Sample records for sulfated polysaccharide inhibits

  1. Preparation and evaluation of polysaccharide sulfates for inhibiting Helicobacter pylori adhesion.

    PubMed

    Song, Weijuan; Wang, Yalong; Zhang, Liyan; Fu, Shengnan; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-03-15

    In treatments of Helicobacter pylori infections, recrudescences were common because of an unfavorable bacterial eradication rate due to the ever increasing resistance to antibiotics. In this study, we chose pectin, guar gum and chitosan to synthesize their sulfates to inhibit adhesions of H. pylori and thus enhance the eradication rate. The introduction of sulfates was characterized using FT-IR and elemental analysis. Data from zeta-potential, hydrodynamic diameter, hydrolysis and rheological property demonstrated the sulfates were physicochemically stable. Inhibition assay of hemagglutination and adhesion indicated sulfates prevented H. pylori from adhering to erythrocytes and AGS cells. In binding assay, affinities of sulfates to H. pylori suggested sulfates could compete with target cells for bacteria and moderated the bacterial adhesion to hosts. A higher content of galactoses and 2,3-O-linked sulfates benefited this action. Thus polysaccharide sulfates can serve as potential adjuvants to raise the bacterial eradication rate by inhibiting adhesions of H. pylori. PMID:24528746

  2. Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  3. Inhibition activity of sulfated polysaccharide of Sepiella maindroni ink on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Subo; Cheng, Yanna; Wang, Fengshan; Sun, Lirui; Liu, Chunhui; Chen, Guanjun; Li, Yuhua; Ward, S G; Qu, Xianjun

    2008-06-01

    SIP-SII is the sulfated S. maindroni ink polysaccharide (SIP) isolated from cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni. SIP-SII weakly inhibited tumor cell growth without cytotoxicity in vitro assay. Herein, we examined the effects of SIP-SII on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as tumor cell invasion and migration. SIP-SII (0.8-500 microg/ml) significantly decreased the expression of MMP-2 activity in human ovarian carcinoma cells SKOV3 as evidenced by the gelatin zymography analysis. No significant decrease of MMP-9 was detected in the cell line after SIP-SII treatment. The expression of MMP-2 was also evaluated using Western blot analysis. The results showed that SIP-SII inhibited the expression of MMP-2 in SKOV3 and human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells ECV304 after 24 h incubation. Furthermore, the activity of invasion and migration of SKOV3 and ECV304 cells were measured. SIP-SII displayed an inhibitory effect on the penetration of SKOV3 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane in transwell chamber. A significant inhibition of ECV304 cell migration was observed in the presence of SIP-SII. These results suggest that SIP-SII might suppress invasion and migration of carcinoma cells via inhibition of MMP-2 proteolytic activity. PMID:18406565

  4. Sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ecklonia cava accelerates antithrombin III-mediated plasma proteinase inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Kyo Jung; Yasantha Athukorala; Young-Jae Lee; Seon Heui Cha; Chi-Ho Lee; Thava Vasanthan; Kwang-Sik Choi; Sang-Ho Yoo; Se-Kwon Kim; You-Jin Jeon

    2007-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance is an important technique for studying molecular interactions and was used to investigate the molecular\\u000a interaction of anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides purified from an enzymatic hydrolysate of the brown alga Ecklonia cava (ECA) with blood coagulation factors. In a direct binding assay, binding affinity between ECA\\/antithrombin III (ATIII) and\\u000a activated blood coagulation factors was in the order: factor

  5. Novel Sulfated Polysaccharides Disrupt Cathelicidins, Inhibit RAGE and Reduce Cutaneous Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxing; Xu, Xiaoyu; Rao, Narayanam V.; Argyle, Brian; McCoard, Lindsi; Rusho, William J.; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Krueger, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Background Rosacea is a common disfiguring skin disease of primarily Caucasians characterized by central erythema of the face, with telangiectatic blood vessels, papules and pustules, and can produce skin thickening, especially on the nose of men, creating rhinophyma. Rosacea can also produce dry, itchy eyes with irritation of the lids, keratitis and corneal scarring. The cause of rosacea has been proposed as over-production of the cationic cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested a new class of non-anticoagulant sulfated anionic polysaccharides, semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) on key elements of the pathogenic pathway leading to rosacea. SAGEs were anti-inflammatory at ng/ml, including inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) proteases, P-selectin, and interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with four representative ligands. SAGEs bound LL-37 and inhibited interleukin-8 production induced by LL-37 in cultured human keratinocytes. When mixed with LL-37 before injection, SAGEs prevented the erythema and PMN infiltration produced by direct intradermal injection of LL-37 into mouse skin. Topical application of a 1% (w/w) SAGE emollient to overlying injected skin also reduced erythema and PMN infiltration from intradermal LL-37. Conclusions Anionic polysaccharides, exemplified by SAGEs, offer potential as novel mechanism-based therapies for rosacea and by extension other LL-37-mediated and RAGE-ligand driven skin diseases. PMID:21347371

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of Neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and Semaphorin3A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi Narazaki; Marta Segarra; Giovanna Tosato

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell-surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization,which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and Fucoidan,

  7. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and semaphorin3A

    PubMed Central

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization, which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and fucoidan, but not others, reduce endothelial cell-surface levels of NRP1, NRP2, and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and block the binding and in vitro function of semaphorin3A and VEGF165. Administration of fucoidan to mice reduces VEGF165-induced angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization in vivo. We find that dextran sulfate and fucoidan can bridge the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of the scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), and induce NRP1 and SREC-I coordinate internalization and trafficking to the lysosomes. Overexpression of SREC-I in SREC-I–negative cells specifically reduces cell-surface levels of NRP1, indicating that SREC-I mediates NRP1 internalization. These results demonstrate that engineered receptor internalization is an effective strategy for reducing levels and function of cell-surface receptors, and identify certain sulfated polysaccharides as “internalization inducers.” PMID:18272814

  8. Highly Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity in Cell Lines and Human Tracheal-Bronchial Histocultures

    PubMed Central

    Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Volante, Marco; Veccelli, Elena; Oreste, Pasqua; Rusnati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exploits cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The interaction between RSV and HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was used to generate a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure that mimics the heparin/heparan sulfate biosynthetic precursor. The screening of a series of N-sulfated (K5-NS), O-sulfated (K5-OS), and N,O-sulfated (K5-N,OS) derivatives with different degrees of sulfation revealed the highly sulfated K5 derivatives K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) to be inhibitors of RSV. Their 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 1.07 nM and 3.81 nM in two different cell lines, and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. Inhibition of RSV infection was maintained in binding and attachment assays but not in preattachment assays. Moreover, antiviral activity was also evident when the K5 derivatives were added postinfection, both in cell-to-cell spread and viral yield reduction assays. Finally, both K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) prevented RSV infection in human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. Together, these features put K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) forward as attractive candidates for further development as RSV inhibitors. PMID:24914125

  9. Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael S. Aquino; Clicia Grativol; Paulo A. S. Mourão; Peter Meyer

    2011-01-01

    High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted

  10. Rising from the sea: correlations between sulfated polysaccharides and salinity in plants.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rafael S; Grativol, Clicia; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2011-01-01

    High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops. PMID:21552557

  11. Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Rafael S.; Grativol, Clicia; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2011-01-01

    High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops. PMID:21552557

  12. Solomonseal Polysaccharide and Sulfated Codonopsis pilosula Polysaccharide Synergistically Resist Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Cunshuai; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    Five combinations of three ratios (PS9-sPS1, PS7-sPS3 and PS6-sPS4) were prepared with polysaccharide (PS) and sulfated polysaccharide (sPS). The antiviral activities of these compounds were subsequently compared in vitro using the MTT assay, observation of the virus structure and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that SP9-sCP1, CP7-sCA3, EP7-sAP3, CA9-sEP1 and EP7-sCA3 presented higher activities, and SP9-sCP1 displayed the highest virus inhibition rate and clearly killed the virus and inhibited viral antigen expression. In an in vivo test, 28-day-old chickens were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and were administered the five drug combinations. On day 14 after the challenge, the morbidity, mortality and cure rate in each group were calculated. The results indicated that SP9-sCP1 presented the lowest morbidity and mortality and the highest cure rate. These results indicate that Solomonseal polysaccharide and sulfated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide synergistically resist NDV. Moreover, SP9-sCP1 had the highest efficacy and may be used as a new antiviral drug. PMID:25692886

  13. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds inhibit proliferation of melanoma cells and induce apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-12-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs products from Sargassumhenslowianum C. Agardh (FSAR) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVES), respectively, on proliferation of melanoma B16 cells and to investigate the underlying apoptosis promoting mechanisms. Cell viability analysis showed that both FCSPs products, i.e., FSAR and FVES, decreased the proliferation of the melanoma cells in a dose-response fashion, with FSAR being more potent at lower dosages, and FVES being relatively more anti-proliferative than FSAR at higher dosages. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V staining of the melanoma cells exposed to the FCSPs products confirmed that both FSAR and FVES induced apoptosis. The FCSPs-induced apoptosis was evidenced by loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and translocation of the cell membrane phospholipids and was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. The FCSPs bioactivity is proposed to be attributable to distinct structural features of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S.henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions that involve activation of caspase-3. PMID:22363242

  14. Extraction, characterization and antimicrobial activity of sulfated polysaccharides from fish skins.

    PubMed

    Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Sila, Assaâd; Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from gray triggerfish (GTSP) and smooth hound (SHSP) skins. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities of GTSP and SHSP against Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 43251), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enterica (ATCC 43972) and Enterobacter sp were evaluated by determining clear growth inhibition zone diameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and by essays in liquid media. GTSP and SHSP were fractionated by a Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography. Fraction FGII, from GTSP, and fraction FSII, from SHSP, showed the most important inhibitory effects against the tested bacterial species. The sulfated polysaccharides from fish skins did not show hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Overall, the results suggested that those polysaccharides could offer promising sources of polysaccharides for future application as dietary ingredients in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:25647621

  15. Catalytic synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides I: Characterization of chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaonuo; Zuo, Yuan; Tian, Jia; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, sulfated derivatives of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SASP) with high degree of substitution (DS) were synthesized by using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)/dimethylcyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as catalyst in homogeneous conditions. It was found that DMAP/DCC showed marked improvement in DS of sulfated samples. Compared to sulfated derivatives without catalyst, the DS of SASP increased from 0.91 to 1.28 with an increment in dosage of DMAP from 0 to 10 mg. The influence of DMAP/DCC on the DS of sulfated derivatives was depended on the content of DMAP. The effect of DMAP might be due to its strong coordination to the hydroxy group. The results of FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that SO3- group (S6+, binding energy of 172.3 eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharide molecules. 13C NMR results indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant for sulfated polysaccharide when compared with other positions. In the sulfation reaction, a sharp decrease in MW was observed. DMAP/DCC was an effective catalyst system in sulfated modification of polysaccharide. PMID:25499892

  16. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Dengue Virus Infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Interacting with the Viral Envelope Protein E Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Vervaeke, Peter; Alen, Marijke; Noppen, Sam; Schols, Dominique; Oreste, Pasqua; Liekens, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes cytokine-mediated alterations in the barrier function of the microvascular endothelium, leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We observed that DENV (serotype 2) productively infects primary (HMVEC-d) and immortalized (HMEC-1) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, despite the absence of well-described DENV receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or the mannose receptor on the cell surface. However, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were highly expressed on these cells and pre-treatment of HMEC-1 cells with heparinase II or with glycosaminoglycans reduced DENV infectivity up to 90%, suggesting that DENV uses HSPGs as attachment receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 derivatives, which are structurally similar to heparin/heparan sulfate but lack anticoagulant activity, were able to block DENV infection of HMEC-1 and HMVEC-d cells in the nanomolar range. The highly sulfated K5-OS(H) and K5-N,OS(H) inhibited virus attachment and subsequent entry into microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope (E) protein, as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis using the receptor-binding domain III of the E protein. PMID:24015314

  17. Sulfation of extracellular polysaccharides of red microalgae: preparation, characterization and properties.

    PubMed

    Geresh, Shimona; Mamontov, Anna; Weinstein, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Polysaccharides are natural polymers with a variety of properties that may be translated into significant commercial applications. A program of chemical modifications of the extracellular polysaccharides of red microalgae, such as Porphyridium sp. and Rhodella reticulata, has been undertaken by our group in order to tailor new properties and hence to broaden the spectrum of potential applications. These algal biopolymers are anionic in nature due to the presence of uronic acids (about 10%) and sulfate half esters (about 7%). In the current study, the sulfate content of these biopolymers was increased to 35-40% by means of sulfation agents such as pyridine SO(3), DMF.SO(3) and ClSO(3)H. Reaction conditions were optimized in a model system based on potato starch as the model polysaccharide (type of reagent, temperature and time of reaction). After work-up procedures, the highest sulfate content was obtained by sulfation of the polysaccharide of Porphyridium sp. with a mixture of ClSO(3)H and pyridine at 70 degrees C for 1 h. The sulfated products were characterized by chemical and rheological analyses, IR spectroscopy, and GPC-HPLC chromatography. "Oversulfated" polymers (having sulfate contents exceeding 20%) with high molecular weights were found to inhibit mammalian cell growth when used at certain concentrations; for example, over 80% inhibition was obtained when oversulfated polymers at a concentration of 200 microg/ml were tested on T-cell lymphoma line 24-1. These preliminary results indicate that the modified polysaccharides do indeed exhibit potential therapeutic properties. PMID:11741706

  18. Sulfation of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides in different solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Yan Wen; Tianyu Li; Ling Hu

    2003-01-01

    A branched ionic polysaccharide isolated from the sap of the Chinese lac tree (Rhus vernicifera) was chemically modified by sulfation using sulfur trioxide–pyridine (SO3·Py) complex as a reagent. Effects of molar ratio of SO3·Py complex to sugar unit, reaction time and reaction temperature on degree of sulfation (DS) and molecular weights of products were studied. Solvent was another important factor

  19. Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 ?g/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively. PMID:21822410

  20. Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed

    PubMed Central

    Ushakova, Natalia A.; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E.; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Bilan, Maria I.; Usov, Anatolii I.; Grachev, Alexey A.; Morozevich, Galina E.; Berman, Albert E.; Sanderson, Craig J.; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. PMID:21387013

  1. Sulfated polysaccharides purified from two species of padina improve collagen and epidermis formation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kordjazi, Moazameh; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Feizi, Farideh; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Feghhi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii using CaCl2 and ethanol precipitation. The sulfate content of each polysaccharide was determined. Two identical wounds (either burn or excision) were made on the back of 4 groups of male Wistar rats (10 rats per group) under anesthesia. The algal polysaccharide ointments (2%) were applied twice daily on one side and the other wound was treated with Eucerin (as control). The rats were sacrificed on day 7 or 14, and then the wound samples were examined for epidermal thickness by light microscope. Furthermore, hydroxyproline content (as a marker of collagen formation) was spectro-photometrically measured. The polysaccharides purified from P. boergesenii had higher sulfate content (32.6±1%) compared to P. tetrastromatica (19±1%). Both algal polysaccharides showed some improvements in collagen formation (hydroxyproline content) and epidermal thickness in both wound models compared to the vehicle. The sulfated polysaccharides purified from P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii seaweeds are able to induce collagen formation and epidermal regeneration in the two wound models. The superior healing properties of P. boergesenii polysaccharides might be correlated to its higher sulfate content. Both algal polysaccharides are good candidates for wound healing clinical trials. PMID:24551807

  2. On the dielectric behaviour of collagen–algal sulfated polysaccharide blends: Effect of glutaraldehyde crosslinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Figueiró; A. A. M. Macêdo; M. R. S. Melo; A. L. P. Freitas; R. A. Moreira; R. S. de Oliveira; J. C. Góes; A. S. B. Sombra

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, impedance measurements in the frequency range from 10?2 to 106 Hz are presented for collagen and algal sulfated polysaccharide crosslinked films. We are considering the development of new biomaterials which have potential applications in coating of cardiovascular prostheses, support for cellular growth and in systems for controlled drug delivery. The effect of crosslink sulfated polysaccharide on the

  3. Enhancement of antitumor activities in sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Yonghui; Cheung, Peter C K

    2009-11-25

    Two water-soluble derivatives, sulfated and carboxymethylated Ganoderma lucidem polysaccharides, coded as S-GL and CM-GL, were prepared using derivatization of water-insoluble polysaccharides (GL-IV-I) extracted from the fruit body of G. lucidem . The degree of substitution (DS) of S-GL and CM-GL was 0.94 and 1.09, respectively. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of GL-IV-I, S-GL, and CM-GL was determined with light scattering to be 13.3x10(4), 10.1x10(4), and 6.3x10(4), respectively. S-GL and CM-GL inhibited the in vitro proliferation of Sarcoma 180 (S-180) tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 26 and 38 microg/mL, respectively. They also inhibited the growth of S-180 solid tumors implanted in BALB/c mice, with low toxicity to the animals. Flow cytometric studies revealed that treatment of S-GL and CM-GL with S-180 tumor cells could mediate the cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of Bax increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically, as shown by immuno-histochemical staining of S-180 tumor tissue excised from the animals. The sulfated and carboxmethylated groups in the polysaccharides played an important part in enhancing their antitumor activities, leading to the potential to be developed into antitumor drugs. PMID:19863048

  4. Preparation of lacquer polysaccharide sulfates and their antioxidant activity in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Zou; Yumin Du; Yan Li; Jianhong Yang; Tao Feng; Le Zhang; John F. Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated and purified from the sap of the lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Five sulfated lacquer polysaccharide (LPS), with various molecular weights (Mw) and degrees of sulfation (DS) were prepared by the reaction of LP with sulfur trioxide–pyridine complex (SO3·Py) in DMSO. The structure of LPS was analyzed by GPC, UV–vis, FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy; the

  5. Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego O. Croci; Albana Cumashi; Natalia A. Ushakova; Marina E. Preobrazhenskaya; Antonio Piccoli; Licia Totani; Nadezhda E. Ustyuzhanina; Maria I. Bilan; Anatolii I. Usov; Alexey A. Grachev; Galina E. Morozevich; Albert E. Berman; Craig J. Sanderson; Maeve Kelly; Patrizia di Gregorio; Cosmo Rossi; Nicola Tinari; Stefano Iacobelli; Gabriel A. Rabinovich; Nikolay E. Nifantiev; Donald Gullberg

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions

  6. Microwave assisted extraction of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from Ascophyllum nodosum and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan

    2015-09-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum were extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Different conditions of temperature (90-150°C), extraction time (5-30min) were evaluated and optimal fucoidan yield was 16.08%, obtained from 120°C for 15min's extraction. Compositional analysis, GPC, HPAEC and IR analysis were employed for characterization of extracted sulfated polysaccharides. Fucose was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 90°C while glucuronic acid was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 150°C. Both the molecular weight and sulfate content of extracted fucoidan increased with decreasing extraction temperature. All fucoidans exhibited antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH scavenging and reducing power, among which fucoidan extracted at 90°C was highest. This study shows that MAE is an efficient technology to extract sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed and Ascophyllum nodosum could potentially be a resource for natural antioxidants. PMID:26050894

  7. INCORPORATION OF SULFATE INTO THE CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF THE RED ALGA PORPHYRIDIUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ramus; S. T. GROVES

    1972-01-01

    The accumulauon of sulfate-~sS by Porphyndzum aerug~neum cells and subsequent appearance of solubilized capsular polysaccharide-35S in the growth medium were examined The up- take of labeI by the cells was largely hght dependent. Pulse-chase experiments using log phase ceils revealed a iapid labeling of solubihzed capsular polysaccharide, recovered from the medium as the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitate Polyacwlamide gel electrophoresis of

  8. On the Sulfation Pattern of Polysaccharides in the Extracellular Matrix of Sheep with Chondrodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Piripi, S.A.; Williams, M.A.K.; Thompson, K.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Chondroitin sulfate is the major sulfated polysaccharide attached to the core protein, aggrecan, in the hyaline cartilage matrix. Sulfation of the cartilage matrix polysaccharide is vital for normal matrix integrity and compressive stiffness of the tissue and is therefore crucial to normal cartilage formation and consequently to endochondral ossification. Several forms of chondrodysplasia, a condition resulting in clear macroscopic deficiencies in the mechanical properties of the cartilage and characterized by reduced levels of sulfate, have been identified in both human beings and animals. Design: In this study, the authors used capillary electrophoresis to investigate the sulfation state of extracted chondroitin sulfate polymers. Results: Significantly, cartilage from affected sheep had a lower ratio of the chondroitin-derived enzymatically liberated disaccharides ?di-mono4S to ?di-mono6S, demonstrating reduced levels of chondroitin 4-sulfate, but not chondroitin 6-sulfate, in chondrodysplastic sheep compared to age-matched controls at all ages measured. Conclusion: This supports the hypothesis that a difference in chondroitin sulfate disaccharides is detectable in affected newborn lambs prior to the development of lesions.

