 ?g/mL) significantly decreased the protein and mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and bFGF in SKOV3 and EA.hy926 cells, respectively. These results suggested that SIP-SII might suppress melanoma metastasis via the inhibition of the tumor adhesion mediated by ICAM-1 and the angiogenesis mediated by bFGF, as well as resulting in depression of the invasion and migration of carcinoma cells. PMID:23044150

Zong, Aizhen; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Qu, Xianjun; Cao, Jichao; Wang, Fengshan

2013-01-01

31

Molecular characteristics and immunomodulatory activities of water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Ulva pertusa and fractionated using anion-exchange chromatography were investigated to determine their molecular characteristics and bioactivities. The crude and fractionated polysaccharides (F(1), F(2), and F(3)) were mainly composed of carbohydrates (59.9-65.9%), sulfates (11.6-15.3%), and uronic acid (7.30-16.4%) with small amounts of proteins (1.40-4.80%). Rhamnose (62.5-80.7%) was the major monosaccharide unit of these polysaccharides, with different levels of glucose (13.5-27.4%) and xylose (2.74-11.5%). The polysaccharides contained one or two major subfractions with weight-average molecular mass ranging from 51.1×10(3) to 1,690×10(3) g/mol. The relatively low in vitro anticancer activity of the polysaccharides (22.3-42.4%) suggested that they had little cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line used (AGS). On the other hand, the polysaccharides significantly stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, inducing considerable amounts of nitric oxide and various cytokines production, which suggested that they could be strong immunostimulators. PMID:22191629

Tabarsa, Mehdi; Han, Jung H; Kim, Chul Young; You, Sang Guan

2012-02-01

32

In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from red seaweed Nemalion helminthoides.  

PubMed

Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides from the red seaweed Nemalion helminthoides: two xylomannan fractions (N3 and N4) and a mannan fraction (N6) were investigated to determine their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. N3 and N4 induced in vitro proliferation of macrophages of the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and significantly stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) in the same cells, whereas this response was not observed with the mannan N6. The cytokine production was also stimulated by sulfated xylomannans in vivo in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously with these polysaccharides. Remarkably, when mice were treated with N3 and N4 for 1 h before being infected with Herpes simplex virus type 2, they remained asymptomatic with no signs of disease. The in vitro and in vivo results suggest that sulfated xylomannans could be strong immunomodulators. PMID:24444887

Pérez-Recalde, Mercedes; Matulewicz, María C; Pujol, Carlos A; Carlucci, María J

2014-02-01

33

Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-?-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of ?-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups. PMID:24299838

Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

2014-01-30

34

Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its metabolites on the secretion of sulfated polysaccharides by foot integument of a pond snail.  

PubMed

The effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), TRH metabolites, and a TRH analog on the secretion of 35S-labeled sulfated polysaccharides from in vitro incubated foot integument of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis palustris was assessed. Whereas TRH significantly inhibited the secretion of 35S-labeled polysaccharides, its metabolite deamido TRH significantly stimulated polysaccharide secretion. Histidyl-proline-diketopiperazine did not alter the secretion of 35S-labeled sulfated polysaccharides. Foot integument exhibited considerable TRH-peptidase activity in vitro. The principal proline-containing TRH metabolites were deamido-TRH and proline. The deamido-TRH content of the foot, mantle, and hemolymph was determined by radioimmunoassay. All tissues contained deamido-TRH. These findings suggest that the secretory activity of skin mucus glands of L. stagnalis palustris is the result of the stimulatory action of deamido-TRH and the inhibitory action of TRH. 3Methyl-2histidyl-TRH, TRH, vasotocin, and bombesin did not alter the polysaccharide secretion by in vitro incubated foot integument, indicating that the changes in mucus secretion after TRH and deamido-TRH administration are specific and that the gastropod "TRH receptors" may differ from the mammalian brain and anterior pituitary gland TRH receptors. PMID:6147294

Grimm-Jørgensen, Y; Connolly, S M; Visser, T J

1984-09-01

35

Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. PMID:23507892

Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, Joao F.; Reis, Rui L.

2012-01-01

36

Sulfated modification can enhance the immune-enhancing activity of lycium barbarum polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In test in vitro, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs) with different degrees of sulfation (DS), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were added into cultured chicken peripheral lymphocytes and the changes of lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay taking the non-modified LBPS as control. Two sLBPSs with better efficacy, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9 were selected. In test in vivo, one

Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Jing Liu; Jing Zhang; Saifuding Abula; Biao Zhao; Shiliang Ruan

2010-01-01

37

Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Celia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Katia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2012-01-01

38

Characterization of laminaran and a highly sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme.  

PubMed

The crude polysaccharide (HFS) from Sargassum fusiforme (Hizikia fusiforme) was extracted using 0.1M HCl and was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography into three fractions: HFS-1, HFS-2, and HFS-3. Based on the chemical analysis, HFS-1 was composed of laminaran, HFS-2 was a mixture of alginate and sulfated heteropolysaccharides, and HFS-3 was primarily composed of sulfated galactofucan. The NMR spectra revealed that HFS-1 was composed of a soluble laminaran with chains that are terminated by ?-d-glucose residues. In contrast, the spectra obtained for HFS-2 were still complex, even after most of the alginate was removed. In addition, HFS-3 might contain 3-linked fucan sulfated at C-2, 6-linked galactan sulfated at C-2 and branched at C-4 by 2-sulfated Fuc, and galactofucan with a backbone of either alternating Gal and Fuc sulfated at C-2 or alternating (Gal)n and (Fuc)n sulfated at C-2. Moreover, HFS-3 also contained small amounts of fucoglucuronomannan and xylan. PMID:24413558

Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Ren, Sumei; Song, Ni; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

2014-02-19

39

Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.  

PubMed

Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-? and IL-1? levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10?mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10?mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10?mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4?h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration. PMID:22830978

Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2013-02-01

40

Cardioprotection by polysaccharide sulfate against ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts  

PubMed Central

Aim: Polysaccharide sulfate (PSS) is a new type of heparinoid synthesized with alginic acid as the basic material and then by chemical introduction of effective groups. Although PSS is successfully applied in ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular disease, its effect on cardiac function after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has previously not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSS can protect the heart from I/R injury and the underlying mechanism of protection. Methods: Isolated rat hearts were perfused (Langendorff) and subjected to 20 min global ischemia followed by 60 min reperfusion with Kreb's Henseleit solution or PSS (0.3–100 mg/L). Myocardial contractile function was continuously recorded. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression in cardiomyocytes was investigated. Western blot analysis for extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity was performed. Results: After I/R, cardiac contractility decreased, CK and LDH levels increased in the coronary effluent, and TNF-? expression increased in cardiomyocytes. PSS administration at concentrations of 1–30 mg/L improved cardiac contractility, reduced CK and LDH release and inhibited TNF-? production. Phosphorylated-p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) and p-p54/p46-JNK increased in I/R rat hearts but diminished in PSS (1–30 mg/L) treated hearts. P-p44/p42-ERK levels were unchanged. In contrast, high concentrations of PSS (100 mg/L) had adverse effects that caused a worsening of heart function. Conclusion: PSS has dose-dependent cardioprotective effects on the rat heart after I/R injury. The beneficial effects may be mediated through normalization of the activity of p38 MAPK and JNK pathways as well as controlling the level of TNF-? expression. PMID:19098935

Yang, Ying; Hu, Shen-jiang; Li, Liang; Chen, Guo-ping

2009-01-01

41

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury  

E-print Network

for review December 27, 2011) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major bar- rier demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth chondroitin sulfate polysac- charides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic

Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

42

Sulfated modification of longan polysaccharide and its immunomodulatory and antitumor activity in vitro.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LP1) was prepared from Dimocarpus longan Lour. by hot water extraction, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its sulfated derivative (LP1-S) was prepared by the sulfuric acid method. Preliminary tests in vitro showed LP1 and LP1-S could stimulate murine lymphocytes proliferation, increase pinocytic activity of murine macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in macrophages. Furthermore, LP1-S exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells in vitro than LP1, which might be caused by the sulfate group in its structures. These results indicated that the LP1-S might be useful for developing safe antitumor drugs or health food. PMID:24680807

Jiang, Jie; Meng, Fa-Yan; He, Zhou; Ning, Yuan-Ling; Li, Xue-Hua; Song, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

43

Structural identification and sulfated modification of an antiglycation Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Dendrobium huoshanense, an important food material, has been used to make teas and soups in the folk of China for centuries. In the present study, an antiglycation polysaccharide DHPD2 with molecular weight of 8.09 × 10(6)Da was extracted from the protocorm-like bodies of D. huoshanense. The backbone of DHPD2 contained (1?5)-linked ?-l-Araf, (1?6)-linked ?-d-Glcp, (1?6)-linked ?-d-Glcp, (1?4)-linked ?-d-Glcp, (1?3,6)-linked ?-d-Galp and (1?6)-linked ?-d-Galp, with the branches of terminal ?-d-Xlyp and ?-d-Manp. DHPD2 was further modified using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method, giving two sulfated derivatives with the substitution degree of 0.475 and 0.940. The appearance of two new characteristic absorption bands at near 1250 and 822cm(-1) in FT-IR spectra revealed the success of sulfation occurred to DHPD2. Moreover, the sulfated derivatives exhibited stronger inhibitory abilities on protein glycation than those of DHPD2. NMR analysis disclosed that the sulfation on C2 and C6 of sugar residues was beneficial to enhance this activity. PMID:24721075

Li, Xiao-Long; Xiao, Jing-Jing; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua; Asghar, Muhammad-Naeem; Luo, Jian-Ping

2014-06-15

44

A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group—vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation. PMID:23342384

Silva, Renan O.; Santana, Ana Paula M.; Carvalho, Nathalia S.; Bezerra, Talita S.; Oliveira, Camila B.; Damasceno, Samara R. B.; Chaves, Luciano S.; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P.; Soares, Pedro M. G.; Souza, Marcellus H. L. P.; Barbosa, André Luiz R.; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R.

2012-01-01

45

Sulfated modification can enhance antiglycation abilities of polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense.  

PubMed

Dendrobium huoshanense is an important edible-medicinal plant with high nutritional values and health functions. A homogenous polysaccharide (DHPD1) with molecular weight of 3.2 × 10(3)Da was extracted from D. huoshanense, which was mainly composed of glucose, arabinose, galactose, mannose and xylose. Chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method was performed to modify the structure of DHPD1. In order to get a high degree of substitution (DS), sulfated modification conditions were optimized by response surface methodology. The maximum DS of 1.473 was obtained when the reaction condition was fixed at reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 160 min and volume ratio of Pyr to CSA 2:1. NMR spectra revealed that this sulfation occurred to C-2 and C-6 of glycosyl residues in DHPD1. After 28 days of incubation, the sulfated DHPD1 at 1.0mg/mL showed the inhibitory ability of 58.5%, which increased by 16.2% and 52.5% than that of aminoguanidine and DHPD1 at the same dosage. PMID:24299865

Qian, Xing-Ping; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Xiao, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping

2014-01-30

46

Pharmacological profiles of animal- and nonanimal-derived sulfated polysaccharides--comparison of unfractionated heparin, the semisynthetic glucan sulfate PS3, and the sulfated polysaccharide fraction isolated from Delesseria sanguinea.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) such as heparin are known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, e.g., anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastastic effects. However, since the anticoagulant activity of heparin is dominating, its therapeutic use for other medical indications is limited due to an associated risk of bleeding. Further disadvantages of heparin are its animal origin, the shortage of resources, and its complex and variable composition. However, SP without these limitations may represent a substance class with good prospects for applications other than anticoagulation. In this study, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of two nonanimal-derived SP were investigated in comparison with unfractionated heparin. One is the natural SP fraction from the red algae Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP). The other one is the chemically defined PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate with proven in vivo anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities. All three polysaccharides were examined in vitro for their inhibitory effects on the coagulation and complement system, polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase, hyaluronidase, matrix metalloproteinase-1, heparanase, and p-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Compared with heparin, the nonanimal-derived polysaccharides have a four times weaker anticoagulant activity, but mostly exhibit stronger (1.4-224 times) effects on test systems investigating targets of inflammation or metastasis. According to their different structures, PS3 and D.s.-SP differ in their pharmacological profile with PS3 being the strongest inhibitor of heparanase and cell adhesion and D.s.-SP being the strongest inhibitor of hyaluronidase and complement activation. Considering both pharmacological profile and pharmaceutical quality parameters, PS3 represents a candidate for further development as an anti-inflammatory or antimetastatic drug whereas D.s.-SP might have perspectives for cosmetic applications. PMID:19106233

Groth, Inken; Grünewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

2009-04-01

47

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

48

Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

2004-07-01

49

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae, improves cognitive impairment induced by infusion of A? peptide in rats.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide, derived from marine brown seaweed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of fucoidan on improving learning and memory impairment in rats induced by infusion of A? (1-40), and its possible mechanisms. The results indicated that fucoidan could ameliorate A?-induced learning and memory impairment in animal behavioral tests. Furthermore, fucoidan reversed the decreased activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and content of acetylcholine (Ach), as well as the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hippocampal tissue of A?-injected rats. Moreover, these were accompanied by an increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and a decrease of caspase-3 activity. These results suggested that fucoidan could ameliorate the learning and memory abilities in A?-induced AD rats, and the mechanisms appeared to be due to regulating the cholinergic system, reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting the cell apoptosis. PMID:22301160

Gao, Yonglin; Li, Chunmei; Yin, Jungang; Shen, Jingyu; Wang, Hongtao; Wu, Yuzhen; Jin, Haizhu

2012-03-01

50

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis sulfated polysaccharides in experimental animal models.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (Sw-SP) and seagrass Halophila ovalis (Ho-SP) in nociceptive and inflammatory models. In the formalin test, Sw-SP and Ho-SP significantly reduced licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 10 mg/kg of Sw-SP and 5, 10 mg/kg of Ho-SP, suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism at the higher dose. Sw-SP and Ho-SP (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration by 53% and 52%, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, there was a significant increase in the rat paw volume and decrease in body weight, but in Sw-SP- and Ho-SP-treated groups (10 mg/kg), a significant reduction in paw volume and a normal gain in body weight were observed. The present results indicate that Sw-SP and Ho-SP possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and have potential usefulness for development as therapeutic agents. PMID:23957357

Yuvaraj, Neelakandan; Kanmani, Paulraj; Satishkumar, Ramraj; Paari, Alagesan; Pattukumar, Vellaiyan; Arul, Venkatesan

2013-08-01

51

Inhibition of leukocyte rolling with polysaccharide fucoidin prevents pleocytosis in experimental meningitis in the rabbit.  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during bacterial meningitis has been shown to contribute significantly to the neurological damage commonly associated with this serious disease. In this study we tested whether or not inhibition of leukocyte rolling, a precondition for firm leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium in vivo, may reduce CSF leukocyte recruitment and associated inflammatory changes in rabbits with experimental meningitis. As documented by intravital microscopy of small venules in the rabbit mesentery and tenuissimus muscle, leukocyte rolling was rapidly and profoundly reduced by intravenous treatment with the polysaccharide fucoidin, a homopolymer of sulfated L-fucose known to block the function of the leukocytic "rolling receptor" L-selectin. Moreover, fucoidin treatment dramatically reduced the accumulation of both leukocytes and plasma protein in the CSF of rabbits challenged intrathecally with pneumococcal antigen. These main findings thus illustrate that inhibition of leukocyte rolling, an early and obligatory step in the process of leukocyte extravasation, may be an effective therapeutic approach to attenuate leukocyte-dependent central nervous system damage in bacterial meningitis. Images PMID:7510720

Granert, C; Raud, J; Xie, X; Lindquist, L; Lindbom, L

1994-01-01

52

Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.  

PubMed

In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-?B signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?-B?. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-?B, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. PMID:24626144

Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

2014-06-01

53

Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus promotes neurosphere migration and differentiation via up-regulation of N-cadherin.  

PubMed

In this report, the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas was extracted and tested for its capacity to affect migration and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. SJP is an intensely sulfated polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 1.79 × 10(5) Da that is capable of promoting neurosphere attachment and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SJP effectively maintains cell viability even after being deprived of mitogens. Our current results demonstrate that neurosphere are differentiated into neuronal and glial cells when exposed to SJP. These effects were accompanied by an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule, N-cadherin. In addition, we observed that blocking of PI3K activity inhibited N-cadherin-mediated activity. This SJP-induced up-regulation of N-cadherin mediates neurosphere adhesion migration and differentiation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that SJP could be used as a therapeutic agent to mobilize neuroblast migration under conditions of brain injury and disease. PMID:22109513

Sheng, Xiehuang; Li, Min; Song, Shuliang; Zhang, Nannan; Wang, Yunshan; Liang, Hao; Wang, Weili; Ji, Aiguo

2012-04-01

54

Enhancing effect of a sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus sulfated polysaccharide on neurosphere formation in vitro.  

PubMed

Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) exhibit therapeutic potential in neuronal diseases. Previously, we reported that a sulfated polysaccharide (HS) from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus increased the proliferation of NSPCs. Since the formation of neurospheres is related with NSPCs proliferation, we investigated the mechanism leading to neurosphere formation with and without HS. The results showed that HS significantly promoted neurosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations between 2 and 8 ?g/ml. Cell cycle analysis showed that HS increased the percentage of cells in S phase by 2.8-fold, as compared with the control. On the other hand, we observed a significantly rapid aggregation of NSPCs, resulting in formation of neurospheres as early as 2 h after HS treatment. However, the aggregation was not caused by chemotactic migration of NSPCs, as evidenced by the transwell chamber assay. Furthermore, the effect of HS on NSPCs was similar to the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) that activated nuclear factor NF-?B. Thus, we demonstrated that HS was able to promote cell proliferation and aggregation of NSPCs which could lead to the formation of neurospheres, and suggested that HS can serve as an adjuvant for promoting proliferation of NSPCs and formation of neurospheres. PMID:20547343

Zhang, Yuejie; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Wang, Yunshan; Wang, Weili; Ji, Aiguo

2010-10-01

55

Antihyperlipidemic effects of different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta).  

PubMed

Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from Ulva pertusa, was degraded to yield two low molecular weight fractions U1 and U2. The molecular weights of ulvan and its fractions were determined and varied from 151.6 to 28.2 kDa. They were fed to rats on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate and compare the antihyperlipidemic actions. Ulvan-based diet significantly lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol (-45.2%, P<0.05) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol, -54.1%, P<0.05). While U1- and U2-based diets significantly elevated the levels of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, +22.0% for U1, not significant; +61.0% for U2; P<0.05) and reduced triglyceride (TG, -82.4% for U1, -77.7% for U2; P<0.05) in rats as compared to control diet. In addition, consumptions of various ulvans significantly increased fecal bile acid excrement. The results indicated that ulvans with different molecular weights exhibited diverse effects on lipid metabolism. The high molecular weight ulvan was effective in serum total and LDL-cholesterol, whereas low molecular weight fractions were in TG and HDL-cholesterol. The fractions were considered to be more beneficial to hyperlipidemia associated with diabetes over ulvan. PMID:14527817

Pengzhan, Yu; Ning, Li; Xiguang, Liu; Gefei, Zhou; Quanbin, Zhang; Pengcheng, Li

2003-12-01

56

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. After purification, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid–pyridine method respectively at four designed modification conditions. Four sLBPSs at 5 concentrations, within the safety concentration scope, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivating system of chick embryo

Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Fan Zhang; Xiaona Zhao; Saifuding Abula; Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo

2010-01-01

57

In vivo anti-herpes simplex virus activity of a sulfated derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis mycelial polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. subrufescens), a basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest in Brazil, contains cell walls rich in glucomannan polysaccharides. The ?-(1 ? 2)-gluco-?-(1 ? 3)-mannan was isolated from A. brasiliensis mycelium, chemically modified by sulfation, and named MI-S. MI-S has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) attachment, entry, and cell-to-cell spread (F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. M. Camelini, A. Mascarello, M. J. Rossi, R. J. Nunes, C. R. Barardi, M. M. de Mendonça, and C. M. O. Simões, Antiviral Res. 92:108-114, 2011). The antiherpetic efficacy of MI-S was assessed in murine ocular, cutaneous, and genital infection models of HSV. Groups of 10 mice were infected with HSV-1 (strain KOS) or HSV-2 (strain 333). MI-S was given either topically or by oral gavage under various pre- and posttreatment regimens, and the severity of disease and viral titers in ocular and vaginal samples were determined. No toxicity was observed in the uninfected groups treated with MI-S. The topical and oral treatments with MI-S were not effective in reducing ocular disease. Topical application of MI-S on skin lesions was also not effective, but cutaneously infected mice treated orally with MI-S had significantly reduced disease scores (P < 0.05) after day 9, suggesting that healing was accelerated. Vaginal administration of MI-S 20 min before viral challenge reduced the mean disease scores on days 5 to 9 (P < 0.05), viral titers on day 1 (P < 0.05), and mortality (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the control groups (untreated and vehicle treated). These results show that MI-S may be useful as an oral agent to reduce the severity of HSV cutaneous and mucosal lesions and, more importantly, as a microbicide to block sexual transmission of HSV-2 genital infections. PMID:23507287

Cardozo, F T G S; Larsen, I V; Carballo, E V; Jose, G; Stern, R A; Brummel, R C; Camelini, C M; Rossi, M J; Simões, C M O; Brandt, C R

2013-06-01

58

In Vivo Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of a Sulfated Derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelial Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. subrufescens), a basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest in Brazil, contains cell walls rich in glucomannan polysaccharides. The ?-(1?2)-gluco-?-(1?3)-mannan was isolated from A. brasiliensis mycelium, chemically modified by sulfation, and named MI-S. MI-S has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) attachment, entry, and cell-to-cell spread (F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. M. Camelini, A. Mascarello, M. J. Rossi, R. J. Nunes, C. R. Barardi, M. M. de Mendonça, and C. M. O. Simões, Antiviral Res. 92:108–114, 2011). The antiherpetic efficacy of MI-S was assessed in murine ocular, cutaneous, and genital infection models of HSV. Groups of 10 mice were infected with HSV-1 (strain KOS) or HSV-2 (strain 333). MI-S was given either topically or by oral gavage under various pre- and posttreatment regimens, and the severity of disease and viral titers in ocular and vaginal samples were determined. No toxicity was observed in the uninfected groups treated with MI-S. The topical and oral treatments with MI-S were not effective in reducing ocular disease. Topical application of MI-S on skin lesions was also not effective, but cutaneously infected mice treated orally with MI-S had significantly reduced disease scores (P < 0.05) after day 9, suggesting that healing was accelerated. Vaginal administration of MI-S 20 min before viral challenge reduced the mean disease scores on days 5 to 9 (P < 0.05), viral titers on day 1 (P < 0.05), and mortality (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the control groups (untreated and vehicle treated). These results show that MI-S may be useful as an oral agent to reduce the severity of HSV cutaneous and mucosal lesions and, more importantly, as a microbicide to block sexual transmission of HSV-2 genital infections. PMID:23507287

Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Larsen, I. V.; Carballo, E. V.; Jose, G.; Stern, R. A.; Brummel, R. C.; Camelini, C. M.; Rossi, M. J.; Simoes, C. M. O.

2013-01-01

59

Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS’ functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent. PMID:24071940

Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Chu-Hsi; Tsai, Min-Lang; Chen, Rong-Huei; Drummen, Gregor P. C.

2013-01-01

60

Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years  

PubMed Central

Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

2014-01-01

61

The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells?  

PubMed

The antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated focusing on the inhibition on human liver cancer cells. The polysaccharides inhibited human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 during earlier phase with lower dosage but obviously became less functional in later phase regardless of the dosage applied. However, apoptosis of the drugged HepG2 cells appeared in later incubation phase with high dosage, and the apoptosis could be enhanced by supplemental dose of the intracellular polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the intracellular polysaccharides inhibited other human hepatocarcinoma cells such as BEL-7402 and Huh-7 but luckily stimulated human normal liver cell L02 only in a positive dose- and time-dependent manner; so did the sulfated extracellular polysaccharides when it inhibited HepG2 and L02 cells. However, the toxicity of sulfated extracellular polysaccharides to L02 cells can be eliminated by the intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:22939333

Liu, Yu-jun; Shen, Jie; Xia, Yong-mei; Zhang, Jue; Park, Hyeon-soo

2012-10-15

62

Sulfated and sulfonated polysaccharide as chiral stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography and capillary electrochromatography-mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The applications of polysaccharide phenyl carbamate derivatives as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are often hindered by longer retention times, especially using a normal-phase (NP) eluent due to very low electroosmotic flow (EOF). Therefore, in this study, we propose an approach for the aforementioned problems by introducing two new types of negatively charged sulfate and sulfonated groups for polysaccharide CSPs. These CSPs were utilized to pack CEC columns for enantioseparation with a NP eluent. Compared to conventional cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) or CDMPC CSPs, the sulfated CDMPC CSP (sulfur content 4.25%, w/w) shortened the analysis time up to 50% but with a significant loss of enantiomeric resolution (~60%). On the other hand, the sulfonated CDMPC CSP (sulfur content 1.76%, w/w) not only provided fast throughput but also maintained excellent resolving power. In addition, its synthesis is much more straightforward than the sulfated one. Furthermore, we studied several stationary phase parameters (CSP loading and silica gel pore size) and mobile phase parameters (including type of mobile phase and its composition) to evaluate the throughput and enantioselectivity. Using the optimized conditions, a chiral pool containing 66 analytes was screened to evaluate the enantioselectivity under three different mobile phase modes (i.e., NP, polar organic phase (POP) and reversed-phase (RP) eluents). Among these mobile phase modes, the RP mode showed the highest success rate, whereas some degree of complementary enantioselectivity was observed with NP and POP. Finally, the feasibility of applying this CSP for CEC–MS enantioseparation using internal tapered column was evaluated with NP, POP and RP eluents. In particular, the NP-CEC–MS provided significantly enhanced sensitivity when methanol was replaced with isopropanol in the sheath liquid. Using aminog-lutethimide as model chiral analyte, all three modes of CEC–MS demonstrated excellent durability as well as excellent reproducibility of retention time and enantioselectivity. PMID:19108837

Zheng, Jie; Bragg, William; Hou, Jingguo; Lin, Na; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Shamsi, Shahab A.

2009-01-01

63

Oral Zinc Sulfate Solutions Inhibit Sweet Taste Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose (800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydroch- alcone (NHDC),

Russell S. J. Keast; Thomas M. Canty; Paul A. S. Breslin

2004-01-01

64

Simple and Rapid Quality Control of Sulfated Glycans by a Fluorescence Sensor Assay--Exemplarily Developed for the Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Delesseria sanguinea  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from algae are of great interest due to their manifold biological activities. Obstacles to commercial (especially medical) application include considerable variability and complex chemical composition making the analysis and the quality control challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple microplate assay for screening the quality of SP. It is based on the fluorescence intensity (FI) increase of the sensor molecule Polymer-H by SP and was originally developed for direct quantification of SP. Exemplarily, 65 SP batches isolated from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP) and several other algae polysaccharides were investigated. Their FI increase in the Polymer-H assay was compared with other analytical parameters. By testing just one concentration of a D.s.-SP sample, quality deviations from the reference D.s.-SP and thus both batch-to-batch variability and stability can be detected. Further, structurally distinct SP showed to differ in their concentration-dependent FI profiles. By using corresponding reference compounds, the Polymer-H assay is therefore applicable as identification assay with high negative predictability. In conclusion, the Polymer-H assay showed to represent not only a simple method for quantification, but also for characterization identification and differentiation of SP of marine origin. PMID:24727392

Luhn, Susanne; Grimm, Juliane C.; Alban, Susanne

2014-01-01

65

Simple and rapid quality control of sulfated glycans by a fluorescence sensor assay--exemplarily developed for the sulfated polysaccharides from red algae Delesseria sanguinea.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from algae are of great interest due to their manifold biological activities. Obstacles to commercial (especially medical) application include considerable variability and complex chemical composition making the analysis and the quality control challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple microplate assay for screening the quality of SP. It is based on the fluorescence intensity (FI) increase of the sensor molecule Polymer-H by SP and was originally developed for direct quantification of SP. Exemplarily, 65 SP batches isolated from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP) and several other algae polysaccharides were investigated. Their FI increase in the Polymer-H assay was compared with other analytical parameters. By testing just one concentration of a D.s.-SP sample, quality deviations from the reference D.s.-SP and thus both batch-to-batch variability and stability can be detected. Further, structurally distinct SP showed to differ in their concentration-dependent FI profiles. By using corresponding reference compounds, the Polymer-H assay is therefore applicable as identification assay with high negative predictability. In conclusion, the Polymer-H assay showed to represent not only a simple method for quantification, but also for characterization identification and differentiation of SP of marine origin. PMID:24727392

Lühn, Susanne; Grimm, Juliane C; Alban, Susanne

2014-04-01

66

Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Cytoadhesion and Merozoite Invasion  

PubMed Central

Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-iEs) in the microvasculature of vital organs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of life-threatening malaria complications, such as cerebral malaria and malaria in pregnancy. This phenomenon is marked by the cytoadhesion of Pf-iEs to host receptors on the surfaces of endothelial cells, on noninfected erythrocytes, and in the placental trophoblast; therefore, these sites are potential targets for antiadhesion therapies. In this context, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin, have shown the ability to inhibit Pf-iE cytoadherence and growth. Nevertheless, the use of heparin was discontinued due to serious side effects, such as bleeding. Other GAG-based therapies were hampered due to the potential risk of contamination with prions and viruses, as some GAGs are isolated from mammals. In this context, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a unique and highly sulfated GAG isolated from the sea cucumber, with respect to P. falciparum cytoadhesion and development. FucCS was effective in inhibiting the cytoadherence of Pf-iEs to human lung endothelial cells and placenta cryosections under static and flow conditions. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches of the FucCS structure virtually abolished the inhibitory effects of FucCS. Importantly, FucCS rapidly disrupted rosettes at high levels, and it was also able to block parasite development by interfering with merozoite invasion. Collectively, these findings highlight the potential of FucCS as a candidate for adjunct therapy against severe malaria. PMID:24395239

Bastos, Marcele F.; Albrecht, Letusa; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Lopes, Stefanie C. P.; Blanco, Yara C.; Carlos, Bianca C.; Castineiras, Catarina; Vicente, Cristina P.; Werneck, Claudio C.; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Mourao, Paulo A. S.; Pavao, Mauro S. G.

2014-01-01

67

Neuronal Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Degrades and Inactivates a Neurite-Inhibiting Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are implicated in the regulation of axonal growth. We previously reported that the neurite-promoting activity of laminin is inhibited by association with a Schwann cell-derived CSPG and that endoneurial lami- nin may be inhibited by this CSPG as well (Zuo J, Hernandez YJ, Muir D (1998) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with neurite- inhibiting activity is upregulated after

Jian Zuo; Toby A. Ferguson; Yosbani J. Hernandez; William G. Stetler-Stevenson; David Muir

1998-01-01

68

Strong cellulase inhibition by Mannan polysaccharides in cellulose conversion to sugars.  

PubMed

Cellulase enzymes contribute a major fraction of the total cost for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Although a several fold reduction in cellulase production costs and enhancement of cellulase activity and stability have been reported in recent years, sugar yields are still lower at low enzyme doses than desired commercially. We recently reported that hemicellulose xylan and its oligomers strongly inhibit cellulase and that supplementation of cellulase with xylanase and ?-xylosidase would significantly reduce such inhibition. In this study, mannan polysaccharides and their enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were discovered to be strongly inhibitory to fungal cellulase in cellulose conversion (>50% drop in % relative conversion), even at a small concentration of 0.1 g/L, and inhibition was much greater than experienced by other known inhibitors such as cellobiose, xylooligomers, and furfural. Furthermore, cellulase inhibition dramatically increased with heteromannan loading and mannan substitution with galactose side units. In general, enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were less inhibitory than their respective mannan polysaccharides except highly substituted ones. Supplementation of cellulase with commercial accessory enzymes such as xylanase, pectinase, and ?-glucosidase was effective in greatly relieving inhibition but only for less substituted heteromannans. However, cellulase supplementation with purified heteromannan specific enzymes relieved inhibition by these more substituted heteromannans as well, suggesting that commercial preparations need to have higher amounts of such activities to realize high sugar yields at the low enzyme protein loadings needed for low cost fuels production. PMID:24522973

Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

2014-07-01

69

The mechanism of inhibition of metastasis by cartilage polysaccharide in breast-cancer cells.  

PubMed

As large amounts of porcine cartilage are discarded as waste in daily life, it is necessary to find new uses for them. We extracted polysaccharide from cartilage and performed in vitro and in vivo experiments in cancer cells. A mouse breast-cancer pulmonary metastasis model was set up, and we tried to determine the mechanism of the inhibition of metastasis by cartilage PS (polysaccharide). Effects on tumour size and the progression of metastasis indicated that cartilage PS can obviously inhibit metastasis in breast-cancer cells. The levels of LNR1 (laminin receptor 1), alphavbeta3 integrin and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) in mice treated or not with cartilage PS showed significant differences. Cartilage PS inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, but had little effect on normal cells. Cartilage PS can inhibit the activity of the MMP-2 and the MMP-9 by decreasing the levels of LNR1 and alphavbeta3 integrin to inhibit metastasis further. In summary, we conclude that cartilage PS can act as a specific anti-metastatic agent in breast-cancer cells. PMID:19055483

Liu, An-jun; Hu, Yan-xun; Liu, Chang-jin; Yao, Xiu-ling; Zhang, Guo-rong

2009-08-01

70

Inhibition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative injury induced by ?-irradiation in rat liver mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum and Ganoderma lucidum, the two precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, the possible antioxidant effects of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) isolated from dried L. barbarum fruits and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) isolated from dried G. lucidum against membrane damage induced by the

X. L. Li; A. G. Zhou; X. M. Li

2007-01-01

71

NKG2D and CD94 bind to heparin and sulfate-containing polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killer lectin-like receptors NKG2D and CD94 on natural killer cells trigger cytotoxicity through binding of glycans on target cells including sialyl Lewis X antigen. We previously reported that NKG2D and CD94 recognize ?2,3-linked NeuAc on multi-antennary N-glycans. Here we further investigated polysaccharide binding by these receptors, using glutathione-S-transferase-fused extracellular domains of NKG2D AA 73-216 (rNKG2Dlec) and CD94 AA 68-179 (rCD94lec).

Koji Higai; Yuzo Imaizumi; Chiho Suzuki; Yutaro Azuma; Kojiro Matsumoto

2009-01-01

72

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

73

Rheology and characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.  

PubMed

The rheological characteristics of polysaccharides which were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were investigated in aqueous solutions under conditions of concentration, temperature, solution pH and salt concentrations. It was described by the power-law model with a consistency index (k) and a flow behavior index (n). The rheology results showed UFP exhibited as a shear-thickening fluid and a possible mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon that might be the collapse of UFP necklace-type structures. UFP characteristics were evaluated by determining the chemical analysis and zeta potential. The findings indicated UFP may consist of partially ulvan, as the results were in accordance with the ulvan structure. Additionally, a rod-climbing effect and cold-set gelation were observed in the UFP semidilute solution. Therefore, the cold-set gelling properties and unique shear-thickening fluid properties in this work could be valuable for the exploration of U. fasciata as a new source of water-soluble gelling polysaccharides. PMID:25256496

Shao, Ping; Qin, Minpu; Han, Longfei; Sun, Peilong

2014-11-26

74

PI-88 and novel heparan sulfate mimetics inhibit angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic PI-88 is a promising inhibitor of tumor growth and metastasis expected to commence phase III clinical evaluation in 2007 as an adjuvant therapy for postresection hepatocellular carcinoma. Its anticancer properties are attributed to inhibition of angiogenesis via antagonism of the interactions of angiogenic growth factors and their receptors with HS. It is also a potent inhibitor of heparanase, an enzyme that plays a key role in both metastasis and angiogenesis. A series of PI-88 analogs have been prepared with enhanced chemical and biological properties. The new compounds consist of single, defined oligosaccharides with specific modifications designed to improve their pharmacokinetic properties. These analogs all inhibit heparanase and bind to the angiogenic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), FGF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor with similar affinity to PI-88. However, compared with PI-88, some of the newly designed compounds are more potent inhibitors of growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation and of endothelial tube formation on Matrigel. Representative compounds were also tested for antiangiogenic activity in vivo and were found to reduce significantly blood vessel formation. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic profile of several analogs was also improved, as evidenced primarily by lower clearance in comparison with PI-88. The current data support the development of HS mimetics as potent antiangiogenic anticancer agents. PMID:17629854

Ferro, Vito; Dredge, Keith; Liu, Ligong; Hammond, Edward; Bytheway, Ian; Li, Caiping; Johnstone, Ken; Karoli, Tomislav; Davis, Kat; Copeman, Elizabeth; Gautam, Anand

2007-07-01

75

Inhibition of Rhizobium etli Polysaccharide Mutants by Phaseolus vulgaris Root Compounds  

PubMed Central

Crude bean root extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris were tested for inhibition of the growth of several polysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli CE3. Mutants deficient only in exopolysaccharide and some mutants deficient only in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide were no more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the extracts, whereas mutants defective in both lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide were much more sensitive. The inhibitory activity was found at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in stems or leaves. Inoculation with either wild-type or polysaccharide-deficient R. etli did not appear to affect the level of activity. Sequential extractions of the crude root material with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water partitioned inhibitory activity into each solvent except methanol. The major inhibitors in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were purified by C18 high-performance liquid chromatography. These compounds all migrated very similarly in both liquid and thin-layer chromatography but were distinguished by their mass spectra. Absorbance spectra and fluorescence properties suggested that they were coumestans, one of which had the mass spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonances of coumestrol. These results are discussed with regard to the hypothesis that one role of rhizobial polysaccharides is to protect against plant toxins encountered during nodule development. Images PMID:16349385

Eisenschenk, Linda; Diebold, Ronald; Perez-Lesher, Jeanett; Peterson, Andrew C.; Kent Peters, N.; Noel, K. Dale

1994-01-01

76

Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA) and 5 heterozygous (GA) PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p < 0.05). The following genes were up-regulated over 2 fold: IL18, CTSS, LUM, CD44, FN1, GST01. The most down-regulated genes were the following: mitochondrial tRNA, SLC2A2, PRKC?, VEGF?. Data mining analysis showed that protein synthesis, apoptosis, cellular movement, growth and proliferation were the main cellular functions significantly associated with the modulated genes (p < 0.05). Several up-regulated genes, especially IL18, revealed a severe muscular inflammation in PSSM muscles. The up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3?) under its active form could be responsible for glycogen synthase (GYS1) inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1?) destabilization. Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles. PMID:19664222

Barrey, Eric; Mucher, Elodie; Jeansoule, Nicolas; Larcher, Thibaut; Guigand, Lydie; Herszberg, Bérénice; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Guérin, Gérard; Mata, Xavier; Benech, Philippe; Canale, Marielle; Alibert, Olivier; Maltere, Péguy; Gidrol, Xavier

2009-01-01

77

Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Red Algae Gracilaria caudata Protects Mice Gut Against Ethanol-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg?1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g?1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg?1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg?1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg?1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg?1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g?1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway. PMID:22163181

Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; de Souza Chaves, Luciano; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lucia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2011-01-01

78

A chemically sulfated polysaccharide derived from Ganoderma lucidum induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells.  

PubMed

To develop new anticancer agents, we prepared a sulfated polysaccharide (SCGLP1) from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and the effect of SCGLP1 on human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line was investigated. Our result showed that treatment with SCGLP1 resulted in a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and cell viability of MG63 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and caused apoptotic death in MG63 cells through an increase in G0/G1 phase arrest, but had minor cytotoxic effect on human normal osteoblast (NHOst) cells. Western blot analysis identified that SCGLP1-induced apoptosis was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax and Bad, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the SCGLP1-induced apoptosis in MG63 cells. The data indicate that SCGLP1-induced apoptosis is primarily associated with caspase-3- and caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:24997619

Sun, Zhenchang; Huang, Kai; Fu, Xiaorui; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Cui, Yingying; Li, Haopeng

2014-10-01

79

Mechanisms of axon regeneration and its inhibition: roles of sulfated glycans.  

PubMed

Axons in the peripheral nervous system can regenerate after injury, whereas axons in the central nervous system (CNS) do not readily regenerate. Intrinsic regenerating capacity and emerging inhibitors could explain these contrasting phenotypes. Among the inhibitors, sulfated sugar chains including chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate have recently attracted attention, since these sugar chains strongly inhibit axon regeneration and also induce dystrophic endball formation, a hallmark of injured axons in the adult mammalian CNS. In addition, chondroitin sulfate is a negative regulator of synaptic plasticity. To overcome the inability of CNS axons to regenerate, a comprehensive understanding of both the positive and negative regulations of axon regeneration is required. These may include signaling waves from the injury site to the nucleus, intracellular signals for growth cone formation and axon regeneration, intracellular signals for the inhibition of axon regeneration, and extracellular inhibitory signals and their receptors. This review addresses these issues, with a focus on the roles of chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. PMID:24951877

Kadomatsu, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kazuma

2014-09-15

80

Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by meningococcal capsular polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Almost all invasive Neisseria meningitidis isolates express capsular polysaccharide. Ab is required for complement-dependent killing of meningococci. Although alternative pathway evasion has received considerable attention, little is known about classical pathway (CP) inhibition by meningococci, which forms the basis of this study. We engineered capsulated and unencapsulated isogenic mutant strains of groups A, B, C, W, and Y meningococci to express similar amounts of the same factor H-binding protein (fHbp; a key component of group B meningococcal vaccines) molecule. Despite similar anti-fHbp mAb binding, significantly less C4b was deposited on all five encapsulated mutants compared with their unencapsulated counterparts (p < 0.01) when purified C1 and C4 were used to deposit C4b. Reduced C4b deposition was the result of capsule-mediated inhibition of C1q engagement by Ab. C4b deposition correlated linearly with C1q engagement by anti-fHbp. Whereas B, C, W, and Y capsules limited CP-mediated killing by anti-fHbp, the unencapsulated group A mutant paradoxically was more resistant than its encapsulated counterpart. Strains varied considerably in their susceptibility to anti-fHbp and complement despite similar Ab binding, which may have implications for the activity of fHbp-based vaccines. Capsule also limited C4b deposition by anti-porin A mAbs. Capsule expression decreased binding of an anti-lipooligosaccharide IgM mAb (? 1.2- to 2-fold reduction in fluorescence). Akin to observations with IgG, capsule also decreased IgM-mediated C4b deposition when IgM binding to the mutant strain pairs was normalized. In conclusion, we show that capsular polysaccharide, a critical meningococcal virulence factor, inhibits the CP of complement. PMID:25015832

Agarwal, Sarika; Vasudhev, Shreekant; DeOliveira, Rosane B; Ram, Sanjay

2014-08-15

81

Sulfated Astragalus polysaccharide regulates the inflammatory reaction in LPS-infected broiler chicks.  

PubMed

This study compared the anti-inflammatory activities of APS and SAPS in LPS-treated broiler chicks. The sulfated modification of these compounds was performed using the classic chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. On d 16, the birds were injected intramuscularly with 0.5mL of either saline, APS (4 or 8mg/kg BW) or SAPS (4 or 8mg/kg BW) once a day for three successive days. On days 19 and 20, the birds were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5mL of LPS (1mg/kg BW). Saline was used as the blank control. The results showed that the LPS-treated birds exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IFN-? and lower expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-2 and occludin in the jejunum. Administration of SAPS down-regulated the expression of jejunal TNF-? and IL-1?. In addition, the expression of both ZO-2 and occludin was higher in birds that received high doses of APS and SAPS. On the other hand, APS and SAPS had no effect on the condition of the immune system. The expression of TLR4 in the jejunum was lower in the low-dose SAPS group. Our findings suggest that SAPS is a more effective anti-inflammatory agent than APS in vivo. PMID:24820152

Wang, Xiaofei; Shen, Jing; Li, Shizhao; Zhi, Lihui; Yang, Xiaojun; Yao, Junhu

2014-08-01

82

Inhibition of inflammatory injure by polysaccharides from Bupleurum chinense through antagonizing P-selectin.  

PubMed

P-selectin-mediated adhesion between endothelium and neutrophils is a crucial process leading to acute inflammatory injure. Thus, P-selectin has been considered as promising target for therapeutics of acute inflammatory-related diseases. In the present study, the water-soluble polysaccharides (BCPs) were isolated from Bupleurum chinense, and we evaluated their therapeutical effects on acute inflammatory injure and antagonistic function against P-selectin-mediated neutrophil adhesion. Our results showed that BCPs significantly impaired the leukocyte infiltration and relieve lung injury in LPS-induced acute pneumonia model. BCPs significantly blocked the binding of P-selectin to neutrophils and inhibited P-selectin-mediated neutrophils rolling along CHO-P cell monolayer. The result from in vitro protein binding assay showed a direct evidence indicating that BCPs-treatment significantly eliminated the interaction between rhP-Fc and its physiological ligand PSGL-1 at protein level. Together, these results provide a novel therapeutical strategy for amelioration of inflammation-related disease processes by polysaccharides from B. chinense. PMID:24708947

Tong, Haibin; Tian, Dan; Li, Tianbao; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Guiquan; Sun, Xin

2014-05-25

83

Optimal conditions for the production of sulfated polysaccharide by marine microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03.  

PubMed

A marine microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03 produced sulfated exopolysaccharide designated as p-KG03, which showed a strong antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). To optimize culture conditions for the production of p-KG03, mineral salts, vitamins, plant growth hormones, temperature, pH and light conditions were examined. From this study, M-KG03 medium for the maximum production of p-KG03 was suggested as follows; NH(4)Cl 75 microM, NaH(3)PO(4) 200 microM, NaHCO(3) 50 microM, Na(2)SO(4) 10 microM, FeCl(2) x 6H(2)O 10 microM, MnCl(2) x 4H(2)O 0.1 microM, vitamin B(12) 0.75 microg, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) 7.5 microg and myo-inositol 200 mg per liter of aged sea water. The optimal temperature and pH were 22.5 degrees C and 8.0, respectively. The optimal light conditions of intensity and period were 150 microE m(-2) s(-1) and 16:8 h light:dark cycle. Finally, the cell growth and p-KG03 production were measured in one liter of M-KG03 medium with 1% CO(2) and 50 ml min(-1) of airflow using two liters airlift balloon type photobioreactor (ABTPR). At these optimal conditions, p-KG03 production and cell growth were 134.6+/-5.9 mg l(-1) and 123,076+/-1,597 cells ml(-1), respectively, representing a 7.7 and 5.1 times compared with f/2 medium with Erlenmeyer flask culture (p-KG03 production 17.5+/-1.3 mg l(-1) and cell growth 24,311+/-1,291 cells ml(-1)). PMID:12919808

Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Sung Jin; Ahn, Se Hoon; Lee, Hong Kum

2003-07-01

84

Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

2001-01-01

85

EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite

Vuk Koprivica; Kin-Sang Cho; Jong Bae Park; Glenn Yiu; Jasvinder Atwal; Bryan Gore; Jieun A. Kim; Estelle Lin; Marc Tessier-Lavigne; Dong Feng Chen; Zhigang He

2005-01-01

86

Polysaccharides from wolfberry prevents corticosterone-induced inhibition of sexual behavior and increases neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

2012-01-01

87

Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Inhibits the Immunosuppressive Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells  

PubMed Central

Reversing the function of immune suppressor cells may improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. Here, we have isolated a novel polysaccharide MPSSS (577.2 Kd) from Lentinus edodes and examined its effects on differentiation and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MPSSS is composed of glucose (75.0%), galactose (11.7%), mannose (7.8%), and xylose (0.4%). In vivo, it inhibits the growth of McgR32 tumor cells, which is correlated with a reduced percentage of MDSCs in peripheral blood. In vitro, it induces both morphological and biophysical changes in MDSCs. Importantly, MPSSS up-regulates MHC II and F4/80 expression on MDSCs, and reverses their inhibition effect on CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism study shows that MPSSS may stimulate MDSCs through a MyD88 dependent NF-?B signaling pathway. Together, we demonstrated for the first time that MPSSS stimulates the differentiation of MDSCs and reverses its immunosuppressive functions, shedding new light on developing novel anti-cancer strategies by targeting MDSCs. PMID:23272159

Liu, Xiaoman; Li, Xiao; Tang, Jian; Ma, Chungwah; Xu, Xiaofei; Shao, Haitao; Hou, Baidong; Wang, Hui; Qin, Zhihai

2012-01-01

88

Protective effect of polysaccharides on simulated microgravity-induced functional inhibition of human NK cells.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are believed to be strong immunostimulants that can promote the proliferation and activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of five polysaccharides (Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (GFP), lentinan (LNT), G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and yeast glucan (YG)) on primary human NK cells under normal or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. Our results demonstrated that polysaccharides markedly promoted the cytotoxicity of NK cells by enhancing IFN-? and perforin secretion and increasing the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 under normal conditions. Meanwhile polysaccharides can enhance NK cell function under SMG conditions by restoring the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and reducing the early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, the antibody neutralization test showed that CR3 may be the critical receptor involved in polysaccharides induced NK cells activation. These findings indicated that polysaccharides may be used as immune regulators to promote the health of the public and astronauts during space missions. PMID:24299844

Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Yang, Hui; Jin, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Ye, Lin-Jie; Li, Ji; Huang, Qing-Sheng; Yin, Da-Chuan

2014-01-30

89

Mechanisms of heparanase inhibition by the heparan sulfate mimetic PG545 and three structural analogues.  

PubMed

The tetrasaccharide heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic PG545, a clinical anti-cancer candidate, is an inhibitor of the HS-degrading enzyme heparanase. The kinetics of heparanase inhibition by PG545 and three structural analogues were investigated to understand their modes of inhibition. The cholestanol aglycon of PG545 significantly increased affinity for heparanase and also modified the inhibition mode. For the tetrasaccharides, competitive inhibition was modified to parabolic competition by the addition of the cholestanol aglycon. For the trisaccharides, partial competitive inhibition was modified to parabolic competition. A schematic model to explain these findings is presented. PMID:24251094

Hammond, Edward; Handley, Paul; Dredge, Keith; Bytheway, Ian

2013-01-01

90

Mechanisms of heparanase inhibition by the heparan sulfate mimetic PG545 and three structural analogues?  

PubMed Central

The tetrasaccharide heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic PG545, a clinical anti-cancer candidate, is an inhibitor of the HS-degrading enzyme heparanase. The kinetics of heparanase inhibition by PG545 and three structural analogues were investigated to understand their modes of inhibition. The cholestanol aglycon of PG545 significantly increased affinity for heparanase and also modified the inhibition mode. For the tetrasaccharides, competitive inhibition was modified to parabolic competition by the addition of the cholestanol aglycon. For the trisaccharides, partial competitive inhibition was modified to parabolic competition. A schematic model to explain these findings is presented. PMID:24251094

Hammond, Edward; Handley, Paul; Dredge, Keith; Bytheway, Ian

2013-01-01

91

Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims of the Study To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Materials and Methods Male ICR mice were used to make the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) after intragastric administration with LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and Nimodipine (0.4 mg/kg) for seven successive days. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological scores were estimated and infarct volumes were measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Morphological changes in ischemic brains were performed for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The number of apoptotic neurons was detected by TUNEL staining. The Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1 activation were investigated by immunofluorescence and western-blot analysis. Results LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment groups significantly reduced infract volume and neurological deficit scores. LBP also relieved neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis. LBP at the dose of 40 mg/kg significantly suppressed overexpression of Bax, CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions Based on these findings we propose that LBP protects against focal cerebral ischemic injury by attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:24595452

Wang, Yongsheng; Zhou, Ru; Ma, Lin; Hao, Yinju; Jin, Shaoju; Du, Juan; Zhao, Chengjun; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jianqiang

2014-01-01

92

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide inhibits the proliferation of HeLa cells by inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), isolated with boiling water from the famous Chinese medicinal herb Lycium barbarum fruits, is one of the most important functional constituents in Lycium barbarum. In this study the effects of LBP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells) were investigated. RESULTS: LBP could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells by changing cell cycle distribution and inducing apoptosis. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??(m) ) was observed by flow cytometry and the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope in apoptotic cells. At the same time, the nitric oxide content, nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities were also increased. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effect of LBP on the proliferation of HeLa cells was caused by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The results showed that LBP can be developed as a potential chemotherapeutic agent candidate against human cervical cancer. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:22696075

Zhu, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Sheng-Hua

2012-06-13

93

The uremic solutes p-cresol and indoxyl sulfate inhibit endothelial proliferation and wound repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uremic solutes p-cresol and indoxyl sulfate inhibit endothelial proliferation and wound repair.BackgroundCardiovascular diseases are the major causes of mortality in uremic patients, and the vascular endothelium is dysfunctional in uremia. We hypothesized that uremic retention solutes may be among the factors involved in this endothelial dysfunction. We therefore investigated the in vitro effect of a large panel of uremic

LAETITIA DOU; EMILIE BERTRAND; CLAIRE CERINI; VALERIE FAURE; JOSE SAMPOL; RAYMOND VANHOLDER; YVON BERLAND; PHILIPPE BRUNET

2004-01-01

94

A small molecule inhibits virion attachment to heparan sulfate- or sialic acid-containing glycans.  

PubMed

Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. Importance: This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID:24789779

Colpitts, Che C; Schang, Luis M

2014-07-01

95

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms by expressing the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and bactenecin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  To identify novel, less-toxic compounds capable of inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in suspension cultures were exposed to several antimicrobial peptides. The bacterial peptide antimicrobials gramicidin S,\\u000a gramicidin D, and polymyxin B as well as the cationic peptides indolicidin and bactenecin from bovine neutrophils decreased\\u000a the viability of both SRB by 90% after a 1-h exposure

A Jayaraman; F B Mansfeld; T K Wood

1999-01-01

96

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on steel with antimicrobial peptides generated in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

In batch and continuous fermentations, the reduction in corrosion of SAE 1018 mild steel and 304 stainless steel caused by\\u000a inhibition of the reference sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris by a protective, antimicrobial-producing Bacillus brevis biofilm was investigated. The presence of D. vulgaris produced a thick black precipitate on mild steel and a higher corrosion rate in batch cultures than

A. Jayaraman; P. J. Hallock; R. M. Carson; C.-C. Lee; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

1999-01-01

97

EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

2005-10-01

98

Proteolysis, NaOH and Ultrasound-Enhanced Extraction of Anticoagulant and Antioxidant Sulfated Polysaccharides from the Edible Seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae.  

PubMed

The sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from the edible red seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae, were obtained using five different extraction conditions: Gracilaria birdiae 1 (GB1)-water; GB1s-water/sonication; GB1sp-water/sonication/proteolysis; GB2s-NaOH/sonication; and GB2sp-NaOH/sonication/proteolysis. The yield (g) increased in the following order: GB2sp > GB1sp > GB2s > GB1s > GB1. However, the amount of SP extracted increased in a different way: GB2sp > GB1 > GB1sp > GB1s > GB2s. Infrared and electrophoresis analysis showed that all conditions extracted the same SP. In addition, monosaccharide composition showed that ultrasound promotes the extraction of polysaccharides other than SP. In the prothrombin time (PT) test, which evaluates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, none of the samples showed anticoagulant activity. While in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test, which evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, all samples showed anticoagulant activity, except GB2s. The aPTT activity decreased in the order of GB1sp > GB2sp > GB1 > GB1s > GB2s. The total capacity antioxidant (TCA) of the SP was also affected by extraction condition, since GB2s and GB1 showed lower activity in comparison to the other conditions. In conclusion, the conditions of SP extraction influence their biological activities and chemical composition. The data revealed that NaOH/sonication/proteolysis was the best condition to extract anticoagulant and antioxidant SPs from Gracilaria birdiae. PMID:25401396

Fidelis, Gabriel Pereira; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Costa, Mariana Santana Santos Pereira; Santos, Pablo Castro; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Costa, Leandro Silva

2014-01-01

99

Growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest of human gastric cancer cells by Lycium barbarum polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Lycium barbarum, and has potential anticancer activity. However, the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was\\u000a to observe the anticancer effect of LBP on human gastric cancer, and its possible mechanisms. Human gastric cancer MGC-803\\u000a and SGC-7901 cells were treated with various concentrations of LBP

Ying Miao; Bingxiu Xiao; Zhen Jiang; Yanan Guo; Fang Mao; Junwei Zhao; Xia Huang; Junming Guo

2010-01-01

100

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm accumulation and polysaccharide production by apigenin and tt-farnesol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of glucosyltransferases and tt-farnesol affects the membrane integrity of Streptococcus mutans. We investigated the influence of apigenin and tt-farnesol, alone and in combination, on the accumulation, polysaccharide composition and viability of S. mutans UA159 biofilms. Methods: Initially, biofilms were grown for 54 h; then, the early-formed biofilms were treated for 1 min twice daily

H. Koo; M. F. Hayacibara; B. D. Schobel; J. A. Cury; P. L. Rosalen; Y. K. Park; A. M. Vacca-Smith; W. H. Bowen

2003-01-01

101

Inhibiting stromal cell heparan sulfate synthesis improves stem cell mobilization and enables engraftment without cytotoxic conditioning.  

PubMed

The glycosyltransferase gene, Ext1, is essential for heparan sulfate production. Induced deletion of Ext1 selectively in Mx1-expressing bone marrow (BM) stromal cells, a known population of skeletal stem/progenitor cells, in adult mice resulted in marked changes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) localization. HSPC egressed from BM to spleen after Ext1 deletion. This was associated with altered signaling in the stromal cells and with reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 production by them. Further, pharmacologic inhibition of heparan sulfate mobilized qualitatively more potent and quantitatively more HSPC from the BM than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, including in a setting of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor resistance. The reduced presence of endogenous HSPC after Ext1 deletion was associated with engraftment of transfused HSPC without any toxic conditioning of the host. Therefore, inhibiting heparan sulfate production may provide a means for avoiding the toxicities of radiation or chemotherapy in HSPC transplantation for nonmalignant conditions. PMID:25202142

Saez, Borja; Ferraro, Francesca; Yusuf, Rushdia Z; Cook, Colleen M; Yu, Vionnie W C; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Sykes, Stephen M; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Schajnovitz, Amir; Lotinun, Sutada; Lymperi, Stefania; Mendez-Ferrer, Simon; Toro, Raquel Del; Day, Robyn; Vasic, Radovan; Acharya, Sanket S; Baron, Roland; Lin, Charles P; Yamaguchi, Yu; Wagers, Amy J; Scadden, David T

2014-11-01

102

The Escherichia coli CysZ is a pH dependent sulfate transporter that can be inhibited by sulfite.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli inner membrane protein CysZ mediates the sulfate uptake subsequently utilized for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds in cells. Here we report the purification and functional characterization of CysZ. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, we have observed interactions between CysZ and its putative substrate sulfate. Additional sulfur-containing compounds from the cysteine synthesis pathway have also been analyzed for their abilities to interact with CysZ. Our results suggest that CysZ is dedicated to a specific pathway that assimilates sulfate for the synthesis of cysteine. Sulfate uptake via CysZ into E. coli whole cells and proteoliposome offers direct evidence of CysZ being able to mediate sulfate uptake. In addition, the cysteine synthesis pathway intermediate sulfite can interact directly with CysZ with higher affinity than sulfate. The sulfate transport activity is inhibited in the presence of sulfite, suggesting the existence of a feedback inhibition mechanism in which sulfite regulates sulfate uptake by CysZ. Sulfate uptake assays performed at different extracellular pH and in the presence of a proton uncoupler indicate that this uptake is driven by the proton gradient. PMID:24657232

Zhang, Li; Jiang, Wangshu; Nan, Jie; Almqvist, Jonas; Huang, Yafei

2014-07-01

103

Polysaccharide Isolated from Zizyphus jujuba (?? H?ng Z?o) Inhibits Interleukin-2 Production in Jurkat T Cells  

PubMed Central

Zizyphus jujuba (?? Hóng Z?o), a traditional Chinese herb widely used in many Asian countries, has been shown to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of deproteinated polysaccharide (DP) isolated from Z. jujuba. The DP isolated from Z. jujuba consisted of two polysaccharide fractions and their molecular weights (MWs) were found to be 143,108 and 67,633 Da, respectively. The DP could significantly decrease interleukin (IL)-2 production in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner after 48 h of incubation, with the inhibition being 47.5%, 61.2%, and 81.7% for DP concentrations of 0.75, 1.75, and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. Thus, our study showed that DP isolated from Z. jujuba may possess anti-inflammatory activity as it could significantly reduce IL-2 production in activated Jurkat T cells. PMID:24860737

Hsu, Bo-Yang; Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Chen, Bing-Huei

2014-01-01

104

Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) Inhibits the Expression of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: Implications for Membrane Microfiltration  

SciTech Connect

A 2:1 molar ratio preparation of bismuth with a lipophilic dithiol (3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total polysaccharides and proteins secreted by B. diminuta decreased by approximately 95% over a 5-day period when exposed to the bismuth-BAL chelate (BisBAL) at near MIC (12 ?M). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that a possible mechanism of biofilm disruption by BisBAL is the inhibition of carbohydrate Oacetylation. FTIR also revealed extensive homology between EPS samples with and without BisBAL treatment, with proteins, polysaccharides, and peptides varying predominantly only in the amount expressed. EPS secretion decreased following BisBAL treatment as verified by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes.

Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Yanina, Svetlana; Gassman, Paul L.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2008-02-15

105

Effect of polysaccharides on the hydration of cement paste at early A. Peschard, A. Govin*  

E-print Network

improve workability duration and modify cement hydration. Yamamuro [2] showed that a polysaccharide sulfated polysaccharide to improve fluidity and workability and that supplies higher final compressive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

A sulfated fucan from the brown alga Laminaria cichorioides has mainly heparin cofactor II-dependent anticoagulant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major acidic polysaccharide from the brown alga Laminaria cichorioides is a complex and heterogeneous sulfated fucan. Its preponderant structure is a 2,3-disulfated, 4-linked ?-fucose unit. The purified polysaccharide has a potent anticoagulant activity, as estimated by APTT assay (?40IU\\/mg), which is mainly mediated by thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II. It also accelerates thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by

Seon-Joo Yoon; Yu-Ryang Pyun; Jae-Kwan Hwang; Paulo A. S. Mourão

2007-01-01

107

Physicochemical properties and inhibition effect on iron deficiency anemia of a novel polysaccharide-iron complex (LPPC).  