  9. A Direct Sulfation Process of a Marine Polysaccharide in Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Weiss, Pierre; Cérantola, Stéphane; Le Bideau, Jean

    2015-01-01

    GY785 is an exopolysaccharide produced by a mesophilic bacterial strain Alteromonas infernus discovered in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. GY785 highly sulfated derivative (GY785 DRS) was previously demonstrated to be a promising molecule driving the efficient mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage repair. This glycosaminoglycan- (GAG-) like compound was modified in a classical solvent (N,N?-dimethylformamide). However, the use of classical solvents limits the polysaccharide solubility and causes the backbone degradation. In the present study, a one-step efficient sulfation process devoid of side effects (e.g., polysaccharide depolymerization and/or degradation) was developed to produce GAG-like derivatives. The sulfation of GY785 derivative (GY785 DR) was carried out using ionic liquid as a reaction medium. The successful sulfation of this anionic and highly branched heteropolysaccharide performed in ionic liquid would facilitate the production of new molecules of high specificity for biological targets such as tissue engineering or regenerative medicine.

  10. Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives as wide-range inhibitors of genital types of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Cornaglia, Maura; Cappello, Paola; Giovarelli, Mirella; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo

    2008-04-01

    Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that O-sulfated K5 with a high degree of sulfation [K5-OS(H)] and N,O-sulfated K5 with a high [K5-N,OS(H)] or low [K5-N,OS(L)] sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with low levels of sulfation, prevented the interaction between HPV-16 pseudovirions and immobilized heparin. In cell-based assays, K5-OS(H), K5-N,OS(H), and K5-N,OS(L) inhibited HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-6 pseudovirion infection. Their 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.1 and 0.9 mug/ml, without evidence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insights into the design of novel, safe, and broad-spectrum microbicides against genital HPV infections. PMID:18250186

  11. Mesorhizobium loti Produces nodPQ-Dependent Sulfated Cell Surface Polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy E. Townsend II; Lennart S. Forsberg; David H. Keating

    2006-01-01

    Leguminous plants and bacteria from the family Rhizobiaceae form a symbiotic relationship, which culmi- nates in novel plant structures called root nodules. The indeterminate symbiosis that forms between Sinorhi- zobium meliloti and alfalfa requires biosynthesis of Nod factor, a -1,4-linked lipochitooligosaccharide that contains an essential 6-O-sulfate modification. S. meliloti also produces sulfated cell surface polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The

  12. Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives: A novel class of candidate antiviral microbicides.

    PubMed

    Rusnati, Marco; Vicenzi, Elisa; Donalisio, Manuela; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2009-09-01

    Antiviral microbicides, topical agents that prevent sexually transmitted infections, mainly work by blocking the interaction between viral proteins and cell surface components. In many instances, virus-cell interaction is mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are exploited as attachment receptors by three sexually transmitted viruses: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Since these viruses can either infect or co-infect humans, virus/HSPGs interaction is a preferential target for the development of wide-spectrum antiviral microbicides. Several polyanionic compounds prevent HIV, HSV and HPV infections in cell culture models by acting as heparan sulfate (HS)-antagonists. However, three promising polyanionic compounds recently failed to pass phase III clinical trials designed to establish their efficacy in preventing HIV acquisition. In this scenario, new polyanionic compounds must be added to the pipeline of candidate microbicides and their development as effective drugs reconsidered. The capsular K5 polysaccharide from Escherichia coli has the same structure as the heparin/HS biosynthetic precursor. Chemical and enzymatic modifications have led to the synthesis of K5 derivatives with different degrees of sulfation and charge distribution and devoid of anticoagulant activity and cell toxicity. Recently attracting attention as candidate microbicides, they potently inhibit a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains and genital types of HPV and HSV-1 and 2 in vitro. With a focus on the K5 derivatives, this article reviews the literature on polyanions as antiviral microbicides and discusses the possible therapeutic implications of this novel class of compounds. PMID:19447134

  13. Mobilization of stem/progenitor cells by sulfated polysaccharides does not require selectin presence

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Elizabeth A.; Priestley, Gregory V.; Nakamoto, Betty; Collins, Robert G.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2000-01-01

    Employing carbohydrate ligands, which have been extensively used to block selectin function in vitro and in vivo, we have examined the involvement of such ligands in stem/progenitor cell mobilization in mice and monkeys. We found that sulfated fucans, branched and linear, are capable of increasing mature white cells in the periphery and mobilizing stem/progenitor cells of all classes (up to 32-fold) within a few hours posttreatment in a dose-dependent manner. To elicit the effect, the presence of sulfate groups was necessary, yet not sufficient, as certain sulfated hexosamines tested (chondroitin sulfates A or B) were ineffective. Significant mobilization of stem/progenitor cells and leukocytosis was elicited in selectin-deficient mice (L?/?, PE?/?, or LPE?/?) similar to that of wild-type controls, suggesting that the mode of action of sulfated fucans is not through blockade of known selectins. Other mechanisms have been entertained, in particular, the release of chemokines/cytokines, including some previously implicated in mobilization. Significant increases were documented in the levels of seven circulating chemokines/cytokines within a few hours after fucan sulfate treatment and support such a proposition. Additionally, an increase was noted in plasma metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, which might independently contribute to the mobilization process by enzymatically facilitating chemokine/cytokine release. Mobilization by sulfated polysaccharides provides a distinct paradigm in the mobilization process and uncovers an additional novel in vivo biological role for sulfated glycans. As similarly sulfated compounds were ineffective in vivo, the data also underscore the fact that polysaccharides with similar structures may elicit diverse in vivo effects. PMID:10841555

  14. Antiproliferative activity of sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an enzymatic digest of Ecklonia cava on the U-937 cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasantha Athukorala; Gin Nae Ahn; Young-Heun Jee; Gi-Young Kim; Soo-Hyun Kim; Jin-Hwan Ha; Jung-Sook Kang; Ki-Wan Lee; You-Jin Jeon

    2009-01-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide purified from a brown alga Ecklonia cava, having high anticoagulant activity was investigated for its antiproliferative effect on murine colon carcinoma (CT-26),\\u000a human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U-937), human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), and mouse melanoma (B-16) cell lines. The\\u000a sulfated polysaccharide isolated and purified from an enzymatic extract of E. cava had a good selective tumor cell growth

  15. Effect of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides and its sulfated derivatives on immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinghong; Zhang, Yuetian; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Zhao, Xingfang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Shu, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    One hundred mice were randomly divided into five groups. The mice in one group were injected with physiological saline as the normal control group. The mice in the other four groups were injected with physiological saline, sulfated Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (SCVP), Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide (CVP) and astragalus polysaccharide (AP) once daily for 7 d and then with cyclophosphamide (CY) in the last 3 d. The serum cytokine level, apoptosis protein expressions, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, changes in peripheral blood T-cell subsets, and immune organ index were then measured. Results showed that SCVP and CVP can overcome CY-induced immunosuppression by promoting spleen lymphocyte proliferation, raising serum IFN-? and IL-2 levels, enlarging immune organ indexes, and decreasing excessive apoptosis. Moreover, SCVP and CVP showed the potential to treat autoimmune diseases based on CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Results suggested that SCVP and CVP exhibited the potential to treat autoimmune and immunosuppression diseases. PMID:25785030

  16. Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. PMID:23507892

  17. Sulfated modification can enhance the immune-enhancing activity of lycium barbarum polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Jing Liu; Jing Zhang; Saifuding Abula; Biao Zhao; Shiliang Ruan

    2010-01-01

    In test in vitro, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs) with different degrees of sulfation (DS), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were added into cultured chicken peripheral lymphocytes and the changes of lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay taking the non-modified LBPS as control. Two sLBPSs with better efficacy, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9 were selected. In test in vivo, one

  18. Antihyperlipidemic effects of different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Pengzhan; Li Ning; Liu Xiguang; Zhou Gefei; Zhang Quanbin; Li Pengcheng

    2003-01-01

    Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from Ulva pertusa, was degraded to yield two low molecular weight fractions U1 and U2. The molecular weights of ulvan and its fractions were determined and varied from 151.6 to 28.2kDa. They were fed to rats on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate and compare the antihyperlipidemic actions. Ulvan-based diet significantly lowered the levels

  19. Freshwater plants synthesize sulfated polysaccharides: heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

  20. Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

  1. A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury

    E-print Network

    Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

    for review December 27, 2011) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major bar- rier demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth chondroitin sulfate polysac- charides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic

  2. Purification and Structural Characterization of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum and its Efficacy in Scavenging Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Badrinathan, S.; Shiju, T. M.; Sharon Christa, A. Suneeva; Arya, R.; Pragasam, V.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are one of the commercially beneficial compounds with a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. They are testified to be effective against free radicals and related health complications. This study aims to determine the antioxidant potential of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum, followed by its purification and structural characterization. Amount of extract obtained was 5% from 10 g of plant material. The carbohydrate and sulfate content were found to be 31 and 0.34 mg/10 g of plant material, respectively. Total sulfated polysaccharide extract showed a good radical scavenging activity at lower concentrations. The active principle from the total sulfated polysaccharide was fractionated in anion exchange and gel filtration columns followed by structural characterization using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fraction 12 closely matched with the Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of fucoidan. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum is identified as Fucoidan with potential radical scavenging activity compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene. PMID:23798781

  3. Purification and Structural Characterization of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum and its Efficacy in Scavenging Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Badrinathan, S; Shiju, T M; Sharon Christa, A Suneeva; Arya, R; Pragasam, V

    2012-11-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are one of the commercially beneficial compounds with a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. They are testified to be effective against free radicals and related health complications. This study aims to determine the antioxidant potential of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum, followed by its purification and structural characterization. Amount of extract obtained was 5% from 10 g of plant material. The carbohydrate and sulfate content were found to be 31 and 0.34 mg/10 g of plant material, respectively. Total sulfated polysaccharide extract showed a good radical scavenging activity at lower concentrations. The active principle from the total sulfated polysaccharide was fractionated in anion exchange and gel filtration columns followed by structural characterization using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fraction 12 closely matched with the Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of fucoidan. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum is identified as Fucoidan with potential radical scavenging activity compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene. PMID:23798781

  4. In vitro anti-herpetic activity of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Caulerpa racemosa.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Partha; Adhikari, Utpal; Ghosal, Prodyot K; Pujol, Carlos A; Carlucci, María J; Damonte, Elsa B; Ray, Bimalendu

    2004-12-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide fraction was isolated from the hot water extract of the green alga Caulerpa racemosa and designated HWE. This polymer, which contained galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose as the major component sugars, had [alpha](D)(30) + 46.2 degrees in water and contained 9% sulfate hemiester groups. Sugar linkage analysis indicates that HWE was branched and mainly contained 1,3- and 1,3,6-linked galactose, 1,3,4-linked arabinose, 1,4-linked glucose and terminal- and 1,4-linked xylose residues. Sulfation was deduced from infrared spectroscopy and methylation analysis to occur on O-6 of galactose and O-3 of arabinose. The native polysaccharide could be fractionated by size exclusion chromatography into two overlapping fractions and the major fraction has a hydrodynamic volume similar to that of 70 kDa dextran. HWE was a selective inhibitor of reference strains and TK(-) acyclovir-resistant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in Vero cells, with antiviral effective concentration 50% (EC(50)) values in the range of 2.2-4.2 microg/ml and lacking cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, HWE did not exhibit anticoagulant properties at concentrations near the EC(50). PMID:15541745

  5. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1) defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2) looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3) identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding) and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4) considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5) investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases. PMID:25955754

  6. PROTEIN POLYSACCHARIDE IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE: INHIBITION OF PHASE SEPARATION.

    PubMed

    WEINSTEIN, G M; SACHS, C R; SCHUBERT, M

    1963-11-22

    A macromolecule of protein and chondroitin sulfate (PP-L) inhibits sedimentation of barium-polystyrene sulfonate (BaPSS) and of calcium phosphate at low but not at high values of gravity. Sedimentation of BaPSS removes a large fraction of PP-L from solution, but sedimentation of calcium phosphate does not. The results suggest entanglement among linear polyanionic chains. PMID:14072176

  7. Roles of fucoidan, an anionic sulfated polysaccharide on BSA-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do-Yeong Kim; Weon-Sun Shin

    2009-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, is an important material valued for its various biological\\u000a functions, including anti-coagulation, anti-aging, and immune system support. In this study, we examined the potential of\\u000a fucoidan as a novel emulsifying agent in BSA (bovine serum albumin)-stabilized emulsion at a neutral pH. We measured the dispersed\\u000a oil-droplet size, surface zeta-potential and creaming formation

  8. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of isolated sulfated polysaccharides to characterize pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a powerful methodology for quantification and structural characterization of highly anionic polysaccharides. Separation of saccharides under conditions of electrophoretic flow, typically achieved under low pH (Ampofo et al., Anal Biochem 199:249-255, 1991; Rhomberg et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4176-4181, 1998), is charge-based. Resolution of components is often superior to flow-based techniques, such as liquid chromatography. During the heparin contamination crisis, capillary electrophoresis was one of the key methodologies used to identify whether or not heparin lots were contaminated (Guerrini et al., Nat Biotechnol 26:669-675, 2008). Here we describe a method for isolation of sulfated heparin/heparan sulfate saccharides from urine, their digestion by deployment of heparinase enzymes (Ernst et al., Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 30:387-444, 1995), resolution of species through use of orthogonal digestions, and analysis of the resulting disaccharides by capillary electrophoresis. PMID:25325952

  9. A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Renan O.; Santana, Ana Paula M.; Carvalho, Nathalia S.; Bezerra, Talita S.; Oliveira, Camila B.; Damasceno, Samara R. B.; Chaves, Luciano S.; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P.; Soares, Pedro M. G.; Souza, Marcellus H. L. P.; Barbosa, André Luiz R.; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R.

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group—vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation. PMID:23342384

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Anti-Angiogenic Multitarget N,O-Sulfated E. Coli K5 Polysaccharide in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rezzola, Sara; Dal Monte, Massimo; Belleri, Mirella; Bugatti, Antonella; Chiodelli, Paola; Corsini, Michela; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Cancarini, Anna; Morbidelli, Lucia; Oreste, Pasqua; Bagnoli, Paola; Semeraro, Francesco; Presta, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockers have been developed for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), the leading cause of visual impairments in the working-age population in the Western world. However, limitations to anti-VEGF therapies may exist because of the local production of other proangiogenic factors that may cause resistance to anti-VEGF interventions. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches targeting additional pathways are required. Here, we identified a sulfated derivative of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide K5 [K5-N,OS(H)] as a multitarget molecule highly effective in inhibiting VEGF-driven angiogenic responses in different in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays, including a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Furthermore, K5-N,OS(H) binds a variety of heparin-binding angiogenic factors upregulated in PDR vitreous humor besides VEGF, thus inhibiting their biological activity. Finally, K5-N,OS(H) hampers the angiogenic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by human vitreous fluid samples collected from patients with PDR. Together, the data provide compelling experimental evidence that K5-N,OS(H) represents an antiangiogenic multitarget molecule with potential implications for the therapy of pathologic neovessel formation in the retina of patients with PDR. PMID:25695948

  11. Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by complexation with polysaccharides: carrageenan versus dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by electrostatic complexation of drug molecules with oppositely charged polysaccharides represent a promising bioavailability enhancement strategy for poorly-soluble drugs owed to their high supersaturation generation capability and simple preparation. Using ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the model drug, we investigated the effects of using dextran sulfate (DXT) or carrageenan (CGN) on the (1) preparation efficiency, (2) physical characteristics, (3) supersaturation generation, (4) antimicrobial activity, and (5) cytotoxicity of the amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (nanoplex) produced. Owing to the higher charge density and chain flexibility of DXT, coupled with the greater hydrophobicity of CGN, the CIP-DXT nanoplex exhibited superior preparation efficiency and larger size than the CIP-CGN nanoplex. Whereas the low solubility and high gelation tendency of CGN resulted in superior supersaturation generation capability for the CIP-DXT nanoplex. The non-cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, colloidal, and amorphous state stability were established for both nanoplexes, making them an ideal supersaturated drug delivery system. PMID:25498670

  12. Inhibition of Mouse Sarcoma 180 by Polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goro Chihara; Yukiko Maeda; Junji Hamuro; Takuma Sasaki; Fumiko Fukuoka

    1969-01-01

    POLYSACCHARIDE preparations from bamboo leaves1, bagasse2,3 and wheat straw4 inhibit the growth of sarcoma 180 implanted subcutaneously in mice. It was proposed that this activity was host mediated, not cytocidal.

  13. Effects of partial desulfation on antioxidant and inhibition of DLD cancer cell of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Pei, Yaping; Fang, Zhongxian; Sun, Peilong

    2014-04-01

    Ulva fasciata belonging to the family Ulvaceae, commonly known as 'sea lettuce', is an abundantly growing green seaweed in coastal seashore of South China. Three different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2 and UFP3) were extracted and separated from U. fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. The three native UFP fractions had partial desulfurization by solvolytic desulfation respectively and the effect of sulfate content on the exhibition of the antioxidant and anti-tumor capacities had been evaluated and compared. The results showed that each native polysaccharide (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3) with high sulfate content exhibited better antioxidant activities compared with the partial desulfated polysaccharides (DS-UFP1, DS-UFP2, DS-UFP3). Specifically, UFP2 with relatively high sulfate content, molecular weight and uronic acid content had consistently excellent antioxidant performances. However, UFP2 demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of DLD intestinal cancer cells. Instead, DS-UFP3 with the lowest sulfate content but highest uronic acid content and molecular weight exhibited the best antitumor activity. PMID:24463264

  14. Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-?B signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?-B?. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-?B, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. PMID:24626144

  15. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Fan Zhang; Xiaona Zhao; Saifuding Abula; Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. After purification, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid–pyridine method respectively at four designed modification conditions. Four sLBPSs at 5 concentrations, within the safety concentration scope, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivating system of chick embryo

  16. Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysaccharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysaccharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars Rajeev and enhancement of cellulase activity and stability have been reported in recent years, sugar yields are still. Furthermore, cellulase inhibition dramatically increased with heteromannan loading and mannan substitu- tion

  17. The sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan rescues senescence of endothelial colony-forming cells for ischemic repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun; Choi, Sung Hyun; Asahara, Takayuki; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of cell therapy using endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in the treatment of ischemia is limited by the replicative senescence of isolated ECFCs in vitro. Such senescence must therefore be overcome in order for such cell therapies to be clinically applicable. This study aimed to investigate the potential of sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan to rescue ECFCs from cellular senescence and to improve in vivo vascular repair by ECFCs. Fucoidan-preconditioning of senescent ECFCs was shown by flow cytometry to restore the expression of functional ECFC surface markers (CD34, c-Kit, VEGFR2, and CXCR4) and stimulate the in vitro tube formation capacity of ECFCs. Fucoidan also promoted the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins (cyclin E, Cdk2, cyclin D1, and Cdk4) in senescent ECFCs, significantly reversed cellular senescence, and increased the proliferation of ECFCs via the FAK, Akt, and ERK signaling pathways. Fucoidan was found to enhance the survival, proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of senescent ECFCs transplanted in ischemic tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Moreover, ECFC-induced functional recovery and limb salvage were markedly improved by fucoidan pretreatment of ECFCs. To our knowledge, the findings of our study are the first to demonstrate that fucoidan enhances the neovasculogenic potential of ECFCs by rescuing them from replicative cellular senescence. Pretreatment of ECFCs with fucoidan may thus provide a novel strategy for the application of senescent stem cells to therapeutic neovascularization. Stem Cells 2015;33:1939-1951. PMID:25693733

  18. In Vivo Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of a Sulfated Derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelial Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Larsen, I. V.; Carballo, E. V.; Jose, G.; Stern, R. A.; Brummel, R. C.; Camelini, C. M.; Rossi, M. J.; Simões, C. M. O.