PubMed

Porphyran (P) was extracted from red algae Porphyra by boiling water. A novel polysaccharide-iron complex (LPPC) was prepared under the alkaline condition by adding a ferric chloride solution to the low molecular weight porphyran (LP) solution. Physicochemical properties and inhibition effect on iron deficiency anemia of this complex were studied. The content of iron(III) in the complex is 21.57% determined with iodometry. The results indicate that LPPC was product required. The complex can increase red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), Serum iron (SI), spleen index, spleen mass and mass of mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Although the structure and deeper mechanisms on hemolytic anemia of LPPC should be further studied, LPPC is hoped to be developed as a late-model iron supplement which has a synergism on anemia. PMID:22153938

Zhang, Zhong-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Han, Zhi-Ping; Yin, Li; Zhao, Ming-Xing; Yu, Shu-Chi

2012-01-01

108

Chemical characterization of lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its inhibition against liver oxidative injury of high-fat mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated chemical structure of lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its modulatory effect on oxidative stress in high-fat mice. The polysaccharides mainly contained xylose and glucose. Little amount of rhamnose, mannose and galactose was observed. The lycium barbarum polysaccharides had IR bands at 800–1200cm?1, 1450–1800cm?1, 2500–3000cm?1, and 3200–3600cm?1, which were distinctive absorptions of polysaccharides. Rats are fed with

Hua-Tao Wu; Xue-Jun He; Ying-Kai Hong; Tao Ma; Yan-Ping Xu; Hui-Hua Li

2010-01-01

109

A novel sulfate-reducing bacteria detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been extensively studied in corrosion and environmental science. However, fast enumeration of SRB population is still a difficult task. This work presents a novel specific SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity. The hydrolytic activity of cysteine protease was inhibited by taking advantage of sulfide, the characteristic metabolic product of SRB, to attack active cysteine thiol group in cysteine protease catalytic sites. The active thiol S-sulfhydration process could be used for SRB detection, since the amount of sulfide accumulated in culture medium was highly related with initial bacterial concentration. The working conditions of cysteine protease have been optimized to obtain better detection capability, and the SRB detection performances have been evaluated in this work. The proposed SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity avoided the use of biological recognition elements. In addition, compared with the widely used most probable number (MPN) method which would take up to at least 15days to accomplish whole detection process, the method based on inhibition of papain activity could detect SRB in 2 days, with a detection limit of 5.21×10(2) cfu mL(-1). The detection time for SRB population quantitative analysis was greatly shortened. PMID:25127594

Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

2014-11-01

110

High molecular weight polysaccharides from black currant seeds inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Several crude and purified polysaccharides from black currant seeds (Ribes nigrum L.) have been isolated, analysed and examined on their effects against Helicobacter pylori in in situ adhesion studies on sections of human gastric mucosa. After pre-treatment of Helicobacter pylori with 0.01 to 0.1 % solutions of the isolated raw polysaccharide (RPS), the epithelial binding of the bacteria was considerably reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, as compared with a non-treated control suspension. Preincubation of the mucosal sections with 0.1 % solutions did not result in a reduced binding of non-treated bacteria. An anion-exchange fraction of RPS eluted with 0.1 M phosphate buffer exhibited a comparable, concentration-dependent reduction of adhesion, whereas the water-eluted fraction was ineffective at the respective concentrations. Both subfractions consisted of similar 1,3-linked galactans, decorated with side chains possessing 1,4-galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose residues. Molecular weight profiling by GPC revealed that the antiadhesive activity of the buffer eluate correlated with high molecular weight components ranging from about 1000 Da to 340 kDa, whereas the ones of the inactive water eluate had molecular weights of about 100 and 25 kDa, respectively. None of the active fractions revealed inhibitory effects on bacterial growth in vitro. We conclude that acidic, high molecular weight galactans are responsible for the antiadhesive qualities of black currant seed extracts and that these polymers are able to block Helicobacter surface receptors, thus inhibiting their interaction with specific binding factors located on human gastric epithelia. PMID:15254855

Lengsfeld, C; Deters, A; Faller, G; Hensel, A

2004-07-01

111

Specific sulfation and glycosylation--a structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates  

PubMed Central

Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in ?-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in ?-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs. PMID:24639954

Pomin, Vitor H.; Mourao, Paulo A. S.

2014-01-01

112

Specific sulfation and glycosylation-a structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates.  

PubMed

Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in ?-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in ?-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs. PMID:24639954

Pomin, Vitor H; Mourão, Paulo A S

2014-01-01

113

A New Role for RPTP{sigma} in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Inhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and regeneration. In the adult nervous system, CSPGs are enriched in perineuronal nets, and their abundance is increased in reactive astrocytes following injury to brain or spinal cord. Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) enhances experience-dependent neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex and results in substantially improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the positive effects of ChaseABC treatment on neuronal plasticity have been known for some time, the underlying mechanisms remained enigmatic. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) has now been identified as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs. Similarly to ChaseABC treatment, functional ablation of Ptprs, the gene encoding RPTPσ, promotes neurite outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs in vitro and enhances axonal growth into CSPG-rich scar tissue following SCI in vivo. The discovery of neuronal RPTPσ as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs not only provides important mechanistic clues about CSPG function, but also identifies a potential new target for enhancing axonal growth and plasticity after nervous system injury.

Yuntao Duan (University of Michigan School of Medicine;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV); Roman J. Giger (University of Michigan School of Medicine;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV)

2010-02-23

114

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria biofilm in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel due to a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm in seawater was studied. By atomic force microscopy, a layer of fish-scale-like biofilm was found to form as stainless steel coupons were exposed to the culture media with SRB, and this biofilm grew more and more compact. As a result, coupons' surface under the biofilm turned irregular less slowly than that exposed to the sterilized culture media. Then, physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the coverage of the biofilm as well as the relative irregularity of coupons' surface was also recorded by EIS spectra. Finally, anodic cyclic polarization results further demonstrated the protective property of the biofilm. Therefore, in estimation of SRB-implicated corrosion of stainless steel, not only the detrimental SRB metabolites but also the protective SRB biofilm as well should be taken into account.

Li, Fu-shao; An, Mao-zhong; Duan, Dong-xia

2012-08-01

115

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 ?M regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

2013-01-01

116

The effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase: computational molecular dynamics integrating inhibition kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase via a combination of inhibition kinetics and computational simulations. Fucoidan reversibly inhibited tyrosinase in a mixed-type manner. Time-interval kinetics showed that the inhibition was processed as first order with biphasic

Zhi-Jiang Wang; Yue-Xiu Si; Sangho Oh; Jun-Mo Yang; Shang-Jun Yin; Yong-Doo Park; Jinhyuk Lee; Guo-Ying Qian

2012-01-01

117

Axonal Regeneration through Regions of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Deposition after Spinal Cord Injury: A Balance of Permissiveness and Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased expression of certain extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules after CNS injury is believed to restrict axonal regeneration. The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are one such class of ECM molecules that inhibit neurite outgrowth in vitro and are upregu- lated after CNS injury. We examined growth responses of several classes of axons to this inhibitory environment in the presence of a

Leonard L. Jones; Dana Sajed; Mark H. Tuszynski

2003-01-01

118

The virulence polysaccharide Vi released by Salmonella Typhi targets membrane prohibitin to inhibit T-cell activation.  

PubMed

T cells are critical to immunity against pathogenic Salmonella including Salmonella Typhi which causes systemic infection, typhoid, in humans. The strategies that this pathogen employs to keep T-cell mediated immune responses in check during establishment of systemic infection are not completely understood. Here, we show that the virulence polysaccharide Vi, which distinguishes S. Typhi from localized gastroenteritis-producing nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, is a potent inhibitor of T-cell activation. Vi released by S. Typhi interacts with the membrane prohibitin complex and inhibits IL-2 secretion from T cells stimulated through the T-cell receptor (TCR) but does not affect PMA-activated interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion. Treatment with Vi suppresses early activation events including TCR down-regulation, actin polymerization, and phosphorylation of ERK. Coadministration of Vi with anti-CD3 Ab reduces secretion of IL-2 and interferon ? in mice. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which S. Typhi may target T-cell immunity during establishment of typhoid. PMID:24470505

Santhanam, Srikanth K; Dutta, Debjani; Parween, Farhat; Qadri, Ayub

2014-07-01

119

Chemical characterization of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its inhibition against liver oxidative injury of high-fat mice.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated chemical structure of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its modulatory effect on oxidative stress in high-fat mice. The polysaccharides mainly contained xylose and glucose. Little amount of rhamnose, mannose and galactose was observed. The Lycium barbarum polysaccharides had IR bands at 800-1200 cm(-1), 1450-1800 cm(-1), 2500-3000 cm(-1), and 3200-3600 cm(-1), which were distinctive absorptions of polysaccharides. Rats are fed with high-fat diet for 2 months. Results showed that blood and liver antioxidant enzymes activities and GSH level in model mice significantly decreased, and MDA level significantly increased (P<0.01) compared to normal control mice. Administration of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activities and decreased MDA level in mice (P<0.01) compared to model group. PMID:20193709

Wu, Hua-Tao; He, Xue-Jun; Hong, Ying-Kai; Ma, Tao; Xu, Yan-Ping; Li, Hui-Hua

2010-06-01

120

Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

2011-07-01

121

Oligonol Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Colonic Adenoma Formation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: To evaluate the effects of oligonol administration on experimentally induced colitis and colonic adenoma formation. Results: Oral administration of oligonol protected against mouse colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Under the same experimental conditions, oligonol administration significantly inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclin D1 in the mouse colon. Further, oligonol inhibited azoxymethane-initiated and DSS-promoted adenoma formation in the mouse colon. Oligonol administration also attenuated lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), thereby preventing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that oligonol treatment reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor ?, il-6, cox-2, and inos in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. In another study, oligonol upregulated the antioxidant gene expression in the intestinal epithelial CCD841CoN cells and in the mouse colon. Innovation: Oligonol, an innovative formulation of catechin-type oligomers derived from the lychee fruit extract, was tested in this study for the first time to evaluate its effects on experimentally induced colitis and colonic adenoma formation in mice. Conclusion: Oligonol is effective in protecting against DSS-induced mouse colitis and colon carcinogenesis, suggesting that this polyphenol formulation may have a potential for the amelioration of inflammatory bowel disease and related disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 102–114. PMID:23394584

Yum, Hye-Won; Zhong, Xiancai; Park, Jin; Na, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Hye Seung

2013-01-01

122

Curcumin Inhibits STAT3 Signaling in the Colon of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-treated Mice  

PubMed Central

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has a long history of use in medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. One of the major constituents of turmeric is curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is responsible for its characteristic yellow color. In the present study, we have examined the chemoprotective effects of curcuminon dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. For this purpose, we pre-treated male ICR mice with curcumin (0.1 or 0.25 mmol/kg in 0.05% carboxymethyl cellulose) by gavage for a week and then co-treated the animals with curcumin by gavage and 3% DSS in drinking water for another 7 days. Our study revealed that administration of curcumin significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis and STAT3 signaling in mouse colon. The levels of the cell cycle regulators CDK4 and cylinD1 were significantly reduced by curcumin administration. Moreover, the expression of p53, which is an upstream regulator of the CDK4-cylinD1 complex, was inhibited by curcumin treatment. PMID:25337545

Yang, Joon-Yeop; Zhong, Xiancai; Yum, Hye-Won; Lee, Hyung-Jun; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

2013-01-01

123

Inactivation of Thrombin by a Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate from Echinoderm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysaccharide extracted from the sea cucumber body wall has the same backbone structure as the mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. These branches confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide. Since the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate has analogy in structure with mammalian glycosaminoglycans and sulfated fucans from brown algae, we compared

Paulo A. S Mourão; Catherine Boisson-Vidal; Jacqueline Tapon-Bretaudière; Bruno Drouet; Andrée Bros; Anne-Marie Fischer

2001-01-01

124

Fenobam Sulfate Inhibits Cocaine-Taking and Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in Rats: Implications for Addiction Treatment in Humans  

PubMed Central

Rationale The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) has been reported to be critically involved in drug reward and addiction. Because the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) MPEP and MTEP significantly inhibit addictive-like behaviors of cocaine and other drugs of abuse in experimental animals, it has been suggested that mGluR5 NAMs may have translational potential for treatment of addiction in humans. However, neither MPEP nor MTEP have been evaluated in humans due to their off-target actions and rapid metabolism. Objectives Herein, we evaluate a potential candidate for translational addiction research: a new sulfate salt formulation of fenobam, a selective mGluR5 NAM that has been investigated in humans. Results In rats, fenobam sulfate had superior pharmacokinetics compared to the free base, with improved Cmax (maximal plasma concentration) and longer half life. Oral (p.o.) administration of fenobam sulfate (30 or 60 mg/kg) inhibited intravenous cocaine self-administration, cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior and cocaine-associated cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Fenobam sulfate also inhibited oral sucrose self-administration and sucrose-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior, but had no effect on locomotion. Conclusions This study provides additional support for the role of mGluR5 signaling in cocaine addiction and suggests that fenobam sulfate may have translational potential in medication development for the treatment of cocaine addiction in humans. PMID:23615919

Keck, Thomas M.; Yang, Hong-Ju; Bi, Guo-Hua; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Srivastava, Ratika; Gardner, Eliot L.; Newman, Amy Hauck; Xi, Zheng-Xiong

2014-01-01

125

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more

Rongjun Zuo; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

126

Novel Sulfated Polysaccharides Disrupt Cathelicidins, Inhibit RAGE and Reduce Cutaneous Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Rosacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRosacea is a common disfiguring skin disease of primarily Caucasians characterized by central erythema of the face, with telangiectatic blood vessels, papules and pustules, and can produce skin thickening, especially on the nose of men, creating rhinophyma. Rosacea can also produce dry, itchy eyes with irritation of the lids, keratitis and corneal scarring. The cause of rosacea has been proposed

Jianxing Zhang; Xiaoyu Xu; Narayanam V. Rao; Brian Argyle; Lindsi McCoard; William J. Rusho; Thomas P. Kennedy; Glenn D. Prestwich; Gerald Krueger; H. Peter Soyer

2011-01-01

127

Effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on human hepatoma QGY7703 cells: Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), extracted from Lycium barbarum that is a kind of traditional Chinese herb, is found to have anticancer activity. In this study, the effect of LBP on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in the human hepatoma QGY7703 cell line were investigated. The effects of this compound were also tested on the concentration of calcium

Min Zhang; Haixia Chen; Jin Huang; Zhong Li; Caiping Zhu; Shenghua Zhang

2005-01-01

128

Astragalus Polysaccharides Attenuate Postburn Sepsis via Inhibiting Negative Immunoregulation of CD4+CD25high T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroudAstragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus, are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. However, it is not yet clear whether APS can exert an effect on the immune functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). This study was carried out to investigate the effect of APS on the immune function of peripheral blood

Qing-yang Liu; Yong-ming Yao; Yan Yu; Ning Dong; Zhi-yong Sheng

2011-01-01

129

Role of heparan sulfate domain organization in endostatin inhibition of endothelial cell function  

PubMed Central

The anti-angiogenic activity of endostatin (ES) depends on interactions with heparan sulfate (HS). In the present study, intact HS chains of ?15 kDa bound quantitatively to ES whereas N-sulfated HS decasaccharides, with affinity for several fibroblast growth factor (FGF) species, failed to bind. Instead, ES-binding oligosaccharides composed of mixed N-sulfated and N-acetylated disaccharide units were isolated from pig intestinal HS. A 10/12mer ES-binding epitope was identified, with two N-sulfated regions separated by at least one N-acetylated glucosamine unit (SAS-domain). Cleavage at the N-acetylation site disrupted ES binding. These findings point to interaction between discontinuous sulfated domains in HS and arginine clusters at the ES surface. The inhibitory effect of ES on vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell migration was blocked by the ES-binding SAS-domains and by heparin oligosaccharides (12mers) similar in length to the ES-binding SAS-domains, but not by 6mers capable of FGF binding. We propose that SAS-domains modulate the biological activities of ES and other protein ligands with extended HS-binding sites. The results provide a rational explanation for the preferential interaction of ES with certain HS proteoglycan species. PMID:12456637

Kreuger, Johan; Matsumoto, Taro; Vanwildemeersch, Maarten; Sasaki, Takako; Timpl, Rupert; Claesson-Welsh, Lena; Spillmann, Dorothe; Lindahl, Ulf

2002-01-01

130

[Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].  

PubMed

Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

2014-01-01

131

The excreted polysaccharide of Pleurotus eryngii inhibits the foam-cell formation via down-regulation of CD36.  

PubMed

Previous study has verified the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Pleurotus eryngii (PEPE) is capable of decreasing the lipid content in both of cell-line and mouse model. However, little is known about underlying mechanisms and whether this bioactive polysaccharide exists in submerged culture. Here, we verified the excreted polysaccharides EP and EP-1 from submersion culture of P. eryngii have the remarkable inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells. Structure analysis indicates EP-1 consists of D-types of glucose, galactose and mannose with the main ?(1 ? 3)-glucan glycosidic linkage branched at O-6 by ?-D-glucose while EP digested by ?-1,3-glucanase fails to decrease the lipid accumulation, suggesting that the special structure is essential for its function. Expression analysis suggests that EP is able to cause the down-regulation of the scavenger receptor-CD36 on both transcription and protein levels. Most importantly, EP can be obtained by fermentation in a mass-production. PMID:25129711

Chen, Jingjing; Yong, Yangyang; Xia, Xian; Wang, Zeliang; Liang, Youxing; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

2014-11-01

132

Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides by the integument of gastropods.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) affects salt and water transport in gastropod skin by means of altering the secretion of epithelial surface mucus was tested. The synthesis and secretion of 35S-labeled sulfated polysaccharides was measured as an index for the synthesis and secretion of mucus. It was found that physiological concentrations of TRH significantly inhibited the secretion of 35S-labeled sulfated polysaccharides by short-term in vitro incubated gastropod foot integument. TRH did not alter the rate of synthesis of 35S-labeled sulfated polysaccharides in short-term in vitro incubated gastropod foot skin. The synthesis and release, but not the tissue/medium ratio of 35S-labeled sulfated polysaccharides was significantly lower in animals with an elevated endogenous TRH content than in control animals. The results from these studies suggest that acute exposure of gastropod skin to TRH results in a decrease in the secretion of preformed epithelial surface mucus and that chronic exposure also results in a reduction of the synthesis of surface mucus. It thus appears that TRH indirectly modulates gastropod skin ion transport by altering the thickness of the surface mucus coat which results in a change in the ion concentration at the cell surface and a change in the activity of the ion transporting mechanisms. PMID:6414881

Grimm-Jørgensen, Y; Connolly, S M

1983-10-01

133

A RG-II Type Polysaccharide Purified from Aconitum coreanum Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Inhibiting the NF-?B Signal Pathway  

PubMed Central

Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [?6) -?-D-Galp (1?3)-?-L-Rhap-(1?4)-?-D-GalpA-(1?3)-?-D-Galp-(1?] with the side chain ?5)-?-D-Arap (1?3, 5)-?-D-Arap (1? attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1?3,4)-L-Rhap. T-?-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1?3,6)-?-D-Galp residues and T-?-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-?B–p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-I?B-? expression as well as the degradation of I?B-? and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-?B signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-?B DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

2014-01-01

134

Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO) are known to possess various pharmacological properties including antitumor activity. However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in A549 cells. These results suggested that PFIO could suppress the invasion and migration of human lung carcinoma by reducing the expression levels and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25270791

Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Jeong Eun; Ha, Suk Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

2014-12-01

135

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail's pace. The methods of strain identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous molds from fruit body which was collected from birch wood on Changbai Mountain, cultivated mycelia on an inclined plane, and examined its micromorphology based on macroscopic examination. The strain was identified as I. obliquus by sequencing its ITS (internal transcribed spacer) domain. We subsequently investigated some of the mycelium polysaccharides' biological activities. The strain used in this study as the producers of antioxidation and anticancer polysaccharides was LNUF008. After fermentation in a 30-L fermenter, mycelia were obtained. The polysaccharides were extracted by transonic recirculation and ethanol precipitation. In order to identify the antioxidation effect, we designed an assay to test the inhibition of endogenous and Fe(2+)-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation as well as ferrous sulfate/ascorbate (Fe(2+)-VC)-induced mitochondrial swelling. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method was used to study the antiproliferation activity of the polysaccharides on SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. The results indicate that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. The submerged culture method of growing I. obliquus will enable large-scale production of the polysaccharides. PMID:18795365

Song, Yana; Hui, Jing; Kou, Wei; Xin, Ru; Jia, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hu, Fengqing; Zhang, Huili; Liu, Hongsheng

2008-11-01

136

Chemical modification, antioxidant and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and ?-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and ?-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption. PMID:23987364

Chen, Shuhan; Chen, Haixia; Tian, Jingge; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha; Wang, Jia

2013-10-15

137

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.  

PubMed

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

2004-11-01

138

Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate Inhibits Nuclear Factor-B-Dependent Transcription in Hepatocytes, Possibly through Antioxidant Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS), the representative sex steroid precursors, are postulated to have antiinflammatory effects, although the molecular back- ground remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of these sex steroid precursors on cytokine-induced, nuclear factor-B (NF-B)-mediated transcription. The HuH7 human hepatocyte cell line was stably transfected with an NF-B-luciferase reporter gene or transiently transfected with other

YASUMASA IWASAKI; MASATO ASAI; MASANORI YOSHIDA; TAKESHI NIGAWARA; MACHIKO KAMBAYASHI; NOBUO NAKASHIMA

139

Inhibition of migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S) are the most abundant steroids in humans, and their serum concentrations progressively decrease with age. Although relationships between DHEA(-S) and many age-related illnesses have been postulated, the mechanisms for their effects remain unknown, and specific receptors for these molecules have not been identified. In this paper, to investigate the role of DHEA(-S) in atherogenesis,

Daisuke Furutama; Ryousuke Fukui; Masahiro Amakawa; Nakaaki Ohsawa

1998-01-01

140

Inhibitory effect of sulfated galactans from the marine alga Bostrychia montagnei on herpes simplex virus replication in vitro.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides exhibit many biological properties such as antiviral and anticoagulant activities. Herein, we report the antiviral activity of sulfated galactans extracted from the red sea-weed Bostrychia montagnei against herpes simplex virus types 1 (strain F and the thymidine kinase-deficient strains Field and B2006) and 2 (strain G). Two crude extracts obtained with cold and hot water as well as some fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography, inhibited significantly the replication of the different strains of herpesviruses as determined by plaque reduction assays. The inhibitory effect of the compounds studied here took place only when they were added during the adsorption period. They were found to be highly selective antiviral substances, causing no impairment of Vero cell viability. Furthermore, they had no direct inactivating effect on virions by incubation in a virucidal assay. The antiviral activity could be correlated with the molecular weight and sulfate content of the polysaccharides. Although sulfated polysaccharides are generally endowed with anticoagulant properties, the results of the activated partial thromboplastin time and the thrombine time assays indicated that the natural sulfated polysaccharides from Bostrychia montagnei have very low anticoagulant activity, confirming that there is no relation between the antiviral and anticoagulant properties. PMID:11292240

Duarte, M E; Noseda, D G; Noseda, M D; Tulio, S; Pujol, C A; Damonte, E B

2001-01-01

141

24-Hydroxycholesterol Sulfation by Human Cytosolic Sulfotransferases: Formation of Monosulfates and Disulfates, Molecular Modeling, Sulfatase Sensitivity, and Inhibition of Liver X Receptor Activation  

PubMed Central

24-Hydroxycholesterol (24-OHChol) is a major cholesterol metabolite and the form in which cholesterol is secreted from the brain. 24-OHChol is transported by apolipoprotein E to the liver and converted into bile acids or excreted. In both brain and liver, 24-OHChol is a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist and has an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. 24-OHChol sulfation was examined to understand its role in 24-OHChol metabolism and its effect on LXR activation. 24-OHChol was conjugated by three isoforms of human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT). SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 sulfated both the 3- and 24-hydroxyls to form the 24-OHChol-3, 24-disulfate. SULT2B1b formed only 24-OHChol-3-sulfate. The 3-sulfate as a monosulfate or as the disulfate was hydrolyzed by human placental steroid sulfatase, whereas the 24-sulfate was resistant. At physiological 24-OHChol concentrations, SULT2A1 formed the 3-monosulfate and the 3, 24-disulfate as a result of a high affinity for sulfation of the 3-OH in 24-OHChol-24-sulfate. Molecular docking simulations indicate that 24-OHChol-24-sulfate binds in an active configuration in the SULT2A1 substrate binding site with high affinity only when the SULT2A1 homodimer structure was used. 24-OHChol is an LXR activator. In contrast, the 24-OHChol monosulfates were not LXR agonists in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer coactivator recruitment assay. However, both the 24-OHChol-3-sulfate and 24-sulfate were antagonists of LXR activation by N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trif-luoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) with an IC50 of 0.15 and 0.31 ?M, respectively. Inhibition of LXR activation by the 24-OHChol monosulfates at low nanomolar concentrations indicates that sulfation has a role in LXR regulation by oxysterols. PMID:19589875

Cook, Ian T.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zofia; Kocarek, Thomas A.; Runge-Morris, Melissa

2009-01-01

142

Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides derivatives.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides extracted from the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum were sulfated and carboxymethylated as reported. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory effects of sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides were studied. Generally, sulfated polysaccharides showed better bioactivities than that of carboxymethylated polysaccharides. The two derivatives were injected intraperitoneally with or without 5-fluorouracil over a period of 7 days in BALB/c female mice. The polysaccharide derivatives increased mouse thymus and spleen index, an indication of improved immunity in mice. At the same time, they improved superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase contents in the mice body. PMID:23044102

Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

2013-01-01

143

Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens. The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens. PMID:23786718

2013-01-01

144

Binding inhibition of angiogenic factors by heparan sulfate proteoglycans in aqueous humor: potential mechanism for maintenance of an avascular environment.  

PubMed

Aqueous humor is a clear fluid, primarily a blood filtrate, which circulates through the anterior chamber of the eye and bathes the cornea. We explored the possibility that components in the aqueous humor play a direct part in maintaining the avascular environment of the cornea. We report here that heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) was found in bovine aqueous humor and that it directly inhibits binding of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to cell-surface heparan sulfate. We demonstrate that this holds true for all heparin binding proteins tested but not for epidermal growth factor, which does not bind heparin. Furthermore, we show, with mathematical modeling, that the concentration of HSPG in aqueous humor (approximately 4 microg/ml), when combined with the clearance of aqueous humor from the eye due to circulation, is sufficient to block the binding of heparin binding growth factors to corneal endothelium. This mechanism suggests a physiological process to control bioavailability of angiogenic growth factors in the cornea. PMID:12626427

Fannon, Michael; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Dowd, Christopher J; Freedman, Deborah A; Folkman, Judah; Nugent, Matthew A

2003-05-01

145

Effective inhibition of melanoma tumorigenesis and growth via a new complex vaccine based on NY-ESO-1-alum-polysaccharide-HH2  

PubMed Central

Background A safe and effective adjuvant plays an important role in the development of a vaccine. However, adjuvants licensed for administration in humans remain limited. Here, for the first time, we developed a novel combination adjuvant alum-polysaccharide-HH2 (APH) with potent immunomodulating activities, consisting of alum, polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide HH2. Methods The adjuvant effects of APH were examined using NY-ESO-1 protein-based vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic models. We further determined the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect of NY-ESO-1-APH (NAPH) vaccine using adoptive cellular/serum therapy in C57/B6 and nude mice. Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses were evaluated. Results The APH complex significantly promoted antigen uptake, maturation and cross-presentation of dendritic cells and enhanced the secretion of TNF-?, MCP-1 and IFN-? by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with individual components. Vaccination of NAPH resulted in significant tumor regression or delayed tumor progression in prophylactic and therapeutic models. In addition, passive serum/cellular therapy potently inhibited tumor growth of NY-ESO-1-B16. Mice treated with NAPH vaccine produced higher antibody titers and greater antibody-dependent/independent cellular cytotoxicity. Therefore, NAPH vaccination effectively stimulated innate immunity, and boosted both arms of the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses to suppress tumorigenesis and growth of melanoma. Conclusions Our study revealed the potential application of APH complex as a novel immunomodulatory agent for vaccines against tumor refractory and growth. PMID:25070035

2014-01-01

146

Carbon monoxide attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis via inhibition of GSK-3? signaling.  

PubMed

Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO)-1 which mediates the degradation of heme into CO, iron, and biliverdin. Also, CO ameliorates the human inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism for the effect of CO on the inflammatory bowel disease has not yet been known. In this study, we showed that CO significantly increases survival percentage, body weight, colon length as well as histologic parameters in DSS-treated mice. In addition, CO inhalation significantly decreased DSS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibition of GSK-3? in mice model. To support the in vivo observation, TNF-?, iNOS and IL-10 after CO and LiCl treatment were measured in mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from DSS treated mice. In addition, we determined that CO potentially inhibited GSK-3? activation and decreased TNF-? and iNOS expression by inhibition of NF-?B activation in LPS-stimulated U937 and MLN cells pretreated with CO. Together, our findings indicate that CO attenuates DSS-induced colitis via inhibition of GSK-3? signaling in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, this is the first report that investigated the molecular mechanisms mediated the novel effects of CO via inhibition GSK-3? in DSS-induced colitis model. PMID:24349609

Uddin, Md Jamal; Jeong, Sun-oh; Zheng, Min; Chen, Yingqing; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chung, Hun Taeg; Joe, Yeonsoo

2013-01-01

147

Different K s values for hydrogen of methanogenic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria: An explanation for the apparent inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Marburg) and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus (AZ) are anaerobic sewage sludge bacteria which grow on H2 plus sulfate and H2 plus CO2 as sole energy sources, respectively. Their apparent Ks values for H2 were determined and found to be approximately 1 µM for the sulfate reducing bacterium and 6 µM for the methanogenic bacterium. In mixed cell suspensions of the

Jakob K. Kristjansson; Peter Schönheit; Rudolf K. Thauer

1982-01-01

148

Antibodies That Inhibit Plasmodium falciparum Adhesion to Chondroitin Sulfate A Are Associated with Increased Birth Weight and the Gestational Age of Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum adhesion to the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A are associated with a reduced risk of placental malaria, but whether these antibodies lead to improved pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We measured antiadhesion antibody levels in parturient women in western Kenya, where malaria transmission is intense. Secundigravid women with antiadhesion activity in their plasma delivered babies that

Patrick E. Duffy; Michal Fried

2003-01-01

149

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate binds to chemokines and inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediated signaling in activated T cells.  

PubMed

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation. PMID:24718687

Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

2014-01-01

150

Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Binds to Chemokines and Inhibits Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Mediated Signaling in Activated T Cells  

PubMed Central

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation. PMID:24718687

Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

2014-01-01

151

Inhibition of ribonuclease. Efficacy of sodium dodecyl sulfate, diethyl pyrocarbonate, protein ase K and heparin using a sensitive ribonuclease assay.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of several commonly used inhibitors of ribonuclease (RNAase) has been studied using the removal of radio-labelled leucine from leucyl-tRNA as a sensitive assay for RNAase activity. The inhibitors were tested under a variety of conditions, varying the temperature, the pH, and the source of RNAase. When each inhibitor is udes separately in the presence of pancreatic RNAase, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is the most effective; but during long exposures to temperatures above 0 degrees C considerable amounts of RNA are still degraded. Combination of inhibitors are more effective in preserving RNA; with this assay, a combination of SDS with diethyl pyrocarbonate is the most effective. Proteinase K acts as an inhibitor when used in combination with SDS; however, it has RNAase activity when used by itself. Diethyl pyrocarbonate, when used at the high range of concentrations employed by others for RNAase inhibition, reacts with RNA changing its charge. However, when diethyl pyrocarbonate is used in smaller amounts the effects on RNA are minimal, and when used in combination with SDS it effectively inhibits RNAase. PMID:27220

Mendelsohn, S L; Young, D A

1978-07-24

152

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

2012-01-01

153

Oligomannurarate sulfate blocks tumor growth by inhibiting NF-?B activation  

PubMed Central

Aim: JG3, a novel marine-derived oligosaccharide, significantly inhibits angiogenesis and tumor metastasis by blocking heparanase activity. It also arrests tumor growth, an effect that is not fully explained by its anti-heparanase activity. Here we sought to identify the mechanisms underlying JG3-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. Methods: Heparanase expression was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. NF-?B activation status was determined using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, DNA-binding and transcription-activity assays. The effect of JG3 on upstream components of the NF-?B pathway and on selected transcription factors were monitored by Western blotting. The antitumor effect of JG3 and its relation to NF-?B activation were evaluated using four different tumor xenograft models. Results: We found that JG3 effectively inhibited NF-?B activation independent of heparanase expression. Our results indicate that JG3 inactivated NF-?B by interfering with the activation of upstream components of the NF-?B pathway without generally affecting the nuclear translocation of transcription factors. Further, in vivo studies demonstrated that JG3 effectively arrested the growth of tumors derived from cell lines in which NF-?B was constitutively active (BEL-7402 liver carcinoma and MDA-MB-435s breast carcinoma), but did not affect the growth of tumors derived from NF-?B-negative cell lines (SGC-7901 gastric cancer and HO-8910 ovarian carcinoma). Conclusion: Our data indicate that NF-?B mediates the JG3-induced arrest of tumor growth. These results define a new mechanism of action of JG3 and highlight the potential for JG3 as a promising lead molecule in cancer therapy. PMID:20154712

Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yi; Xin, Xian-liang; Li, Qiu-ning; Li, Ming; Lin, Li-ping; Geng, Mei-yu; Ding, Jian

2010-01-01

154

Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven polysaccharides have been isolated from the leaves of Arctium lappa var. herkules, Aloe barbadensis, Althaea officinalis var. robusta, Plantago lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts and roots of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii, stems of Mahonia aquifolium, and peach-tree (Prunus persica) gum exudates. The polysaccharides were investigated for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of soyabean lecithin liposomes by OH radicals. The

A. Kardošová; E. Machová

2006-01-01

155

In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni  

SciTech Connect

Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

Cheng, P.-C. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-Y. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-C. [Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lee, K.-M. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kmlee@ctust.edu.tw

2008-03-01

156

A Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum Inhibits Tumor Growth by Induction of Apoptosis and Activation of Immune Response in CT26-Bearing Mice.  