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. subrufescens), a basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest in Brazil, contains cell walls rich in glucomannan polysaccharides. The ?-(1?2)-gluco-?-(1?3)-mannan was isolated from A. brasiliensis mycelium, chemically modified by sulfation, and named MI-S. MI-S has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) attachment, entry, and cell-to-cell spread (F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. M. Camelini, A. Mascarello, M. J. Rossi, R. J. Nunes, C. R. Barardi, M. M. de Mendonça, and C. M. O. Simões, Antiviral Res. 92:108–114, 2011). The antiherpetic efficacy of MI-S was assessed in murine ocular, cutaneous, and genital infection models of HSV. Groups of 10 mice were infected with HSV-1 (strain KOS) or HSV-2 (strain 333). MI-S was given either topically or by oral gavage under various pre- and posttreatment regimens, and the severity of disease and viral titers in ocular and vaginal samples were determined. No toxicity was observed in the uninfected groups treated with MI-S. The topical and oral treatments with MI-S were not effective in reducing ocular disease. Topical application of MI-S on skin lesions was also not effective, but cutaneously infected mice treated orally with MI-S had significantly reduced disease scores (P < 0.05) after day 9, suggesting that healing was accelerated. Vaginal administration of MI-S 20 min before viral challenge reduced the mean disease scores on days 5 to 9 (P < 0.05), viral titers on day 1 (P < 0.05), and mortality (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the control groups (untreated and vehicle treated). These results show that MI-S may be useful as an oral agent to reduce the severity of HSV cutaneous and mucosal lesions and, more importantly, as a microbicide to block sexual transmission of HSV-2 genital infections. PMID:23507287

  19. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Chu-Hsi; Tsai, Min-Lang; Chen, Rong-Huei; Drummen, Gregor P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS’ functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent. PMID:24071940

  20. The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-jun; Shen, Jie; Xia, Yong-mei; Zhang, Jue; Park, Hyeon-soo

    2012-10-15

    The antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated focusing on the inhibition on human liver cancer cells. The polysaccharides inhibited human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 during earlier phase with lower dosage but obviously became less functional in later phase regardless of the dosage applied. However, apoptosis of the drugged HepG2 cells appeared in later incubation phase with high dosage, and the apoptosis could be enhanced by supplemental dose of the intracellular polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the intracellular polysaccharides inhibited other human hepatocarcinoma cells such as BEL-7402 and Huh-7 but luckily stimulated human normal liver cell L02 only in a positive dose- and time-dependent manner; so did the sulfated extracellular polysaccharides when it inhibited HepG2 and L02 cells. However, the toxicity of sulfated extracellular polysaccharides to L02 cells can be eliminated by the intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:22939333

  1. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  2. Neuronal Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Degrades and Inactivates a Neurite-Inhibiting Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zuo; Toby A. Ferguson; Yosbani J. Hernandez; William G. Stetler-Stevenson; David Muir

    1998-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are implicated in the regulation of axonal growth. We previously reported that the neurite-promoting activity of laminin is inhibited by association with a Schwann cell-derived CSPG and that endoneurial lami- nin may be inhibited by this CSPG as well (Zuo J, Hernandez YJ, Muir D (1998) Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with neurite- inhibiting activity is upregulated after

  3. Sulfated and sulfonated polysaccharide as chiral stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography and capillary electrochromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Bragg, William; Hou, Jingguo; Lin, Na; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2009-01-30

    The applications of polysaccharide phenyl carbamate derivatives as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are often hindered by longer retention times, especially using a normal-phase (NP) eluent due to very low electroosmotic flow (EOF). Therefore, in this study, we propose an approach for the aforementioned problems by introducing two new types of negatively charged sulfate and sulfonated groups for polysaccharide CSPs. These CSPs were utilized to pack CEC columns for enantioseparation with a NP eluent. Compared to conventional cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) or CDMPC CSPs, the sulfated CDMPC CSP (sulfur content 4.25%, w/w) shortened the analysis time up to 50% but with a significant loss of enantiomeric resolution (approximately 60%). On the other hand, the sulfonated CDMPC CSP (sulfur content 1.76%, w/w) not only provided fast throughput but also maintained excellent resolving power. In addition, its synthesis is much more straightforward than the sulfated one. Furthermore, we studied several stationary phase parameters (CSP loading and silica gel pore size) and mobile phase parameters (including type of mobile phase and its composition) to evaluate the throughput and enantioselectivity. Using the optimized conditions, a chiral pool containing 66 analytes was screened to evaluate the enantioselectivity under three different mobile phase modes (i.e., NP, polar organic phase (POP) and reversed-phase (RP) eluents). Among these mobile phase modes, the RP mode showed the highest success rate, whereas some degree of complementary enantioselectivity was observed with NP and POP. Finally, the feasibility of applying this CSP for CEC-MS enantioseparation using internal tapered column was evaluated with NP, POP and RP eluents. In particular, the NP-CEC-MS provided significantly enhanced sensitivity when methanol was replaced with isopropanol in the sheath liquid. Using aminoglutethimide as model chiral analyte, all three modes of CEC-MS demonstrated excellent durability as well as excellent reproducibility of retention time and enantioselectivity. PMID:19108837

  4. Simple and Rapid Quality Control of Sulfated Glycans by a Fluorescence Sensor Assay—Exemplarily Developed for the Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Delesseria sanguinea

    PubMed Central

    Lühn, Susanne; Grimm, Juliane C.; Alban, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from algae are of great interest due to their manifold biological activities. Obstacles to commercial (especially medical) application include considerable variability and complex chemical composition making the analysis and the quality control challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple microplate assay for screening the quality of SP. It is based on the fluorescence intensity (FI) increase of the sensor molecule Polymer-H by SP and was originally developed for direct quantification of SP. Exemplarily, 65 SP batches isolated from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP) and several other algae polysaccharides were investigated. Their FI increase in the Polymer-H assay was compared with other analytical parameters. By testing just one concentration of a D.s.-SP sample, quality deviations from the reference D.s.-SP and thus both batch-to-batch variability and stability can be detected. Further, structurally distinct SP showed to differ in their concentration-dependent FI profiles. By using corresponding reference compounds, the Polymer-H assay is therefore applicable as identification assay with high negative predictability. In conclusion, the Polymer-H assay showed to represent not only a simple method for quantification, but also for characterization identification and differentiation of SP of marine origin. PMID:24727392

  5. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  6. Structural characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide from cultured Cordyceps militaris and its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yongshuai; Zhu, Jianhua; Liu, Ting; Bi, Sixue; Hu, Xianjing; Chen, Zhiyan; Song, Liyan; Lv, Wenjie; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-04-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CMPA90-1; compound 1) was isolated from the cultured fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. The chemical structure of compound 1 was elucidated by acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis, along with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional [(1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and two-dimensional NMR (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Sulfation of compound 1 by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method led to synthesis of its sulfated analogue (CMPA90-M1; compound 2). The ultrastructures of both compounds 1 and 2 were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results of antioxidant assays showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited free-radical-scavenging effects, ferrous-ion-chelating ability, and reducing power. Also, in the cytotoxicity assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 39.08 and 17.33 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:25785351

  7. Inhibition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative injury induced by ?-irradiation in rat liver mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Li; A. G. Zhou; X. M. Li

    2007-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and Ganoderma lucidum, the two precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, the possible antioxidant effects of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) isolated from dried L. barbarum fruits and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) isolated from dried G. lucidum against membrane damage induced by the

  8. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Huheihel; Vladimir Ishanu; Jacov Tal

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not

  9. Inhibition of Rhizobium etli Polysaccharide Mutants by Phaseolus vulgaris Root Compounds.

    PubMed

    Eisenschenk, L; Diebold, R; Perez-Lesher, J; Peterson, A C; Kent Peters, N; Noel, K D

    1994-09-01

    Crude bean root extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris were tested for inhibition of the growth of several polysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium etli biovar phaseoli CE3. Mutants deficient only in exopolysaccharide and some mutants deficient only in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide were no more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the extracts, whereas mutants defective in both lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide were much more sensitive. The inhibitory activity was found at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in stems or leaves. Inoculation with either wild-type or polysaccharide-deficient R. etli did not appear to affect the level of activity. Sequential extractions of the crude root material with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water partitioned inhibitory activity into each solvent except methanol. The major inhibitors in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were purified by C(18) high-performance liquid chromatography. These compounds all migrated very similarly in both liquid and thin-layer chromatography but were distinguished by their mass spectra. Absorbance spectra and fluorescence properties suggested that they were coumestans, one of which had the mass spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonances of coumestrol. These results are discussed with regard to the hypothesis that one role of rhizobial polysaccharides is to protect against plant toxins encountered during nodule development. PMID:16349385

  10. Separation, purification, and ?-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-kuang; Hsu, Tai-hao; Lin, Fang-yi; Cheng, Yuan-kai; Yang, John Po-wen

    2013-01-30

    Intracellular polysaccharides (iPs) were separated and purified from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia and characterized for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties. Three iP fractions (iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1) were extracted, separated, and purified from LH1 mycelia using microwave extraction technology, a DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column, a Diaion HP20 macroporous adsorption column, and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel-permeation column. The principal constituents of iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1 were saponins and polyphenoic compound mixtures. The enzyme inhibition activity, IC(50) values, of these three fractions were 1.7, 1.8, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties were related to the presence of ?-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharide structure and the total relative percentage of d-glucose and d-galactose in the structure of polysaccharides, other than triterpenoids. PMID:23218298

  11. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamic acid sulfation by flavonoids and their conjugated metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Chun; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids are dietary phenolic antioxidants that are abundant in our diet. Hydroxycinnamic acids are highly sulfated in vivo, and sulfotransferases (SULTs), in particular SULT1A1, play a major role in their metabolism. Flavonoids are potent inhibitors of human SULTs. In this study, the potential metabolic interaction between dietary hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids was investigated. Flavonoids, such as luteolin, quercetin, daidzein, and genistein, are identified as potent inhibitors of hydroxycinnamic acid sulfation in human liver S9 homogenate with IC50 values <1 µM. The inhibitory activity was less potent in the human intestinal S9 homogenate. We also demonstrate that quercetin conjugates found in vivo (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-7-O-glucuronide, and quercetin-3'-O-sulfate) moderately inhibited the sulfation of hydroxycinnamic acids in human liver S9. In an intact cellular system, human HepG2 cells, caffeic acid and ferulic acid sulfation was inhibited by luteolin and quercetin (IC50 : 1.6-3.9 µM). Quercetin-3'-O-sulfate weakly inhibited sulfation. Quercetin glucuronides, limited by their low cellular uptake, were ineffective. These data suggest that the inhibition of SULTs by flavonoids and in vivo flavonoid conjugates may modify the bioavailability of dietary hydroxycinnamic acids by suppressing their conversion to sulfated metabolites. PMID:24038617

  12. Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Red Algae Gracilaria caudata Protects Mice Gut Against Ethanol-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; de Souza Chaves, Luciano; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg?1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g?1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg?1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg?1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg?1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg?1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g?1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway. PMID:22163181

  13. Anti-duck virus hepatitis mechanisms of Bush Sophora Root polysaccharide and its sulfate verified by intervention experiments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Zeng, Ling; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Ming, Ke; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2015-06-01

    In our previous study, Bush Sophora Root polysaccharide (BSRPS) and its sulfate (sBSRPS) exhibited anti-duck virus hepatitis (DVH) abilities as well as anti-oxidative and immuno-enhancement effects. The aim of this paper was to ulteriorly investigate the exact anti-DVH mechanisms of BSRPS and sBSRPS by intervention experiments. Hinokitiol and FK506 were used as the pro-oxidant and immunosuppressant, respectively. The dynamic deaths, oxidative and immune evaluation indexes and hepatic pathological change scores were detected. When was intervened by hinokitiol, sBSRPS still possessed therapeutic effect while BSPRS was useless. Under the condition of immunosuppression, BSRPS lost a part role in treating DVH; however such a role of sBSRPS completely exhausted. These results suggested both anti-oxidative and immuno-enhancement effects of BSRPS played roles in healing DVH, and the former was more crucial; unlike BSRPS, only immuno-enhancement ability of sBSRPS was imperative for its curative effect on DVH. PMID:25901935

  14. Effect and mechanisms of curdlan sulfate on inhibiting HBV infection and acting as an HB vaccine adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingli; Tan, Haining; Xu, Dongqing; Yin, Fengxin; Cheng, Yanna; Zhang, Xinke; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-09-22

    In this study, the effect and mechanisms of curdlan sulfate (CS3) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and promoting immune response of the mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) were investigated. The results showed that CS3 could inhibit HBV infection of HepG2 and HepaRG cells, especially the process of HBV particle binding to the cell surfaces. The surface plasmon response (SPR) technology indicated that CS3 could bind with recombinant HBsAg and the binding ability depended on the content of sulfate groups on the polysaccharide chains. Co-administration of CS3 to BALB/c mice immunized with HBsAg significantly enhanced the influx of macrophages and dendritic cells in spleen, increased antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers, and promoted splenocyte proliferation. The titer of HBsAg-specific antibodies was also augmented by use of CS3 as a vaccine adjuvant. The higher expression of interferon (IFN)-?, lower expression of interleukin (IL)-4, and higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratio within the anti-HBsAg antibodies in mice immunized with HBsAg plus CS3 than those in mice receiving HBsAg alone indicated that CS3 induced a shift toward a Th1-biased immune response. These results presented that CS3 could be developed as an immunotherapy agent or vaccine adjuvant for HBV infection treatment or prevention. PMID:24906778

  15. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  16. 2-O-Sulfated Domains in Syndecan-1 Heparan Sulfate Inhibit Neutrophil Cathelicidin and Promote Staphylococcus aureus Corneal Infection.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Atsuko; Amano, Shiro; Gallo, Richard L; Linhardt, Robert J; Liu, Jian; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-06-26

    Ablation of syndecan-1 in mice is a gain of function mutation that enables mice to significantly resist infection by several bacterial pathogens. Syndecan-1 shedding is induced by bacterial virulence factors, and inhibition of shedding attenuates bacterial virulence, whereas administration of purified syndecan-1 ectodomain enhances virulence, suggesting that bacteria subvert syndecan-1 ectodomains released by shedding for their pathogenesis. However, the pro-pathogenic functions of syndecan-1 ectodomain have yet to be clearly defined. Here, we examined how syndecan-1 ectodomain enhances Staphylococcus aureus virulence in injured mouse corneas. We found that syndecan-1 ectodomain promotes S. aureus corneal infection in an HS-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we found that this pro-pathogenic activity is dependent on 2-O-sulfated domains in HS, indicating that the effects of syndecan-1 ectodomain are structure-based. Our results also showed that purified syndecan-1 ectodomain and heparan compounds containing 2-O-sulfate motifs inhibit S. aureus killing by antimicrobial factors secreted by degranulated neutrophils, but does not affect intracellular phagocytic killing by neutrophils. Immunodepletion of antimicrobial factors with staphylocidal activities demonstrated that CRAMP, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, is primarily responsible for S. aureus killing among other factors secreted by degranulated neutrophils. Furthermore, we found that purified syndecan-1 ectodomain and heparan compounds containing 2-O-sulfate units potently and specifically inhibit S. aureus killing by synthetic CRAMP. These results provide compelling evidence that a specific subclass of sulfate groups, and not the overall charge of HS, permits syndecan-1 ectodomains to promote S. aureus corneal infection by inhibiting a key arm of neutrophil host defense. PMID:25931123

  17. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vuk Koprivica; Kin-Sang Cho; Jong Bae Park; Glenn Yiu; Jasvinder Atwal; Bryan Gore; Jieun A. Kim; Estelle Lin; Marc Tessier-Lavigne; Dong Feng Chen; Zhigang He

    2005-01-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite

  18. Polysaccharide Isolated from Angelica sinensis Inhibits Hepcidin Expression in Rats with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Zeng, Fang; Guo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A novel polysaccharide named Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was obtained from the powdered and defatted roots of A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. The molecular weight of ASP was determined to be 78?kDa and was 95.0% sugars consisting of mostly arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1:5.68:3.91. A previous study indicated that ASP may increase plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression in rat models of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and clarify the mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further downregulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5. The results indicate that ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in rats with IDA, and may be useful for the treatment of IDA. PMID:22985399

  19. Safflower polysaccharide inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongbing; Zeng, Hongxie; Ye, Yongqiang; Liu, Lianbin; Li, Shaojin; Zhang, Junyi; Luo, Rongcheng

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer accounts for 22.9% of all types of cancer in females worldwide. Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) is an active fraction purified from safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L). The present study investigated the effects of safflower polysaccharide on the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay following treatment of the MCF?7 cells with increasing concentrations of SPS. The results demonstrated that the SPS compound significantly inhibited the proliferation of the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and these inhibitory effects increased in a dose? and time?dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of SPS on breast cancer cells, following treatment for 72 h, was detected using an MTT assay and was calculated as 0.12 mg/ml. The apoptotic rate was detected using flow cytometry in the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and the results revealed that SPS induced cell apoptosis. The apoptotic rate of the MCF?7 cells treated with SPS was significantly higher compared with that of the untreated cells and increased in a dose?dependent manner. The expression of B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) was downregulated and the expression of Bcl?2?associated X protein was upregulated in the MCF?7 cells treated with SPS in a time?dependent manner. Additionally, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase?9 was significantly reduced and the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 was increased in the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell treated with SPS. These results demonstrated that SPS inhibited the metastasis of MCF?7 breast cancer cells and understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide novel strategies in breast cancer therapy. PMID:25673029

  20. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1?3)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1?6)-?-d-galacto- and/or (1?2)-?-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups. PMID:22073012

  1. Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of the Cu–Ni alloys in acidic sulfate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waheed A. Badawy; Khaled M. Ismail; Ahlam M. Fathi

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion and passivation behaviors of alloys with different Cu–Ni ratios were investigated in acidic sulfate solutions. The corrosion rate was calculated and the corrosion inhibition process was investigated using different amino acids as corrosion inhibitors. For these investigations conventional electrochemical techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used. Fitting of the experimental impedance data to theoretical values enables understanding

  2. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  3. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina V...

  4. Protective effect of polysaccharides on simulated microgravity-induced functional inhibition of human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Yang, Hui; Jin, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Ye, Lin-Jie; Li, Ji; Huang, Qing-Sheng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2014-01-30

    Polysaccharides are believed to be strong immunostimulants that can promote the proliferation and activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of five polysaccharides (Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (GFP), lentinan (LNT), G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and yeast glucan (YG)) on primary human NK cells under normal or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. Our results demonstrated that polysaccharides markedly promoted the cytotoxicity of NK cells by enhancing IFN-? and perforin secretion and increasing the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 under normal conditions. Meanwhile polysaccharides can enhance NK cell function under SMG conditions by restoring the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and reducing the early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, the antibody neutralization test showed that CR3 may be the critical receptor involved in polysaccharides induced NK cells activation. These findings indicated that polysaccharides may be used as immune regulators to promote the health of the public and astronauts during space missions. PMID:24299844

  5. Ctr2 links copper homeostasis to polysaccharide capsule formation and phagocytosis inhibition in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Chun, Cheryl D; Madhani, Hiten D

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a human opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for approximately 1/3 of HIV/AIDS deaths worldwide. This budding yeast expresses a polysaccharide capsule necessary for virulence. Capsule production inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Here we describe results that link copper homeostasis to capsule production and the inhibition of phagocytosis. Specifically, using Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis, we identified an insertion in the promoter region of the putative copper transporter-encoding gene CTR2 that results in reduced expression of CTR2 and increased phagocytosis by murine RAW264.7 macrophages. The mutant also displayed sensitivity to copper starvation and defects in polysaccharide capsule production and melanization. These defects were all reversed by genetic correction of the promoter insertion by homologous targeting. Several melanization-defective mutants identified previously, those in the RIM20, RIM101, and VPS25 genes, also display sensitivity to copper starvation, reduced capsule production and increased phagocytosis. Together these results indicate a previously undescribed link between copper homeostasis to polysaccharide capsule production and phagocytosis inhibition in Cryptococcus neoformans. PMID:20824073

  6. Ctr2 Links Copper Homeostasis to Polysaccharide Capsule Formation and Phagocytosis Inhibition in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Cheryl D.; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a human opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for ?1/3 of HIV/AIDS deaths worldwide. This budding yeast expresses a polysaccharide capsule necessary for virulence. Capsule production inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Here we describe results that link copper homeostasis to capsule production and the inhibition of phagocytosis. Specifically, using Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis, we identified an insertion in the promoter region of the putative copper transporter-encoding gene CTR2 that results in reduced expression of CTR2 and increased phagocytosis by murine RAW264.7 macrophages. The mutant also displayed sensitivity to copper starvation and defects in polysaccharide capsule production and melanization. These defects were all reversed by genetic correction of the promoter insertion by homologous targeting. Several melanization-defective mutants identified previously, those in the RIM20, RIM101, and VPS25 genes, also display sensitivity to copper starvation, reduced capsule production and increased phagocytosis. Together these results indicate a previously undescribed link between copper homeostasis to polysaccharide capsule production and phagocytosis inhibition in Cryptococcus neoformans. PMID:20824073

  7. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongsheng; Zhou, Ru; Ma, Lin; Hao, Yinju; Jin, Shaoju; Du, Juan; Zhao, Chengjun; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Aims of the Study To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Materials and Methods Male ICR mice were used to make the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) after intragastric administration with LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and Nimodipine (0.4 mg/kg) for seven successive days. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological scores were estimated and infarct volumes were measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Morphological changes in ischemic brains were performed for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The number of apoptotic neurons was detected by TUNEL staining. The Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1 activation were investigated by immunofluorescence and western-blot analysis. Results LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment groups significantly reduced infract volume and neurological deficit scores. LBP also relieved neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis. LBP at the dose of 40 mg/kg significantly suppressed overexpression of Bax, CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions Based on these findings we propose that LBP protects against focal cerebral ischemic injury by attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:24595452

  8. Inhibition of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities of anaerobic sewer biofilms by ferric iron dosing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lishan; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-09-01

    Ferric iron is commonly used for sulfide precipitation in sewers, thus achieving corrosion and odour control. Its impact on the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic sewer biofilms is investigated in this study. Two lab-scale rising main sewer systems fed with real sewage were operated for 8 months. One received Fe(3+) dosage (experimental system) and the other was used as a control. In addition to precipitating sulfide from bulk water, Fe(3+) dosage was found to significantly inhibit sulfate reduction and methane production by sewer biofilms. The experimental reactor discharged an effluent containing a higher concentration of sulfate and a lower concentration of methane in comparison with the reference reactor. Batch experiments showed that the addition of ferric ions reduced the sulfate reduction and methane production rates of the sewer biofilms by 60% and 80%, respectively. The batch experiments further showed that Fe(3+) dosage changed the final products of sulfate reduction with sulfide accounting for only 54% of the sulfate reduced. The other products could not be confirmed, but were not dissolved inorganic sulfur species such as sulfite or thiosulfate. The results suggest the addition of Fe(3+) at upstream locations would minimize the ferric salts required for achieving the same level of sulfide removal. Fe(3+) dosing could also substantially reduce the formation of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in sewers. PMID:19576610

  9. Heparan sulfate inhibits hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell migration and engraftment in mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Watson, H Angharad; Holley, Rebecca J; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Wilkinson, Fiona L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J Edmond; Merry, Catherine L R; Bigger, Brian W

    2014-12-26

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I Hurler (MPSI-H) is a pediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic deficiencies in IDUA, coding for ?-l-iduronidase. Idua(-/-) mice share similar clinical pathology with patients, including the accumulation of the undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate (HS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), progressive neurodegeneration, and dysostosis multiplex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment for Hurler patients, but reduced intensity conditioning is a risk factor in transplantation, suggesting an underlying defect in hematopoietic cell engraftment. HS is a co-receptor in the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) migration to the bone marrow (BM), but the effect of HS alterations on HSPC migration, or the functional role of HS in MPSI-H are unknown. We demonstrate defective WT HSPC engraftment and migration in Idua(-/-) recipient BM, particularly under reduced intensity conditioning. Both intra- but especially extracellular Idua(-/-) BM HS was significantly increased and abnormally sulfated. Soluble heparinase-sensitive GAGs from Idua(-/-) BM and specifically 2-O-sulfated HS, elevated in Idua(-/-) BM, both inhibited CXCL12-mediated WT HSPC transwell migration, while DS had no effect. Thus we have shown that excess overly sulfated extracellular HS binds, and sequesters CXCL12, limiting hematopoietic migration and providing a potential mechanism for the limited scope of HSCT in Hurler disease. PMID:25359774

  10. Biphasic Role of Chondroitin Sulfate in Cardiac Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells through Inhibition of Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Robert D.; Willis, Catherine M.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Klüppel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury. PMID:24667694

  11. Mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium sulfate inhibit mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    DePasquale, D A; Montville, T J

    1990-01-01

    In this study we examined the mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate inhibits mycotoxigenic fungi. Elevated extracellular pH, alone, was not responsible for the antifungal activity. Although conidia of Penicillium griseofulvum and Fusarium graminearum had internal pH (pHi) values as high as 8.0 in buffer at an external pH (pHo) of 9.5, their viability was not markedly affected. The pHi values from conidia equilibrated in glycine-NaOH-buffered treatments without ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate were similar to values obtained from buffered treatments containing the ammonium salts. Thus, inhibition did not appear to be directly related to increased pHi. Ammonium sulfate in buffered media at pH greater than or equal to 8.7 was as inhibitory as ammonium bicarbonate, but was completely ineffective at pH less than or equal to 7.8. The hypothesis that free ammonia caused the fungal inhibition was tested by using ammonium sulfate as a model for ammonium bicarbonate. Viability, expressed as log CFU/ml, and percent germination of P. griseofulvum and F. graminearum decreased dramatically as the free ammonia concentration increased. Germination rate ratios (the germination rate in buffered ammonium sulfate divided by the germination rate in buffer alone) decreased linearly as the free ammonia concentration increased, further establishing NH3 as the toxic agent. Ammonium bicarbonate inhibits fungi because the bicarbonate anion supplies the alkalinity necessary to establish an antifungal concentration of free ammonia. PMID:2082821

  12. Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on steel with antimicrobial peptides generated in situ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jayaraman; P. J. Hallock; R. M. Carson; C.-C. Lee; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

    1999-01-01

    In batch and continuous fermentations, the reduction in corrosion of SAE 1018 mild steel and 304 stainless steel caused by\\u000a inhibition of the reference sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris by a protective, antimicrobial-producing Bacillus brevis biofilm was investigated. The presence of D. vulgaris produced a thick black precipitate on mild steel and a higher corrosion rate in batch cultures than

  13. A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID:24789779

  14. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  15. Production of N-sulfated polysaccharides using yeast-expressed N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xi

    ; Shriver et al., 2000). Sulfation of the carbohydrates is cata- lyzed by a group of sulfotransferases, type and Selleck 2002; Grobe et al., 2003). NDST-1 is an essential enzyme for development, as its knockout in mice

  16. Inhibiting stromal cell heparan sulfate synthesis improves stem cell mobilization and enables engraftment without cytotoxic conditioning.

    PubMed

    Saez, Borja; Ferraro, Francesca; Yusuf, Rushdia Z; Cook, Colleen M; Yu, Vionnie W C; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Sykes, Stephen M; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Schajnovitz, Amir; Lotinun, Sutada; Lymperi, Stefania; Mendez-Ferrer, Simon; Toro, Raquel Del; Day, Robyn; Vasic, Radovan; Acharya, Sanket S; Baron, Roland; Lin, Charles P; Yamaguchi, Yu; Wagers, Amy J; Scadden, David T

    2014-11-01

    The glycosyltransferase gene, Ext1, is essential for heparan sulfate production. Induced deletion of Ext1 selectively in Mx1-expressing bone marrow (BM) stromal cells, a known population of skeletal stem/progenitor cells, in adult mice resulted in marked changes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) localization. HSPC egressed from BM to spleen after Ext1 deletion. This was associated with altered signaling in the stromal cells and with reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 production by them. Further, pharmacologic inhibition of heparan sulfate mobilized qualitatively more potent and quantitatively more HSPC from the BM than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, including in a setting of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor resistance. The reduced presence of endogenous HSPC after Ext1 deletion was associated with engraftment of transfused HSPC without any toxic conditioning of the host. Therefore, inhibiting heparan sulfate production may provide a means for avoiding the toxicities of radiation or chemotherapy in HSPC transplantation for nonmalignant conditions. PMID:25202142

  17. Vanadyl sulfate inhibits NO production via threonine phosphorylation of eNOS.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuowei; Carter, Jacqueline D; Dailey, Lisa A; Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to excessive vanadium occurs in some occupations and with consumption of some dietary regimens for weight reduction and body building. Because vanadium is vasoactive, individuals exposed to excessive vanadium may develop adverse vascular effects. We have previously shown that vanadyl sulfate causes acute pulmonary vasoconstriction, which could be attributed in part to inhibition of nitric oxide production. In the present study we investigated whether NO inhibition was related to phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). VOSO4 produced dose-dependent constriction of pulmonary arteries in isolated perfused lungs and pulmonary arterial rings and a right shift of the acetylcholine-dependent vasorelaxation curve. VOSO4 inhibited constitutive as well as A23187-stimulated NO production. Constitutive NO inhibition was accompanied by increased Thr495 (threonine at codon 495) phosphorylation of eNOS, which would inhibit eNOS activity. Thr495 phosphorylation of eNOS and inhibition of NO were partially reversed by pretreatment with calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. There were no changes in Ser1177 (serine at codon 1177) or tyrosine phosphorylation of eNOS. These results indicate that VOSO4 induced acute pulmonary vasoconstriction that was mediated in part by the inhibition of endothelial NO production via PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Thr495 of eNOS. Exposure to excessive vanadium may contribute to pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:14754574

  18. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Barrey; Elodie Mucher; Nicolas Jeansoule; Thibaut Larcher; Lydie Guigand; Bérénice Herszberg; Stéphane Chaffaux; Gérard Guérin; Xavier Mata; Philippe Benech; Marielle Canale; Olivier Alibert; Péguy Maltere; Xavier Gidrol

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene

  19. Growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest of human gastric cancer cells by Lycium barbarum polysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Miao; Bingxiu Xiao; Zhen Jiang; Yanan Guo; Fang Mao; Junwei Zhao; Xia Huang; Junming Guo

    2010-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Lycium barbarum, and has potential anticancer activity. However, the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was\\u000a to observe the anticancer effect of LBP on human gastric cancer, and its possible mechanisms. Human gastric cancer MGC-803\\u000a and SGC-7901 cells were treated with various concentrations of LBP

  20. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm accumulation and polysaccharide production by apigenin and tt-farnesol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Koo; M. F. Hayacibara; B. D. Schobel; J. A. Cury; P. L. Rosalen; Y. K. Park; A. M. Vacca-Smith; W. H. Bowen

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of glucosyltransferases and tt-farnesol affects the membrane integrity of Streptococcus mutans. We investigated the influence of apigenin and tt-farnesol, alone and in combination, on the accumulation, polysaccharide composition and viability of S. mutans UA159 biofilms. Methods: Initially, biofilms were grown for 54 h; then, the early-formed biofilms were treated for 1 min twice daily

  1. Cholesterol Sulfate, a Second Messenger for the TJIsoform of Protein Kinase C, Inhibits Promotional Phase in Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Chida; Akiko Murakami; Tomoko Tagawa; Tohgo Ikuta; Toshio Kuroki

    Cholesterol sulfate is a second messenger for the r\\/ isoform of protein kinase C mediating squamous differentiation. We found that cholesterol sulfate inhibited the promotional phase of skin carcinogenesis in female CD-I mice, which was initiated by 100 ug 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthra- cene and promoted by a single application of 10 ug 12-O-tetradecanoyl- phorbol-13-acetate, followed by repeated applications of 10 fig mezerein

  2. Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) Inhibits the Expression of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: Implications for Membrane Microfiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Yanina, Svetlana; Gassman, Paul L.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2:1 molar ratio preparation of bismuth with a lipophilic dithiol (3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total polysaccharides and proteins secreted by B. diminuta decreased by approximately 95% over a 5-day period when exposed to the bismuth-BAL chelate (BisBAL) at near MIC (12 ?M). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that a possible mechanism of biofilm disruption by BisBAL is the inhibition of carbohydrate Oacetylation. FTIR also revealed extensive homology between EPS samples with and without BisBAL treatment, with proteins, polysaccharides, and peptides varying predominantly only in the amount expressed. EPS secretion decreased following BisBAL treatment as verified by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes.

  3. Specific sulfation and glycosylation—a structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in ?-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in ?-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs. PMID:24639954

  4. The effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase: computational molecular dynamics integrating inhibition kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Jiang Wang; Yue-Xiu Si; Sangho Oh; Jun-Mo Yang; Shang-Jun Yin; Yong-Doo Park; Jinhyuk Lee; Guo-Ying Qian

    2012-01-01

    Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase via a combination of inhibition kinetics and computational simulations. Fucoidan reversibly inhibited tyrosinase in a mixed-type manner. Time-interval kinetics showed that the inhibition was processed as first order with biphasic

  5. Chemical characterization of lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its inhibition against liver oxidative injury of high-fat mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Tao Wu; Xue-Jun He; Ying-Kai Hong; Tao Ma; Yan-Ping Xu; Hui-Hua Li

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated chemical structure of lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its modulatory effect on oxidative stress in high-fat mice. The polysaccharides mainly contained xylose and glucose. Little amount of rhamnose, mannose and galactose was observed. The lycium barbarum polysaccharides had IR bands at 800–1200cm?1, 1450–1800cm?1, 2500–3000cm?1, and 3200–3600cm?1, which were distinctive absorptions of polysaccharides. Rats are fed with

  6. Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

    2013-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin, TGF-?1, TGF-?1 receptor (T?R)-I, T?R-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression. PMID:23918878

  7. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit model cytochrome P450 enzyme probe substrates metabolism in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2012-03-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited rat CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation and in human CYP2C9. In this study, the effects of the water extractable fraction of PSP on the metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates were investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. PSP (1.25-20?M) dose-dependently decreased CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of phenacetin to paracetamol (IC(50) 19.7?M) and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone (IC(20) 7.06?M). Enzyme kinetics studies showed the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity was competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=18.4?M). Inhibition of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone was also competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=31.8?M). Metabolism of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6-mediated) and chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1-mediated) was only minimally inhibited by PSP, with IC(20) values at 15.6?M and 11.9?M, respectively. This study demonstrated that PSP competitively inhibited the CYP1A2- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of model probe substrates in human liver microsomes in vitro. The relatively high K(i) values for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction related to these CYP isoforms. PMID:22305191

  8. Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Hannah L.; Williams, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Fry, Stephen C.; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L.; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Åsa V.; Söderholm, Johan D.; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1–99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5–10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64–81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75–90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  9. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bryony N; Wigley, Paul; Simpson, Hannah L; Williams, Jonathan M; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J M; Fry, Stephen C; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  10. Sulfated Galactan from Palisada flagellifera Inhibits Toxic Effects of Lachesis muta Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Cláudia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Luciana Garcia; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Rabello; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, snakebites are a public health problem and accidents caused by Lachesis muta have the highest mortality index. Envenomation by L. muta is characterized by systemic (hypotension, bleeding and renal failure) and local effects (necrosis, pain and edema). The treatment to reverse the evolution of all the toxic effects is performed by injection of antivenom. However, such therapy does not effectively neutralize tissue damage or any other local effect, since in most cases victims delay seeking appropriate medical care. In this way, alternative therapies are in demand, and molecules from natural sources have been exhaustively tested. In this paper, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of a sulfated galactan obtained from the red seaweed Palisada flagellifera against some toxic activities of L. muta venom. Incubation of sulfated galactan with venom resulted in inhibition of hemolysis, coagulation, proteolysis, edema and hemorrhage. Neutralization of hemorrhage was also observed when the galactan was administered after or before the venom injection; thus mimicking a real in vivo situation. Moreover, the galactan blocked the edema caused by a phospholipase A2 isolated from the same venom. Therefore, the galactan from P. flagellifera may represent a promising tool to treat envenomation by L. muta as a coadjuvant for the conventional antivenom. PMID:26110897

  11. A New Role for RPTP{sigma} in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Inhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yuntao Duan (University of Michigan School of Medicine; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV)

    2010-02-23

    It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and regeneration. In the adult nervous system, CSPGs are enriched in perineuronal nets, and their abundance is increased in reactive astrocytes following injury to brain or spinal cord. Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) enhances experience-dependent neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex and results in substantially improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the positive effects of ChaseABC treatment on neuronal plasticity have been known for some time, the underlying mechanisms remained enigmatic. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTP?) has now been identified as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs. Similarly to ChaseABC treatment, functional ablation of Ptprs, the gene encoding RPTP?, promotes neurite outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs in vitro and enhances axonal growth into CSPG-rich scar tissue following SCI in vivo. The discovery of neuronal RPTP? as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs not only provides important mechanistic clues about CSPG function, but also identifies a potential new target for enhancing axonal growth and plasticity after nervous system injury.

  12. Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of SIP-S: A sulfated polysaccharide with anti-metastatic effect.