PubMed

Ganoderma atrum is one species of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom with various biological activities. Recently, a novel polysaccharide, PSG-1, was purified from G. atrum. The antitumor activity and its mechanism of action were studied. In vitro, PSG-1 has little effect on inhibiting proliferation of CT26 tumor cells. However, the tumor size was significantly decreased in PSG-1-treated mice. The results showed that PSG-1 induced apoptosis in CT26 cells. Moreover, the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were markedly increased in PSG-1-treated mice. In contrast, the contents of cyclic GMP and DAG and the PKC activity were decreased. Similarly, the expression of PKA protein was upregulated, while PKC protein expression in PSG-1-treated group was lowered. Additionally, PSG-1 increased the immune organ index and serum biochemistry parameter. In general, PSG-1 enhances the antitumor immune response, induces apoptosis in CT26-bearing mice, and could be a safe and effective adjuvant for tumor therapy or functional food. PMID:25179589

Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Huang, Jianqin; Feng, Yanling; Xie, Mingyong

2014-09-24

157

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and inhibits prostate cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model of human prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are important functional constituents in red-colored fruits of L. barbarum (Guo Qi Zi, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant commonly known as Goji berry or wolfberry). The influence of LBP on human prostate cancer cells was systematically investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro effects of LBP on two cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) were examined by using trypan blue exclusion staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and immunohistochemical assay (assessment of Bcl-2 and Bax expression). The in vivo effect of LBP on PC-3 cells was assessed in the nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The in vitro results showed that LBP can dose- and time-dependently inhibit the growth of both PC-3 and DU-145 cells. LBP caused the breakage of DNA strands of PC-3 and DU-145 cells; the tail frequency and tail length were significantly higher than that of control cells. LBP also markedly induced PC-3 and DU-145 cell apoptosis, with the highest apoptosis rates at 41.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression following LBP treatments decreased significantly with a dose-effect relationship, which suggested that LBP can regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax to induce apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The in vivo experimental results indicate that LBP might significantly inhibit PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice. Both the tumor volume and weight of the LBP treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group. PMID:19735167

Luo, Qiong; Li, Zhuoneng; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Fan; Xu, Ruo-Jun; Cai, Yi-Zhong

2009-08-01

158

Nanoparticle-induced tight-junction opening for the transport of an anti-angiogenic sulfated polysaccharide across Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

PubMed

Fucoidan has the ability to inhibit angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, a major clinical limitation is its poor oral availability because fucoidan is a hydrophilic macromolecule. In this study, an oversulfation reaction of fucoidan has been performed to enhance its anti-angiogenic activities. The synthesized, oversulfated fucoidan (OFD) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oversulfate content of OFD was estimated to be 41.7% by using a BaCl2 gelatin method. Nanoparticles (NPs) composed of chitosan (CS) and OFD were prepared by a polycation-polyanion complex method. The mean particle sizes of prepared CS/OFD NPs were in the range of 172-265nm with a negative or positive surface charge, depending on the relative concentrations of CS to OFD used. The self-assembled NPs with pH-sensitive characteristics could be used as a pH-switched nanocarrier for oral delivery of the antiangiogenic macromolecule, OFD, in response to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) tract media. Evaluation of test NPs in enhancing the intestinal paracellular transport of OFD suggested that the NPs with a positive surface charge could transiently open the tight junctions between Caco-2 cells and thus increase the paracellular permeability. Tight-junction opening and restoration were examined by monitoring the redistribution of ZO-1 tight-junction proteins using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The transported OFD significantly inhibits the tube formation of HUVECs via competitive binding of OFD and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to bFGF receptors (bFGFRs). PMID:23583645

Yu, Shu-Huei; Tang, Deh-Wei; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Wu, Wen-Shin; Lin, Bo-Xian; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Sung, Hsing-Wen; Mi, Fwu-Long

2013-07-01

159

Ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae using a variety of electron microscopy techniques. Polysaccharides from Padina gymnospora present self assembled structures, forming trabecular patterns. Purified fractions constituted by alginic acid and sulfated fucan also form well-organized ultrastructures, but the pattern of organization varies depending on the polysaccharide species. Alginic acid presents

Leonardo R. Andrade; Leonardo T. Salgado; Marcos Farina; Mariana S. Pereira; Paulo A. S. Mourão; Gilberto M. Amado Filho

2004-01-01

160

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

161

Inhibition by Chondroitin Sulfate E Can Specify Functional Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Thresholds in NIH3T3 Fibroblasts*  

PubMed Central

Aberrant activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is frequently associated with human disease, including cancer, and thus represents a key therapeutic target. However, Wnt/?-catenin signaling also plays critical roles in many aspects of normal adult tissue homeostasis. The identification of mechanisms and strategies to selectively inhibit the disease-related functions of Wnt signaling, while preserving normal physiological functions, is in its infancy. Here, we report the identification of exogenous chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E) as an inhibitor of specific molecular and biological outcomes of Wnt3a signaling in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We demonstrate that CS-E can decrease Wnt3a signaling through the negative regulation of LRP6 receptor activation. However, this inhibitory effect of CS-E only affected Wnt3a-mediated induction, but not repression, of target gene expression. We went on to identify a critical Wnt3a signaling threshold that differentially affects target gene induction versus repression. This signaling threshold also controlled the effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Limiting Wnt3a signaling to this critical threshold, either by CS-E treatment or by ligand dilution, interfered with Wnt3a-mediated stimulation of proliferation but did not impair Wnt3a-mediated reduction of serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors demonstrated that both induction and repression of Wnt3a target genes in NIH3T3 cells require the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascade. Our data establish the feasibility of selective inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin transcriptional programs and biological outcomes through the exploitation of intrinsic signaling thresholds. PMID:22915582

Willis, Catherine M.; Kluppel, Michael

2012-01-01

162

Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Potently Inhibit Invasion and Serve as a Central Organizer of the Brain Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most pervasive and lethal of all brain malignancies. One factor that contributes to this poor prognosis is the highly invasive character of the tumor. GBM is characterized by microscopic infiltration of tumor cells throughout the brain, whereas non-neural metastases, as well as select lower grade gliomas, develop as self-contained and clearly delineated lesions. Illustrated by rodent xenograft tumor models as well as pathological human patient specimens, we present evidence that one fundamental switch between these two distinct pathologies–invasion and noninvasion–is mediated through the tumor extracellular matrix. Specifically, noninvasive lesions are associated with a rich matrix containing substantial amounts of glycosylated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), whereas glycosylated CSPGs are essentially absent from diffusely infiltrating tumors. CSPGs, acting as central organizers of the tumor microenvironment, dramatically influence resident reactive astrocytes, inducing their exodus from the tumor mass and the resultant encapsulation of noninvasive lesions. Additionally, CSPGs induce activation of tumor-associated microglia. We demonstrate that the astrogliotic capsule can directly inhibit tumor invasion, and its absence from GBM presents an environment favorable to diffuse infiltration. We also identify the leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase receptor (PTPRF) as a putative intermediary between extracellular glycosylated CSPGs and noninvasive tumor cells. In all, we present CSPGs as critical regulators of brain tumor histopathology and help to clarify the role of the tumor microenvironment in brain tumor invasion. PMID:24068827

Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Schildts, Michela J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Smith, George M.; Smith, Amy A.; Scheffler, Bjorn; Reynolds, Brent A.; Silver, Jerry; Steindler, Dennis A.

2013-01-01

163

Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP(-/-) and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP(-/-) and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n?=?22), PG 97-269 (n?=?9), or vehicle (n?=?31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP(-/-) mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97-269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP(-/-) and VIPHyb or PG 97-269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

Vu, John P; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

2014-01-01

164

Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

165

Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin. PMID:24424429

Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

166

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris)

R. Zuo; D. Örnek; B. C. Syrett; R. M. Green; C.-H. Hsu; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

2004-01-01

167

PS3, A Semisynthetic ?-1,3Glucan Sulfate, Diminishes Contact Hypersensitivity Responses Through Inhibition of L- and P-Selectin Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte extravasation is initiated by an interaction of selectin adhesion molecules and appropriate carbohydrate ligands. Targeting those interactions seems a promising approach to treat chronic inflammation. We developed a ?-1, 3-glucan sulfate (PS3) with inhibitory activity toward L and P-selectins under static conditions. Here, detailed investigation showed inhibition of P- and L-selectins, but not E-selectin under flow conditions (relative reduction

Susanne Alban; Ralf J Ludwig; Gerd Bendas; Michael P Schön; Gertie J Oostingh; Heinfried H Radeke; Juliane Fritzsche; Josef Pfeilschifter; Roland Kaufmann; Wolf-Henning Boehncke

2009-01-01

168

Modification of Low Molecular Weight Polysaccharides from Tremella Fuciformis and Their Antioxidant Activity in Vitro  

PubMed Central

In this study, sulfated low molecular-weight Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (SLTP) with different sulfate contents were synthesized and their antioxidant activities, including superoxide anion radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities were investigated. The results indicated that, compared to natural Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TP) and low molecular weight Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (LTP), sulfated LTP (SLTP) exhibited stronger scavenging activity towards superoxide anion, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. In all the cases the effect was found to be dose dependent. The scavenging activity of SLTP was found to be in parallel with the degree of sulfation of SLTP.

Wu, Qiong; Zheng, Cheng; Ning, Zheng-Xiang; Yang, Bao

2007-01-01

169

An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of ?-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS), composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of 20-kDaPS inhibits endocytosis by human macrophages, whereas, preincubation of 20-kDaPS-producing strain ATCC35983 with 20-kDaPS antiserum enhances bacterial endocytosis by human macrophages. Conclusions In conclusion, icaADBC is not involved in 20-kDaPS synthesis, while the chemical and chromatographic properties of PIA and 20-kDaPS are distinct. 20-kDaPS exhibits anti-phagocytic properties, whereas, 20-kDaPS antiserum may have a beneficial effect on combating infection by 20-kDaPS-producing S. epidermidis. PMID:22594478

2012-01-01

170

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

1985-05-01

171

Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

172

Heparan sulfate modification of the transmembrane receptor CD47 is necessary for inhibition of T cell receptor signaling by thrombospondin-1.  

PubMed

Cell surface proteoglycans on T cells contribute to retroviral infection, binding of chemokines and other proteins, and are necessary for some T cell responses to the matricellular glycoprotein thrombospondin-1. The major cell surface proteoglycans expressed by primary T cells and Jurkat T cells have an apparent M(r) > 200,000 and are modified with chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Thrombospondin-1 bound in a heparin-inhibitable manner to this proteoglycan and to a soluble form released into the medium. Based on mass spectrometry, knockdown, and immunochemical analyses, the proteoglycan contains two major core proteins as follows: amyloid precursor-like protein-2 (APLP2, apparent M(r) 230,000) and CD47 (apparent M(r) > 250,000). CD47 is a known thrombospondin-1 receptor but was not previously reported to be a proteoglycan. This proteoglycan isoform of CD47 is widely expressed on vascular cells. Mutagenesis identified glycosaminoglycan modification of CD47 at Ser(64) and Ser(79). Inhibition of T cell receptor signaling by thrombospondin-1 was lost in CD47-deficient T cells that express the proteoglycan isoform of APLP2, indicating that binding to APLP2 is not sufficient. Inhibition of CD69 induction was restored in CD47-deficient cells by re-expressing CD47 or an S79A mutant but not by the S64A mutant. Therefore, inhibition of T cell receptor signaling by thrombospondin-1 is mediated by CD47 and requires its modification at Ser(64). PMID:21343308

Kaur, Sukhbir; Kuznetsova, Svetlana A; Pendrak, Michael L; Sipes, John M; Romeo, Martin J; Li, Zhuqing; Zhang, Lijuan; Roberts, David D

2011-04-29

173

Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase\\/Akt signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a remedy to promote health and longevity in China. The polysaccharide component with a branched (133)--D-glucan moiety from G. luci- dum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor ef- fects. In this study, we investigated the effect of PS-G on neutrophil viability, which is manifested by spontaneous

Ming-Jen Hsu; Shiuh-Sheng Lee; Wan-Wan Lin

174

New Tools for Studying O-GlcNAc Glycosylation and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans  

E-print Network

New Tools for Studying O-GlcNAc Glycosylation and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans and Studies is critical for neuronal function and behavior. Chondroitin sulfates (CS) are sulfated linear polysaccharides important in neuronal development and viral invasion. Depending on their sulfation patterns, CS molecules

Winfree, Erik

175

Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin\\/+ mice and azoxymethane\\/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, ApcMin\\/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)\\/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. METHODS: In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female ApcMin\\/+ mice

Jihyeung Ju; Bonnie Nolan; Michelle Cheh; Mousumi Bose; Yong Lin; George C Wagner; Chung S Yang

2008-01-01

176

The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

2012-01-01

177

Rapid small-scale preparation method of cell surface polysaccharides.  

PubMed

A rapid small-scale method of extraction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides was developed for the purpose of identification of chemotypes of LPS and serotypes of capsular antigens. Cell surface polysaccharides were prepared within less than 2 hr from 1.5 ml of broth or suspension of colonies cultured overnight. The preparations were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for LPS, and by double diffusion gel precipitation (Ouchterlony) test and blotting to nitrocellulose membrane for capsular polysaccharide. The analyses with the preparations obtained by the method could provide adequate results capable of identifying chemotypes of LPS and serotypes of capsular antigens. PMID:2266883

Sugiyama, T; Kido, N; Arakawa, Y; Mori, M; Naito, S; Ohta, M; Kato, N

1990-01-01

178

Anticoagulant activity of a unique sulfated pyranosic (1->3)-?-L-arabinan through direct interaction with thrombin.  

PubMed

A highly sulfated 3-linked ?-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

Fernández, Paula V; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S; Caramelo, Julio J; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M; Ciancia, Marina

2013-01-01

179

Chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate and heparin.  

PubMed

Covering: up to May 2014Heparan sulfate is a polysaccharide that plays essential physiological functions in the animal kingdom. Heparin, a highly sulfated form of heparan sulfate, is a widely prescribed anticoagulant drug worldwide. The heparan sulfate and heparin isolated from natural sources are highly heterogeneous mixtures differing in their polysaccharide chain lengths and sulfation patterns. The access to structurally defined heparan sulfate and heparin is critical to probe the contribution of specific sulfated saccharide structures to the biological functions as well as for the development of the next generation of heparin-based anticoagulant drugs. The synthesis of heparan sulfate and heparin, using a purely chemical approach, has proven extremely difficult, especially for targets larger than octasaccharides having a high degree of site-specific sulfation. A new chemoenzymatic method has emerged as an effective alternative approach. This method uses recombinant heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes combined with unnatural uridine diphosphate-monosaccharide donors. Recent examples demonstrate the successful synthesis of ultra-low molecular weight heparin, low-molecular weight heparin and bioengineered heparin with unprecedented efficiency. The new method provides an opportunity to develop improved heparin-based therapeutics. PMID:25197032

Liu, Jian; Linhardt, Robert J

2014-12-01

180

An Inhibitor-Based Method to Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Field-sampled litter from the common reed (Phragmites australis), which contains cellulose and arabinoxylan as its main polysaccharides,

H. T. S. Boschker; S. A. Bertilsson

1995-01-01

181

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.  

PubMed

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

2004-04-01

182

Marine-derived polysaccharides for regulation of allergic responses.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are macromolecules made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides from marine sources are widely distributed as the principle component in cell wall structures of seaweeds or exoskeletons of crustaceans. So far, marine polysaccharides have been used in many fields of biomaterials, food, cosmetic, and pharmacology. Especially, numerous pharmaceutical properties of marine polysaccharides have been revealed such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antitumor, antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticoagulant, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, antihepatopathy, antiuropathy, and antirenalpathy activities. Recently, several marine polysaccharides such alginate, porphyran, fucoidan, and chitin and its derivatives have been found as modulators of allergic responses due to enhancing innate immune system, altering Th1/Th2 balance, inhibiting IgE production, and suppressing mast cell degranulation. This contribution, therefore, focuses specially on the immunomodulatory effect of marine polysaccharides and emphasizes their potential application as candidates of pharmaceuticals as well as nutraceuticals to prevent allergic disorders. PMID:25300539

Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-01-01

183

Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives. PMID:24151557

Cumpstey, Ian

2013-01-01

184

Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-?B Activation  

PubMed Central

Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

2014-01-01

185

Antibiofilm Activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 Capsular Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

2013-01-01

186

[Hepatoprotective effects of extracts and polysaccharides from seaweed].  

PubMed

Antioxidants of natural origin are considered as possible agents for prevention and treatment of liver diseases. Marine algae and in particular their extracts and obtained from them sulfated polysaccharides are significant sources of natural antioxidants. The recent data on the effect of the extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed on the functional activity of the liver with injuries induced by CCl4, some drugs (paracetamol, diclofenac), N-nitrosocompounds, aflatoxin are presented in the review. Particular attention is paid to the effect of sulfated polysaccharides and in particular fucoidans on the functional activity of the liver in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. Fucoidan is highly safe and active not only as an antioxidant but also as an inhibitor of HCV replication, has antiinflammatory and immunomodulating effects. The data of the review allow to conclude that seaweed extracts and sulfated polysaccharides may be a basis for development of new generation drugs in the future for the treatment and prevention of liver diseases. PMID:25300119

Besednova, N N; Zaporozhets, T S; Kuznetsova, T A; Kryzhanovski?, S P; Kovalev, N N; Zviagintseva, T N

2014-01-01

187

Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP)-targeted delivery of soluble TRAIL potently inhibits melanoma outgrowth in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Advanced melanoma is characterized by a pronounced resistance to therapy leading to a limited patient survival of ~6 - 9 months. Here, we report on a novel bifunctional therapeutic fusion protein, designated anti-MCSP:TRAIL, that is comprised of a melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP)-specific antibody fragment (scFv) fused to soluble human TRAIL. MCSP is a well-established target for melanoma immunotherapy and has recently been shown to provide important tumorigenic signals to melanoma cells. TRAIL is a highly promising tumoricidal cytokine with no or minimal toxicity towards normal cells. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL was designed to 1. selectively accrete at the cell surface of MCSP-positive melanoma cells and inhibit MCSP tumorigenic signaling and 2. activate apoptotic TRAIL-signaling. Results Treatment of a panel of MCSP-positive melanoma cell lines with anti-MCSP:TRAIL induced TRAIL-mediated apoptotic cell death within 16 h. Of note, treatment with anti-MCSP:sTRAIL was also characterized by a rapid dephosphorylation of key proteins, such as FAK, implicated in MCSP-mediated malignant behavior. Importantly, anti-MCSP:TRAIL treatment already inhibited anchorage-independent growth by 50% at low picomolar concentrations, whereas > 100 fold higher concentrations of non-targeted TRAIL failed to reduce colony formation. Daily i.v. treatment with a low dose of anti-MCSP:TRAIL (0.14 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth retardation of established A375 M xenografts. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL activity was further synergized by co-treatment with rimcazole, a ?-ligand currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Conclusions Anti-MCSP:TRAIL has promising pre-clinical anti-melanoma activity that appears to result from combined inhibition of tumorigenic MCSP-signaling and concordant activation of TRAIL-apoptotic signaling. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL alone, or in combination with rimcazole, may be of potential value for the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:21092273

2010-01-01

188

Synthesis of per-sulfated flavonoids using 2,2,2-trichloro ethyl protecting group and their factor Xa inhibition potential  

E-print Network

Synthesis of per-sulfated flavonoids using 2,2,2-trichloro ethyl protecting group and their factor November 2004; accepted 30 November 2004 Available online 28 December 2004 Abstract--The synthesis of per-sulfated as a protecting group. The two-step synthesis results in exclusive formation of the per-sulfated product

Desai, Umesh R

189

Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

2012-06-01

190

Oligomannurarate sulfate inhibits CXCL12/SDF-1-mediated proliferation and invasion of human tumor cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim: JG6 is a novel marine-derived oligosaccharide that has shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. In this study, we sought to identify the potential target responsible for the anti-cancer activity of JG6. Methods: Human liver cancer cell line Bel-7402 and human cervical cancer cell line HeLa were examined. CXCL12-stimulated cell proliferation and migration were determined using a CCK-8 kit and a transwell assay, respectively. Western blotting was performed to examine the changes in CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. Molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were performed to characterize the possible interaction between JG6 and the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. Results: Treatment with CXCL12 potently stimulated the proliferation and migration in both Bel-7402 and HeLa cells. Co-treatment of the cells with JG6 (10, 50 and 100 ?g/mL) dose-dependently impeded the CXCL12-stimulated cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, CXCL12 rapidly induced phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, FAK and Paxillin in Bel-7402 and HeLa cells, whereas pretreatment with JG6 dose-dependently inhibited the CXCL12-induced phosphorylation of these proteins. The SPR assay showed that JG6 bound to CXCL12 with a high affinity. In molecular docking study, JG6 appeared to interact with CXCL12 via multiple polar interactions, including 6 ionic bonds and 7 hydrogen bonds. Conclusion: Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis by JG6 may account for its anticancer activity. PMID:24141568

Wen, Wei-wei; Xie, Shao; Xin, Xian-liang; Geng, Mei-yu; Ding, Jian; Chen, Yi

2013-01-01

191

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation  

PubMed Central

Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

SUN, LI-XIN; LIN, ZHI-BIN; DUAN, XIN-SUO; LU, JIE; GE, ZHI-HUA; LI, MIN; XING, EN-HONG; LAN, TIAN-FEI; JIANG, MIAO-MIAO; YANG, NING; LI, WEI-DONG

2013-01-01

192

Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan  

SciTech Connect

Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, (/sup 35/S)-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall.

Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

1986-03-05

193

Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali  

PubMed Central

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrin, Dusan

2014-01-01

194

Autoantibodies from patients with celiac disease inhibit transglutaminase 2 binding to heparin/heparan sulfate and interfere with intestinal epithelial cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Autoantibodies from patients with celiac disease (CD) can influence transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activity and its cellular functions, but the exact mechanisms have remained unknown. Our objective was to study whether autoantibodies could modulate TG2 binding to heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) and intestinal epithelial cell attachment to fibronectin-TG2 matrix. Anti-TG2 antibodies were purified by TG2 affinity chromatography from sera of patients with active CD. Serum and antibody effects on TG2 binding to heparin/HS, on transamidase activity of TG2, as well as on Caco-2 cell attachment to fibronectin-TG2 matrix were assessed using microplate assays. Both sera and purified anti-TG2 antibodies from CD patients with high anti-TG2 IgA levels reduced TG2 binding to heparin/HS as compared with those with low anti-TG2 IgA or controls. There was a negative correlation between anti-TG2 IgA levels and TG2 binding to heparin/HS. Treatment of fibronectin-TG2 coated wells with CD patients' sera or purified anti-TG2 antibodies reduced attachment of Caco-2 cells onto the plate as compared with the control samples. The effect of CD patients' antibodies on Caco-2 cell attachment to fibronectin-TG2 matrix occurred independently of the inhibition of cell adhesion by Arg-Gly-Asp sequence containing peptides. Anti-TG2 autoantibodies had no effect on transamidase activity of TG2 in vitro. We suggest that modulation of adhesion function of TG2 by autoantibodies from patients with CD could be related to the inhibition of TG2 binding to HS residues of cell surface proteoglycans and could have possible implications for CD pathogenesis. PMID:21847613

Teesalu, Kaupo; Panarina, Marina; Uibo, Oivi; Uibo, Raivo; Utt, Meeme

2012-02-01

195

PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate, diminishes contact hypersensitivity responses through inhibition of L- and P-selectin functions.  

PubMed

Leukocyte extravasation is initiated by an interaction of selectin adhesion molecules and appropriate carbohydrate ligands. Targeting those interactions seems a promising approach to treat chronic inflammation. We developed a beta-1, 3-glucan sulfate (PS3) with inhibitory activity toward L and P-selectins under static conditions. Here, detailed investigation showed inhibition of P- and L-selectins, but not E-selectin under flow conditions (relative reduction of interaction with appropriate ligands to 34.4+/-16.6, 8.5+/-3.6, or 99.5+/-9.9%, respectively, by PS3 for P-, L- or E-selectin). Intravital microscopy revealed reduction of leukocyte rolling in skin microvasculature from 22.7+/-5.0 to 12.6+/-4.0% after injection of PS3. In the next experiments, mice were sensitized with 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), and lymphocytes were transferred into syngeneic recipients, which were challenged by DNFB. Inflammatory responses were reduced when immunity was generated in mice treated with PS3 or in L-selectin-deficient mice. No effect was observed when L-selectin-deficient donor mice were treated with PS3, further suggesting that PS3 acted primarily through inhibition of L-selectin. Elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity response was reduced in P-selectin-deficient and in PS3-treated mice. Again, PS3 had no effect in P-selectin-deficient mice. PS3 is a potent P- and L-selectin inhibitor that may add to the therapy of inflammatory diseases. PMID:19052560

Alban, Susanne; Ludwig, Ralf J; Bendas, Gerd; Schön, Michael P; Oostingh, Gertie J; Radeke, Heinfried H; Fritzsche, Juliane; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

2009-05-01

196

Polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus inhibits migration and invasion in B16-F10 cells by suppressing MMP-2 and MMP-9 via downregulation of NF-?B signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides derived from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) are known to possess multiple pharmacological activities including antitumor activity. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of these activities are unknown. In the present study, we determined the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PIO in the highly metastatic B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line in vitro. We found that PIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of B16-F10 cells and decreased the expression levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In addition, PIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); PIO also decreased the expression level of cyclooxygenase (COX)?2 and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that PIO could suppress the invasion and migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells by reducing the expression levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through suppressing MAPK, COX-2 and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:24677090

Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Hong, Eock Kee

2014-05-01

197

The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM\\/L1\\/NILE and N-CAM, and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that aggregation of microbeads coated with N-CAM and Ng-CAM is inhibited by incubation with soluble neurocan, a chow droitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain, suggesting that neurocan binds to these cell adhesion molecules (Gru- met, M., A. Flaccus, and R. U. Margolis. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:815). To investigate these interactions more directly, we have tested binding

David R. Friedlander; Peter Mflev; Laina Karthikeyan; Renbe K. Margolis; Richard U. Margolis; Martin Grumet

1994-01-01

198

Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems  

SciTech Connect

Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-04-05

199

Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

(14C)benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2from ( 14 C)benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted,andbenzeneuptakeresumedwhensulfatewasaddedagain.Thestoichiometryofbenzeneuptakeand sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for

DEREK R. LOVLEY; JOHN D. COATES; JOAN C. WOODWARD; ANDELIZABETH J. P. PHILLIPS

1995-01-01

200

Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali: CONFORMATION, SELECTIN BINDING, AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Le(x) blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu(2+)-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

Panagos, Charalampos G; Thomson, Derek S; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D; Uhrín, Dušan

2014-10-10

201

Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20?mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:22973406

Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

2012-01-01

202

Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of ?-glucosidase.  

PubMed

The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 °C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The ?-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mg·mL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mg·mL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. PMID:24863354

Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

2014-04-01

203

Structure and antioxidant activities of sulfated guar gum: homogeneous reaction using DMAP/DCC catalyst.  

PubMed

It was essential to understand the chemical structure of polysaccharides for further research and biochemical or medical application of this natural biopolymer. In the present study, sulfated derivatives of guar gum with high degree of sulfation (DS) were synthesized using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)/dimethylcyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as catalyst in homogeneous conditions. The effects of the ratio of chlorosulfuric acid to pyridine, the content of catalyst and reaction temperature were investigated. Results of FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in sulfated polysaccharide. In the sulfation reaction, a sharp decrease in M(W) was observed. The enhanced antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides were not a function of a single factor but a combination of high DS and low molecule weight. PMID:22484325

Wang, Junlong; Zhao, Baotang; Wang, Xiaofang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji

2012-06-01

204

Structural determinants of the capacity of heparin to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. II. Evidence for a pentasaccharide sequence that contains a 3-O-sulfate group  

PubMed Central

Earlier work from our laboratory demonstrated that heparin inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. Both anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant heparin species were equally effective as antiproliferative agents. Previous structure-function studies indicated that hexasaccharide and larger fragments retained antiproliferative activity, whereas tetra- and disaccharides were inactive. These experiments also suggested that both N- and O-sulfates of heparin were necessary for growth inhibitory capacity. In this paper, we have further analyzed the structural determinants of the antiproliferative activity of heparin. These experiments were done using synthetically prepared and therefore chemically defined heparin oligosaccharides. We present evidence that a pentasaccharide fragment retains antiproliferative activity, and that the 3-O-sulfate on the internal glucosamine residue is critical for growth inhibitory capacity of the pentasaccharide. We also show that heparins obtained from different manufacturers differ significantly in their ability to suppress smooth muscle cell proliferation. PMID:3700480

1986-01-01

205

Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004

B. Nicolaus; V. Schiano Moriello; L. Lama; A. Poli; A. Gambacorta

2004-01-01

206

[Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds. PMID:21598657

Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

2011-01-01

207

Extracellular Polysaccharides of Actinomyces viscosus  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharide(s) have been isolated from supernatants of broth cultures of Actinomyces viscosus, strain T6. The organism produces significant quantities (2 mg/mg of cell [dry weight], 108 mg/liter) of this polysaccharide in the absence of sucrose. Chemical analysis indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (62%) was the major component; galactose (7%), glucose (4%), uronic acid (3%), and smaller amounts of glycerol, rhamnose, arabinose, and xylose were also present. The polysaccharide(s) is only slightly soluble in aqueous solutions. Although further purification of the polysaccharides will be necessary before definitive chemical and structural studies, the formation of extracellular polysaccharides is significant because it offers a possible explanation for plaque formation by these organisms. PMID:4851986

Rosan, Burton; Hammond, Benjamin F.

1974-01-01

208

Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides and evaluation of its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide was testified to be the main component of Flammulina velutipes for inhibiting AChE activity in our preliminary study. Therefore, response surface methodology, based on Box–Behnken design, was used to optimize the ultrasonic extraction conditions of F. velutipes polysaccharides (FVP). Four independent variables (ratio of water to raw material, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic temperature) were taken into consideration.