    PubMed

    Zong, Aizhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Jiang, Wenjie; Du, Fangling; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-09-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that SIP-S had anti-metastatic activity and inhibited the growth of metastatic foci. Here we report the anti-tumor and immunoregulatory potential of SIP-S. SIP-S could significantly inhibit tumor growth in S180-bearing mice, and the inhibition rates was 43.7% at 30mg/kgd. Besides, SIP-S could improve the thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice and the mice treated with CTX. The combination of SIP-S (15mg/kgd) with CTX (12.5mg/kgd) showed higher anti-tumor potency than CTX (25mg/kgd) alone. These results indicated that SIP-S had immunoenhancing and anticancer activity, and the immunoenhancing activity might be one mechanism for its anti-tumor activity. Flow cytometry results showed that SIP-S could induce tumor cells apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that SIP-S could upregulate the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax, and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein PARP-1 in tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, SIP-S has anti-tumor activity, which may be associated with its immunostimulating and pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:26050887

  13. Efficacy of Zhuling polyporus polysaccharide with BCG to inhibit bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Qin, Gui-Fang; Han, Bo; Li, Cai-Xia; Yang, Hong-Gai; Nie, Pi-Hu; Zeng, Xing

    2015-03-15

    There is growing interest in reducing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) side effects while keeping intact its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of Sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus FRIES (Zhuling) and its main ingredient Polyporus Polysaccharide (PPS) to attenuate side effects of BCG therapy in vivo. The results show that bladder cancer development in model rats exhibited significantly reduced cancer invasiveness with Zhuling PPS combined with BCG. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis showed expression of costimulatory molecules CD86, CD40, and TLR4/CD14 significantly increased with Zhuling PPS in combination with BCG. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed stronger CD86 and CD40 staining. Our findings show Zhuling PPS strongly reduced side effects and displayed synergistic effects during BCG instillation in rat bladder cancer models. The findings also suggest that the attenuation effect may result from direct activation of dendritic cell (DC) TLR4. PMID:25542103

  14. Isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually has a dismal prognosis because of its limited response to current pharmacotherapy and high metastatic rate. Sulfated oligosaccharide has been confirmed as having potent antitumor activities against solid tumors. Here, we explored the preclinical effects and molecular mechanisms of isomalto oligosaccharide sulfate (IMOS), another novel sulfated oligosaccharide, in HCC cell lines and a xenograft model. Methods The effects of IMOS on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by cell counting, flow cytometry, adhesion, wound healing, and transwell assays, respectively. The roles of IMOS on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of AKT, ERK, and JNK as well as total levels of c-MET were detected by Western blotting. IMOS-regulated genes were screened by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) array in HCCLM3-red fluorescent protein (RFP) xenograft tissues and then confirmed by qRT-PCR in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Results IMOS markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis of HCCLM3, HepG2, and Bel-7402 cells and also significantly suppressed cell adhesion, migration, and invasion of HCCLM3 in vitro. At doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg/d, IMOS displayed robust inhibitory effects on HCC growth and metastasis without obvious side effects in vivo. The levels of pERK, tERK, and pJNK as well as c-MET were significantly down-regulated after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. No obvious changes were found in the levels of pAkt, tAkt, and tJNK. Ten differentially expressed genes were screened from HCCLM3-RFP xenograft tissues after treatment with IMOS at a dose of 90 mg/kg/d. Similar gene expression profiles were confirmed in HepG2 and Hep3B cells after treatment with 16 mg/mL IMOS. Conclusions IMOS is a potential anti-HCC candidate through inhibition of ERK and JNK signaling independent of p53 and worth studying further in patients with HCC, especially at advanced stages. PMID:21513518

  15. Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    ZHUAN-YUN, LI; XUE-PING, YAO; BIN, LIU; REHEMAN, HA NIZAIER; YANG, GAO; ZHAN, SUN; QI, MA

    2015-01-01

    Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP) has shown a variety of pharmacological properties. In the present study, the role of AAP in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was analyzed in rats to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the control, AAP, LPS and LPS plus AAP groups. Rats were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) to induce ALI. Rats in the LPS plus AAP group were treated with AAP for 7 days before the induction of ALI. The protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed by MPO and MDA kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-6, were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The data showed that treatment with AAP significantly improved LPS-induced lung pathological changes, attenuated protein concentration in the BALF, inhibited MPO activity and reduced the MDA level and lung W/D weight ratio. AAP also inhibited the release of TNF-? and IL-6 in blood. The results indicated that AAP has a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats. PMID:26171152

  16. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of promyelomonocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujioka, Masaki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Sekine, Fujio; Wada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Tsuneo

    2011-09-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is clinically used in combination therapy for gastrointestinal cancer and small cell lung carcinoma. PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated, by modulating host immune systems, such as the activation of immune effector cells and the neutralization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. Direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation has been reported as another mechanism, but how PSK induces such an effect remains to be elucidated. Here, the anti-proliferative activity of PSK was examined using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to clarify the mechanism of anti-proliferative activity. Caspase-3 activation followed by apoptosis are involved at least in part in the PSK-induced anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells. PMID:21868514

  17. A polysaccharide from Trametes robiniophila inhibits human osteosarcoma xenograft tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingkai; Ma, Shuo; Liu, Ning; Liu, Jiakun; Wang, Wenbo

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, we isolated and purified one polysaccharide (TRP) from Trametes robiniophila, which had a backbone of 1,3,6- and 1,4-linked glucpyranosyl moieties, with 1-linked arabinofuranosyl and galactopyranosyl terminal at the O-3 position of 1,3,6-linked glucpyranosyl residues. TRP was further evaluated for its antitumor activity against xenografted U-2 OS osteosarcoma in BALB/c nude mice together with the possible mechanism of action. We found that oral administration of TRP significantly suppressed U-2 OS tumor growth in mice via the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of TUNEL-positive cells in tumor tissues. Moreover, TRP administration increased the levels of the proapoptotic Bax protein and decreased the level of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, thus resulting in a rise of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved PARP became evident in tumor tissues from mice following TRP treatment, but caspase-8 keep unchanged. Besides, overexpression of metadherin (MTDH) was attenuated in tumor tissues of TRP-fed mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TRP-induced apoptosis of tumor tissues is through a mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:25839806

  18. Recognition of bacterial capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides by the macrophage mannose receptor.

    PubMed

    Zamze, Susanne; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Jones, Hannah; Taylor, Philip R; Stillion, Richard J; Gordon, Siamon; Wong, Simon Y C

    2002-11-01

    The in vitro binding of the macrophage mannose receptor to a range of different bacterial polysaccharides was investigated. The receptor was shown to bind to purified capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae and to the lipopolysaccharides, but not capsular polysaccharides, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Binding was Ca(2+)-dependent and inhibitable with d-mannose. A fusion protein of the mannose receptor containing carbohydrate recognition domains 4-7 and a full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor containing all domains external to the transmembrane region both displayed very similar binding specificities toward bacterial polysaccharides, suggesting that domains 4-7 are sufficient for recognition of these structures. Surprisingly, no direct correlation could be made between polysaccharide structure and binding to the mannose receptor, suggesting that polysaccharide conformation may play an important role in recognition. The full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor was able to bind simultaneously both polysaccharide via the carbohydrate recognition domains and sulfated oligosaccharide via the cysteine-rich domain. The possible involvement of the mannose receptor, either cell surface or soluble, in the innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial polysaccharides is discussed. PMID:12196537

  19. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Wu, Di; Sun, Wenjing; Ping, Lifeng

    2015-05-01

    HEG-5 is a novel polysaccharide-protein purified from the fermented mycelia of Hericium erinaceus CZ-2. The present study aims to investigate the effects of HEG-5 on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Here, we first uncover that HEG-5 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis suggested that HEG-5 could decrease the expressions of Bcl2, PI3K and AKT1, while increase the expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-3, p53, CDK4, Bax and Bad. These findings indicated that the Caspase-8/-3-dependent, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways involved in the molecular events of HEG-5 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence that HEG-5 may be taken as a potential candidate for treating gastric cancer. PMID:25703932

  20. Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels. PMID:22408412

  1. Oligonol Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Colonic Adenoma Formation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Hye-Won; Zhong, Xiancai; Park, Jin; Na, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Hye Seung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To evaluate the effects of oligonol administration on experimentally induced colitis and colonic adenoma formation. Results: Oral administration of oligonol protected against mouse colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Under the same experimental conditions, oligonol administration significantly inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclin D1 in the mouse colon. Further, oligonol inhibited azoxymethane-initiated and DSS-promoted adenoma formation in the mouse colon. Oligonol administration also attenuated lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and protein oxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), thereby preventing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that oligonol treatment reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor ?, il-6, cox-2, and inos in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. In another study, oligonol upregulated the antioxidant gene expression in the intestinal epithelial CCD841CoN cells and in the mouse colon. Innovation: Oligonol, an innovative formulation of catechin-type oligomers derived from the lychee fruit extract, was tested in this study for the first time to evaluate its effects on experimentally induced colitis and colonic adenoma formation in mice. Conclusion: Oligonol is effective in protecting against DSS-induced mouse colitis and colon carcinogenesis, suggesting that this polyphenol formulation may have a potential for the amelioration of inflammatory bowel disease and related disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 102–114. PMID:23394584

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate suppresses hippocampal recurrent inhibition and synchronizes neuronal activity to theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, S C

    1995-01-01

    Several neurosteroids have proconvulsant and memory-enhancing properties and are potent modulators of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor/chloride-ionophore complex. The effects of in situ microelectrophoretic application of the natural sulfate ester of the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) on evoked field responses and single-unit activity were evaluated in the dentate gyrus and CA1 hippocampal subfield of halothane-anesthetized rats. The effects of endogenous stimulation of DHEAS by in situ micropressure application of Trilostane ((4 alpha, 5 alpha, 17 beta)-4,5-epoxy-3,17-dihydroxyandrost-2-ene-2- carbonitrile (WIN24540)), an inhibitor of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3 beta-HSD), the enzyme that metabolizes DHEAS, on evoked responses and cellular activity in the hippocampus were also investigated. In situ microelectrophoretic application of DHEAS or micropressure application of Trilostane into CA1 markedly increased population excitatory postsynaptic potential (pEPSP) slopes and population spike (PS) amplitudes. Neither DHEAS nor Trilostane altered dentate pEPSP slopes or PS amplitudes, but both increased the amplitude of a late component of the pEPSP. Both DHEAS and Trilostane abolished GABA-mediated paired-pulse inhibition in both the dentate and CA1. In addition, both DHEAS and Trilostane markedly increased the spontaneous firing rate of dentate hilar interneurons (INTs: 256% and 185%), CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs: 95% and 105%), and CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons (179% and 85%) and synchronized their firing to hippocampal theta rhythm induced by tail-pinch. These findings indicate that exogenous application and endogenous stimulation of DHEAS modulates hippocampal GABA inhibition in a physiologically relevant manner possibly by entraining hippocampal neurons to theta rhythm. PMID:8589795

  3. Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  4. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  5. Vincristine sulfate-induced cell transformation, mitotic inhibition and aneuploidy in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, T.; Suzuki, N.; Maizumi, H.; Barrett, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Vincristine, a naturally occurring Vinca alkaloid and widely used anti-neoplastic agent, was examined for its ability to induce cell transformation, inhibition of growth and mitosis, and genetic effects in Syrian hamster embryo cells in culture. Treatment of the cells with doses of less than or equal to 1 ng/ml vincristine sulfate (VCR) had no effect on cell growth, while exposure to greater than or equal to 3 ng/ml reduced the growth rate and treatment with 30 ng/ml resulted in no detectable increase in cell number. At this latter dose the mitotic index of the cells increased significantly suggesting that VCR delayed completion of mitosis. Exposure of the cells to VCR at doses of 1-10 ng/ml for 48 h resulted in morphological transformation of the cells in a doserelated fashion. The vincristine-treated transformed colonies were morphologically indistinguishable from colonies transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or other chemical carcinogens. Morphological transformation was induced by VCR at non-toxic and slightly toxic doses as measured by a reduction in colony-forming ability of the treated cells. Over the dose range which resulted in cell transformation, VCR failed to induce either detectable gene mutations at two genetic loci, unscheduled DNA synthesis, or chromosome aberrations in the Syrian hamster embryo cells. However, a significant dose-dependent increase in aneuploid cells with a near-diploid chromosome number was induced by VCR. Both chromosome losses and gains were induced which is consistent with a non-disjunctional mechanism. These results further support our hypothesis that aneuploidy is one possible mechanism for induction of this early step in the neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. Furthermore, these findings indicate that VCR may have some carcinogenic potential if exposure to rapidly dividing cells occurs.

  6. INHIBITION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION BY SULFATE REDUCTION IN MICROCOSMS (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High sulfate (>1,000 mg/L) concentrations are potentially problematic for field implementation of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes because its reduction competes for electron donor with reductive dechlorination. As a result of this competition, reductive dechl...

  7. Binding of cryptococcal polysaccharide to Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, T R; Hermerath, C A

    1984-01-01

    Radioiodinated cryptococcal polysaccharide was used to study binding of the soluble polysaccharide to encapsulated and non-encapsulated cryptoccoci. Binding of polysaccharide to non-encapsulated cryptococci occurred rapidly over a 30-min period and was largely complete after 2 h. Bound, labeled polysaccharide was slowly eluted from Cryptococcus neoformans after the addition of unlabeled polysaccharide, indicating reversibility of binding. Non-encapsulated cryptococci bound polysaccharide in two ways. Specific binding to the yeast was saturable by ca. 82 ng of polysaccharide per 10(6) yeast cells. Nonspecific binding also occurred which was not saturable under the conditions used in our experiments. Phagocytosis of the non-encapsulated yeast strain was inhibited when the specific binding was ca. 50% saturated. Binding of polysaccharide to an encapsulated strain showed nonspecific, nonsaturable binding, but little specific binding occurred. Presumably the specific binding sites were saturated in the encapsulated strain. Polysaccharides obtained from a hypocapsular mutant (A61) and a normally encapsulated strain competed effectively with labeled serotype D polysaccharide for binding sites on non-encapsulated cryptococci and had identical phagocytosis-inhibiting properties. Similarly, polysaccharides from all four cryptococcal serotypes competed effectively with labeled serotype D polysaccharide for binding sites on the non-encapsulated strain, and all four polysaccharides inhibited phagocytosis of non-encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans. Unmodified, de-O-acetylated, carboxyl-reduced, periodate-oxidized and reduced (polyalcohol), and Smith-degraded polysaccharides competed with labeled polysaccharide for binding sites on the cell. The unmodified, de-O-acetylated and carboxyl-reduced polysaccharides inhibited phagocytosis of non-encapsulated cells, but the polyalcohol and Smith product were unable to inhibit phagocytosis. Images PMID:6365785

  8. Mechanisms of direct inhibition of the respiratory sulfate-reduction pathway by (per)chlorate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Hans K; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Hazra, Amrita B; Justice, Nicholas B; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Iavarone, Anthony T; Engelbrektson, Anna; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

    2015-06-01

    We investigated perchlorate (ClO4(-)) and chlorate (ClO3(-)) (collectively (per)chlorate) in comparison with nitrate as potential inhibitors of sulfide (H2S) production by mesophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs). We demonstrate the specificity and potency of (per)chlorate as direct SRM inhibitors in both pure cultures and undefined sulfidogenic communities. We demonstrate that (per)chlorate and nitrate are antagonistic inhibitors and resistance is cross-inducible implying that these compounds share at least one common mechanism of resistance. Using tagged-transposon pools we identified genes responsible for sensitivity and resistance in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We found that mutants in Dde_2702 (Rex), a repressor of the central sulfate-reduction pathway were resistant to both (per)chlorate and nitrate. In general, Rex derepresses its regulon in response to increasing intracellular NADH:NAD(+) ratios. In cells in which respiratory sulfate reduction is inhibited, NADH:NAD(+) ratios should increase leading to derepression of the sulfate-reduction pathway. In support of this, in (per)chlorate or nitrate-stressed wild-type G20 we observed higher NADH:NAD(+) ratios, increased transcripts and increased peptide counts for genes in the core Rex regulon. We conclude that one mode of (per)chlorate and nitrate toxicity is as direct inhibitors of the central sulfate-reduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that (per)chlorate are more potent inhibitors than nitrate in both pure cultures and communities, implying that they represent an attractive alternative for controlling sulfidogenesis in industrial ecosystems. Of these, perchlorate offers better application logistics because of its inhibitory potency, solubility, relative chemical stability, low affinity for mineral cations and high mobility in environmental systems. PMID:25405978

  9. [Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

  10. Effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on human hepatoma QGY7703 cells: Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhang; Haixia Chen; Jin Huang; Zhong Li; Caiping Zhu; Shenghua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), extracted from Lycium barbarum that is a kind of traditional Chinese herb, is found to have anticancer activity. In this study, the effect of LBP on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in the human hepatoma QGY7703 cell line were investigated. The effects of this compound were also tested on the concentration of calcium

  11. Structure and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan from the red alga, Gelidium crinale. Is there a specific structural requirement for the anticoagulant action?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria G; Benevides, Norma M B; Melo, Marcia R S; Valente, Ana Paula; Melo, Fábio R; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2005-09-01

    Marine red algae are an abundant source of sulfated galactans with potent anticoagulant activity. However, the specific structural motifs that confer biological activity remain to be elucidated. We have now isolated and purified a sulfated galactan from the marine red alga, Gellidium crinale. The structure of this polysaccharide was determined using NMR spectroscopy. It is composed of the repeating structure -4-alpha-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-Galp1--> but with a variable sulfation pattern. Clearly 15% of the total alpha-units are 2,3-di-sulfated and another 55% are 2-sulfated. No evidence for the occurrence of 3,6-anhydro alpha-galactose units was observed in the NMR spectra. We also compared the anticoagulant activity of this sulfated galactan with a polysaccharide from the species, Botryocladia occidentalis, with a similar saccharide chain but with higher amounts of 2,3-di-sulfated alpha-units. The sulfated galactan from G. crinale has a lower anticoagulant activity on a clotting assay when compared with the polysaccharide from B. occidentalis. When tested in assays using specific proteases and coagulation inhibitors, these two galactans showed significant differences in their activity. They do not differ in thrombin inhibition mediated by antithrombin, but in assays where heparin cofactor II replaces antithrombin, the sulfated galactan from G. crinale requires a significantly higher concentration to achieve the same inhibitory effect as the polysaccharide from B. occidentalis. In contrast, when factor Xa instead of thrombin is used as the target protease, the sulfated galactan from G. crinale is a more potent anticoagulant. These observations suggest that the proportion and/or the distribution of 2,3-di-sulfated alpha-units along the galactan chain may be a critical structural motif to promote the interaction of the protease with specific protease and coagulation inhibitors. PMID:16023626

  12. The depolymerized fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber potently inhibits HIV replication via interfering with virus entry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Wu, Ming-Yi; Zheng, Chang-Bo; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2013-10-18

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS-1) is a nontoxic and water-soluble depolymerized glycosaminoglycan obtained from the sea cucumber Thelenota ananas. Anti-HIV activities of FuCS-1 were evaluated in the present study. FuCS-1 was effective in blocking laboratory strain HIV-1IIIB entry and replication (4.26?g/mL and 0.73?g/mL, respectively), and inhibiting infection by clinic isolate HIV-1KM018 and HIV-1TC-2 (23.75?g/mL and 31.86?g/mL, respectively) as well as suppressing HIV-1 drug-resistant virus. It also inhibited HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20 replication (100?g/mL). Notably, FuCS-1 showed highly effective antiviral activity against T-20-resistant strains (EC50 values ranging from 0.76?g/mL to 1.13?g/mL). Further studies indicated that FuCS-1 can potently bind the recombinant HIV-1 gp120 protein, but no inhibition of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was observed. In conclusion, FuCS-1 inhibited several strains of HIV-1 replication with different potencies. These results suggest that FuCS-1 may possess great potential to be further developed as novel HIV-1 entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly for those infected by T-20-resistant variants. PMID:23962762