Wenjian Yang; Yong Fang; Jin Liang; Qiuhui Hu

2011-01-01

209

Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate type E on the binding step of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.  

PubMed

Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in the binding and entry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) into host cells, while sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin inhibit HTLV-1 infection. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are classified as another major type of proteoglycans. Here, we examined the effect of four types of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on HTLV-1 infection. Accordingly, a human T cell line, MOLT-4, was inoculated with cell-free HTLV-1 in the presence or absence of soluble CS, and the synthesis of reverse-transcribed HTLV-1 DNA within cells 20?h after inoculation was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among the four types of CS (A, C, D, and E), the E type (CSE), which was derived from the squid cartilage, exhibited anti-HTLV-1 activity. Furthermore, we observed that CSE directly interacted with recombinant HTLV-1 envelope (Env) proteins and inhibited the binding of HTLV-1 virions to MOLT-4 cells, indicating that the interaction between Env and CSE plays a significant role in its anti-HTLV-1 activity. In addition, CSE inhibited syncytium formation that was induced by HTLV-1-producing cells. When CSE was mixed with the synthetic fusion inhibitor peptide corresponding to the ectodomain of the Env transmembrane subunit (TM) gp21, the HTLV-1 infection was further inhibited when compared with the inhibitory effect of each compound alone. Thus, further elucidation of the in vitro antiviral mechanism of CSE shown in this study will lead to the development of CSE-like molecules for the entry inhibition of HTLV-1. PMID:23033806

Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Mori, Takahisa; Sugiura, Nobuo; Kimata, Koji; Isomura, Hiroki; Hoshino, Hiroo

2013-03-01

210

Barium Sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

211

Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

2013-03-01

212

Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

2012-06-20

213

Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity. PMID:24223655

JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN; MENG, DE-YOU

2013-01-01

214

Polysaccharides in some industrially important softwood species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and composition of carbohydrates comprising polysaccharides in sapwood and heartwood of 12 industrially important pulpwood species were analysed. The polysaccharide content was between 60% and 80% (w\\/w) for all species, with cellulose as the predominant polysaccharide type. The carbohydrate composition suggested that the main non-cellulose polysaccharides were galactoglucomannans, except in Larix heartwood, where arabinogalactans were predominant, while the

S. Willför; A. Sundberg; J. Hemming; B. Holmbom

2005-01-01

215

Mediating chemical reactions using polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the NaBH4-mediated hydrogenation of select alkenes catalyzed by polysaccharide-stabilized nanoparticles. We compared the catalytic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles or Au/Co-based nanoparticles on the hydrogenation of cinnamic acid, cinnamide, cinnamyl alcohol, and ethyl cinnamate. We evaluated the possibility that the type of stabilizing polysaccharide surrounding the nanoparticle may affect the selectivity towards the alkene compounds that undergo the hydrogenation reaction. We found that the hydrogenation of cinnamide or ethyl cinnamate proceeded readily to 100% completion independent of the type of polysaccharide stabilizing the nanoparticle. However, the extent of the hydrogenation of cinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid varied greatly depending on the type of polysaccharide stabilizing the nanoparticle. In the course of these studies, we observed that some polysaccharides by themselves promoted the hydrolysis of ethyl cinnamate. Thus, we have raised the hypothesis that some polysaccharides may act as "esterases" and explored the interaction between select polysaccharides and a variety of ester compounds.

Tyler, Lauren E.

216

Gums and Related Polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of carbohydrates, gums are usually considered to be non-starch, water-soluble polysaccharides with commercial importance. When used as ingredients in processed foods, they may be called hydrocolloids . Gums are used because of the functionalities they impart to whatever system or product into which they are incorporated. As with other polymers, their chemical structures, together with the nature of the aqueous environment surrounding the molecules (pH, types and concentrations of salts or other solutes, temperature, shear, etc.) determines the shapes of the molecules; the chemical nature and shapes of the molecules determines the gum's physiochemical properties, and their physicochemical properties determines their functionalities. All gums have one similar property, i. e., the ability to thicken water and aqueous systems, but they may impart different rheological properties to the systems they thicken. Certain gums provide certain functionalities better than do other gums.

Bemiller, James N.

217

Involvement of heparan sulfate and related molecules in sequestration and growth promoting activity of fibroblast growth factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues [1,2]. The basic HSPG structure consists of a protein core to which several linear heparan sulfate (HS) chains are covalently attached. The polysaccharide chains are typically composed of repeating hexuronic and D-glucosamine disaccharide

Israel Vlodavsky; Hua-Quan Miao; Benjamin Medalion; Pamela Danagher; Dina Ron

1996-01-01

218

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: a comparative Study, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate

Hazen, Terry

219

Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed C-Terminal Domains of Plasmodium falciparum Variant Surface Antigen 2-Chondroitin Sulfate A (VAR2CSA) Inhibit Binding of CSA-Adherent Parasites to Placental Tissue  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains. PMID:23319559

Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V.; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J.; Fried, Michal

2013-01-01

220

Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

1993-01-01

221

Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus was evaluated. Polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, protein hydrolysis, dialysis, and fractionation with a DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column. A total of 4 fractions, including 1 neutral polysaccharide (LBPN) and 3 acidic polysaccharides were obtained, and compared with crude polysaccharide (CP), crude extract of polysaccharide (CE),

C. L. Lin; C. C. Wang; S. C. Chang; B. Stephen Inbaraj; B. H. Chen

2009-01-01

222

Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-07-15

223

Anti-inflammatory properties of kefir and its polysaccharide extract.  

PubMed

Kefir is a fermented beverage originating form the Caucasian regions composed of a number of bacteria and yeasts living together in polysaccharide grains secreted by them. Kefir can be considered a probiotic source as it presents anti-bacterial, anti-mycotic, anti-neoplasic and immunomodulatory properties. Aiming to appraise a possible anti-inflammatory effect of kefir we conducted cotton-induced granuloma and paw oedema assays in rats, the latter using carrageenan, dextran and histamine as stimuli. Kefir samples were thawed and continuously cultured during 15 days both in a molasses solution (50 g/l) and in cow's milk. A polysaccharide extract isolated from the grains (kefiran) was also tested in cotton-pellet experiments. The results showed significant inhibition in the formation of granuloma tissue for all the test groups, as compared to the blank group. Kefir suspensions in molasses presented an inhibition of 41 +/- 3% for the inflammatory process, fermented milk prepared from kefir showed 44 +/- 6% inhibition and kefiran extract 34 +/- 15%. Rat paw oedema also showed significant decreases with the mediators. Dextran-induced oedema was completely inhibited at 1 h after input, with a 76% inhibition after 2 h. Carrageenan stimulus was inhibited 62% after the 3rd hour, and histamine by 52% after the 2nd hour. These results points to the existence of anti-inflammatory prebiotic compounds present in symbiotic cultures of kefir growing in both aqueous and milky suspensions. PMID:16280101

Rodrigues, K L; Carvalho, J C T; Schneedorf, J M

2005-01-01

224

Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris  

PubMed Central

Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

2014-01-01

225

Salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities and structural changes of the polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps Militaris.  

PubMed

Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the (13)C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable (34)S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

2014-01-01

226

Purification, chemical modification and immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides from Tremella aurantialba fruit bodies*  

PubMed Central

Ultrafiltration and a series of chromatographic steps were used to isolate and purify polysaccharides from Tremella aurantialba fruit bodies. Three crude fractions (TAP50w, TAP10–50w, and TAP1–10w), five semi-purified fractions (TAPA–TAPE), and one purified fraction (TAPA1) were obtained. A sulfated derivative of TAPA1 (TAPA1-s) was prepared by chemical modification. The immunostimulating activity of the polysaccharide fractions in vitro was determined using the mouse spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay. Of the three crude fractions tested, cell proliferation rates were increased most by TAP50w. Furthermore, TAPA1-s was markedly more stimulatory than TAPA1, indicating that sulfonation was an effective way to enhance the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharide. PMID:20506575

Du, Xiu-ju; Zhang, Jing-song; Yang, Yan; Tang, Qing-jiu; Jia, Wei; Pan, Ying-jie

2010-01-01

227

Bacterial cadherin domains as carbohydrate binding modules: determination of affinity constants to insoluble complex polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) doublet domains from the complex polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, demonstrated reversible calcium-dependent binding to different complex polysaccharides, which serve as growth substrates for the bacterium. Here we describe a procedure based on adsorption of CA and CADG doublet domains to different insoluble complex polysaccharides, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for visualizing and quantifying the distribution of cadherins between the bound and unbound fractions. Scatchard plots were employed to determine the kinetics of interactions of CA and CADG with several complex carbohydrates. On the basis of these binding studies, the CA and CADG doublet domains are proposed to form a new family of carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). PMID:22843394

Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

2012-01-01

228

In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferation Activities of Polysaccharides from Various Extracts of Different Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides were extracted from eight kinds of Chinese mushrooms using three solvents and were evaluated for their total carbohydrate, polyphenolic and protein contents, and antioxidant and anti-proliferation activities. The results suggested that all the polysaccharides had significant antioxidant capacities (EC50 ranged from 1.70 ± 0.42 to 65.98 ± 1.74 ?M TE/g crude polysaccharide inhibition of ABTS+, EC50 ranged from 5.06 ± 0.12 to 127.38 ± 1.58 mg VCE/g CP scavenging of OH· and EC50 ranged from 0.70 ± 0.04 to 33.54 ± 0.49 mg VCE/g CP inhibition of lipid peroxidation) (TE: trolox equivalent; VCE: VC equivalent; CP: crude polysaccharide). The acid extracts of Russula vinosa Lindblad had the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. Aqueous extracts of Dictyophora indusiata and Hohenbuehelia serotina possessed, respectively, the highest OH· scavenging capacity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Mushroom extracts also inhibited proliferation of HeLa and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the mushroom polysaccharides might be potential antioxidant resources. PMID:22754332

Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lu; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hua

2012-01-01

229

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

230

Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential Mechanism.  

PubMed

The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe(2+)-Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O(2) (•-)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-Fe(2+) system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na(2)S(2)O(3) titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H(2)O(2). APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O(2) (•-), •OH and H(2)O(2) significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health. PMID:22408421

Li, Xing-Tai; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Jin, Feng-Xin; Liu, De-Wen; Gao, Ming-Bo; Liu, Ze; Xin, Xiao-Juan

2012-01-01

231

Structure and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan from the red alga, Gelidium crinale. Is there a specific structural requirement for the anticoagulant action?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine red algae are an abundant source of sulfated galactans with potent anticoagulant activity. However, the specific structural motifs that confer biological activity remain to be elucidated. We have now isolated and purified a sulfated galactan from the marine red alga, Gellidium crinale. The structure of this polysaccharide was determined using NMR spectroscopy. It is composed of the repeating structure

Maria G. Pereira; Norma M. B. Benevides; Marcia R. S. Melo; Ana Paula Valente; Fábio R. Melo; Paulo A. S. Mourão

2005-01-01

232

Sulfate in fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate (SO42?) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on

Paul A. Dawson

2011-01-01

233

Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.  

PubMed

The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. PMID:23441919

Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

2013-05-01

234

Sulfate Adsorption on Goethite.  

PubMed

Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. We have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, we used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichiometry since this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichiometry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10502384

Rietra; Hiemstra; van Riemsdijk WH

1999-10-15

235

Structural characterization of a homogalacturonan from Capparis spinosa L. fruits and anti-complement activity of its sulfated derivative.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide CSPS-2B-2 with a molecular mass of 8.8 kDa, was obtained from the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. Chemical and NMR spectral analysis verified CSPS-2B-2 was a linear poly-(1-4)-?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 12.9±0.4% of carboxyl groups existed as methyl ester and 2.6±0.1% of D-GalpA residues were acetylated. A sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 with a sulfation degree of 0.88±0.02 was prepared via the substitution of C-2 and/or C-3 of GalpA residues in CSPS-2B-2. Bioassay on the complement and coagulation system demonstrated that Sul-2B-2 (CH(50): 3.5±0.2 ?g/mL) had a stronger inhibitory effect on the activation of complement system through the classic pathway than that of heparin (CH(50): 8.9±0.3 ?g/mL). Interestingly, Sul-2B-2 at low dose even middle dose (for example 52 ?g/mL) had no effect on coagulation system, which was totally different from heparin. Thus, our observation indicated that Sul-2B-2 was more efficient than heparin in inhibiting the activation of the complement system through classical pathway and exhibiting a relatively less anti-coagulant activity. These results suggested that the sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 prepared from the homogalacturonan in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L, might be a promising drug candidate in case of necessary therapeutic complement inhibition. PMID:22752400

Wang, Huijun; Wang, Hongwei; Shi, Songshan; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

2012-08-01

236

Controls of Polysaccharide Chemistry on the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Calcium Carbonate Nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polysaccharide fibrils control the orientation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biominerals. Good examples are found in the multilayered extracellular mucilaginous sheath of green algae and cyanobacteria and in specialized vesicles inside coccolithophorids. More complex organisms such as arthropods and mollusks form biomineralized exoskeletons and shells that consist of insoluble polysaccharides and soluble acid-rich proteins. In these structures, CaCO3 mineral orientation occurs along fibers of the polysaccharide chitin. This raises the question of whether polysaccharide chemistry has specific roles in directing biomineralization. The last three decades of research show that acidic proteins influence CaCO3 polymorph selection, crystallographic orientation, and nucleation and growth rates but little is known about the function of polysaccharides. In fact, polysaccharides are long considered an inert component of organic frameworks. In this experimental investigation, we test the hypothesis that polysaccharides have chemistry-specific influences on calcification by measuring the kinetics of calcite nucleation onto three types of polysaccharide films under controlled solution compositions. Characterized polysaccharides of simple repeating monomer sequences were chosen as model compounds to represent the major carbohydrates seen in microbial and calcifying environments: 1) alginic acid with carboxyl groups, 2) hyaluronic acid with alternating carboxyl and acetylamine groups, and 3) chitosan with amine and acetylamine groups. Biosubstrates were prepared by electrodeposition of these compounds as thin gel-like films onto gold-coated silicon wafers. Using a flow-through cell, heterogeneous nucleation rates of calcite were measured for a suite of supersaturation conditions. These rate data were compared to similar measurements for carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers. Calcite nucleation rates onto the three polysaccharides vary by a factor of 400x. Preliminary analyses of the data attribute these differences to changes in both kinetic and thermodynamic barriers to nucleation. These initial findings indicate that polysaccharide chemistry can have active roles in regulating the kinetics of calcite formation. It may be time to reconsider their presumed function as inert framework molecules for mineralized structures. Future work will investigate CaCO3 nucleation on substrates of polysaccharides with more complex functionalization and monomer sequences to decipher the origins of these effects in promoting or inhibiting mineralization.

Giuffre, A. J.; Han, N.; Dove, P. M.

2011-12-01

237

Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways  

PubMed Central

St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

Abakuks, S.; Deters, A. M.

2012-01-01

238

Molecular signature of kappa-carrageenan mimics chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and enables interaction with arylsulfatase B.  

PubMed

The common food additive kappa-carrageenan (?-CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide that resembles chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). All have a sulfate group on C4 of a glycoside (galactose for CGN and N-acetylgalactosamine for C4S), and the sulfate-bearing glycoside is linked in a ?-1,4-configuration to an unsulfated, six-carbon sugar (galactose for CGN, glucuronate for C4S and iduronate for DS). The enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate) is the highly selective enzyme that removes the four-sulfate group from the nonreducing terminus of C4S and DS, thereby regulating subsequent degradation. In this report, ?-CGN is shown to be a substrate for recombinant human ARSB (rhARSB). Sulfate was generated from both C4S and ?-CGN following incubation with rhARSB. Exposure of human colonic epithelial cells to ?-CGN, but not to C4S, produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. The ROS production from ?-CGN was reduced by exposure to rhARSB, but increased by competition from C4S or DS, but not from chondroitin-6-sulfate. Prior treatment of either lambda- or iota-CGN with rhARSB had no impact on ROS, IL-8 or inorganic sulfate production, demonstrating a specific effect of the molecular configuration of ?-CGN. By mimicry of C4S and DS and by interaction with ARSB, ?-CGN can directly interfere with the normal cellular functions of C4S, DS and ARSB. Since C4S and DS are present in high concentration in tissues, the impact of ?-CGN exposure may be due to some extent to interference with the normal biological functions of ARSB, C4S and DS. PMID:22079206

Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Tobacman, Joanne K

2012-09-01

239

Identification of structural features of heparin required for inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 binding.  

PubMed

Binding of HSV-1 to cells is mediated by interactions of virion glycoproteins gC and/or gB with heparin sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans on cell surface proteoglycans. HS and the related glycosaminoglycan, heparin, comprise a family of heterogeneous carbohydrates composed of long, unbranched polysaccharides modified, for example, by sulfations and acetylations. To define the specific features of HS important for viral binding, we took advantage of the structural similarities between heparin and cell surface HS and compared the ability of chemically modified heparin compounds to inhibit the binding of viral particles to the cell surface and subsequent plaque formation. Because binding presumably involves multiple, complex interactions between both known heparin-binding glycoproteins, gC and gB, and cell surface HS, we compared the effects of modified heparin compounds on the binding and subsequent plaque formation of wild-type and gC-negative strains of HSV-1 and, in select cases, the binding of gB-negative virus to cells. We identified specific structural features of heparin essential for the inhibition of viral binding. For example, both N-sulfation and 6-O-sulfation must be important determinants since desulfation of heparin at these sites abolished or decreased the antiviral activity of heparin. Moreover, we found that the antiviral activity of heparin was independent of its anticoagulant activity. Carboxyl-reduced and 2,3-O-desulfated heparin selectively inhibited binding of gC-positive viruses (wild-type or a gB-negative strain) to cells, but had little or no inhibitory effect on binding and subsequent plaque formation for a gC-deletion virus. These results suggest that gC and gB interact with different structural features of HS. PMID:7856085

Herold, B C; Gerber, S I; Polonsky, T; Belval, B J; Shaklee, P N; Holme, K

1995-02-01

240

Structure of a sulfated xylogalactan from the calcareous red alga Corallina pilulifera P. et R. (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the calcareous red alga Corallina pilulifera was studied by methylation analysis before and after desulfation or Smith degradation, as well as by 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to consist of d-galactose, l-galactose, 2-O-methyl-l-galactose, -O-methyl-l-galactose, 6-O-methyl-d-galactose, d-xylose, and sulfate in a molar ratio of 29:20:5:2:1:20:23. Its

Anatoly I. Usov; Maria I. Bilan; Alexander S. Shashkov

1997-01-01

241

Significance of protein elicitor isolated from Tuber melanosporum on the production of ganoderic acid and Ganoderma polysaccharides during the fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from the culture mycelia of Tuber melanosporum, the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) was significantly stimulated during Ganoderma lucidum fermentation. Compared with our previous results that, GA content was inhibited by polysaccharide elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum, while improved by the elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, protein was identified to be the exact component inducing GA biosynthesis in this work. G. lucidum cell growth was significantly inhibited by elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, and polysaccharide elicitor did not inhibit the cell growth. In this work, the remarkable inhibition on the cell growth was considerably eliminated under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum. These suggested maybe the interaction of polysaccharide and protein components existed in the inhibition on the cell growth of G. lucidum. Not only GA content but also total GA accumulation obtained the highest values after the elicitation of protein elicitor. The maximal GA production of 260.5 ± 5.6 mg/L was 31.2% higher than the control. Under the elicitation of protein elicitor, the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and the content of intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) were also enhanced; however, total IPS accumulation was lower. GA biosynthesis was also significantly affected by the addition time of protein elicitor, whose optimal value was the culture of day 4. PMID:20369259

Zhu, Li-Wen; Tang, Ya-Jie

2010-10-01

242

Fine structure of polysaccharide microcrystals.  

PubMed

Negative staining showed the presence of microcrystals in various polysaccharides. Cellulose microcrystals from Valoniopsis, Vaucheria, and an unidentified tunicate had widths of 20, 27, and 30 Å, respectively. Mannan microcrystals from Acetabularia were 10x25 Å and were oriented in linear arrays with their long axis perpendicular to the array axis. dichotomosiphon and Caulerpa xylans had respective microcrystal widths of 22 and 24 Å. All microcrystals appeared as component part of microfibrils. PMID:24504718

Parker, B C; Leeper, G F

1969-03-01

243

Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

244

Sulfate in fetal development.  

PubMed

Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

Dawson, Paul A

2011-08-01

245

Pneumococcal Polysaccharides Interact with Human Dendritic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical antigen presentation cells whose influence on murine immune responses to polysaccharide antigens has only recently been elucidated. Little is known about human DC-polysaccharide interactions. We set out to study the interaction between human monocyte-derived DCs and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPS) in vitro. Immature DCs were generated from peripheral blood monocytes and incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled

Ulrike Meltzer; David Goldblatt

2006-01-01

246

Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia

Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau

2008-01-01

247

Elastase inhibition assay with peptide substrates - an example for the limited comparability of in vitro results.  

PubMed

Many factors such as buffer, pH, or enzyme concentration influence the inhibitory activity of test compounds in IN VITRO enzyme inhibition assays. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the variation of the synthetic substrate has an influence on the IC (50) values as well. As an exemplary enzyme, we have chosen polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase (PMNE), which is considered as a promising target in the therapy for inflammatory and tumour diseases. A well established, validated IN VITRO PMNE inhibition assay was performed with three different synthetic peptide substrates (S-2484, L-1335, I-1270). As inhibitors ursolic acid, unfractionated heparin (UFH), the semisynthetic glucan sulfate PS3, and sulfated polysaccharides from the red algae DELESSERIA SANGUINEA (D.s.-SP), were used. The maximum achievable PMNE inhibition by the test compounds was shown to be determined by the substrate: 60 to 70 % (L-1335 and S-2484) or 90 % (I-1270). Furthermore, the IC (50) values of the inhibitors turned out to strongly vary in dependence on the substrate, although the used peptide substrates are structurally very similar. The derived activities differed by up to 480 %. In addition, the potencies of the test compounds in relation to each other altered considerably. In conclusion, by the choice of the enzyme substrate, both the apparent maximum activity and the IC (50) of an inhibitor can be influenced. Therefore, only results from identical test systems should be compared.. PMID:18537075

Groth, Inken; Alban, Susanne

2008-06-01

248

Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate  

PubMed Central

In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with the idea that surfen interacted electrostatically. Surfen neutralized the anticoagulant activity of both unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins and inhibited enzymatic sulfation and degradation reactions in vitro. Addition of surfen to cultured cells blocked FGF2-binding and signaling that depended on cell surface heparan sulfate and prevented both FGF2- and VEGF165-mediated sprouting of endothelial cells in Matrigel. Surfen also blocked heparan sulfate-mediated cell adhesion to the Hep-II domain of fibronectin and prevented infection by HSV-1 that depended on glycoprotein D interaction with heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of identifying small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate and raise the possibility of developing pharmacological agents to treat disorders that involve glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. PMID:18725627

Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A.; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2008-01-01

249

Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

Fenske, John James

250

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

251

O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

2011-01-01

252

Ultrasonic-assisted production of antioxidative polysaccharides from Crassostrea hongkongensis.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of oyster extract against various disorders and diseases induced by oxidative stress have aroused great interest. In this article, ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis was employed to produce polysaccharides of Crassostrea hongkongensis (CHP) and their antioxidant activity was investigated. A single-factor experiment and then a four-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design were first used to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. On the basis of ridge analysis, the optimum conditions are obtained as ultrasonic treatment time of 24 min, power of 876 W, temperature of 49°C, and material-solvent ratio of 1:6 (w/v). It is found that ultrasound pretreatment before protease hydrolysis was a great help to improve CHP yield and purity, especially more favorable with flavorzyme, neutrase, alcalase, and pepsin. Furthermore, the polysaccharide fraction, which was obtained by ultrasonic pretreatment and then alcalase hydrolysis at the conditions of 3000 U/g, 55°C, pH 8.0, for 4 hr, exhibited an obvious scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (98.48 ± 0.55% and 99.20 ± 0.12%, respectively) and a lenoleic acid peroxidation inhibition effect (85.48 ± 0.65%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. These results reveal the potential application of CHP in functional food and nutraceuticals. PMID:24905048

Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Long, Shujun; Sun, Huili

2014-10-01

253

Secondary Storage of Dermatan Sulfate in Sanfilippo Disease*  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of genetically inherited disorders that result from the defective activity of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, causing their intralysosomal accumulation. Sanfilippo disease describes a subset of mucopolysaccharidoses resulting from defects in heparan sulfate catabolism. Sanfilippo disorders cause severe neuropathology in affected children. The reason for such extensive central nervous system dysfunction is unresolved, but it may be associated with the secondary accumulation of metabolites such as gangliosides. In this article, we describe the accumulation of dermatan sulfate as a novel secondary metabolite in Sanfilippo. Based on chondroitinase ABC digestion, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels in fibroblasts from Sanfilippo patients were elevated 2–5-fold above wild-type dermal fibroblasts. Lysosomal turnover of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in these cell lines was significantly impaired but could be normalized by reducing heparan sulfate storage using enzyme replacement therapy. Examination of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate catabolic enzymes showed that heparan sulfate and heparin can inhibit iduronate 2-sulfatase. Analysis of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fraction by chondroitinase ACII digestion showed dermatan sulfate storage, consistent with inhibition of iduronate 2-sulfatase. The discovery of a novel storage metabolite in Sanfilippo patients may have important implications for diagnosis and understanding disease pathology. PMID:21193389

Lamanna, William C.; Lawrence, Roger; Sarrazin, Stephane; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2011-01-01

254

Polysaccharide exopolymer adhesives from periphytic marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

—Periphytic micro-organisms frequently adhere to marine surfaces via the synthesis of polysaccharide exopolymer. For one such polysaccharide adhesive viscous exopolymer (PAVE), synthesized by Alteromonas colwelliana LST, production and purification were optimized and properties characterized. Maximum PAVE yields and best adhesiveness were obtained from cells harvested during the late logarithmic phase of growth in rich brain-heart infusion medium. The polymer was

Michael P. Labare; Kim Guthrie; Ronald M. Weiner

1989-01-01

255

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin;Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

256

Interactions between acidified dispersions of milk proteins and dextran or dextran sulfate.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are often used to stabilize cultured milk products, although the nature of these interactions is not entirely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate phase behavior of milk protein dispersions with added dextran (DX; molecular weight = 2 × 10(6) Da) or dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight = 1.4 × 10(6) Da) as examples of uncharged and charged polysaccharides, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk (5-20% milk solids, wt/wt) was acidified to pH 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9 at approximately 0°C (to inhibit gelation) by addition of 3 N HCl. Dextran or DS was added to acidified milk samples to give concentrations of 0 to 2% (wt/wt) and 0 to 1% (wt/wt) polysaccharide, respectively. Milk samples were observed for possible phase separation after storage at 0°C for 1 and 24h. Possible gelation of these systems was determined by using dynamic oscillatory rheology. The type of interactions between caseins and DX or DS was probed by determining the total carbohydrate analysis of supernatants from phase-separated samples. At 5.0 to 7.5% milk solids, phase separation of milk samples occurred after 24h even without DX or DS addition, due to destabilization of caseins in these acidic conditions, and a stabilizing effect was observed when 0.7 or 1.0% DS was added. At higher milk solids content, phase separation was not observed without DX or DS addition. Similar results were observed at all pH levels. Gelation occurred in samples containing high milk solids (?10%) with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0% DX or 0.4 to 1.0% DS. Based on carbohydrate analysis of supernatants, we believe that DX interacted with milk proteins through a type of depletion flocculation mechanism, whereas DS appeared to interact via electrostatic-type interactions with milk proteins. This study helps to explain how uncharged and charged stabilizers influence the texture of cultured dairy products. PMID:25022675

Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

2014-09-01

257

Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease  

E-print Network

Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots #12;· Cholesterol sulfate supplies

Seneff, Stephanie

258

Purification, characterization and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii residue.  

PubMed

A novel water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii residue was isolated and further purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography to yield PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3. Molecular weights were determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3 were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Sulfate and uronic acid content, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum were also evaluated. The antitumor activities of the polysaccharides against HepG-2 cells were studied in vitro. Results showed that the three polysaccharides could suppress the proliferation and enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of HepG-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect increased in the order of PEPE-1polysaccharides extracted from P. eryngii residue might be suitable for functional foods and natural antitumor drugs development. PMID:25263894

Ma, Gaoxing; Yang, Wenjian; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Fang, Yong; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Hu, Qiuhui

2014-12-19

259

Crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate at dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals beneath dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A (C 4S) was systematically examined under different surface pressure. The results indicated that the addition of C 4S can inhibit the crystal growth and prevent the aggregation of COM crystals. Under a DPPC monolayer, well-defined three-dimensional hexagonal prisms and three-dimensional rhombus prisms with sharply angled tips were obtained. The DPPC monolayer at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m can match the Ca 2+ distance of the (1¯ 0 1) face of COM better than at 20 mN/m. The addition of C 4S could cooperatively modulate the interaction strength between the monolayer (or itself) with the specific morphology determining faces such as (1¯ 0 1) and (0 2 0), and thus results in remarkable stabilization of the (1¯ 0 1) faces. The dramatic changes in morphological details were due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the Ca 2+-rich (1¯ 0 1) crystal faces of COM and the polyanionic polysaccharide C 4S together with the negatively charged sites of the zwitterionic DPPC monolayers. The increase of the concentration of C 4S can further enhance the stabilization of the (1¯ 0 1) face.

Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Deng, Sui-Ping; Zhong, Jiu-Ping; Tieke, Bernd; Yu, Shu-Hong

2004-10-01

260

Polysaccharides from medicinal herbs as potential therapeutics for aging and age-related neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Recent studies have uncovered important aging clues, including free radicals, inflammation, telomeres, and life span pathways. Strategies to regulate aging-associated signaling pathways are expected to be effective in the delay and prevention of age-related disorders. For example, herbal polysaccharides with considerable anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation capacities have been shown to be beneficial in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Polysaccharides capable of reducing cellular senescence and modulating life span via telomere and insulin pathways have also been found to have the potential to inhibit protein aggregation and aggregation-associated neurodegeneration. Here we present the current status of polysaccharides in anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative studies. PMID:24125569

Li, Haifeng; Ma, Fangli; Hu, Minghua; Ma, Chung Wah; Xiao, Lingyun; Zhang, Ju; Xiang, Yanxia; Huang, Zebo

2014-04-01

261

Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells. PMID:24507248

Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

2014-02-15

262

Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Holleman, James W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01

263

A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.  

PubMed

A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

1994-03-01

264

Immune Response to Cryptococcus neoformans Soluble Polysaccharide I. Serological Assay for Antigen and Antibody  

PubMed Central

Chromium chloride was used as a coupling agent for the conjugation of purified cryptococcal polysaccharide to sheep erythrocytes. Sensitized erythrocytes were used in a passive hemagglutination (PHA) assay for antibody to cryptococcal polysaccharide and a passive hemagglutination inhibition (PHI) assay for antigen. The PHA assay was more sensitive than complement fixation, agglutination, or precipitation tests for antibody. The PHI assay could detect submicrogram quantities of soluble polysaccharide. Antigen or antibody could be detected in serum or spinal fluid from seven of eight patients with cryptococcosis. Tests for antigen or antibody were negative with sera from patients with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, aspergillosis, or allescheriosis. A low frequency (3%) of positive reactors for antibody was found among sera from normal persons and from persons with unrelated diseases; whereas, all tests for antigen were negative. The assay showed a high degree of sensitivity for immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin M class; however, cryptococcal antibody of the immunoglobulin G class was also detected. The immunological specificity of the polysaccharide preparation was due to carbohydrate rather than to protein associated with the polysaccharide. PMID:4570986

Kozel, Thomas R.; Cazin, John

1972-01-01

265

Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense  

PubMed Central

Background Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. Objective: To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. Materials and Methods The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Results and Conclusion Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples. PMID:23661989

Yan, Chunyan; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi; Cui, Jiangxia

2013-01-01

266

Vacuum Ultraviolet Action Spectroscopy of Polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the optical properties of gas-phase polysaccharides (maltose, maltotetraose, and maltohexaose) ions by action spectroscopy using the coupling between a quadrupole ion trap and a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility (France) in the 7 to 18 eV range. The spectra provide unique benchmarks for evaluation of theoretical data on electronic transitions of model carbohydrates in the VUV range. The effects of the nature of the charge held by polysaccharide ions on the relaxation processes were also explored. Finally the effect of isomerization of polysaccharides (with melezitose and raffinose) on their photofragmentation with VUV photons is presented.

Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Vernier, Arnaud; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent

2013-08-01

267

Polymethylated polysaccharides from Mycobacterium species revisited.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria produce two sets of unusual polymethylated polysaccharides, the 3-O-methylmannose polysaccharides and the 6-O-methylglucose lipopolysaccharides. Both polysaccharides localize to the cytoplasm, where they have been postulated to regulate fatty acid metabolism due to their ability to form stable 1:1 complexes with fatty acyl chains. Physiological evidence for this assumption is lacking, however. Recent advances in our knowledge of the processes underlying sugar transfer in mycobacteria, together with the availability of genome sequences and tools for the genetic manipulation of these microorganisms, have opened the way to the elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways and biological functions of these unique carbohydrates. PMID:18786916

Jackson, Mary; Brennan, Patrick J

2009-01-23

268

Immunologically active polysaccharide from Cetraria islandica.  

PubMed

A new alkali-soluble polysaccharide has been isolated from Iceland moss, Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach., by ethanol fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The mean M(r) was estimated to be 18,000. Sugar and methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy showed the polysaccharide to be a branched galactomannan with a backbone composed of two structural elements; (1-->6)-linked alpha-D-mannopyranosyl and alpha-D-(1-->6)-galactopyranosyl units. The polysaccharide showed pronounced immunostimulating activity in an in vitro phagocytosis assay and in the in in vivo carbon clearance assay. PMID:7809205

Ingolfsdottir, K; Jurcic, K; Fischer, B; Wagner, H

1994-12-01

269

Protective effect of polysaccharides from Sargassum horneri against oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate chemical composition and the protective effects of polysaccharides isolated from Sargassum horneri against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in RAW264.7 cells. Results showed that isolated polysaccharides (SHSc) and the major fractions (SHS1, SHS0.5) contained sulfate ester, and SHS1 was high fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide. After preincubation with three isolated polysaccharides, RAW264.7 cells viability were significantly restored and decreased in cellular LDH release (P<0.05). SHS1 and SHS0.5 decreased intracellular ROS level, intracellular NO and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) level (P<0.05), restoring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P<0.05), decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (P<0.05). Moreover, preincubation of SHS1 with RAW264.7 cells resulted in the increase of the gene expression level of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as MnSOD and GSH-Px (P<0.05). These results clearly showed that SHSc and its fractions could attenuate H2O2-induced stress injury in RAW264.7 cells, and a similar efficiency in protecting RAW264.7 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative injury between SHS1 and Vitamin C. Taken together, our findings suggested that SHS1 can effectively protect RAW264.7 cells against oxidative stress by H2O2, which might be used as a potential natural antioxidant in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24769083

Wen, Zheng-Shun; Liu, Li-Jia; OuYang, Xiao-Kun; Qu, You-Le; Chen, Yin; Ding, Guo-Fang

2014-07-01

270

During a corticotropin-releasing hormone test in healthy subjects, administration of a beta-adrenergic antagonist induced secretion of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and inhibited secretion of ACTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In chronic inflammatory diseases, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (DHEAS) are low. Interestingly, several non-inflammatory diseases display similarly low levels of DHEAS which points to other inhibitory factors such as an activated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) (e.g. in patients with heart failure, fibromyalgia, or cancer cachexia). We aimed to identify the influence of the SNS tone on stimulated

S Kizildere; Thomas Gluck; Bettina Zietz; Jurgen Scholmerich; Rainer H Straub

2003-01-01

271

ROS, Hsp27, and IKK? Mediate Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) Activation of I?Ba, NF?B, and IL-8  

PubMed Central

Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a sulfated polysaccharide that has been very widely used to induce inflammation in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in which the effects of pharmacologic and biologic therapies are tested. However, the precise mechanisms by which DSS induces inflammation have not been elucidated. Methods DSS-induced increases in phospho-I?B?, nuclear NF?B (p65), and IL-8 secretion in human colonic epithelial cells in tissue culture are attributable to a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pathway of inflammation, and do not require TLR4, MyD88, or Bcl10, which are associated with the innate immune pathway of NF?B-IL-8 activation. Results DSS-induced increases were inhibited by the ROS scavengers Tempol and Tiron, were associated with decreased phosphorylation of MAPK12 (p38?), MAPK 13 (p38?), and Hsp27, and required the I?B kinase (IKK) signalosome component IKK?. In ex vivo colonic tissue from TLR4-deficient mice, or following knockdown of MyD88 or Bcl10 or exposure to an IRAK 1/4 inhibitor, DSS effects were not suppressed. Data demonstrated that DSS activates I?B?, NF?B, and IL-8 through an ROS-Hsp27-IKK?-mediated pathway, and not through an innate immune cascade. Conclusions These results suggest that DSS models of inflammation may not be optimal for evaluation of interventions that involve mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:19085995

Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

2009-01-01

272

Salicylate-induced depletion of endogenous inorganic sulfate. Potential role in the suppression of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in murine articular cartilage.  

PubMed

Sodium salicylate has been shown to suppress glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by articular hyaline cartilage in vitro. We investigated the in vivo effect of sodium salicylate on murine patellar cartilage, using incorporation of intraperitoneally administered 35S-sulfate as a measure of sulfated GAG synthesis. Our results indicated that a single dose of sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) inhibited in vivo sulfated GAG synthesis by 56%, compared with controls, and had no effect on sulfated GAG breakdown. A striking finding was that sodium sulfate treatment reduced the serum concentration of inorganic sulfate from 1.1 mM to approximately 0.3 mM, and that this serum reduction was associated with a twofold increase in urinary excretion of sulfate. Using anatomically intact patellar cartilage, in vitro studies clearly showed that, in concentrations reached in vivo (greater than or equal to 1 mM), salicylate suppressed murine chondrocyte GAG synthesis. However, in the presence of serum, the effects of 1 mM salicylate were abolished. We also found that sulfated GAG synthesis was clearly inhibited at low concentrations of sulfate (less than 0.5 mM). Our data indicate that sodium salicylate can suppress articular chondrocyte sulfated GAG synthesis in vivo, and that this effect may particularly be due to a drug-induced reduction of endogenous sulfate. PMID:4026888

de Vries, B J; van den Berg, W B; van de Putte, L B

1985-08-01

273

Compositions comprising fibrous polypeptides and polysaccharides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Isolated polypeptides are disclosed comprising an amino acid sequence encoding a monomer of a fibrous polypeptide attached to a heterologous polysaccharide binding domain. Composites comprising same, methods of generating same and uses thereof are all disclosed.

2013-04-30

274

Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB\\/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H\\/HeJ

Bao-Mei Shao; Hui Dai; Wen Xu; Zhi-Bin Lin; Xiao-Ming Gao

2004-01-01

275

An Inhibitor-Based Method To Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments  

PubMed Central

A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Field-sampled litter from the common reed (Phragmites australis), which contains cellulose and arabinoxylan as its main polysaccharides, was used as a model system. Toluene concentrations of between 1 and 10% resulted in the accumulation of similar amounts of monomeric carbohydrates, which was linear over time for most neutral sugars. Toluene (3%) did not have an effect on extracellular enzyme activities, and microbial sugar uptake was completely inhibited, as demonstrated with (sup14)C-labelled xylose and glucose. Experiments with enhancement cultures and fixed reed litter suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in reed litter was the main source of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose accumulation. In contrast, the accumulation of high amounts of the alditols mannitol and glucitol was probably caused by lysis of the microbial population in toluene-treated reed litter. Glucose accumulated at rates of 1.3 and 0.10 (mu)mol (middot) g of dry matter content(sup-1) (middot) h(sup-1) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, whereas xylose accumulation rates were only 10% of the glucose accumulation rates. PMID:16535044

Boschker, H.; Bertilsson, S. A.; Dekkers, E.; Cappenberg, T. E.

1995-01-01

276

SULFATE REQUIREMENT FOR IRON OXIDATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS.  

PubMed

Lazaroff, Norman (British Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, B.C., Canada). Sulfate requirement for iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 85:78-83. 1963.-The growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is initially inhibited in media containing ferrous chloride in place of ferrous sulfate. This inhibition of growth is due to the requirement of a high relative proportion of sulfate ions to chloride (or other anions) for iron oxidation. Adaptation takes place, producing strains which are able to oxidize iron in media containing an initially unfavorable anionic composition. Adaptation is possibly due to the selection of spontaneous mutants capable of oxidizing iron in high chloride, low sulfate media. Such cells are found at a frequency of 10(-5) of the population of unadapted cultures. PMID:16561990

Lazaroff, N

1963-01-01

277

SULFATE REQUIREMENT FOR IRON OXIDATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS  

PubMed Central

Lazaroff, Norman (British Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, B.C., Canada). Sulfate requirement for iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 85:78–83. 1963.—The growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is initially inhibited in media containing ferrous chloride in place of ferrous sulfate. This inhibition of growth is due to the requirement of a high relative proportion of sulfate ions to chloride (or other anions) for iron oxidation. Adaptation takes place, producing strains which are able to oxidize iron in media containing an initially unfavorable anionic composition. Adaptation is possibly due to the selection of spontaneous mutants capable of oxidizing iron in high chloride, low sulfate media. Such cells are found at a frequency of 10?5 of the population of unadapted cultures. PMID:16561990

Lazaroff, Norman

1963-01-01

278

Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.  

PubMed

Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is ?-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by ?-(1?3)-glycosidic bonds with attached ?-(1?6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. ?-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

2012-11-01

279

Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.  

PubMed

The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. PMID:25081076

Saravanan, Ramachandran

2014-01-01

280

Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 ?g/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

2014-09-01

281

Uncoupling of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis by brefeldin A  

PubMed Central

Brefeldin A has dramatic, well-documented, effects on the structural and functional organization of the Golgi complex. We have examined the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on the Golgi-localized synthesis and addition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate side chains. BFA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan elongation and sulfation onto the core proteins of the melanoma-associated proteoglycan and the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated invariant chain. In the presence of BFA, the melanoma proteoglycan core protein was retained in the ER but still acquired complex, sialylated, N-linked oligosaccharides, as measured by digestion with endoglycosidase H and neuraminidase. The initiation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis was not affected by BFA, as shown by the incorporation of [6-3H]galactose into a protein-carbohydrate linkage region that was sensitive to beta-elimination. The ability of cells to use an exogenous acceptor, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xyloside, to elongate and sulfate core protein-free glycosaminoglycans, was completely inhibited by BFA. The effects of BFA were completely reversible in the absence of new protein synthesis. These experiments indicate that BFA effectively uncouples chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis by segregating initiation reactions from elongation and sulfation events. Our findings support the proposal that glycosaminoglycan elongation and sulfation reactions are associated with the trans-Golgi network, a BFA-resistant, Golgi subcompartment. PMID:1955486

1991-01-01

282

Isolation and Culture of a Marine Bacterium Degrading the Sulfated Fucans from Marine Brown Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidans are matrix polysaccharides from marine brown algae, consisting of an ?-l-fucose backbone substituted by sulfate-ester groups and masked with ramifications containing other monosaccharide residues.\\u000a In spite of their interest as biologically active compounds in a number of homologous and heterologous systems, no convenient\\u000a sources with fucanase activity are available yet for the degradation of the fucalean algae. We here

Valérie Descamps; Sébastien Colin; Marc Lahaye; Murielle Jam; Christophe Richard; Philippe Potin; Tristan Barbeyron; Jean-Claude Yvin; Bernard Kloareg

2006-01-01

283

In vivo anti-radiation activities of the Ulva pertusa polysaccharides and polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides with different molecular weights were extracted from Ulva pertusa and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Iron(III) complex of the low molecular-weight U. pertusa polysaccharides were synthesized. Atomic absorption spectrum showed that the iron content of iron(III)-polysaccharide complex was 27.4%. The comparison between U. pertusa polysaccharides and their iron(III) complex showed that iron chelating altered the structural characteristics of the polysaccharides. The bioactivity analysis showed that polysaccharide with low molecular weight was more effective than polysaccharide with high molecular weight in protecting mice from radiation induced damages on bone marrow cells and immune system. Results also proved that the anti-radiation and anti-oxidative activity of iron(III) complex of low molecular-weight polysaccharides were not less than that of low molecular-weight polysaccharides. PMID:23751317

Shi, Jinming; Cheng, Cuilin; Zhao, Haitian; Jing, Jing; Gong, Ning; Lu, Weihong

2013-09-01

284

Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

2013-10-15

285

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.  

PubMed

The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

2014-10-01

286

Epitope Specificities of the Group Y and W-135 Polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have identified the length dependency of several polysaccharide (PS) protective epitopes. We have investigated whether meningococcal polysaccharides Y and W-135 possess such epitopes. Oligosaccharides (OSs) consisting of one or more disaccharide repeating units (RU) were derived from the capsular PSs of group Y and W-135 meningococci (GYMP and GWMP, respectively) by mild acid hydrolysis. The relative affinities of anticapsular antibodies binding to derivative OSs of different chain lengths were measured in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. As OS size increased from two to three RU, there was a notable increase in binding inhibition of rabbit anti-group Y antiserum. This pattern of antibody binding inhibition was also observed for rabbit antiserum to group W-135, though the inhibition increase was much more pronounced. In the cases of both OS species, the concentration of inhibiting antigen required to achieve 50% inhibition of rabbit immunoglobulin binding increased progressively as the inhibiting disaccharide chain length increased from 1 RU through greater than 50 RU. These data suggest that antibodies directed against both of these meningococcal PSs recognize conformational epitopes only fully expressed in higher-molecular-weight forms of these antigens. PMID:17804612

Moore, Samuel L.; Uitz, Catherine; Ling, Chang-Chun; Bundle, David R.; Fusco, Peter C.; Michon, Francis

2007-01-01

287

Effect of fatty acids on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum in shake flask cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids were added into the media to investigate their effects on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum. The experiments were carried out in freely suspended cultures or immobilized cultures using shake flasks. The results indicate that the extent of stimulation or inhibition were associated with the types and levels of fatty acids. Oleic acid at the

Fan-Chiang Yang; Yn-Fuu Ke; Shanq-Shin Kuo

2000-01-01

288

Removing organic matter from sulfate-rich wastewater via sulfidogenic and methanogenic pathways.  

PubMed

The simultaneous organic matter removal and sulfate reduction in synthetic sulfate-rich wastewater was evaluated for various chemical oxygen demand (COD)/sulfate ratios applied in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor. At higher COD/sulfate ratios (12.5 and 7.5), the removal of organic matter was stable, likely due to methanogenesis. A combination of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis was clearly established at COD/sulfate ratios of 3.0 and 1.9. At a COD/sulfate ratio of 1.0, the organic matter removal was likely influenced by methanogenesis inhibition. The quantity of sulfate removed at a COD/sulfate ratio of 1.0 was identical to that obtained at a ratio of 1.9, indicating a lack of available electron donors for sulfidogenesis. The sulfate reduction and organic matter removal were not maximized at the same COD/sulfate ratio; therefore, competitive inhibition must be the predominant mechanism in establishing an electron flow. PMID:24759527

Vilela, Rogerio Silveira; Damianovic, Márcia Helena Rissato Zamariolli; Foresti, Eugenio

2014-01-01

289

Bacteroides fragilis strains express multiple capsular polysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that the capsule of Bacteroides fragilis type strain NCTC 9343 consists of two chemically distinct polysaccharides, designated PS A and PS B. These polysaccharides can be isolated as an aggregate from the surface of the organism and give a complex multiprecipitin profile when they are reacted with homologous antiserum in an immunoelectrophoresis assay. Following structural analysis of PS A and PS B, we have determined that the complex precipitin profile is formed as a result of the differing electrophoretic and antigenic properties associated with each of these polymers. Presently, we have examined the capsular polysaccharides of 13 other strains of B. fragilis according to methods used for the prototype strain. The capsules of these strains were extracted, partially purified, and analyzed by immunoelectrophoresis at pH 7.3. Following reaction with homologous polyclonal antisera, each of the capsular preparations tested yielded a complex precipitin profile similar to that of the prototype strain. When reacted by immunoelectrophoresis with polyclonal antiserum to 9343 or with monoclonal antibodies to PS A and PS B, these capsular preparations appeared to be antigenically diverse; some preparations (50%) showed complete or partial cross-reaction. These results suggest that the dual polysaccharide motif seen with the prototype strain is a common feature of B. fragilis strains. In addition, the antigenic heterogeneity of B. fragilis capsular polysaccharides could be used for the development of a serological typing scheme. Images PMID:8349763

Pantosti, A; Tzianabos, A O; Reinap, B G; Onderdonk, A B; Kasper, D L

1993-01-01

290

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

291

PIMLUCK KIJJANAPANICH SULFATE REDUCTION  

E-print Network

Metals from Acid Mine Drainage 37 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Material and Methods 39 3.2.1 Acid mine drainage (AMD) 39 3.2.2 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculums 40 3.2.3 Organic substrates 40 3 Reduction in Gypsiferous Mine Soils from Nakhon Si Tham

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita  

PubMed Central

The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor ?, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

2008-01-01

293

Fractionation and characterization of biologically-active polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita.  

PubMed

The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I-A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II-A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A; Siemsen, Daniel W; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Wiley, James A; Quinn, Mark T

2008-04-01

294

Mutually reinforced multicomponent polysaccharide networks.  

PubMed

Networks made from chitosan and alginate have been utilized as prospective tissue engineering scaffolds due to material biocompatibility and degradability. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) is often added to these networks as a modifier for mechanical strength enhancement. In this work, we examined changes in the bulk material properties of different concentrations of chitosan/alginate mixtures (2, 3, or 5% w/w) upon adding another modifier, chondroitin. We further examined how material properties depend on the order the modifiers, Ca(2+) and chondroitin, were added. It was found that the addition of chondroitin significantly increased the mechanical strength of chitosan/alginate networks. Highest elastic moduli were obtained from samples made with mass fractions of 5% chitosan and alginate, modified by chondroitin first and then Ca(2+) . The elastic moduli in dry and hydrated states were (4.41 ± 0.52) MPa and (0.11 ± 0.01) MPa, respectively. Network porosity and density were slightly dependent on total polysaccharide concentration. Average pore size was slightly larger in samples modified by Ca(2+) first and then chondroitin and in samples made with 3% starting mass fractions. Here, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was utilized to examine mesh size of the fibrous networks, mass-fractal parameters and average dimensions of the fiber cross-sections prior to freeze-drying. These studies revealed that addition of Ca(2+) and chondroitin modifiers increased fiber compactness and thickness, respectively. Together these findings are consistent with improved network mechanical properties of the freeze-dried materials. PMID:21698596

Hyland, Laura L; Taraban, Marc B; Hammouda, Boualem; Bruce Yu, Y

2011-12-01

295

Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions  

DOEpatents

Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

Stephens, David S. (Stone Mountain, GA); Gudlavalleti, Seshu K. (Kensington, MD); Tzeng, Yih-Ling (Atlanta, GA); Datta, Anup K. (San Diego, CA); Carlson, Russell W. (Athens, GA)

2011-02-08

296

Rhizobium leguminosarum mutants incapable of normal extracellular polysaccharide production.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum which are deficient in normal polysaccharide production have been isolated and characterized. A correlation between diminished production of extracellular polysaccharide and reduced infection and nodulation efficiency has been observed. PMID:7364730

Napoli, C; Albersheim, P

1980-01-01

297

Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein-Polysaccharide Interactions  

PubMed Central

Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions. PMID:24595239

Nagae, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

2014-01-01

298

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Dallam, R.D.

1987-03-23

299

Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through

Igor A. Schepetkin; Gang Xie; Liliya N. Kirpotina; Robyn A. Klein; Mark A. Jutila; Mark T. Quinn

2008-01-01

300

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

1987-01-01

301

Reduction of Selenate to Selenide by Sulfate-Respiring Bacteria: Experiments with Cell Suspensions and Estuarine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Washed cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ?0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace quantities of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed. PMID:16347366

Zehr, Jonathan P.; Oremland, Ronald S.

1987-01-01

302

Antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide purified from Pteridium aquilinum.  

PubMed

A water-soluble crude polysaccharide, obtained from fern Pteridium aquilinum, was fractionated by DEAE-Sepharose Fast-Flow column chromatography, and purified by Sephacryl S-400 HR column chromatography. The average molecular weight (M(w)) of the purified polysaccharide (PLP) is 458,000 Da. The monosaccharide components of PLP were characterized by gas chromatography (GC), and the majority of the monosaccharide components was glucose (relative mass 58.1%) with low levels of galactose, mannose, rhamnose, and arabinose (relative mass 18.7%, 6.8%, 10.2%, and 6.1%, respectively). The Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of PLP revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. On the basis of the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), DPPH radical-scavenging, the superoxide radical assay, and self-oxidation of 1,2,3-phentriol assay, the antioxidant activities of PLP were investigated. The purified polysaccharide was demonstrated to have strong reductive power (FRAP value: 827.6 micromol/L), moderate scavenging activities against DPPH radicals (83.1%) and superoxide radicals (60.5%), and moderate inhibiting power for self-oxidation of 1,2,3-phentriol (52.4%). PMID:19036355

Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Fangfang; Luo, Yunbo; Ma, Liyan; Kou, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun

2009-01-26

303

Chemical and physical stability of citral and limonene in sodium dodecyl sulfate-chitosan and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

Citral and limonene are the major flavor components of citrus oils. Both of these compounds can undergo chemical degradation leading to loss of flavor and the formation of undesirable off-flavors. Engineering the interface of emulsion droplets with emulsifiers that inhibit chemical reactions could provide a novel technique to stabilize citral and limonene. At present, emulsified flavor oils are usually stabilized by gum arabic (GA), which is a naturally occurring polysaccharide-protein complex. The objective of this study was to examine if citral and limonene were more stable in emulsions stabilized with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-chitosan complex than GA. Citral degraded less in GA-stabilized than in SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. However, SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions were more effective at retarding the formation of the citral oxidation product, p-cymene, than GA-stabilized emulsions. Limonene degradation and the formation of limonene oxidation products, limonene oxide and carvone, were lower in the SDS-chitosan- than GA-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. The ability of an SDS-chitosan multilayer emulsifier system to inhibit the oxidative deterioration of citral and limonene could be due to the formation of a cationic and thick emulsion droplet interface that could repel prooxidative metals, thus decreasing prooxidant-lipid interactions. PMID:17419641

Djordjevic, Darinka; Cercaci, Luisito; Alamed, Jean; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

2007-05-01

304

Borate-Rhamnogalacturonan II Bonding Reinforced by Ca2+ Retains Pectic Polysaccharides in Higher-Plant Cell Walls1  

PubMed Central

The extent of in vitro formation of the borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) complex was stimulated by Ca2+. The complex formed in the presence of Ca2+ was more stable than that without Ca2+. A naturally occurring boron (B)-RG-II complex isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv Aokubi-daikon) root contained equimolar amounts of Ca2+ and B. Removal of the Ca2+ by trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid induced cleavage of the complex into monomeric RG-II. These data suggest that Ca2+ is a normal component of the B-RG-II complex. Washing the crude cell walls of radish roots with a 1.5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, pH 6.5, released 98% of the tissue Ca2+ but only 13% of the B and 22% of the pectic polysaccharides. The remaining Ca2+ was associated with RG-II. Extraction of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-washed cell walls with 50 mm trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid, pH 6.5, removed the remaining Ca2+, 78% of B, and 49% of pectic polysaccharides. These results suggest that not only Ca2+ but also borate and Ca2+ cross-linking in the RG-II region retain so-called chelator-soluble pectic polysaccharides in cell walls. PMID:9880361

Kobayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hironobu; Asaka, Tomoyuki; Matoh, Toru

1999-01-01

305

In vitro synthesis of artificial polysaccharides by glycosidases and glycosynthases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial polysaccharides produced by in vitro enzymatic synthesis are new biomaterials with defined structures that either mimic natural polysaccharides or have unnatural structures and functionalities. This review summarizes recent developments in the in vitro polysaccharide synthesis by endo-glycosidases, grouped in two major strategies: (a) native retaining endo-glycosidases under kinetically controlled conditions (transglycosylation with activated glycosyl donors), and (b) glycosynthases, engineered

Magda Faijes; Antoni Planas

2007-01-01

306

Structure\\/function studies of anticoagulant sulphated polysaccharides using NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphated polysaccharides have many biological functions, which depend on binding of highly specific carbohydrate structures to proteins. NMR spectroscopy is a technique capable of detailed structural elucidation of these polysaccharides, and can be used in applications ranging from routine analysis to research into covalent and conformational aspects of polysaccharide structure. This technique can be used to characterise sequence variations in

B. Mulloy; P. A. S. Mourao; E. Gray

2000-01-01

307

Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans. PMID:23707734

Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

2013-09-01

308

Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

2013-11-01

309

Sulfated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Suppress LPS-Induced NO Production via JNK and NF-?B Inactivation.  

PubMed

Various biological effects have been reported for sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides, but the molecular mechanisms of action of their anti-inflammatory effects are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides and to elucidate the possible mechanisms of action. The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-? in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. The sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides also suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phosphorylation of JNK and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-?B, into the nucleus by inhibiting degradation of I?B-?. Our investigation suggests sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibit IL-6/TNF-? in LPS-induced macrophages, regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways dependent on NF-?B activation. PMID:25387351

Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Ki; Lee, Jung-Suck; Kim, Se-Kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Bahk, Young Yil; Park, Pyo-Jam

2014-01-01

310

Two new arsenate\\/sulfate-reducing bacteria: mechanisms of arsenate reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sulfate-reducing bacteria, which also reduce arsenate, were isolated; both organisms oxidized lactate incompletely to\\u000a acetate. When using lactate as the electron donor, one of these organisms, Desulfomicrobium strain Ben-RB, rapidly reduced (doubling time = 8 h) 5.1 mM arsenate at the same time it reduced sulfate (9.6 mM). Sulfate\\u000a reduction was not inhibited by the presence of arsenate. Arsenate

J. M. Macy; J. M. Santini; B. V. Pauling; A. H. O’Neill; L. I. Sly

2000-01-01

311

Abdominal aortic aneurysms targeted by functionalized polysaccharide microparticles: a new tool for SPECT imaging.  

PubMed

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

312

Preliminary investigation of a highly sulfated galactofucan fraction isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum.  

PubMed

A fucoidan preparation was isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum (Fucales, Sargassaceae). The preparation was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and two highly sulfated fractions F3 and F4 were obtained. The fractions were quite similar in composition, but different in chemical structure. F4 was analyzed by chemical methods, including desulfation, methylation, Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis with mass-spectrometric monitoring, as well as by NMR spectroscopy. Several 2D NMR procedures, including HMQC-TOCSY and HMQC-NOESY, were used to obtain reliable structural information from the complex spectra. Molecules of F4 were shown to contain a backbone built up mainly of 3-linked ?-L-fucopyranose 4-sulfate residues, as in many other fucoidans, but rather short sequences of these residues are interspersed by single 2-linked ?-D-galactopyranose residues also sulfated at position 4. This rather unusual structural feature should have a great influence on the conformation of the polymeric molecule and may be important for biological activity of the polysaccharide. Hence, F4 is an example of a new sulfated galactofucan isolated from the brown alga. According to the data obtained, the distribution of galactose residues along the polysaccharide backbone seems to be not strictly regular, but the definitive sequence of monomers in the polymeric molecules awaits additional investigation. PMID:23810980

Bilan, Maria I; Grachev, Alexey A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Thuy, Thanh Thi Thu; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Ly, Bui Minh; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

2013-08-01

313

Heparin/Heparan Sulfate N-Sulfamidase from Flavobacterium heparinum  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) are chemically and structurally heterogeneous biopolymers that that function as key regulators of numerous biological functions. The elucidation of HSGAG fine structure is fundamental to understanding their functional diversity, and this is facilitated by the use of select degrading enzymes of defined substrate specificity. Our previous studies have reported the cloning, characterization, recombinant expression, and structure-function analysis in Escherichia coli of the Flavobacterium heparinum 2-O-sulfatase and 6-O-sulfatase enzymes that cleave O-sulfate groups from specific locations of the HSGAG polymer. Building on these preceding studies, we report here the molecular cloning and recombinant expression in Escherichia coli of an N-sulfamidase, specific for HSGAGs. In addition, we examine the basic enzymology of this enzyme through molecular modeling studies and structure-function analysis of substrate specificity and basic biochemistry. We use the results from these studies to propose a novel mechanism for nitrogen-sulfur bond cleavage by the N-sulfamidase. Taken together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate that N-sulfamidase is a predominantly exolytic enzyme that specifically acts on N-sulfated and 6-O-desulfated glucosamines present as monosaccharides or at the nonreducing end of odd-numbered oligosaccharide substrates. In conjunction with the previously reported specificities for the F. heparinum 2-O-sulfatase, 6-O-sulfatase, and unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, we are able to now reconstruct in vitro the defined exolytic sequence for the heparin and heparan sulfate degradation pathway of F. heparinum and apply these enzymes in tandem toward the exo-sequencing of heparin-derived oligosaccharides. PMID:19726673

Myette, James R.; Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Behr, Jonathan; Shriver, Zachary; Raman, Rahul; Sasisekharan, Ram

2009-01-01

314

Sulfated carbohydrate compounds prevent microbial adherence by sexually transmitted disease pathogens.  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) serves as a receptor for adherence of herpes simplex viruses, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and, indirectly, human immunodeficiency virus. Using primary human culture systems, we identified sulfated carbohydrate compounds that resemble HS and competitively inhibit infection by these pathogens. These compounds are candidates for intravaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:9420059

Herold, B C; Siston, A; Bremer, J; Kirkpatrick, R; Wilbanks, G; Fugedi, P; Peto, C; Cooper, M

1997-01-01

315

The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushroom polysaccharides such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) have been commonly hypothesized to suppress tumor cells proliferation through immune effects. To verify this hypothesis through investigating comprehensive miRNA expression in polysaccharide treated cancer cells, an anticancer mycelia GLP was employed to disclose miRNA differential expression of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), by using a miRNA microarray assay based on Sanger miR-Base Release 16. The experiment and the analysis result indicates that among the 61 differential expressed miRNAs (p ? 0.01), 17 of them were regulated significantly. GLP can inhibit HepG2 cells directly through regulation of hepatocarcinoma genes. A newly found miR-3131 exhibited the strongest upregulation (92-folds, Log2 = 6.53, p = 0.000016). The miRNAs responded synergistically in both hepatocarcinoma and immune-related aspects. PMID:24528735

Shen, Jie; Park, Hyeon-soo; Xia, Yong-mei; Kim, Gon-sup; Cui, Steve W

2014-03-15

316

Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

Beauregard, Pascale B.; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2013-01-01

317

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides  

E-print Network

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from

318

Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

1977-01-01

319

Daptomycin Eluted From Calcium Sulfate Appears Effective Against Staphylococcus  

PubMed Central

The emergence of resistant strains of Gram-positive organisms in osteomyelitis creates treatment challenges. Daptomycin is an antibiotic that shows promise for treating some resistant strains of Gram-positive infections; however, it has not been widely used clinically for the treatment of osteomyelitis. We determined whether daptomycin eluted from calcium sulfate—a local delivery vehicle used for the treatment of osteomyelitis—retained activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Daptomycin was mixed with calcium sulfate hemihydrate, with both laboratory powder and a commercial kit, to form a hardened pellet. Daptomycin was eluted from calcium sulfate and retained its ability to inhibit bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis for eluates gathered up to 28 days. Our preliminary data demonstrates sterilized pellets with daptomycin retained their ability to inhibit bacterial growth of certain strains of Gram-positive organisms. PMID:18431614

McCanless, Jonathan D.; Courtney, Harry S.; Bumgardner, Joel D.; Haggard, Warren O.