  13. The excreted polysaccharide of Pleurotus eryngii inhibits the foam-cell formation via down-regulation of CD36.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Yong, Yangyang; Xia, Xian; Wang, Zeliang; Liang, Youxing; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2014-11-01

    Previous study has verified the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Pleurotus eryngii (PEPE) is capable of decreasing the lipid content in both of cell-line and mouse model. However, little is known about underlying mechanisms and whether this bioactive polysaccharide exists in submerged culture. Here, we verified the excreted polysaccharides EP and EP-1 from submersion culture of P. eryngii have the remarkable inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells. Structure analysis indicates EP-1 consists of D-types of glucose, galactose and mannose with the main ?(1 ? 3)-glucan glycosidic linkage branched at O-6 by ?-D-glucose while EP digested by ?-1,3-glucanase fails to decrease the lipid accumulation, suggesting that the special structure is essential for its function. Expression analysis suggests that EP is able to cause the down-regulation of the scavenger receptor-CD36 on both transcription and protein levels. Most importantly, EP can be obtained by fermentation in a mass-production. PMID:25129711

  14. The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Jie Chang; Yi-Tang Chang; Chun-Hsiung Hung

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form\\u000a one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed\\u000a at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial

  15. Inhibition of vagally mediated immune-to-brain signaling by vanadyl sulfate speeds recovery from sickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Johnson; Jason C. O'Connor; Robert Dantzer; Gregory G. Freund

    2005-01-01

    To the ill patient with diabetes, the behavioral symptoms of sickness such as fatigue and apathy are debilitating and can prevent recuperation. Here we report that peripherally administered insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) attenuates LPS-dependent depression of social exploration (sickness) in nondiabetic (db\\/+) but not in diabetic (db\\/db) mice. We show that the insulin\\/IGF-1 mimetic vanadyl sulfate (VS) is effective

  16. Inhibition of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities of anaerobic sewer biofilms by ferric iron dosing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lishan Zhang; Jürg Keller; Zhiguo Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Ferric iron is commonly used for sulfide precipitation in sewers, thus achieving corrosion and odour control. Its impact on the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic sewer biofilms is investigated in this study. Two lab-scale rising main sewer systems fed with real sewage were operated for 8 months. One received Fe3+ dosage (experimental system) and the other was

  17. A RG-II Type Polysaccharide Purified from Aconitum coreanum Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Inhibiting the NF-?B Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-01-01

    Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [?6) -?-D-Galp (1?3)-?-L-Rhap-(1?4)-?-D-GalpA-(1?3)-?-D-Galp-(1?] with the side chain ?5)-?-D-Arap (1?3, 5)-?-D-Arap (1? attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1?3,4)-L-Rhap. T-?-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1?3,6)-?-D-Galp residues and T-?-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-?B–p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-I?B-? expression as well as the degradation of I?B-? and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-?B signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-?B DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

  18. PNEUMOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. It is a leading cause of vaccinePNEUMOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE W H A T Y O U N E E D T O K N O W VACCINE Many Vaccine Information be more likely to die from the disease. 2 Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) Treatment

  19. Inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a flow-through column system by (per)chlorate treatment.

    PubMed

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Hubbard, Christopher G; Tom, Lauren M; Boussina, Aaron; Jin, Yong T; Wong, Hayden; Piceno, Yvette M; Carlson, Hans K; Conrad, Mark E; Anderson, Gary; Coates, John D

    2014-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a primary cause of oil reservoir souring. Here we show that amendment with chlorate or perchlorate [collectively (per)chlorate] potentially resolves this issue. Triplicate packed columns inoculated with marine sediment were flushed with coastal water amended with yeast extract and one of nitrate, chlorate, or perchlorate. Results showed that although sulfide production was dramatically reduced by all treatments, effluent sulfide was observed in the nitrate (10 mM) treatment after an initial inhibition period. In contrast, no effluent sulfide was observed with (per)chlorate (10 mM). Microbial community analyses indicated temporal community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Nitrate addition stimulated Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae growth, supporting their role in nitrate metabolism. (Per)chlorate showed distinct effects on microbial community structure compared with nitrate and resulted in a general suppression of the community relative to the untreated control combined with a significant decrease in sulfate reducing species abundance indicating specific toxicity. Furthermore, chlorate stimulated Pseudomonadaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, members of which are known chlorate respirers, suggesting that chlorate may also control sulfidogenesis by biocompetitive exclusion of sulfate-reduction. Perchlorate addition stimulated Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfomonadaceae, which contain sulfide oxidizing and elemental sulfur-reducing species respectively, suggesting that effluent sulfide concentrations may be controlled through sulfur redox cycling in addition to toxicity and biocompetitive exclusion. Sulfur isotope analyses further support sulfur cycling in the columns, even when sulfide is not detected. This study indicates that (per)chlorate show great promise as inhibitors of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms and respiratory processes are involved. PMID:25071731

  20. Inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a flow-through column system by (per)chlorate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Tom, Lauren M.; Boussina, Aaron; Jin, Yong T.; Wong, Hayden; Piceno, Yvette M.; Carlson, Hans K.; Conrad, Mark E.; Anderson, Gary; Coates, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a primary cause of oil reservoir souring. Here we show that amendment with chlorate or perchlorate [collectively (per)chlorate] potentially resolves this issue. Triplicate packed columns inoculated with marine sediment were flushed with coastal water amended with yeast extract and one of nitrate, chlorate, or perchlorate. Results showed that although sulfide production was dramatically reduced by all treatments, effluent sulfide was observed in the nitrate (10 mM) treatment after an initial inhibition period. In contrast, no effluent sulfide was observed with (per)chlorate (10 mM). Microbial community analyses indicated temporal community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Nitrate addition stimulated Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae growth, supporting their role in nitrate metabolism. (Per)chlorate showed distinct effects on microbial community structure compared with nitrate and resulted in a general suppression of the community relative to the untreated control combined with a significant decrease in sulfate reducing species abundance indicating specific toxicity. Furthermore, chlorate stimulated Pseudomonadaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, members of which are known chlorate respirers, suggesting that chlorate may also control sulfidogenesis by biocompetitive exclusion of sulfate-reduction. Perchlorate addition stimulated Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfomonadaceae, which contain sulfide oxidizing and elemental sulfur-reducing species respectively, suggesting that effluent sulfide concentrations may be controlled through sulfur redox cycling in addition to toxicity and biocompetitive exclusion. Sulfur isotope analyses further support sulfur cycling in the columns, even when sulfide is not detected. This study indicates that (per)chlorate show great promise as inhibitors of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms and respiratory processes are involved. PMID:25071731

  1. New Tools for Studying O-GlcNAc Glycosylation and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    New Tools for Studying O-GlcNAc Glycosylation and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans and Studies is critical for neuronal function and behavior. Chondroitin sulfates (CS) are sulfated linear polysaccharides

  2. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum were sulfated and carboxymethylated as reported. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory effects of sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides were studied. Generally, sulfated polysaccharides showed better bioactivities than that of carboxymethylated polysaccharides. The two derivatives were injected intraperitoneally with or without 5-fluorouracil over a period of 7 days in BALB/c female mice. The polysaccharide derivatives increased mouse thymus and spleen index, an indication of improved immunity in mice. At the same time, they improved superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase contents in the mice body. PMID:23044102

  3. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi-zhen; Lin, Zhi-Bin

    2006-02-23

    Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (Gl-PP) has shown some effects as anti-tumors in mice and potential anti-angiogenesis. In this study, we elucidated the possible mechanism of Gl-PP action on anti-angiogenesis of tumor. Our research indicated that the proliferation of HUVECs was inhibited by Gl-PP in a dose-dependent fashion, but not because of cytotoxicity. Flow cytometric studies revealed that Gl-PP treatment of HUVECs could induce cell apoptosis directly. Moreover, addition of Gl-PP also led to a reduction of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein expression and an increase of Bax pro-apoptotic protein expression of HUVECs. Therefore, inducing cell apoptosis by Gl-PP might be the mechanism of inhibiting HUVEC proliferation. Human lung carcinoma cells PG when exposed to high dose of Gl-PP in hypoxia for 18 h resulted in a decrease in the secreted VEGF. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that the key attribute of the anti-angiogenic potential of Gl-PP is that it may directly inhibit vascular endothelial cell proliferation or indirectly decrease growth factor expression of tumor cells. PMID:16269156

  4. Antibodies That Inhibit Plasmodium falciparum Adhesion to Chondroitin Sulfate A Are Associated with Increased Birth Weight and the Gestational Age of Newborns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick E. Duffy; Michal Fried

    2003-01-01

    Antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum adhesion to the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A are associated with a reduced risk of placental malaria, but whether these antibodies lead to improved pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We measured antiadhesion antibody levels in parturient women in western Kenya, where malaria transmission is intense. Secundigravid women with antiadhesion activity in their plasma delivered babies that

  5. Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

  6. Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Binds to Chemokines and Inhibits Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Mediated Signaling in Activated T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation. PMID:24718687

  7. Regulation of inorganic sulfate activation in filamentous fungi. Allosteric inhibition of ATP sulfurylase by 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate.

    PubMed

    Renosto, F; Martin, R L; Wailes, L M; Daley, L A; Segel, I H

    1990-06-25

    ATP sulfurylases from Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium duponti, Aspergillus nidulans, and Neurospora crassa are strongly inhibited by 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), the product of the second (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase-catalyzed) reaction in the two-step activation of inorganic sulfate. The v versus [PAPS] plots are sigmoidal. At physiological concentrations of MgATP (0.17-3 mM) and SO4(2-) (0.4-10 mM), the [I]0.5 for PAPS inhibition of the P. chrysogenum enzyme is 35-200 microM; [I]0.9 is 68-310 microM. In the presence of PAPS, the [S]0.5 values for both substrates are increased and the v versus [MgATP] and v versus [SO4(2-)] or [MoO4(2-)] plots are sigmoidal. Fluorosulfonate (FSO3-) and thiosulfate (S2O3(2-] (non-reactive sulfate analogs) inhibit the enzyme at subsaturating substrate concentrations in the absence of PAPS, but low concentrations of the analogs activate the enzyme when PAPS is present. Thus, PAPS behaves as an allosteric inhibitor of ATP sulfurylase. In contrast, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS = product Q), the immediate product of the SO4(2-)-dependent reaction, is a linear inhibitor of the P. chrysogenum enzyme, competitive with both MgATP and MoO4(2-) (Kiq = 36-73 nM). FSO3- or S2O3(2-) does not activate the enzyme in the presence of APS. The effect of PAPS on fungal ATP sulfurylase is very similar to that observed when a single highly reactive cysteinyl SH group/subunit (SH-1) is covalently modified (Renosto, F., Martin, R. L., and Segel, I. H. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16279-16288). The results suggest that in vitro SH-1 modification induces a conformational change in the enzyme that mimics the change induced in vivo by the reversible binding of PAPS. No evidence was obtained to suggest that PAPS covalently modifies SH-1. ATP sulfurylases from rat liver (Yu, M., Martin, R. L., Jain, S., Chen, L. T., and Segel, I. H. (1989) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 269, 156-174), spinach leaf, cabbage leaf, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are not strongly inhibited by PAPS, do not display sigmoidal initial velocity plots in the presence of PAPS, and do not contain a highly reactive cysteinyl residue whose modification induces increased [S]0.5 values and sigmoidal velocity curves. The allosteric effect of PAPS on the fungal ATP sulfurylase may be part of a sequential feedback process unique to a group of organisms that use PAPS for two diverging pathways, reductive assimilation and sulfate ester formation. PMID:2162344

  8. Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens. The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens. PMID:23786718

  9. Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent. PMID:25248662

  10. An algal sulfated galactan has an unusual dual effect on venous thrombosis due to activation of factor XII and inhibition of the coagulation proteases.

    PubMed

    Melo, Fábio R; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2008-03-01

    Sulfated galactan from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis has a potent anticoagulant activity, due to its ability to enhance thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin and/or heparin cofactor II. It is less active than unfractionated heparin in arterial thrombosis, but in a venous thrombosis presents a dual effect, inhibiting thrombosis in low but not in high doses. This dual effect on venous thrombosis is a consequence of two actions, one that inhibits thrombin and factor Xa and one that induces factor XII activation. In order to dissociate these effects, we prepared derivatives of the sulfated galactan with low molecular weights. Two fractions that were similar in size to unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin were obtained. As the molecular weight decreased, the ability to activate factor XII and to promote inhibition of coagulation proteases in the presence of antithrombin and heparin cofactor II diminished. At approximately 5 kDa, the sulfated galactan fragment had no effect on factor XII activation, and showed the same effect as unfractionated heparin in a venous thrombosis model. The approximately 5-kDa fragment is an antithrombotic with several advantages: i) It is as active as unfractionated heparin in venous thrombosis, but it has little activity in arterial thrombosis; ii) It inhibits venous thrombosis with very little anticoagulant effect; iii) It does not cause bleeding; and iv) It is not obtained from mammals. PMID:18327401

  11. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in specific human CYP2C9 isoform and pooled human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2011-10-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the effects of water extractable fraction of PSP on tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation was investigated in pooled human liver microsomes and in specific human CYP2C9 isoform. PSP (2.5-20?M) dose-dependently decreased the biotransformation of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxy-tolbutamide. Enzyme kinetics studies showed inhibition of tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity was competitive and concentration-dependent. In pooled human liver microsomes, PSP had a K(i) value of 14.2?M compared to sulfaphenazole, a human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a K(i) value of 0.32?M. In human CYP2C9 isoform, the K(i) value of PSP was 29.5?M and the K(i) value of sulfaphenazole was 0.04?M. This study demonstrated that PSP can competitively inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in both pooled human liver microsomes and specific human CYP2C9 in vitro. This study compliments previous findings in the rat that PSP can inhibit human tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase, but the relatively high K(i) values in human CYP2C9 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction. PMID:21757329

  12. Effective inhibition of melanoma tumorigenesis and growth via a new complex vaccine based on NY-ESO-1-alum-polysaccharide-HH2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A safe and effective adjuvant plays an important role in the development of a vaccine. However, adjuvants licensed for administration in humans remain limited. Here, for the first time, we developed a novel combination adjuvant alum-polysaccharide-HH2 (APH) with potent immunomodulating activities, consisting of alum, polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide HH2. Methods The adjuvant effects of APH were examined using NY-ESO-1 protein-based vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic models. We further determined the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect of NY-ESO-1-APH (NAPH) vaccine using adoptive cellular/serum therapy in C57/B6 and nude mice. Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses were evaluated. Results The APH complex significantly promoted antigen uptake, maturation and cross-presentation of dendritic cells and enhanced the secretion of TNF-?, MCP-1 and IFN-? by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with individual components. Vaccination of NAPH resulted in significant tumor regression or delayed tumor progression in prophylactic and therapeutic models. In addition, passive serum/cellular therapy potently inhibited tumor growth of NY-ESO-1-B16. Mice treated with NAPH vaccine produced higher antibody titers and greater antibody-dependent/independent cellular cytotoxicity. Therefore, NAPH vaccination effectively stimulated innate immunity, and boosted both arms of the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses to suppress tumorigenesis and growth of melanoma. Conclusions Our study revealed the potential application of APH complex as a novel immunomodulatory agent for vaccines against tumor refractory and growth. PMID:25070035

  13. Scutellaria barbata D. Don polysaccharides inhibit the growth of Calu-3 xenograft tumors via suppression of the HER2 pathway and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, JUNFENG; YANG, GUANGYU; HOU, GUANGJIE; LIU, QINGFENG; HU, WEICAI; ZHAO, PU; HE, YI

    2015-01-01

    Scutellaria barbata D. Don, a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is widely distributed throughout China and the Republic of Korea, and has been traditionally used in folk medicine as an antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. Polysaccharides isolated from Scutellaria barbata D. Don (PSB), have been reported to possess antitumor effects. However, the detailed antitumor mechanisms behind the effects of PSB remain unclear. In the present study, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring the HER2 gene mutation Calu-3, the Calu-3 cell line, was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the antitumor effects of PSB. The results revealed that PSB potently inhibited cell proliferation and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 phosphorylation in vitro, and also downregulated the expression of the downstream signaling molecules, including phosphorylated (phospho-)Akt and phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase. In vivo, PSB demonstrated efficacy at well-tolerated doses, including significant antitumor activity in a Calu-3 subcutaneous xenograft model. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed a PSB dose-dependent reduction of microvessel density, demonstrated by cluster of differentiation 31 staining. The present findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of the HER2 pathway may be one of the mechanisms by which PSB can be effective in the treatment of cancers. PMID:26137135

  14. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huheihel, Mahmoud; Ishanu, Vladimir; Tal, Jacov; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not show any cytotoxic effects on vero cells even when a concentration as high as 250 microg/ml was used. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the polysaccharide and HSV and a weak interaction with the cell surface. When tested in vivo, Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide conferred significant and efficient protection against HSV-1 infection: at a concentration as low as 100 microg/ml, it prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of HSV-1 infection in rats and rabbits. The polysaccharide did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in vivo. PMID:11741707

  15. A Heparan Sulfate-Binding Cell Penetrating Peptide for Tumor Targeting and Migration Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Pei-Lin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    As heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as co-receptors to interact with numerous growth factors and then modulate downstream biological activities, overexpression of HS/HSPG on cell surface acts as an increasingly reliable prognostic factor in tumor progression. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short-chain peptides developed as functionalized vectors for delivery approaches of impermeable agents. On cell surface negatively charged HS provides the initial attachment of basic CPPs by electrostatic interaction, leading to multiple cellular effects. Here a functional peptide (CPPecp) has been identified from critical HS binding region in hRNase3, a unique RNase family member with in vitro antitumor activity. In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPPecp. In addition to cellular binding and internalization, CPPecp demonstrated multiple functions including strong binding activity to tumor cell surface with higher HS expression, significant inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, different from conventional highly basic CPPs, CPPecp facilitated magnetic nanoparticle to selectively target tumor site in vivo. Therefore, CPPecp could engage its capacity to be developed as biomaterials for diagnostic imaging agent, therapeutic supplement, or functionalized vector for drug delivery.

  16. Inhibition of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity by a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Landolfo, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to initiate infection. The interaction of RSV with HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In the present study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was screened with the aim of identifying peptides able to bind HSPGs and thus block RSV attachment and infectivity. Of the compounds identified, the dendrimer SB105-A10 was the most potent inhibitor of RSV infectivity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0.35 ?M and 0.25 ?M measured in Hep-2 and A549 cells, respectively. SB105-A10 was found to bind to both cell types via HSPGs, suggesting that its antiviral activity is indeed exerted by competing with RSV for binding to cell surface HSPGs. SB105-A10 prevented RSV infection when added before the viral inoculum, in line with its proposed HSPG-binding mechanism of action; moreover, antiviral activity was also exhibited when SB105-A10 was added postinfection, as it was able to reduce the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. The antiviral potential of SB105-A10 was further assessed using human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. SB105-A10 strongly reduced RSV infectivity in this model and exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or proinflammatory effects. Together, these features render SB105-A10 an attractive candidate for further development as a RSV inhibitor to be administered by aerosol delivery. PMID:22850525

  17. Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p?0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest?L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry. PMID:21535855

  18. The predominant molecular state of bound enzyme determines the strength and type of product inhibition in the hydrolysis of recalcitrant polysaccharides by processive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kuusk, Silja; Sørlie, Morten; Väljamäe, Priit

    2015-05-01

    Processive enzymes are major components of the efficient enzyme systems that are responsible for the degradation of the recalcitrant polysaccharides cellulose and chitin. Despite intensive research, there is no consensus on which step is rate-limiting for these enzymes. Here, we performed a comparative study of two well characterized enzymes, the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina and the chitinase ChiA from Serratia marcescens. Both enzymes were inhibited by their disaccharide product, namely chitobiose for ChiA and cellobiose for Cel7A. The products behaved as noncompetitive inhibitors according to studies using the (14)C-labeled crystalline polymeric substrates (14)C chitin nanowhiskers and (14)C-labeled bacterial microcrystalline cellulose for ChiA and Cel7A, respectively. The resulting observed Ki (obs) values were 0.45 ± 0.08 mm for ChiA and 0.17 ± 0.02 mm for Cel7A. However, in contrast to ChiA, the Ki (obs) of Cel7A was an order of magnitude higher than the true Ki value governed by the thermodynamic stability of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Theoretical analysis of product inhibition suggested that the inhibition strength and pattern can be accounted for by assuming different rate-limiting steps for ChiA and Cel7A. Measuring the population of enzymes whose active site was occupied by a polymer chain revealed that Cel7A was bound predominantly via its active site. Conversely, the active-site-mediated binding of ChiA was slow, and most ChiA exhibited a free active site, even when the substrate concentration was saturating for the activity. Collectively, our data suggest that complexation with the polymer chain is rate-limiting for ChiA, whereas Cel7A is limited by dissociation. PMID:25767120

  19. Protein-bound polysaccharide K suppresses tumor fibrosis in gastric cancer by inhibiting the TGF-? signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    SHINBO, TOSHIFUMI; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; TSUKADA, TOMOYA; HARADA, SHINICHI; KINOSHITA, JUN; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; OKAMOTO, KOICHI; NINOMIYA, ITASU; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; KITAGAWA, HIROHISA; FUJIMURA, TAKESHI; YASHIRO, MASAKAZU; HIRAKAWA, KOUSEI; OHTA, TETSUO

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most frequent metastatic pattern of gastric cancer and its prognosis is extremely poor. PC is characterized by rich fibrosis and the development of obstructive disorders such as ileus, jaundice and hydronephrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major causes of tissue fibrosis and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has a pivotal function in the progression of EMT. Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is a biological response modifier that can modulate the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway in vitro. In the present study, we established a fibrotic tumor model using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and a human gastric cancer cell line to evaluate whether PSK attenuates tumor fibrosis. HPMCs exposed to PSK did not undergo the morphological change from a cobblestone-like pattern to a spindle-shape pattern normally induced by treatment with TGF-?. Immunofluorescence further demonstrated that PSK suppressed TGF-?-induced overexpression of ?-SMA in the HPMCs. We further showed that HPMCs contributed to the proliferation of tumor fibrosis by using a mouse xenograft model. Additionally, PSK treatment of these mice significantly reduced the area of observable tumor fibrosis. These results suggest that seeded cancer cells transformed HPMCs into myofibroblast-like cells through their release of TGF-? in the microenvironment, facilitating the development of fibrous tumors in organs covered with HPMCs. Therefore, our study indicates that PSK has potential utility as an anti-fibrotic agent in the treatment of gastric cancer patients with PC. PMID:25435013

  20. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Deficiency Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis and Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    DONG, HUA; LIAO, JIE; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.; YANG, GUANG-YU

    2014-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH?/? mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm3 vs. 22.42±11.22 mm3), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH?/? mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

  1. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

  2. Strawberry phytochemicals inhibit azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-03-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg-1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  3. Peptide 19-2.5 Inhibits Heparan Sulfate-Triggered Inflammation in Murine Cardiomyocytes Stimulated with Human Sepsis Serum

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; Schmitz, Susanne; De Santis, Rebecca; Doemming, Sabine; Haase, Hajo; Hoeger, Janine; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis has been linked to inflammation caused by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as by host danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These include soluble heparan sulfate (HS), which triggers the devastating consequences of the pro-inflammatory cascades in severe sepsis and septic shock. Thus, there is increasing interest in the development of anti-infective agents, with effectiveness against both PAMPs and DAMPs. We hypothesized that a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (peptide 19-2.5) inhibits inflammatory response in murine cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cells) stimulated with PAMPs, DAMPs or serum from patients with septic shock by reduction and/or neutralization of soluble HS. In the current study, our data indicate that the treatment with peptide 19-2.5 decreases the inflammatory response in HL-1 cells stimulated with either PAMPs or DAMPs. Furthermore, our work shows that soluble HS in serum from patients with Gram-negative or Gram-positive septic shock induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in HL-1 cells, which can be effectively blocked by peptide 19-2.5. Based on these findings, peptide 19-2.5 is a novel anti-inflammatory agent interacting with both PAMPs and DAMPs, suggesting peptide 19-2.5 may have the potential for further development as a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agent in sepsis-induced myocardial inflammation and dysfunction. PMID:26024383

  4. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-C. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-Y. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-C. [Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lee, K.-M. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kmlee@ctust.edu.tw

    2008-03-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

  5. Ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo R. Andrade; Leonardo T. Salgado; Marcos Farina; Mariana S. Pereira; Paulo A. S. Mourão; Gilberto M. Amado Filho

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae using a variety of electron microscopy techniques. Polysaccharides from Padina gymnospora present self assembled structures, forming trabecular patterns. Purified fractions constituted by alginic acid and sulfated fucan also form well-organized ultrastructures, but the pattern of organization varies depending on the polysaccharide species. Alginic acid presents

  6. ?-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR? Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Maíra; Pereira Leite, Daniela Ferraz; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21356367

  7. Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII ? in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Simon, Maria; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei; Di, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Shaobo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II ? expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated. Method Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II ? protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The CaMK II ? expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes. Conclusion GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II ? expression to protect epileptic neurons. PMID:25010576

  8. Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV and improve the curative effect of ND in chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunpeng Fan; Jiaguo Liu; Deyun Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Shujuan Yang; Junmin Wang; Liwei Guo; Xiaona Zhao; Huali Wang; Yu Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four prescriptions, epimedium flavone plus propolis flavone (EF-PF), epimedium flavone plus propolis extracts (EF-PE), epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis flavone (EP-PF) and epimedium polysaccharide plus propolis extracts (EP-PE), were prepared and their antiviral effects were compared. In test in vitro, the four prescriptions within safety concentration scope and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultured chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) in

  9. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

  10. Dextran sulfate inhibits the fusion of influenza virus with model membranes, and suppresses influenza virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lüscher-Mattli, M; Glück, R

    1990-07-01

    The effect of dextran sulfate and related compounds on the fusion of influenza A virus with model membranes, composed of dioleylphosphatidyl-choline and cholesterol (1:0.5), was investigated by a fusion assay based on de-quenching of fluorescence of octadecyl-rhodamine-HC1 (R18). Dextran sulfate samples of molecular weight of 500,000, 8,000 and 5,000 were found to be potent inhibitors of the virus-liposome fusion process. Polygalacturonic acid also showed anti-fusion activity, but to a lesser extent. Uncharged dextran, positively charged diethylaminoethyldextran, and the monomer glucosamin-1,6-disulfate were ineffective. It was shown that dextran sulfate interacts with the virus. Our results suggest that dextran sulfate binds to and inactivates the viral fusion protein. PMID:2080868

  11. Purification and characterization of a glucan from Bacillus Calmette Guerin and the antitumor activity of its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiongbo; Gu, Zixin; Liu, Shao; Gao, Na; He, Xiaozhen; Xin, Xiu

    2015-09-01

    A water-soluble glucan, BCG-PASW, with a molecular weight of 2.10×10(4)Da, was separated from polysaccharide nucleic acid fraction of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG-PSN) using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques (COSY, HSQC and HMBC), BCG-PASW was found to be an ?-d-glucan composed of ?-d-(1?4)-linked glucopyranosyl residues, with branches at O-6 consisting of non-reducing terminal ?-d-Glcp approximately every eight residues. In vitro antitumor activity by MTS method, its sulfated derivative with a substitution degree of 0.59, could inhibite C666-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells growth significantly. The results indicated that the sulfate content play a decisive role in the bioactivities of the polysaccharides. PMID:26005149

  12. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral ?-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides. PMID:23385300

  13. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Functions as Receptor for Specific Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, and Anti-RAGE Antibody or Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Delivered in Vivo Inhibit Pulmonary Metastasis of Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Takahashi, Jun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Altered expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) at the surfaces of tumor cells plays a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived tumor cell line with high metastatic potential had a higher proportion of E-disaccharide units, GlcUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate), in CS chains than low metastatic LLC cells and that such CS chains are involved in the metastatic process. The metastasis was markedly inhibited by the pre-administration of CS-E from squid cartilage rich in E units or by preincubation with a phage display antibody specific for CS-E. However, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition remains to be investigated. In this study the receptor molecule for CS chains containing E-disaccharides expressed on LLC cells was revealed to be receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predominantly expressed in the lung. Interestingly, RAGE bound strongly to not only E-disaccharide, but also HS-expressing LLC cells. Furthermore, the colonization of the lungs by LLC cells was effectively inhibited by the blocking of CS or HS chains at the tumor cell surface with an anti-RAGE antibody through intravenous injections in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide the clear evidence that RAGE is at least one of the critical receptors for CS and HS chains expressed at the tumor cell surface and involved in experimental lung metastasis and that CS/HS and RAGE are potential molecular targets in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:22493510

  14. Protection against group B Neisseria meningitidis disease: preparation of soluble protein and protein-polysaccharide immunogens.

    PubMed

    Frasch, C E; Peppler, M S

    1982-07-01

    Although effective polysaccharide vaccines have been developed for meningococcal groups A, C, Y, and W135, the purified group B polysaccharide has proven to be nonimmunogenic. Earlier studies indicated that serotype 2 outer membrane protein vaccines induced bactericidal antibodies in animals and protected them from meningococcal challenge. However, a similar vaccine induced only low levels of antiprotein antibodies in both adults and children (C.E. Frasch et al., in J.B. Robbins et al., ed., Seminars in Infectious Disease vol. 4, p. 263-267, 1982). Methods were therefore developed to produce more immunogenic serotype 2 protein vaccines. We found that, by growing the organism for 65 to 72 h at 32 degrees C, three to four times more outer membrane protein was released into the culture medium than could be extracted from overnight-grown cells. The outer membranes were therefore purified directly from the broth by ultrafiltration followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Most of the lipopolysaccharide was selectively removed from the membranes by treatment with the nonionic detergent Brij-96. The Brij-96 was then removed and the resulting vaccine was filter sterilized. Some vaccines were prepared by combining equal parts of detergent-treated membrane protein and high-molecular-weight group B polysaccharide producing highly soluble vaccines. These new vaccines were compared by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay to an insoluble vaccine (E-06) found to be poorly immunogenic in humans. A human serum with serotype 2 specificity was used in the inhibition assay, and 5 microgram of E-06 was required for 50% inhibition, whereas less than 1 microgram of the soluble vaccines was required. Addition of group B polysaccharide slightly increased the inhibitory capacity of the protein component. PMID:6809629

  15. The anticancer activity of lytic peptides is inhibited by heparan sulfate on the surface of the tumor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bodil Fadnes; Øystein Rekdal; Lars Uhlin-Hansen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with antitumor activity constitute a promising group of novel anticancer agents. These peptides induce lysis of cancer cells through interactions with the plasma membrane. It is not known which cancer cell membrane components influence their susceptibility to CAPs. We have previously shown that CAPs interact with the two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin

  16. Influence of molecular weight of chemically sulfated citrus pectin fractions on their antithrombotic and bleeding effects.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Thales R; Gracher, Ana Helena P; de Souza, Lauro M; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Belmiro, Celso L R; Gorin, Philip A J; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello

    2009-05-01

    Evaluated were the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities, and bleeding effect of two chemically sulfated polysaccharides, obtained from citric pectin, with different average molar masses. Both low-molecular-weight (Pec-LWS, 3,600 g/mol) and high-molecular-weight sulfated pectins (Pec-HWS, 12,000 g/mol) had essentially the same structure, consisting of a (1-->4)-linked alpha-D-GalpA chain with almost all its HO-2 and HO-3 groups substituted by sulfate. Both polysaccharides had anticoagulant activity in vitro, although Pec-HWS was a more potent antithrombotic agent in vivo, giving rise to total inhibition of venous thrombosis at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight. Surprisingly, in contrast with heparin, Pec-HWS and Pec-LWS are able to directly inhibit alpha-thrombin and factor Xa by a mechanism independent of antithrombin (AT) and/or heparin co-factor II (HCII). Moreover, Pec-HWS provided a lower risk of bleeding than heparin at a dose of 100% effectiveness against venous thrombosis, indicating it to be a promising antithrombotic agent. PMID:19404539

  17. Structural features and some binding properties of proteoheparan sulfate enzymatically labeled by calf brain microsomes.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Waechter, C J

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies established that brain microsomes catalyze the transfer of [35S]sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate to an O-linked oligosaccharide chain of a membrane glycoprotein and sulfamino groups of a membrane-associated proteoheparan sulfate (R. R. Miller and C. J. Waechter (1979) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 198, 31-41). A large fraction of the proteoheparan [35S]sulfate can be released by treating the enzymatically labeled membranes from calf brain with 1 M NaCl. The salt-extracted 35S-labeled proteoglycan has been partially purified by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Based on chromatographic analyses, the 35S-labeled proteoglycan labeled in vitro is proposed to be a family of proteoheparan [35S]sulfates having an average molecular weight estimated to be 55,000. Variation in the length of the 35S-labeled polysaccharide chains partially accounts for the differences in molecular size of the proteoheparan [35S]sulfates. Binding studies reveal that the intact proteoheparan [35S]sulfates, as well as the free 35S-labeled polysaccharides released by mild alkali treatment, rapidly reassociate with calf brain membrane preparations. The association with calf brain membranes is saturable and reversible. Consistent with the binding being a specific interaction, only iduronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans inhibit the association of the 35S-labeled proteoglycan with calf brain membranes and facilitate the disassociation. Neither the binding of the 35S-labeled proteoglycan to membranes nor the displacement was affected by hyaluronic acid, chondroitin 4-sulfate, or chondroitin 6-sulfate. The binding of the enzymatically labeled proteoheparan sulfate is reduced by preincubating membranes with either trypsin or chymotrypsin, but not with neuraminidase or phospholipase D. These results suggest that at least one class of proteoheparan sulfates could be specifically bound to one or more brain membrane proteins. The results also suggest a role for iduronosyl residues, and perhaps the stereochemical relationship of the carboxyl group to the O-sulfate moiety at C-2, in the recognition process. PMID:6230046

  18. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sulphate, Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2- ... Beta-D-Glucopyranurosyl-4-(or 6-) Sul, Saccharide Mono-Sulfaté, Saccharide Sulfaté, Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de ...

  19. Red microalgal cell-wall polysaccharides: biotechnological aspects.

    PubMed

    Arad, Shoshana Malis; Levy-Ontman, Oshrat

    2010-06-01

    The area of sugars and glycosylation is not as well developed as other fields in cell biology owing to biotechnological constraints. However, the biotechnological potential of sugars, including polysaccharides, is the driving force pushing research efforts to meet the challenge. Algae produce cell-wall sulfated polysaccharides, with those of the red unicells, which dissolve into the medium, having unique characteristics-structure, composition, fluid dynamics, and extreme stability. These characteristics, combined with polysaccharide bioactivities, offer a vast range of potential applications. Research has thus been directed toward an in-depth understanding of the molecular structure, biosynthesis, and characteristics of the red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides and to the development of molecular-genetic tools, aiming at large-scale production for applications that can benefit humanity. PMID:20219344

  20. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

  1. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  2. Antioxidant activity of the polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tehila Tannin-Spitz; Margalit Bergman; Dorit van-Moppes; Shlomo Grossman

    2005-01-01

    The cells of the red microalga Porphyridium UTEX 637 are encapsulated within a sulfated polysaccharide whose external part (i.e., the soluble fraction) dissolves into the medium. It is thought that the main function of the polysaccharide is to protect the algal cells from the extreme environmental conditions, such as drought and high light, prevailing in their native sea-sand habitat. In

  3. Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-?B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

  4. Dextran sodium sulfate inhibits the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase: lithium chloride purification, a rapid and efficient technique to purify RNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used in mouse studies to induce a very reproducible colitis that effectively mimics the clinical and histological features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanisms of action of DSS remain poorly understood, and observations by our laboratory and other groups indicate that DSS contamination of colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice potently inhibits the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of mRNA. Results A prior study used poly-A-mediated mRNA purification to remove DSS from RNA extracts, but we herein report a second efficient and cost-effective approach to counteract this inhibition, using lithium chloride precipitation to entirely remove DSS from RNAs. We also explored how DSS interferes with qRT-PCR process, and we report for the first time that DSS can alter the binding of reverse transcriptase to previously primed RNA and specifically inhibits the enzymatic activities of reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase in vitro. This likely explains why DSS-treated colonic RNA is not suitable to qRT-PCR amplification without a previous purification step. Conclusion In summary, we provide a simple method to remove DSS from colonic RNAs, and we demonstrate for the first time that DSS can inhibit the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase. In order to reliably analyze gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice, the efficiency rate of qRT-PCR must be the same between all the different experimental groups, including the water-treated control group, suggesting that whatever the duration and the percentage of the DSS treatment, RNAs must be purified. PMID:24010775

  5. Adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants inhibits polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a weathered creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Deschênes, L; Lafrance, P; Villeneuve, J P; Samson, R

    1996-12-01

    The effect of two anionic surfactants was assessed during biodegradation of 13 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a wood-preserving soil contaminated with creosote and pentacholorophenol for a period of at least 20 years. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 were utilized at concentrations of 10, 100 and 500 micrograms/g soil. Because both surfactants are readily biodegradable, the microcosms received a fresh spike of surfactant every 2 weeks. Biodegradation of aged PAH residues was monitored by GC/MS for a period of 45 weeks. Results indicated that the biodegradation of the three-ring PAH was rapid and almost complete but was slowed by the addition of 100 micrograms/g and 500 micrograms/g chemical surfactant. Similarly, at the same concentrations, the two surfactants significantly decreased the biodegradation rate of the four-ring PAH. In this case, the inhibition was more pronounced with SDS. High-molecular-mass PAH (more than four rings) were not biodegraded under the test conditions. It was suggested that the preferential utilization of surfactants by PAH degraders was responsible for the inhibition observed in the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The high biodegradability and the inhibitory effect of these two surfactants would have a significant impact on the development of both above-ground and in situ site reclamation processes. PMID:9008894

  6. Effect of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide on malignant cell transformation by Moloney murine sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, M; Arad, S

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide produced by the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was highly inhibitory for cell transformation of mouse fibroblast cells by an MSV-124 virus stock. This inhibition was most effective if the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. Addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection. These findings support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration. PMID:11497300

  7. Extracellular matrix of smooth muscle cells: interaction of collagen type V with heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, S.; Hoeoek, M.; Gay, R.E.; Magargal, W.W.; Reynertson, R.H.