2008-01-01

320

Daptomycin eluted from calcium sulfate appears effective against Staphylococcus.  

PubMed

The emergence of resistant strains of Gram-positive organisms in osteomyelitis creates treatment challenges. Daptomycin is an antibiotic that shows promise for treating some resistant strains of Gram-positive infections; however, it has not been widely used clinically for the treatment of osteomyelitis. We determined whether daptomycin eluted from calcium sulfate-a local delivery vehicle used for the treatment of osteomyelitis-retained activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Daptomycin was mixed with calcium sulfate hemihydrate, with both laboratory powder and a commercial kit, to form a hardened pellet. Daptomycin was eluted from calcium sulfate and retained its ability to inhibit bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis for eluates gathered up to 28 days. Our preliminary data demonstrates sterilized pellets with daptomycin retained their ability to inhibit bacterial growth of certain strains of Gram-positive organisms. PMID:18431614

Webb, Nathan D; McCanless, Jonathan D; Courtney, Harry S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O

2008-06-01

321

Glycerolphosphate-Containing Cell Wall Polysaccharides from Streptococcus sanguis  

PubMed Central

Six glycerolphosphate-containing tetraheteroglycans, a, b-1, b-2, b-3, b-4, and b-5, have been purified from the formamide extracts of Streptococcus sanguis by alcohol and acetone precipitations, Sephadex G-75, and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. The polysaccharides were judged as at least 95% pure by analytical disc gel electrophoresis and immune double diffusion against rabbit antiserum. They were shown to be cell wall polysaccharides, since they formed a single band of identity in immune double diffusion with partially purified polysaccharide extracted from a purified cell wall preparation of S. sanguis. The polysaccharides were composed of l-rhamnose, d-glucose, and N-acetyl d-glucosamine in a similar molar ratio, but varied in their glycerol and phosphate contents. They exhibited four different mobilities in polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9. When they were treated with formamide at 170 C for 20 min, the faster moving polysaccharide(s) yielded polysaccharides with mobilities corresponding to the other slower moving polysaccharides. These results indicate that the polysaccharides originated from the same cell wall polysaccharide and were produced as a result of breakage in the phosphodiester bonds during the formamide extraction procedure. A preliminary structural study shows that the terminal reducing sugar is l-rhamnose and that the glycerol moiety is probably linked to the polysaccharide through a phosphodiester bond. Images PMID:4218231

Emdur, L. I.; Saralkar, C.; McHugh, J. G.; Chiu, T. H.

1974-01-01

322

Structural determinants of the capacity of heparin to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. II. Evidence for a pentasaccharide sequence that contains a 3-O-sulfate group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work from our laboratory demon- strated that heparin inhibited the proliferation of vas- cular smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. Both anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant heparin species were equally effective as antiproliferative agents. Pre- vious structure-function studies indicated that hexa- saccharide and larger fragments retained antiprolifera- tive activity, whereas tetra- and disaccharides were in- active. These experiments also

John J. Castellot; Jean Choay; Jean-Claude Lormeau; Maurice Petitou; Edgar Sache; Morris J. Karnovsky

1986-01-01

323

Experimental study of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt and implications for sulfate deposits on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-sulfate alteration of basalt by SO2-bearing volcanic vapors has been proposed as one possible origin for sulfate-rich deposits on Mars. To better define mineralogical signatures of acid-sulfate alteration, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate alteration pathways and geochemical processes during reaction of basalt with sulfuric acid. Pyroclastic cinders composed of phenocrysts including plagioclase, olivine, and augite embedded in glass were reacted with sulfuric acid at 145 °C for up to 137 days at a range of fluid : rock ratios. During the experiments, the phenocrysts reacted rapidly to form secondary products, while the glass was unreactive. Major products included amorphous silica, anhydrite, and Fe-rich natroalunite, along with minor iron oxides/oxyhydroxides (probably hematite) and trace levels of other sulfates. At the lowest fluid : rock ratio, hexahydrite and an unidentified Fe-silicate phase also occurred as major products. Reaction-path models indicated that formation of the products required both slow dissolution of glass and kinetic inhibitions to precipitation of a number of minerals including phyllosilicates and other aluminosilicates as well as Al- and Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides. Similar models performed for Martian basalt compositions predict that the initial stages of acid-sulfate alteration of pyroclastic deposits on Mars should result in formation of amorphous silica, anhydrite, Fe-bearing natroalunite, and kieserite, along with relict basaltic glass. In addition, analysis of the experimental products indicates that Fe-bearing natroalunite produces a Mössbauer spectrum closely resembling that of jarosite, suggesting that it should be considered an alternative to the component in sulfate-rich bedrocks at Meridiani Planum that has previously been identified as jarosite.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Robbins, Mark; Moskowitz, Bruce; Berquó, Thelma S.; Jöns, Niels; Hynek, Brian M.

2013-04-01

324

Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

2013-01-01

325

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides eradicates the blocking effect of fibrinogen on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma cells  

PubMed Central

Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity is an effective defense against metastatic tumor cells or viruses in the blood. However, NK cytotoxicity against tumor cells may be inhibited by a fibrinogen coat adhered to the surface of tumor cells. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides have been reported for their inhibitory ability on the adhesion of type I collagen, hyaluronan, fibronectin and laminin to integrins that were highly expressed on melanoma cells, and were therefore capable of enhancing NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides on fibrinogen's adhesion to melanoma cells and NK cytotoxicity to tumor cells. Melanoma cells B16 and A375 were cultured and analyzed using flow cytometry. Human NK cells were isolated and analyzed using an NK cytotoxic assay. The results showed that polysaccharides extracted from G. lucidum inhibit the adhesion of fibrinogen to melanoma cells, and reverse the blocking effect of the fibrin coat on NK cytotoxicity against melanoma cells. PMID:22740961

ZHENG, SHENG; JIA, YANPING; ZHAO, JUN; WEI, QUN; LIU, YUEHUA

2011-01-01

326

Isolation and identification of anti-tumor polysaccharide LSP21 from Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze.  

PubMed

Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze is a traditional Chinese folk medicine used for the treatment of fever, hemorrhage, hepatitis and other disorders. Recently, it was found that the crude polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSP) has significant anti-tumor activity. However, research on the isolation and identification of anti-tumor polysaccharide fractions from LSP has not yet been reported. In this study, three polysaccharides LSP11, LSP21, LSP31 were isolated and purified from LSP by using DEAE-52 cellulose column and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. It was found that LSP21 exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro. Further research showed that LSP21 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and could induce cell body shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and reduction in the number of tumor cells with normal morphology which suggested that its cytotoxicity on tumor cell might be related to both inhibition on cell proliferation and inducement of cell death. Finally, the structural characteristics of LSP21 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that LSP21 is a heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 1.31×10(6) Da and consists of glucose, galactose and mannose in the ratio of 1.77:1:2.38. PMID:24991730

Tang, Xin-Hui; Yu, Fan; Liu, Jia; Gao, Jing; Yan, Li-Fang; Dong, Meng-Meng

2014-09-01

327

Identification of Structural Features of Heparin Required for Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binding of HSV-1 to cells is mediated by interactions of virion glycoproteins gC and\\/or gB with heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans on cell surface proteoglycans. HS and the related glycosaminoglycan, heparin, comprise a family of heterogeneous carbohydrates composed of long, unbranched polysaccharides modified, for example, by sulfations and acetylations. To define the specific features of HS important for viral binding, we

Betsy C. Herold; Susan Ilene Gerber; Tamar Polonsky; Brian J. Belval; Patrick N. Shaklee; Kevin Holme

1995-01-01

328

Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Lilii Bulbus in mice.  

PubMed

Lilii Bulbus is a popular folk medicine in the worldwide and has attracted great attention due to its bioactivity against respiratory system diseases (include lung cancers). This study was the first report providing in vivo evidences of antitumor potential of the bioactive polysaccharide from Lilii Bulbus. One major fraction (LBP-1) was obtained by purifying the crude polysaccharides extracted from Lilii Bulbus. Chemical characterization analysis indicated that LBP-1 was only a glucan, whose average molecular weight was 30.5 kDa. Intraperitoneal administration of LBP-1 at the doses of 50-200mg/kg significantly inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma. Moreover, it could also obviously increase macrophage phagocytosis, splenocytes proliferation and cytokine (TNF-?, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-12) production to participate in the antitumor effects. LBP-1 could act as antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:24507317

Sun, Xin; Gao, Rui-Lan; Xiong, Yao-Kang; Huang, Qing-Cheng; Xu, Min

2014-02-15

329

Characterizations and anti-tumor activities of three acidic polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.  

PubMed

In this study, three acidic polysaccharides (APS-3a, APS-3b and APS-3c) were obtained from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. They displayed different structural features and anti-tumor activities. APS-3b and APS-3c significantly inhibited the growth of S180 tumors and increased the life spans of S180 tumor-bearing mice, whereas APS-3a had no significant effect. Further experiments showed that APS-3b and APS-3c could cause a concentration-dependent proliferation of the splenocytes, up-regulate IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-6 mRNA expressions in splenocytes and stimulate the productions of NO and TNF-alpha in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, the three acidic polysaccharides displayed different anti-tumor activities which were associated with their different structural characteristics. PMID:19941888

Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Xiang; Li, Tao; Chen, Xi; Liu, Shui-Bing; Mei, Qi-Bing

2010-01-01

330

Effects of polysaccharide on chicks co-infected with Bordetella avium and Avian leukosis virus.  

PubMed

Chicks' co-infection with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria seriously threaten the development of the poultry industry. In this study, a model was established in which chicks were injected with either subgroup B ALV (ALV-B)+Bordetella avium (B. avium), or ALV-B+B. avium+Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), or B. avium only, or B. avium+TPPPS. The data showed that the group injected with ALV-B and B. avium exhibited significant inhibition of the immune function and therefore increased pathogenicity compared with the group injected with B. avium-only. Application of TPPPS effectively alleviated immunosuppression, and body weights increased sharply in the TPPPS groups compared with non-TPPPS groups. To some extent, TPPPS may reduce the proliferation of ALV-B. These results suggest that Pinus pollen polysaccharides are beneficial treating co-infections with immunosuppressive virus and bacteria and therefore have potential for development into safe and effective immunoregulator. PMID:24815403

Guo, Fanxia; Xue, Cong; Wu, Cun; Zhao, Xue; Qu, Tinghe; He, Xiaohua; Guo, Zhongkun; Zhu, Ruiliang

2014-08-30

331

Sulfate scale dissolution  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

1992-01-28

332

Heparin/heparan sulfate controls fibrillin-1, -2 and -3 self-interactions in microfibril assembly.  

PubMed

Fibrillins form multifunctional microfibrils in most connective tissues. Deficiencies in fibrillin assembly can result in fibrillinopathies, such as Marfan syndrome. We demonstrate the presence of heparin/heparan sulfate binding sites in fibrillin-2 and -3. Multimerization of all three fibrillins drastically increased the apparent affinity of their interaction with heparin/heparan sulfate. Surprisingly, contrary to other reports heparin/heparan sulfate strongly inhibited homo- and heterotypic N-to-C-terminal fibrillin interactions. These data suggest that heparin/heparan sulfate controls the formation of microfibrils at the bead interaction stage. PMID:25034023

Sabatier, Laetitia; Djokic, Jelena; Hubmacher, Dirk; Dzafik, Dzaner; Nelea, Valentin; Reinhardt, Dieter P

2014-08-25

333

Unusual cytotoxic sulfated cadinene-type sesquiterpene glycosides from cottonseed ( Gossypium hirsutum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new sulfated cadinene-type sesquiterpene glycosides, 13-hydroxy-7-O-(6?-O-sulfate-?-d-glucopyranosyl)-desoxyhemigossypol (1) and 13,15-dihydroxy-7-O-(6?-O-sulfate-?-d-glucopyranosyl)-desoxyhemigossypol (2), have been isolated from whole cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum). Their structures, which possess an unusual 6-O-sulfate-glucopyranosyl moiety, were determined through the interpretation of 2D NMR spectral data and H\\/D exchange ESI-MS experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 were screened for their toxicity on Jurkat cells. Both compounds inhibited cellular proliferation with

Anna Lisa Piccinelli; Cinzia Lotti; Lorella Severino; Diomira Luongo; Luca Rastrelli

2008-01-01

334

Effects of polysaccharides from Morchella conica on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages.  

PubMed

Morchella conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. However, reports barely mention the mechanisms of these functions. In this study, the effects of two polysaccharides from M. conica (PMCs) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that 50-200 ?g/ml of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPMC) and 25-200 ?g/ml of the intracellular polysaccharide (IPMC) significantly inhibited NO production. Accordingly, the signal mechanisms were also explored. It was found that 100 ?g/ml of EPMC and 25 ?g/ml of IPMC could efficiently down-regulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA-binding activity and up-regulate heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, by using a HO-1 inhibitor NaPP to treat the cells, the PMC-inhibited NO production and iNOS expression, rather than NF-?B activation, were released partially, indicating that HO-1 probably medicates the inhibition of PMCs on iNOS and NO. Besides, EPMC also significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-jun N-terminal kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, and expression of NF-?B inducing kinase, while IPMC seemed to show no regular effect on p38. In conclusion, PMCs inhibited NO production in LPS-induced macrophages through regulating a series of signal pathways, suggesting that PMCs play a potential role on immunomodulation and treating related diseases. PMID:22159604

Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Minglong; Ou, Shangkang; Pan, Zhifu

2012-05-01

335

Arylsulfatase B modulates neurite outgrowth via astrocyte chondroitin-4-sulfate: dysregulation by ethanol.  

PubMed

In utero ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, associated with reduced brain plasticity; the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood, particularly with respect to glial involvement. Astrocytes release factors that modulate neurite outgrowth. We explored the hypothesis that ethanol inhibits neurite outgrowth by increasing the levels of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in astrocytes. Astrocyte treatment with ethanol inhibited the activity of arylsulfatase B (ARSB), the enzyme that removes sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and triggers the degradation of C4S, increased total sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), C4S, and neurocan core-protein content and inhibited neurite outgrowth in neurons cocultured with ethanol-treated astrocytes in vitro, effects reversed by treatment with recombinant ARSB. Ethanol also inhibited ARSB activity and increased sulfate GAG and neurocan levels in the developing hippocampus after in vivo ethanol exposure. ARSB silencing increased the levels of sulfated GAGs, C4S, and neurocan in astrocytes and inhibited neurite outgrowth in cocultured neurons, indicating that ARSB activity directly regulates C4S and affects neurocan expression. In summary, this study reports two major findings: ARSB modulates sulfated GAG and neurocan levels in astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth in cocultured neurons; and ethanol inhibits the activity of ARSB, increases sulfated GAG, C4S, and neurocan levels, and thereby inhibits astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth. An unscheduled increase in CSPGs in the developing brain may lead to altered brain connectivity and to premature decrease in neuronal plasticity and therefore represents a novel mechanism by which ethanol can exert its neurodevelopmental effects. PMID:24311516

Zhang, Xiaolu; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Kusumo, Handojo; Goodlett, Charles R; Tobacman, Joanne K; Guizzetti, Marina

2014-02-01

336

POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

KELLY, ROBERT M.

2008-12-22

337

[Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris].  

PubMed

Callus and suspension cultures of campion (Silene vulgaris) produced pectin polysaccharides, similar in structure to the polysaccharides of intact plants. The major components of the pectins were D-galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose residues. The maximum content of pectins was found in callus. The monosaccharide composition of arabinogalactans isolated from cells and a culture medium of callus cultures were similar, with the ratio between arabinose and galactose of 1: (2.3-6.5) being retained. The arabinogalactans from the cells and culture medium of the suspension cultures also had a similar structure, and the arabinose to galactose ratio was 1: (1.5-1.8). In contrast to the callus cultures, the suspension cultures produced arabinogalactans with an increased content of arabinose residues and a decreased content of galactose residues. The greatest content of arabinogalactan was detected in the culture medium of the suspension cultures. PMID:17345866

Giunter, E A; Ovodov, Iu S

2007-01-01

338

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs ...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of the...

2011-04-01

339

Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi- cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar- ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrils, whicharemadeattheplasmamembraneanddirectlydepositedintothecellwall.InvolvementofGolgiglucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has

Ajay Pal; S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

340

[Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides from Tansy].  

PubMed

Using extraction with 0.75% aqueous ammonium oxalate, the following polysaccharide fractions were isolated: tanacetans TVF, TVS, and TVR from floscules, sprouts, and roots, respectively, of Tanacetum vulgare L., spread throughout the European North of Russia. The sugar chain of tanacetan TVF consists of D-galacturonic acid (61.4%), arabinose (14.7%), galactose (10.2%), and rhamnose (3.7%) as the main constituents as well as xylose, glucose, mannose, apiose, and 2-O-methylxylose in trace amounts. Tanacetans TVS and TVR were shown to differ in the sugar quantitative composition. They contain 67 and 28% galacturonic acid, respectively. A partial acid hydrolysis of the tanacetan TVF gave a polysaccharide fragment TVF1, alpha-1,4-D-galacturonan (GalA 98.2%). Digestion with pectinase (alpha-1,4-D-polygalacturonase) resulted in fragment TVF3, containing residues of arabinose (27.1%) and galactose (17.3%). NMR spectroscopy allowed detection of the terminal residues of alpha-Araf and beta-Galp as well as of the residues of alpha-Araf substituted in 3,5- and 5-positions. Thus, tanacetan TVF was proved to be a pectic polysaccharide. PMID:11255643

Polle, A Ia; Ovodova, R G; Shashkov, A S; Ovodov, Iu S

2001-01-01

341

[Polysaccharides of the fungus Cunninghamella japonica mycelium].  

PubMed

Preliminary data on the polysaccharide composition of mycelium of the submerged grown fungus Cunninghamella japonica (synonymous with C. echinulata) were obtained. Mild acid hydrolysis of the mycelium led to formation of glucose, mannose and galactose, whereas acid treatment under drastic conditions afforded glucosamine as the hydrolysis product of chitin and chitosan, the summary content of both glucosaminoglycans being estimated as about 35%. Sequential treatment of the mycelium with hot water, 2% aqueous NaOH and 10% AcOH gave rise to several polysaccharide fractions, which were characterized by their monosaccharide composition. The yield ofchitosan extracted by AcOH was negligible. Additional purification of the fraction obtained by the action of alkali afforded a polysaccharide preparation, which was shown to be a linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucopyranan according to the data of chemical methods of structural analysis and NMR spectroscopy. It was concluded that Cunninghamella japonica differs from several other known representatives of Mucorales by the presence of this alpha-D-glucan, as well as by low content of chitosan and polyuronides. PMID:22792730

Andriianova, D A; Smirnova, G P; Galanina, L A; Feofilova, E P; Usov, A I

2012-01-01

342

Rheological studies of polysaccharides for skin scaffolds.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide hydrogels are good candidates for skin scaffolds because of their inherent biocompatibility and water transport properties. In the current study, hydrogels were made from a mixture of four polysaccharides: xanthan gum, konjac gum, iota-carrageenan, and kappa-carrageenan. Gel formation, strength, and structure of these polysaccharides were studied using rheological and thermal techniques. All gel samples studied were strong gels at all times because of the gradual water loss. However, after 12 h of storage, elastic (G') and loss (G'') moduli of hydrogel mixture containing all the ingredients is of one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of mixtures not containing either xanthan gum or iota-carrageenan, which confirmed the varied levels of gel strength. This is mainly due to the rate of water loss in each of these mixtures, resulting in gels of varying structures and dynamic moduli over a period of time. Iota-carrageenan and xanthan gum differ in their effect on gel strength and stability in combination with konjac gum and kappa-carrageenan. PMID:23703897

Almeida, Nalinda; Mueller, Anja; Hirschi, Stanley; Rakesh, Leela

2014-05-01

343

Elucidation of polysaccharide origin in Ramalina peruviana symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural elucidation of polysaccharides extracted from the aposymbiotically cultured mycobiont of the lichen Ramalina peruviana was carried out in order to determine whether the polysaccharides found previously in the symbiotic thalli are produced by the mycobiont or photobiont or both. The mycobiont isolate was cultivated on a solid malt-yeast extract-medium and the freeze-dried colonies were defatted and the polysaccharides

Lucimara M. C. Cordeiro; Elfriede Stocker-Wörgötter; Philip A. J. Gorin; Marcello Iacomini

2004-01-01

344

Medium optimization for polysaccharide production of Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a potential anticarcinogenic agent, polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to possess strong antioxidation activity. The aim of the present research was to study the optimal\\u000a medium to produce polysaccharides of C. sinensis by using response surface methodology (RSM). The composition of optimized medium for polysaccharide production calculated\\u000a from the regression model of RSM was 6.17% sucrose, 0.53%

Chienyan Hsieh; Ming-Jin Tsai; Tai-Hao Hsu; Der-Ming Chang; Chaur-Tsuen Lo

2005-01-01

345

Polysaccharides as stabilizers for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were individually prepared with one of three polysaccharides as stabilizer, i.e. soluble starch, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (CMC) and agar. Since polysaccharides present the dynamic supramolecular associations facilitated by inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding, they can act as templates for the growth of nanosized Fe3O4. The resultant polysaccharide–Fe3O4 were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

Peter R. Chang; Jiugao Yu; Xiaofei Ma; Debbie P. Anderson

2011-01-01

346

Life Cycle Assessment of Polysaccharide Materials: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide\\u000a products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight\\u000a of the environmental profiles of polysaccharide products (e.g. viscose or natural fibre polymer composites) in comparison\\u000a with their conventional counterparts (e.g. cotton or petrochemical

Li Shen; Martin K. Patel

2008-01-01

347

Phase equilibria in water-protein-polysaccharide systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phase equilibria in the ternary water-soy bean globulins-polysaccharides systems, containing various acidic and neutral polysaccharides (pectin, sodium alginate, carboxymethylcellulose, arabic gum, dextransulphate, and dextran) were studied. Phase diagrams of the systems were obtained. Effects of pH, concentration of a neutral salt and urea on the compatibility of soy bean globulins with polysaccharides in water media were studied. It has

Yu. A. Antonov; N. V. Losinskaya; V. Ya. Grinberg; V. T. Dianova; V. B. Tolstoguzow

1979-01-01

348

Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

1997-01-01

349

Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

2002-09-11

350

Polysaccharide extraction from Spirulina sp. and its antioxidant capacity.  

PubMed

To optimize polysaccharide extraction from Spirulina sp., the effect of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and time were investigated using Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology. The results showed that extraction temperature and solid-to-liquid ratio had a significant impact on the yield of polysaccharides. A polysaccharides yield of around 8.3% dry weight was obtained under the following optimized conditions: solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:45, temperature of 90°C, and time of 120 min. The polysaccharide extracts contained rhamnose, which accounted for 53% of the total sugars, with a phenolic content of 45 mg GAE/g sample. PMID:23541559

Chaiklahan, Ratana; Chirasuwan, Nattayaporn; Triratana, Panya; Loha, Veara; Tia, Suvit; Bunnag, Boosya

2013-07-01

351

Fungal Polysaccharides: Biological Activity Beyond the Usual Structural Properties  

PubMed Central

Studies on structure and function of polysaccharides in biological systems classically involve sequence and compositional analyses, anomeric configuration, type of glycosidic linkage, and presence of substituents. Recent studies, however, indicates that other structural parameters, so far little explored, can directly influence the biological activity of microbial polysaccharides. Among these parameters, we highlight the molecular dimensions of Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharides, which appear to be inversely correlated with their immunobiological activity. These recent observations raise new concepts about the structure and function of polysaccharides, which stimulates the design of new experimental approaches and suggests previously unknown applications. PMID:21886639

Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Cordero, Radames J. B.; Casadevall, Arturo

2011-01-01

352

Construction of a Chondroitin Sulfate Library with Defined Structures and Analysis of Molecular Interactions*  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide, composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and modified with sulfate residues at different positions, which plays various roles in development and disease. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized various CS species with defined lengths and defined sulfate compositions, from chondroitin hexasaccharide conjugated with hexamethylenediamine at the reducing ends, using bacterial chondroitin polymerase and recombinant CS sulfotransferases, including chondroitin-4-sulfotransferase 1 (C4ST-1), chondroitin-6-sulfotransferase 1 (C6ST-1), N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST), and uronosyl 2-sulfotransferase (UA2ST). Sequential modifications of CS with a series of CS sulfotransferases revealed their distinct features, including their substrate specificities. Reactions with chondroitin polymerase generated non-sulfated chondroitin, and those with C4ST-1 and C6ST-1 generated uniformly sulfated CS containing >95% 4S and 6S units, respectively. GalNAc4S-6ST and UA2ST generated highly sulfated CS possessing ?90% corresponding disulfated disaccharide units. Sequential reactions with UA2ST and GalNAc4S-6ST generated further highly sulfated CS containing a mixed structure of disulfated units. Surprisingly, sequential reactions with GalNAc4S-6ST and UA2ST generated a novel CS molecule containing ?29% trisulfated disaccharide units. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance analysis using the CS library and natural CS products modified with biotin at the reducing ends, revealed details of the interactions of CS species with anti-CS antibodies, and with CS-binding molecules such as midkine and pleiotrophin. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis enables the generation of CS chains of the desired lengths, compositions, and distinct structures, and the resulting library will be a useful tool for studies of CS functions. PMID:23129769

Sugiura, Nobuo; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Chiba, Mie; Sato, Takashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Kimata, Koji; Watanabe, Hideto

2012-01-01

353

Biosynthesis of heparin. Availability of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfation sites  

SciTech Connect

Heparin preparations isolated from pig intestinal mucosa and from bovine lung were fractionated with regard to affinity for antithrombin. The resulting fractions, with high (HA) or low (LA) affinity for the proteinase inhibitor, were analyzed by 13C NMR or by identification of di- and tetrasaccharides obtained through deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid. Structural differences between corresponding HA and LA fractions were essentially restricted to minor constituents, in particular 3-O-sulfated glucosamine units that occurred (1 or 2 residues/chain) in all HA preparations but were scarce or absent in LA heparin. The HA fractions also consistently showed higher contents of nonsulfated iduronic acid and, to a lesser extent, N-acetylated glucosamine units than the LA fractions. The two tetrasaccharide sequences, -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3- and -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3(6-OSO3)- , recently implicated as part of the acceptor site for glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfate groups were identified in mucosal LA heparin; it was calculated that the preparation contained approximately one potential acceptor site/polysaccharide chain. Yet this material did not yield any labeled HA components on incubation with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phospho-(35S)sulfate in the presence of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase, solubilized from a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. The failure to incorporate any 3-O-sulfate groups could conceivably be explained by the occurrence of a D-glucuronic rather than L-iduronic acid unit linked at the reducing ends of the above tetrasaccharide sequences. Alternatively, 3-O-sulfation may be restricted by other, as yet unidentified, inhibitory structural elements that are preferentially expressed in polysaccharide sequences selected for the generation of LA heparin.Au

Kusche, M.; Torri, G.; Casu, B.; Lindahl, U. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

1990-05-05

354

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquusBELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquusBELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily

Yong Ook Kim; Sang Bae Han; Hong Woen Lee; Hyo Jung Ahn; Yeo Dae Yoon; Joon Ki Jung; Hwan Mook Kim; Chul Soo Shin

2005-01-01

355

Regioselective desulfation of sulfated L-fucopyranoside by a new sulfoesterase from the marine mollusk Pecten maximus: application to the structural study of algal fucoidan (Ascophyllum nodosum).  

PubMed

The study of the structural bases of the biological properties of algal fucoidan (Ascophyllum nodosum) led us to look for enzymes able to modify this sulfated polysaccharide. In this context, we found a sulfoesterase activity in the digestive glands of the common marine mollusk Pecten maximus, which is active on fucoidan. This sulfoesterase activity was shown by capillary electrophoresis and 13C-1H NMR (500 MHz) analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the fucoidan, of fucoidan oligosaccharides and of sulfated fucose isomers. We report the exhaustive list of all proton and carbon chemical shifts for each of the three isomers of sulfated-l-fucose (including of their alpha/beta anomers), i.e. the 2-O-, 3-O- and 4-O-sulfated fucose, which have been useful reference values for the assignments of NMR spectra of fucoidan oligosaccharides upon enzymatic desulfation. Our results demonstrated a high regioselectivity for this sulfoesterase, which hydrolyzes only the sulfate group at the 2-O position of the fucopyranoside. Therefore, this sulfoesterase is a helpful tool in the structure-activity study of the fucoidan, as the literature data suggest that the 2-O-sulfation level play a central role in the biological properties of the polysaccharide. PMID:11683885

Daniel, R; Berteau, O; Chevolot, L; Varenne, A; Gareil, P; Goasdoue, N

2001-11-01

356

Binding of lectins to Streptococcus mutans cells and type-specific polysaccharides, and effect on adherence.  

PubMed

The lectin concanavalin A (Con A) agglutinated the cells of 13 of 15 strains of the seven serotypes of Streptococcus mutans in an 18-h incubation period. Strains of types a, d, f, and g agglutinated within 2 h. Strains of a, d, and f were also agglutinated in 2 h by the castor bean lectin RCA. S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. bovis, Actinomyces viscosus, A. naeslundii, and Lactobacillus plantarum were agglutinated within 2 h. The S. mutans type f polysaccharide was precipitated by Con A. The a, b, c, d, and e polysaccharides were not precipitated. Glucan from d and e strains of S. mutans and dextran T2000 were also precipitated by Con A. D-glucose inhibited the agglutination of type f cells by Con A and the agglutination of type d cells by D-galactose. The quantity of [acetyl-3H]Con A bound was not proportional to the degree of agglutination. Cells grown in sucrose medium bound more Con A than those grown in glucose medium. After treatment with dextranase, the sucrose-grown cells bound two- to fourfold more Con A. The binding of Con A to the type-specific polysaccharide or to teichoic acid could not be determined by the use of specific antibody due to the binding of Con A to the antibody globulin on the cell surface. Con A bound to S. mutans cells did not inhibit the activity of cell-bound glucosyltransferase, glucan synthesis, and in vitro adherence. Bound Con A also did not inhibit the ability of heat-treated cells to bind glucosyltransferase, synthesize glucan, and produce in vitro adherence. PMID:22491

Hamada, S; Gill, K; Slade, H D

1977-12-01

357

Anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Tricholoma matsutake  

PubMed Central

Background: Many more fungal polysaccharides have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including anti-tumor, immunostimulation, anti-oxidation, and so on. The non-starch polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive natural products. Objective: To investigate the anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide (TMP-A) isolated from Tricholoma matsutake. Materials and Methods: The anti-microorganism activity of purified polysaccharides (TMP-A) was evaluated by the inhibition zone diameter, the anti-tumor activity was evaluated by the S180 tumor cells that were implanted subcutaneously into the Kunming strain male mice in vivo, and the immune activity was evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage stimulation, respectively. Results: In this study, the most susceptible bacteria of TMP-A at a concentration of 20 mg/ml was Micrococcus lysodeikticus (inhibition zone diameter 24.38 ± 1.19 mm) and the TMP-A did not show any antifungal activity for the tested stains of the fungi. In addition, the inhibitory rate in mice treated with 80 mg/kg TMP-A could reach 68.422%, being the highest in the three doses, which might be comparable to mannatide. The anti-tumor activity of the TMP-A was usually believed to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, because it could significantly promote the lymphocyte and macrophage cells in the dose range of 50–200 ?g/mL and in the dose range of 100 – 400 ?g/mL in vitro, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the purification polysaccharide of Tricholoma matsutake is a potential source of natural broad-spectrum, anti-microorganism, anti-tumor, and immunomodulation. PMID:23930009

Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Hongqing; Ma, Binxiang; Xu, Ting; Li, Junhua

2013-01-01

358

Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

1986-05-01

359

Comparative antioxidative characteristics of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential antioxidant property of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from the natural fungal sclerotia and the cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus was evaluated using three antioxidant assays. The extracts from both the natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia including extra- and intra-cellular extracts were effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The content and

Xiangqun Xu; Yongde Wu; Hui Chen

2011-01-01

360

Molecular mechanism of substrate specificity for heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) is an abundant polysaccharide in the animal kingdom with essential physiological functions. HS is composed of sulfated saccharides that are biosynthesized through a complex pathway involving multiple enzymes. In vivo regulation of this process remains unclear. HS 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST) is a key enzyme in this pathway. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ternary complex of 2OST, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate, and a heptasaccharide substrate. Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis and specific oligosaccharide substrate sequences, we probed the molecular basis of specificity and 2OST position in the ordered HS biosynthesis pathway. These studies revealed that Arg-80, Lys-350, and Arg-190 of 2OST interact with the N-sulfo groups near the modification site, consistent with the dependence of 2OST on N-sulfation. In contrast, 6-O-sulfo groups on HS are likely excluded by steric and electrostatic repulsion within the active site supporting the hypothesis that 2-O-sulfation occurs prior to 6-O-sulfation. Our results provide the structural evidence for understanding the sequence of enzymatic events in this pathway. PMID:24652287

Liu, Chunhui; Sheng, Juzheng; Krahn, Juno M; Perera, Lalith; Xu, Yongmei; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Dou, Wenfang; Liu, Jian; Pedersen, Lars C

2014-05-01

361

An automated mass spectrometry-based screening method for analysis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides, consisting of repeated disaccharide units, attached to core proteins in all multicellular organisms. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) constitute a subgroup of sulfated GAGs for which the degree of sulfation varies between species and tissues. One major goal in GAG characterization is to correlate structure to function. A common approach is to exhaustively degrade the GAG chains and thereafter determine the amount of component disaccharide units. In large-scale studies, there is a need for high-throughput screening methods since existing methods are either very time- or samples consuming. Here, we present a new strategy applying MALDI-TOF MS in positive ion mode for semi-qualitative and quantitative analysis of CS/DS derived disaccharide units. Only a few picomoles of sample are required per analysis and 10 samples can be analyzed in 25 min, which makes this approach an attractive alternative to many established assay methods. The total CS/DS concentration in 19 samples derived from Caenorhabditis elegans and mammalian tissues and cells was determined. The obtained results were well in accordance with concentrations determined by a standard liquid chromatography-based method, demonstrating the applicability of the method for samples from various biological matrices containing CS/DS of different sulfation degrees. PMID:24928386

Kiselova, Nadezda; Dierker, Tabea; Spillmann, Dorothe; Ramström, Margareta

2014-07-18

362

Polysaccharide extracts of the brown alga Sargassumasperifolium possess in vitro cancer chemopreventive properties.  

PubMed

The cancer chemopreventive activity of the polysaccharide extracts (E1-E4) of Sargassum asperifolium, a brown alga in Red Sea shores in Egypt, was investigated. Tumour anti-initiation activity (the modulation of carcinogen metabolism) indicated that E3 and E4 were potent anti-initiators by inhibiting the carcinogen activator cytochrome P450-1A, and enhancing carcinogen detoxification enzymes glutathione-S-transferase. Only E4 significantly enhanced quinone reductase activity. All polysaccharide extracts possessed anti-promotion property by their anti-inflammatory activity. E3 and E4 dramatically induced the growth of spleen macrophages. E2, E3 and E4 significantly inhibited nitric oxide generation from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated spleen macrophages, while E1, E3 and E4 led to significant inhibition of LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor-?. The extracts E1, E2 and E4 showed cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, where E2 and E4 induced cell death due to apoptosis. In conclusion, E3 and E4 are promising cancer chemopreventive extracts, since they had tumour anti-initiating activity via their protective modulation of carcinogen metabolism. PMID:24934729

Raafat, Eman M; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; El-Hussieny, Enas A; Ahmed, Eman F; Eissa, Amany A

2014-12-01

363

Mesospheric sulfate aerosol layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the heretofore unstudied role of volcanic and nonvolcanic sulfur aerosols and gases in the mesosphere. Two-dimensional microphysical calculations show that sulfur may be an important source of particles below the cold summer mesopause. Observed increases in SO2 with altitude in the upper stratosphere had previously suggested ultraviolet destruction of H2SO4, discounting its survival in the mesosphere. Laboratory measurements have now ruled out ultraviolet photolysis of H2SO4, however, and a recent proposal of visible and near-infrared photolysis of H2SO4 explains the SO2 observations. Our calculations show that enough H2SO4 survives this weak photolysis mechanism to produce significant sulfate aerosol surface area in the mesosphere. Neutralization of H2SO4 by metals on the surfaces of meteoritic dust is modeled and affects the mesospheric aerosol negligibly. We discuss the possible implications for this new class of particles for the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes and polar mesospheric clouds in volcanically quiescent and active periods.

Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Thomas, Gary E.

2005-12-01

364

THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE IX  

PubMed Central

The capsular polysaccharide of Type IX pneumococcus contains D-glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and D-glucuronic acid. Complete hydrolysis is difficult. All of the N-acetylglucosamine is resistant to oxidation by periodate, but the other two sugars are degraded in part. Chemical and quantitative serological data are consistent with the linkage of two D-glucose residues 1 ? 4, as in maltose; others may be linked 1 ? 3. Part, at least, of the glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine is linked to glucose. PMID:4380068

Rao, C. V. N.; Heidelberger, Michael

1966-01-01

365

Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

1991-01-01

366

Isolation, purification and identification of polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four polysaccharides from the water extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris were isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weights were determined using gel-filtration chromatography. Among the four isolated polysaccharides, the structures of two of them (CPS-2 and CPS-3) were elucidated by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, IR and 13C–NMR spectroscopy.

Rongmin Yu; Lei Wang; Hui Zhang; Changxin Zhou; Yu Zhao

2004-01-01

367

Polysaccharides Isolated from Açaí Fruit Induce Innate Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Açaí (Acai) fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized ?? T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus,

Jeff Holderness; Igor A. Schepetkin; Brett Freedman; Liliya N. Kirpotina; Mark T. Quinn; Jodi F. Hedges; Mark A. Jutila; Jacques Zimmer

2011-01-01

368

Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha.  

PubMed

Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average M(r) of fractions C-I through C-IV was estimated to be 733, 550, 310, and 168 kDa, respectively, and sugar composition analysis revealed that Opuntia polysaccharides consisted primarily of galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Analysis of the effects of Opuntia polysaccharides on human and murine macrophages demonstrated that all four fractions had potent immunomodulatory activity, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6. Furthermore, modulation of macrophage function by Opuntia polysaccharides was mediated, at least in part, through activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of extracts from O. polyacantha and support the concept of using Opuntia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18597716

Schepetkin, Igor A; Xie, Gang; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Klein, Robyn A; Jutila, Mark A; Quinn, Mark T

2008-10-01

369

Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression.  

E-print Network

studies indicated nicotine stimulated S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolism. However, the detailed biofilm formation focused on extracellular polysaccharide synthesis. S. mutans UA159 (ATCC 700610 of 0, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml nicotine on 24 h S. mutans biofilm extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) expression

Zhou, Yaoqi

370

Polysaccharides isolated from Açaí fruit induce innate immune responses.  

PubMed

The Açaí (Acai) fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized ?? T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus, we hypothesized that one or both of these fractions could activate ?? T cells. Contrary to previous reports, we did not identify agonist activity in the polyphenol fraction; however, the Acai polysaccharide fraction induced robust ?? T cell stimulatory activity in human, mouse, and bovine PBMC cultures. To characterize the immune response to Acai polysaccharides, we fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation and tested these fractions for activity in human PBMC cultures. The largest Acai polysaccharides were the most active in vitro as indicated by activation of myeloid and ?? T cells. When delivered in vivo, Acai polysaccharide induced myeloid cell recruitment and IL-12 production. These results define innate immune responses induced by the polysaccharide component of Acai and have implications for the treatment of asthma and infectious disease. PMID:21386979

Holderness, Jeff; Schepetkin, Igor A; Freedman, Brett; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Quinn, Mark T; Hedges, Jodi F; Jutila, Mark A

2011-01-01

371

Research Progress on Polysaccharides Hypoglycemic Mechanism and Therapeutic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plenty of experiments have demonstrated that polysaccharides have effect of hyperglycemic. We review the possible mechanisms that polysaccharide reduce blood sugar and the therapeutic potential in this paper. The mechanisms include improve islet morphology and function, stimulate insulin secretion, enhance the insulin sensitivity, improve glycometabolism, modulate autoimmunity, improve the activities of glycometabolism related enzymes, suppress insulin metabolism, ameliorate the lipid

Fei Wang; Li-Ping Wei; Zhong Zhang; Tao Feng

2011-01-01

372

In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

2011-01-01

373

Challenges for the modern analytical ultracentrifuge analysis of polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews some of the recent advances in analytical ultracentrifugation and how these advances have impacted—and can impact—on our understanding of the size, shape through conformation modelling, interactions and charge properties of polysaccharides in solution, particularly when used in combination with other solution techniques and also imaging techniques. Specifically we look at (1) polysaccharide polydispersity and simple shape analysis

Stephen E. Harding

2005-01-01

374

Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

2011-10-01

375

Microbial sulfate reduction measured by an automated electrical impedance technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical impedance measurements are used to investigate the rates of sulfate reduction by pure cultures of and sediments containing sulfur-reducing bacteria. Changes in the electrical impedance ratios of pure cultures of Desulfovibrio aestuarii and samples of reduced sediments from San Francisco Bay were measured by a Bactometer 32, and sulfate reduction was followed by measuring the incorporation of (S-35) sulfate into metal sulfides. The growth of the bacteria in pure culture is found to result in an increase of 0.2200 in the impedance ratio within 24 h, accompanied by increases in protein, ATP, sulfide and absorptance at 660 nm, all of which are inhibited by the addition of molybdate. Similar responses were observed in the sediments, although impedance ratio responses were not completely inhibited upon the addition of molybdate, due to the presence of nonsulfate-respiring microorganisms. Experiments conducted with sterile media and autoclaved sediments indicate that the presence of H2S together with iron is responsible for the impedance effect, and sulfate reduction rates ranging between 0.85 and 1.78 mmol/l per day are estimated for the sediments by the impedance technique.

Oremland, R. S.; Silverman, M. P.

1979-01-01

376

Astragalus Polysaccharides Lowers Plasma Cholesterol through Mechanisms Distinct from Statins  

PubMed Central

To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25g/kg/d) on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins. PMID:22110652

Wu, Suhua; Liu, Lijuan; Qiang, Cancan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Bingqing

2011-01-01

377

Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-?-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-?-D-glucosidic and 1,4-?-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. PMID:23911463

Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

2013-09-12

378

Meteorological impacts on urban sulfate levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various meteorological conditions on ambient sulfate levels in Boston, Mass., are evaluated. Two-hour average samples of total sulfate and total suspended particulate were collected at three urban sites. Meteorological data including barometric pressure, absolute humidity, and wind direction were obtained for each sampling interval. High correlations between sulfate levels and the meteorological variables are noted. A sulfate

W. A. Turner; C. J. Gregory

1980-01-01

379

Affinity Chromatography Media CellufineTM Sulfate  

E-print Network

, chondroitin sulfate or heparin. Matrex Cellufine Sulfate consists of a rigid spherical cellulose matrix of 3Affinity Chromatography Media Matrex® CellufineTM Sulfate For Concentration, Purification and viral or microbial antigens. Matrex Cellufine Sulfate affinity media is a simple, rapid and effective

Lebendiker, Mario

380

Complex Cooperative Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Shape Nervous System Development in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein-protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate-dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bülow, Hannes E

2014-01-01

381

Complex Cooperative Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Shape Nervous System Development in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein–protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate–dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

Diaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lazaro-Pena, Maria I.; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bulow, Hannes E.

2014-01-01

382

[Antigenic polysaccharides of bacteria. 22. Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus hauseri lipopolysaccharide].  

PubMed

The following structure of the repeating unit of the Proteus hauseri O-specific polysaccharide was established on the basis of monosaccharide composition and 13C NMR data of the polysaccharide and products of its Smith degradation and partial cleavage with hydrogen fluoride: (Formula: see text). PMID:2441707

Vinogradov, E V; Shashkov, A S; Knirel', Iu A; Kochetkov, N K; Kholodkova, E V

1987-05-01

383

Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers  

PubMed Central

Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

384

Structural characterization of polysaccharides from bamboo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alkaline and water soluble polysaccharides were isolate by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1%, 5% and 8% NaOH. The samples were prepared at 60 °C for 3 h from local bamboo. The functional group of the sample were examined using FTIR analysis. The most precipitate obtained is from using 60% ethanol containing 8% NaOH with yield of 2.6%. The former 3 residues isolated by sequential extractions with distilled water, 60% ethanol containing 1% and 5% NaOH are barely visible after filtering with cellulose filter paper. The FTIR result showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides consisted mainly of OH group, CH group, CO indicates the carbohydrate and sugar chain. The sample weight loss was slightly decreased with increasing of temperature.

Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohamad; Yusuf, Nur'aini Raman; Yunus, Normawati M.; Yusup, Suzana

2014-10-01

385

Production of Extracellular Polysaccharide by Zoogloea ramigera  

PubMed Central

In batch cultures of Zoogloea ramigera the maximum rate of exopolysaccharide synthesis occurred in a partly growth-linked process. The exopolysaccharide was attached to the cells as a capsule. The capsules were released from the cell walls after 150 h of cultivation, which caused the fermentation broth to be highly viscous. Ultrasonication could be used to release capsular polysaccharide from the microbial cell walls. Treatment performed after 48 to 66 h of cultivation revealed exopolysaccharide concentration and apparent viscosity values in accordance with values of untreated samples withdrawn after 161 h of cultivation. The yield coefficient of exopolysaccharide on the basis of consumed glucose was in the range of 55 to 60% for batch cultivations with an initial glucose concentration of 25 g liter?1. An exopolysaccharide concentration of up to 38 g liter?1 could be attained if glucose, nitrogen, and growth factors were fed into the batch culture. The oxygen consumption rate in batch fermentations reached 25 mmol of O2 liter?1 h?1 during the exopolysaccharide synthesis phase and then decreased to values below 5 mmol of O2 liter?1 h?1 during the release phase. The fermentation broth showed pseudoplastic flow behavior, and the polysaccharide was not degraded when growth had ceased. Images PMID:16346138

Norberg, Anders B.; Enfors, Sven-Olof

1982-01-01

386

Identification, Characterization and Immunogenicity of an O-Antigen Capsular Polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis  

PubMed Central

Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F. tularensis migrating on Western blot as a diffuse band between 100 kDa and 250 kDa. The capsule stains poorly on SDS-PAGE with silver stain but can be visualized using ProQ Emerald glycoprotein stain. The capsule appears to be highly conserved among strains of F. tularensis as antibody 11B7 bound to the capsule of 14 of 14 F. tularensis type A and B strains on Western blot. The capsular material can be isolated essentially free of LPS, is phenol and proteinase K resistant, ethanol precipitable and does not dissociate in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold demonstrates 11B7 circumferentially staining the surface of F. tularensis which is typical of a polysaccharide capsule. Mass spectrometry, compositional analysis and NMR indicate that the capsule is composed of a polymer of the tetrasaccharide repeat, 4)-?-D-GalNAcAN-(1->4)-?-D-GalNAcAN-(1->3)-?-D-QuiNAc-(1->2)-?-D-Qui4NFm-(1-, which is identical to the previously described F. tularensis O-antigen subunit. This indicates that the F. tularensis capsule can be classified as an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide. Our studies indicate that F. tularensis O-antigen glycosyltransferase mutants do not make a capsule. An F. tularensis acyltransferase and an O-antigen polymerase mutant had no evidence of an O-antigen but expressed a capsular antigen. Passive immunization of BALB/c mice with 75 µg of 11B7 protected against a 150 fold lethal challenge of F. tularensis LVS. Active immunization of BALB/c mice with 10 µg of capsule showed a similar level of protection. These studies demonstrate that F. tularensis produces an O-antigen capsule that may be the basis of a future vaccine. PMID:20625403

Fowler, Andrew C.; Jones, Bradley D.; Rasmussen, Jed A.; Hunt, Jason R.; Imagawa, Sayaka; Choudhury, Biswa; Inzana, Thomas J.; Maier, Tamara M.; Frank, Dara W.; Zahrt, Thomas C.; Chaloner, Kathryn; Jennings, Michael P.; McLendon, Molly K.; Gibson, Bradford W.

2010-01-01

387

Involvement of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate in the metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The altered expression of cell surface chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) in cancer cells has been demonstrated to play a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. However, the functional highly sulfated structures in CS/DS chains and their involvement in the process have not been well documented. In the present study, a structural analysis of CS/DS from two mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL)-derived cell lines with different metastatic potentials revealed a higher proportion of Delta(4,5)HexUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) generated from E-units (GlcUA-GalNAc(4, 6-O-disulfate)) in highly metastatic LM66-H11 cells than in low metastatic P29 cells, although much less CS/DS is expressed by LM66-H11 than P29 cells. This key finding prompted us to study the role of CS-E-like structures in experimental lung metastasis. The metastasis of LM66-H11 cells to lungs was effectively inhibited by enzymatic removal of tumor cell surface CS or by preadministration of CS-E rich in E-units in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis showed that LM66-H11 rather than P29 cells expressed more strongly the CS-E epitope, which was specifically recognized by the phage display antibody GD3G7. More importantly, this antibody and a CS-E decasaccharide fraction, the minimal structure recognized by GD3G7, strongly inhibited the metastasis of LM66-H11 cells probably by modifying the proliferative and invading behavior of the metastatic tumor cells. These results suggest that the E-unit-containing epitopes are involved in the metastatic process and a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:18930920

Li, Fuchuan; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Yamada, Shuhei; Hashiguchi, Taishi; Mizumoto, Shuji; Oguri, Kayoko; Okayama, Minoru; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

2008-12-01

388

Chemical structure of the complex pyruvylated and sulfated agaran from the red seaweed Palisada flagellifera (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta).  

PubMed

A homogeneous agaran fraction from Palisada flagellifera (Laurencia complex, Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) was obtained by aqueous room-temperature extraction, followed by ion-exchange chromatography. This galactan presents a highly complex structure with at least 18 different types of derivatives. The A units were found mostly pyruvylated, 2-sulfated (?34%), and 6-methylated (?34%), with the latter partially 2- and 2,4-sulfated. Minor amounts of ?-D-galactopyranosyl units 2-, 6- and 2,6-sulfated, 6-glycosylated, and non-substituted are also present. The B-units are L-sugars composed predominantly of their cyclized derivatives, 3,6-anhydrogalactose and 3,6-anhydro-2-O-methylgalactose (?56%). The former are linked to ?-D-galactosyl (6-methyl) (6-glycosylated) units, as well as to 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-?-D-galactose 2-sulfate in the proportion of 3:1.8, respectively. A significant amount (?18%) of the ?-L-galactopyranosyl units are linked to pyruvylated ?-D-galactose 2-sulfate residues. An important part of the B-units (20%) is represented by ?-L-galactose 6-sulfate substituted on C-3 by xylosyl, galactosyl and/or 2,3-di-O-methylgalactose units or sulfate groups that preclude their cyclization to 3,6-anhydrogalactosyl derivative. The precursor units are present in relatively low percentages. Kinetic studies suggest that in P. flagellifera agaran the cyclizable units are linked to 6-O-methyl-?-D-galactosyl and/or ?-D-galactosyl units (6-glycosylated). The structural complexity of this polysaccharide is increased by the presence of 2- and 3,6-sulfated ?-L-galactoses, with the latter additionally 2-O-methylated. Therefore, the major subfraction obtained from the cold extract contains structurally complex sulfated, methylated, and pyruvylated agaran. PMID:22055816

Ferreira, Luciana G; Noseda, Miguel D; Gonçalves, Alan G; Ducatti, Diogo R B; Fujii, Mutue T; Duarte, Maria E R

2012-01-10

389

Development of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels for controlling drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of polymers as biomaterials has evolved over the past several decades, encompassing an expanding synthetic toolbox and many bio-mimetic approaches. Both synthetic and natural polymers have been used as components for biomaterials as their unique chemical structures can provide specific functions for desired applications. Of these materials, heparin, a highly sulfated naturally occurring polysaccharide, has been investigated extensively as a core component in drug delivery platforms and tissue engineering. The goal of this work was to further explore the use of heparin via conjugation with synthetic polymers for applications in drug delivery. We begin by investigating low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a depolymerized heparin that is used medicinally in the prevention of thrombosis by subcutaneous injection or intravenous drip. Certain disease states or disorders require frequent administration with invasive delivery modalities leading to compliance issues for individuals on prolonged therapeutic courses. To address these issues, a long-term delivery method was developed for LMWH via subcutaneous injection of in situ hydrogelators. This therapy was accomplished by chemical modification of LMWH with maleimide functionality so that it may be crosslinked into continuous hydrogel networks with four-arm thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). These hydrogels degrade via hydrolysis over a period of weeks and release bioactive LMWH with first-order kinetics as determined by in vitro and in vivo models, thus indicating the possibility of an alternative means of heparin delivery over current accepted methodologies. Evaluation of the maleimide-thiol chemistries applied in the LMWH hydrogels revealed reversibility for some conjugates under reducing conditions. Addition chemistries, such as maleimide-thiol reactions, are widely employed in biological conjugates and are generally accepted as stable. Here we show that the resulting succinimide thioether formed by the Michael type addition of thiol derivatives to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) undergoes retro and exchange reactions in the presence of other thiol compounds at physiological pH and temperature. Model studies of NEM conjugated to various thiols (4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPA), N-acetylcysteine, or 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)), incubated with a naturally occurring reducing agent, glutathione, showed half-lives from 20-80 hrs with extents of conversion from 20-90% for MPA and N-acetylcysteine conjugates. The kinetics of the retro reactions and extent of exchange can be modulated by the Michael donor's reactivity; therefore the degradation of maleimide-thiol adducts could be tuned for controlled release of drugs or degradation of materials at timescales different than those currently possible via disulfide-mediated release. The reduction sensitive maleimide-thiol chemistry was then investigated as a crosslinking mechanism for LMWH hydrogels. Crosslinking maleimide functionalized LMWH with PEG functionalized with thiophenyl functionalities imparted glutathione sensitivity. 4-mercaptophenylpropionic acid and 2,2-dimethyl-3-(4-mercaptophenyl)propionic acid, induced sensitivity to glutathione as shown by a decrease in degradation time of 4x and 5x respectively. The pseudo-first order retro reaction constants were approximately an order of magnitude slower than hydrogels crosslinked via disulfide linkages, indicating the potential use of the retro succinimide-thioether covalent bonds for reduction mediated release and/or degradation with increased blood stability and prolonged drug delivery timescales compared to disulfide chemistries. In summary, this work highlights the use of polymer-polysaccharide hydrogels composed of LMWH and PEG as investigated for drug delivery and as a tool for elucidating a novel reduction sensitive controlled release mechanism.

Baldwin, Aaron David

390

Naphthalene mineralization coupled to sulfate reduction in aquifer-derived enrichments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphthalene was microbially transformed in sulfate-reducing laboratory microcosms established under strictly anaerobic conditions using sediment from two sulfate-rich, coal tar-contaminated aquifers and enriched over a 3-year period. As much as 66% of [14C]naphthalene was mineralized to CO2 over 13 days. Addition of sodium molybdate inhibited sulfidogenesis and resulted in a 44% reduction in total [14C]naphthalene mineralized. Methane was never detected

Marjorie E Bedessem; Norbert G Swoboda-Colberg; Patricia J. S Colberg

1997-01-01

391

Astragalus polysaccharide improves muscle atrophy from dexamethasone- and peroxide-induced injury in vitro.  

PubMed

Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is an important bioactive component of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (Leguminosae) that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating muscle wasting, a serious complication with complex mechanism manifested as myofibers atrophy and satellite cells apoptosis. In this study, the anti-atrophy and anti-apoptotic activity of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) was characterized in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes and myoblasts. APS inhibited dexamethasone-induced atrophy by restoring phosphorylation of Akt, m-TOR, P70s6k, rpS6 and FoxO3A/FoxO1. The targets that protected C2C12 myoblasts from damage by H2O2 were promoting cells proliferation and inhibiting cells apoptosis. The protective mechanisms involved mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Moreover, Antioxidant effect of APS was also detected in this work. Our findings suggested that APS could be explored as a protective and perhaps as a therapeutic agent in the management of muscle wasting. PMID:23817095

Lu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Tao; Shi, Ying; Yin, Yi; Wei, Lian-Bo; Zou, Yu-Cong; Huang, Bo; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Ming; Wan, Heng; Li, Cheng-Jie; Diao, Jian-Xin

2013-10-01

392

Proton-sulfate co-transport: mechanism of H+ and sulfate addition to the chloride transporter of human red blood cells  

PubMed Central

Proton and sulfate inhibition of the obligatory chloride-chloride exchange of human erythrocytes was measured at 0 degrees C to determine their mechanism of reaction with the anion transporter. The proton and sulfate that are co-transported by this mechanism at higher temperatures behaved as nontransported inhibitors at 0 degrees C. We analyzed the data in terms of four molecular mechanisms: (1) HSO4- addition to the transporter; (2) ordered addition with the proton first; (3) ordered addition with the sulfate first; (4) random addition to the transporter. The Dixon plots of 1/MCl vs. [SO4] at different proton concentrations were not parallel. Thus protons and sulfate ions were not mutually exclusive inhibitors. The slope of these Dixon plots was independent of pH above 7.0, which indicates that sulfate could bind to the unprotonated carrier and excludes the first two mechanisms. Protons were inhibitors of chloride flux in the absence of sulfate, which indicates that protons could bind to the unloaded carrier and excludes mechanism 3. The KI for sulfate was 4.35 +/0 0.36 mM. The pK for the protonatable group was 5.03 +/- 0.02. The binding of either a proton or sulfate to the carrier decreased the KI of the other by ninefold. The only simple mechanism consistent with the data is a random-ordered mechanism with more transporters loaded with a sulfate than loaded with a proton at the pH and sulfate concentrations of plasma. PMID:7061989

1982-01-01

393

A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China)] [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China); Luo, Cheng, E-mail: Luo58@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

2013-01-11

394

A flow cytometric opsonophagocytic assay for measurement of functional antibodies elicited after vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.  

PubMed

Opsonophagocytosis is the primary mechanism for clearance of pneumococci from the host, and the measurement of opsonophagocytic antibodies appears to correlate with vaccine-induced protection. We developed a semiautomated flow cytometric opsonophagocytosis assay using HL-60 granulocytes as effector cells and nonviable 5, 6-carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester-labeled Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) as bacterial targets. The flow cytometric opsonophagocytosis assay was highly reproducible (for 87% of repetitive assays the titers were within 1 dilution of the median titer) and serotype specific, with >/=97% inhibition of opsonophagocytic titer by addition of homologous serotype-specific polysaccharide. In general, opsonophagocytic titers were not significantly inhibited by the presence of either heterologous pneumococcal polysaccharide or penicillin in the serum. The flow cytometric assay could reproducibly measure functional antibody activity in prevaccination (n = 28) and postvaccination (n = 36) serum specimens from healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. When compared with a standardized manual viable opsonophagocytic assay, a high correlation (r = 0.89; P

Martinez, J E; Romero-Steiner, S; Pilishvili, T; Barnard, S; Schinsky, J; Goldblatt, D; Carlone, G M

1999-07-01

395

Immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang.  

PubMed

Cheonggukjang is a Korean whole soybean paste fermented by Bacillus subtilis and regarded as a healthy food. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang (PSCJ) in RAW 264.7 macrophages and an animal model. PSCJ induced mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by activating nuclear factor-?B, and subsequently increased the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-? in murine recombinant interferon-?-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, after daily oral administration of PSCJ, immobility time decreased significantly in the PSCJ-administered group (200 or 400 mg/kg) on day 10. Taken together, these results suggest that the PSCJ has a possible role improving immune function through regulatory effects on immunological parameters, such as NO and TNF-? productions and changes in indicators related to fatigue. PMID:23831309

Lee, Seung-Jun; Rim, Hong-Kun; Jung, Ji-Yun; An, Hyo-Jin; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Hong, Hee-Do; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2013-09-01

396

Evidence for bioadhesive effects of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing herbs in an ex vivo bioadhesion assay on buccal membranes.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of polysaccharide-containing plants are widely used in therapy for irritated mucus membranes in the pharynx region. In order to prove the existence of mucilaginous effects of polysaccharide hydrocolloids on epithelia an ex vivo system based on porcine buccal membranes was established. The tissue culture was stable and there was no indication of cytolytic processes during the 5 hour incubation period. This was confirmed through histological studies and the respective LDH values as toxicity marker. The test system was shown to discriminate the adhesive effects of different raw polysaccharides, obtained from a variety of medicinal plants. While polysaccharides from Altheae officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, Malva moschata, or Tilia cordata showed only moderate bioadhesion to epithelial tissue, strong adhesive processes were observed with polysaccharides from Fucus vesiculosus and Calendula officinalis. The adhesive effects were concentration-dependent. Histological studies of membranes, incubated with a fluorescence-labelled rhamnogalacturonan, indicated the presence of distinct polysaccharide layers on the apical membrane surface. With these results, adsorption effects of certain polysaccharides on mucus membranes were shown for the first time. Such effects suggest that this may account, at least in part, for the therapeutic effects of mucilage-containing plants in the treatment of irritated buccal membranes. PMID:10705734

Schmidgall, J; Schnetz, E; Hensel, A

2000-02-01

397

Inhibition of antithrombin and bovine serum albumin native state aggregation by heparin.  

PubMed

Protein native state aggregation, a major problem in pharmaceutical and biological processes, has been addressed pharmacologically by the addition of protein-binding excipients. Heparin (Hp), a highly sulfated polysaccharide, interacts with numerous proteins with moderate to high affinity, but reports about its effect on protein aggregation are contradictory. We studied the pH dependence of the aggregation of antithrombin (AT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence and absence of heparin. High-precision turbidimetry showed strong aggregation for both AT and BSA in I = 10 mM NaCl, conditions at which electrostatically driven Hp binding and aggregation both occur, with more obvious aggregation of heparin-free AT appearing as larger aggregate size. Aggregation of AT was dramatically inhibited at Hp: protein 6:1 (mole ratio); however, the effect at 0.5:1 Hp:protein was greater for BSA. Frontal analysis capillary electrophoresis showed a much larger equilibrium association constant Kobs between Hp and AT, in accord with the onset of Hp binding at a higher pH; both effects are explained by the higher charge density of the positive domain for AT as revealed by modeling with DelPhi. The corresponding modeling images showed that these domains persist at high salt only for AT, consistent with the 160-fold drop in Kobs at 100 mM salt for BSA-Hp binding. The smaller inhibition effect for AT arises from the tendency of its uncomplexed monomer to form larger ag