    1986-03-05

    Alteration in the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells may play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently the authors have initiated studies on the structural organization of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured smooth muscle cells. Immunohisotological examination of this matrix using well-characterized mono- and polyclonal antibodies showed a partial codistribution of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a number of different matrix components including collagen types I, III, IV, V and VI, laminin and fibronectin. Subsequent binding studies between isolated matrix proteins and HS showed that the polysaccharide interacts strongly with type V collagen and to a lesser extent with fibronectin as well as collagen types III and VI. The interaction between type V and HS was readily inhibited by heparin and highly sulfated HS but not be dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate or HS with a low sulfate content. Furthermore, (/sup 35/S)-HS proteoglycans isolated from cultured smooth muscle cells could be adsorbed on a column of sepharose conjugated with native type V collagen and eluted in a salt gradient. Hence, the interaction between type V and HS may play a major part in stabilizing the extracellular matrix of the vessel wall.

  8. Identification of a dendrimeric heparan sulfate-binding peptide that inhibits infectivity of genital types of human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-10-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  9. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  10. The Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis Through Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) against oxidative stress in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: Mice were treated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage in advance two weeks before inflammation was induced. Then, the mice were administered with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days and normal drinking water for 7 days between two DSS treatment. Disease activity index values, gut motility, and severity of the resulting oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of SQE was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma samples. Catalase activity and expressions levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), SOD1, and SOD2 were also detected in colon tissues. Results: Administration of SQE significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis compared to the control (Ctrl) group. Levels of 8-oxo-dG, an oxidative DNA damage marker, were significantly lower in the SQE group compared to the untreated DSS Ctrl group. In the SQE (300 mg/kg) group, MDA levels were significantly lower, while SOD and catalase activity levels in the plasma samples were significantly higher compared with the DSS Ctrl group. The expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and Gpx1, were significantly higher, while the levels of SOD 1 expression were lower, in the colon tissues of the DSS Ctrl group compared with those of the Ctrl group. In contrast, administration of SQE significantly down-regulated SOD2 and Gpx1 expressions and up-regulated SOD1 expression. Conclusions: These results indicate that SQE efficiently suppresses oxidative stress in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and its action is associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes.

  11. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)?B, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

  12. Preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Animal polysaccharides belong to a class of biological macromolecules. They are natural biopolymers with numerous advantages for biomedical applications, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Electrospinning is a versatile and facile technique which can produce continuous fibers with nanoscale from a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers. The review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. Various animal polysaccharides including chitin and chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), are discussed. The challenges and some useful strategies in electrospinning of animal polysaccharides also are summarized. In addition, future study of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning is proposed. PMID:24733749

  13. Structural analysis and anti-complement activity of polysaccharides from Kjellmaniella crsaaifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Luyu; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-03-01

    Two polysaccharides, named KCA and KCW, were extracted from Kjellmaniella crassifolia using dilute hydrochloric acid and water, respectively. Composition analysis showed that these polysaccharides predominantly consisted of fucose, with galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid as minor components. After degradation and partial desulfation, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed, which showed that the polysaccharides consisted of sulfated fucooligosaccharides, sulfated galactofucooligosaccharides and methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated/multi-sulfated fucooligosaccharides. The structures of the oligomeric fragments were further characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and ESI-CID-MS3). Moreover, the activity of KCA and KCW against the hemolytic activity of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was determined. The activity of KCA was found to be similar to KCW, suggesting that the method of extraction did not influence the activity. In addition, the degraded polysaccharides (DKCA and DKCW) displayed lower activity levels than the crude polysaccharides (KCA and KCW), indicating that molecular weight had an effect on activity. Moreover, the desulfated fractions (ds-DKCA and ds-DKCW) showed less or no activity, which confirmed that sulfate was important for activity. In conclusion, polysaccharides from K. crassifolia may be good candidates for the treatment of diseases involving the complement pathway. PMID:25786064

  14. Structural Analysis and Anti-Complement Activity of Polysaccharides from Kjellmaniella crsaaifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Luyu; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    Two polysaccharides, named KCA and KCW, were extracted from Kjellmaniella crassifolia using dilute hydrochloric acid and water, respectively. Composition analysis showed that these polysaccharides predominantly consisted of fucose, with galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid as minor components. After degradation and partial desulfation, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed, which showed that the polysaccharides consisted of sulfated fucooligosaccharides, sulfated galactofucooligosaccharides and methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated/multi-sulfated fucooligosaccharides. The structures of the oligomeric fragments were further characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and ESI-CID-MS3). Moreover, the activity of KCA and KCW against the hemolytic activity of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was determined. The activity of KCA was found to be similar to KCW, suggesting that the method of extraction did not influence the activity. In addition, the degraded polysaccharides (DKCA and DKCW) displayed lower activity levels than the crude polysaccharides (KCA and KCW), indicating that molecular weight had an effect on activity. Moreover, the desulfated fractions (ds-DKCA and ds-DKCW) showed less or no activity, which confirmed that sulfate was important for activity. In conclusion, polysaccharides from K. crassifolia may be good candidates for the treatment of diseases involving the complement pathway. PMID:25786064

  15. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  16. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Lu, Jie; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Li, Min; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Yang, Ning; Li, Wei-Dong

    2013-04-01

    Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

  17. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    SUN, LI-XIN; LIN, ZHI-BIN; DUAN, XIN-SUO; LU, JIE; GE, ZHI-HUA; LI, MIN; XING, EN-HONG; LAN, TIAN-FEI; JIANG, MIAO-MIAO; YANG, NING; LI, WEI-DONG

    2013-01-01

    Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

  18. Cooperative anti-diabetic effects of deoxynojirimycin-polysaccharide by inhibiting glucose absorption and modulating glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Gui; Ji, Dong-Feng; Zhong, Shi; Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Tian-Bao

    2013-01-01

    We had previously shown that deoxynojirimycin-polysaccharide mixture (DPM) not only decreased blood glucose but also reversed the damage to pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. However, the mechanisms behind these effects were not fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of DPM on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. Diabetic mice were treated with DPM (150 mg/kg body weight) for 90 days and continued to be fed without DPM for an additional 30 days. Strikingly, decrease of blood glucose levels was observed in all DPM treated diabetic mice, which persisted 30 days after cessation of DPM administration. Significant decrease of glycosylated hemoglobin and hepatic pyruvate concentrations, along with marked increase of serum insulin and hepatic glycogen levels were detected in DPM treated diabetic mice. Results of a labeled (13)C6-glucose uptake assay indicated that DPM can restrain glucose absorption. Additionally, DPM down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of jejunal Na(+)/glucose cotransporter, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and glucose transporter 2, and enhanced the activities as well as mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glycolysis enzymes (glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, private kinase and pyruvate decarboxylas E1). Activity and expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) were also found to be attenuated in diabetic mice treated with DPM. Purified enzyme activity assays verified that the increased activities of glucose glycolysis enzymes resulted not from their direct activation, but from the relative increase in protein expression. Importantly, our histopathological observations support the results of our biochemical analyses and validate the protective effects of DPM on STZ-induced damage to the pancreas. Thus, DPM has significant potential as a therapeutic agent against diabetes. PMID:23755289

  19. Inhibition of Amyloid A Amyloidogenesis in Vivo and in Tissue Culture by 4-Deoxy Analogues of Peracetylated 2-Acetamido-2-Deoxy-?- and ?-d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kisilevsky, Robert; Szarek, Walter A.; Ancsin, John B.; Elimova, Elena; Marone, Sandra; Bhat, Shridhar; Berkin, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Two novel sugars, 2-acetamido-1,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-?- and ?-d-xylo-hexopyranoses, have been synthesized and their effects on heparan sulfate biosynthesis using primary mouse hepatocytes in tissue culture have been assessed. At concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/L a mixture of both anomers significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate by 60% and 99%, respectively. At 1.0 mmol/L the average molecular weight of the heparan sulfate synthesized is reduced from 77 kd to 40 kd. The biosynthetic inhibition is apparent within 1 hour (the earliest time point examined) of exposure of the hepatocytes to the analogues and appears virtually complete throughout a 24-hour incubation period. Using a radiolabeled version of the ?-anomer we demonstrate that the analogue is incorporated into growing heparan sulfate chains. The nature of the analogue, the quantity of analogue isotope incorporated, and the reduction in the size of the heparan sulfate polysaccharide are consistent with UDP activation and incorporation of the analogue and truncation of the growing heparan sulfate chain. At 0.1 mmol/L, and in the presence of a constant concentration of serum amyloid A (the precursor to AA amyloid), each analogue inhibited amyloid deposition (by 95 to 99%) in a tissue culture model of AA amyloidogenesis. At 6 mg/dose twice daily each analogue inhibited in vivo splenic AA amyloid deposition by 65 to 70% when using a rapid induction model of mouse AA amyloidogenesis. These data indicate that polysaccharides, such as heparan sulfate, play an integral part in the pathogenesis of AA amyloid deposition, and potentially other forms of amyloid. These data support our previous work that demonstrated that agents that mimic aspects of heparan sulfate structure and that interfere with heparan sulfate:amyloid protein binding inhibit AA amyloid deposition. They emphasize that heparan sulfate likely plays a critical role in amyloidogenesis, and compounds that interfere with heparan sulfate biosynthesis may provide leads for the development of anti-amyloid therapeutic agents. PMID:15161647

  20. Heparin-like polysaccharides reduce osteolytic bone destruction and tumor growth in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pollari, Sirkku; Käkönen, Rami S; Mohammad, Khalid S; Rissanen, Jukka P; Halleen, Jussi M; Wärri, Anni; Nissinen, Liisa; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Marjamäki, Anne; Perälä, Merja; Guise, Theresa A; Kallioniemi, Olli; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria

    2012-05-01

    TGF-? regulates several steps in cancer metastasis, including the establishment of bone metastatic lesions. TGF-? is released from bone during osteoclastic bone resorption and it stimulates breast cancer cells to produce osteolytic factors such as interleukin 11 (IL-11). We conducted a cell-based siRNA screen and identified heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST2) as a critical gene for TGF-?-induced IL-11 production in highly bone metastatic MDA-MB-231(SA) breast cancer cells. HS6ST2 attaches sulfate groups to glucosamine residues in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We subsequently showed how heparin and a high-molecular-weight Escherichia coli K5-derived heparin-like polysaccharide (K5-NSOS) inhibited TGF-?-induced IL-11 production in MDA-MB-231(SA) cells. In addition, K5-NSOS inhibited bone resorption activity of human osteoclasts in vitro. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of K5-NSOS and fragmin in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. MDA-MB-231(SA) cells were inoculated into the left cardiac ventricle of athymic nude mice which were treated with fragmin, K5-NSOS, or vehicle once a day for four weeks. Both heparin-like glycosaminoglycans inhibited weight reduction, decreased osteolytic lesion area, and reduced tumor burden in bone. In conclusion, our data imply novel mechanisms involved in TGF-? induction and support the critical role of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in cancer metastasis as well as indicate that K5-NSOS is a potential antimetastatic and antiresorptive agent for cancer therapy. This study illustrates the potential to translate in vitro siRNA screening results toward in vivo therapeutic concepts. PMID:22522458

  1. Ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leonardo R; Salgado, Leonardo T; Farina, Marcos; Pereira, Mariana S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Amado Filho, Gilberto M

    2004-03-01

    We have studied the ultrastructure of acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of brown algae using a variety of electron microscopy techniques. Polysaccharides from Padina gymnospora present self assembled structures, forming trabecular patterns. Purified fractions constituted by alginic acid and sulfated fucan also form well-organized ultrastructures, but the pattern of organization varies depending on the polysaccharide species. Alginic acid presents sponge-like structures. Sulfated fucan exhibits particles with polygonal forms with a polycrystalline structure. These particles are in fact constituted by sulfated fucan molecules since they are recognized by a lectin specific for alpha-l-fucosyl residues. X-ray microanalysis reveal that S is a constituent element, as expected for sulfated groups. Finally, an exhaustive purified sulfated fucan shows the same ultrastructure formed by polygonal forms. Furthermore, elemental analyses of acidic polysaccharides indicate that they retain Zn, when algae were collected from a contaminated area. This observation is supported by direct quantification of heavy metal in the biomass and also in the solubilized polysaccharides compared with the algae from a non-contaminated site. We conclude that these molecules have specific ultrastructure and elemental composition; and act as metal binder for the nucleation and precipitation of heavy metals when the algae are exposed to a metal contaminated environment. PMID:14960372

  2. Polysaccharides and food processing.

    PubMed

    Pilnik, W; Rombouts, F M

    1985-10-01

    The rôle of polysaccharides during processing and for the quality of foods is discussed. Starch is the most important energy source for man. Most other polysaccharides are not metabolized for energy, but play an important rôle as dietary fibres. Pectins, alginates, carrageenans, and galactomannans are discussed as functional food additives in relation to their structure and their rheological behaviour, stability and interactions. Endogenous polysaccharides of fruits and vegetables and in products derived from them are responsible for such phenomena as texture (changes), press yields, ease of filtration and clarification, cloud stability, and mouth feel. To achieve desirable properties, the action of endogenous enzymes on polysaccharides must be inactivated and/or exogenous enzymes added as processing aids. This is also true for overcoming haze phenomena in clear juices or to break down undesirable microbial polysaccharides. Dough properties for bread baking can be improved by enzymic breakdown of a restrictive pentoglycan network. Network formation may come about by oxidative coupling of phenol rings of ferulic acid bound to hemicelluloses by ester links. Gels may be made by inducing oxidative coupling in natural or synthetic systems. Stagnation in development of new polysaccharide food additives is ascribed to difficulties in obtaining government approval for food use. PMID:3000594

  3. Occurrence of sulfated galactans in marine angiosperms: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rafael S; Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Valente, Ana Paula; Andrade, Leonardo R; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2005-01-01

    We report for the first time that marine angiosperms (seagrasses) possess sulfated polysaccharides, which are absent in terrestrial and freshwater plants. The structure of the sulfated polysaccharide from the seagrass Ruppia maritima was determined. It is a sulfated D-galactan composed of the following regular tetrasaccharide repeating unit: [3-beta-D-Gal-2(OSO3)-1-->4-alpha-D-Gal-1-->4-alpha-D-Gal-1-->3-beta-D-Gal-4(OSO3)-1-->]. Sulfated galactans have been described previously in red algae and in marine invertebrates (ascidians and sea urchins). The sulfated galactan from the marine angiosperm has an intermediate structure when compared with the polysaccharides from these two other groups of organisms. Like marine invertebrate galactan, it expresses a regular repeating unit with a homogenous sulfation pattern. However, seagrass galactan contains the D-enantiomer of galactose instead of the L-isomer found in marine invertebrates. Like red algae, the marine angiosperm polysaccharide contains both alpha and beta units of D-galactose; however, these units are not distributed in an alternating order, as in algal galactan. Sulfated galactan is localized in the plant cell walls, mostly in rhizomes and roots, indicative of a relationship with the absorption of nutrients and of a possible structural function. The occurrence of sulfated galactans in marine organisms may be the result of physiological adaptations, which are not correlated with phylogenetic proximity. We suggest that convergent adaptation, due to environment pressure, may explain the occurrence of sulfated galactans in many marine organisms. PMID:15317737

  4. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Research from a couple ... Early evidence suggests that chondroitin, with or without glucosamine hydrochloride, can reduce pain in people with Kashin-Beck ...

  5. Glucose cryoprotectant affects glutathione-responsive antitumor drug release from polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Manuela; Blanco-Fernández, Bárbara; Costoya, Alejandro; Concheiro, Angel; Puoci, Francesco; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare polysaccharide-based nanoparticles (NPs) sensitive to glutathione (GSH), and to elucidate the effect of the concentration of glucose used as cryoprotectant during freeze-drying on the GSH-responsiveness. NPs were obtained via ionic interaction between negatively charged polysaccharides, chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate, and the positively charged thiolated chitosan (CSSH), and crosslinking of CSSH before or after the nanoparticles formation with a disulfide-bond containing crosslinker, N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BAC). NPs were freeze-dried with glucose at two different concentrations (0.5 and 5.0%w/w) and then characterized as methotrexate delivery systems, studying the effect of GSH concentration on drug release, efficacy against tumor cells and cellular internalization. Non-loaded NPs were highly compatible with murine fibroblasts and showed a suitable size for being used in anticancer therapy. When methotrexate-loaded NPs were freeze-dried with the highest glucose concentration, they lost their responsiveness to GSH concentration in vitro. Drug-loaded NPs were shown to inhibit the growth of tumor cells (HeLa and CHO-K1) with greater efficiency than free methotrexate, disregarding the concentration of glucose used for freeze-drying. Nevertheless, confocal microscopy studies revealed that cellular internalization of NPs freeze-dried with 5.0% glucose is more difficult than for NPs freeze-dried with lower glucose concentration. Thus, concentration of glucose cryoprotectant should be taken into account during development of NPs intended to release the drug as a function of GSH levels, due to the specific interactions of glucose with GSH. PMID:25917641

  6. Chemical modification, characterization and structure-anticoagulant activity relationships of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du; Ronghua Huang; Yunyang Wan; Tianyu Li

    2002-01-01

    A natural lacquer polysaccharide with complex branches was separated into two fractions, LPH (MW 16.9×104) and LPL (MW 6.85×104). Results of 13C NMR and FT-IR indicated they had the same structure. The treatment of LPL with sodium periodate led to a partial cut-off of side chains with 4-O-methyl--d-glucuronic acid in the terminal. These polysaccharides were sulfated in the presence of

  7. Chemical modification, characterization and bioactivity of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides from lac tree Rhus vernicifera against leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhong Yang; Yumin Du

    2003-01-01

    Lacquer polysaccharide (LP) was isolated from the sap of lac tree (Rhus vernicifera). Its derivatives, carboxymethyl LP, sulfated LP and debranching LP were prepared. Their structure was analyzed by GPC, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The sugar components of carboxymethyl and sulfated LPs hardly changed, but the molecular weight of the former decreased. The side chains of LPs were partially removed

  8. Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20?mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:22973406

  9. Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-10-15

    A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-L-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-L-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

  10. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bao-Mei; Dai, Hui; Xu, Wen; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2004-10-01

    This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule (incapable of signal transduction) in proliferation assays. Rat anti-mouse TLR4 monoclonal antibody (Ab) inhibited the proliferation of BALB/c mouse B cells under GLPS stimulation. Combination of Abs against mouse TLR4 and immunoglobulin (Ig) achieved almost complete inhibition of GLPS-induced B cell proliferation, implying that both membrane Ig and TLR4 are required for GLPS-mediated B cell activation. In addition, GLPS significantly inhibited the binding of mouse peritoneal macrophages with polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, which is known to bind directly with TLR4 on macrophage surface. Moreover, GLPS induced IL-1beta production by peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c, but not C3H/HeJ, mice, suggesting that TLR4 is also involved in GLPS-mediated macrophage activation. We Further identified a unique 31 kDa serum protein and two intracellular proteins (ribosomal protein S7 and a transcriptional coactivator) capable of binding with GLPS in co-precipitation experiments. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:15351712

  11. PhysicoChemical Characterization of Agar-Type Polysaccharides Used as Aqueous Gels in in vitro Micropropagation of Several Clones of Thuja plicata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pochet; V. Rouxhet; M. M. Mestdagh; J. François

    1993-01-01

    The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata was tested. The polysac charides were used as solidifying agents for culture media and differed in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95% W\\/W). Budding was reduced on the most highly sulfated polysaccharide, and the differences observed between clones in elonga tion were

  12. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1?2) and (1?3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  13. Enzymatic placement of 6-O-sulfo groups in heparan sulfate*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renpeng; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is a highly sulfated polysaccharide that exhibits important physiological and pathological functions. The glucosamine residue of heparan sulfate can carry sulfo groups at the 2-N-, 3-O- and 6-O- positions, leading to diverse polysaccharide structures. 6-O-sulfation at the glucosamine residue contributes to a wide range of biological functions. Here, we report a method to control the positioning of 6-O-sulfo groups in oligosaccharides. This was achieved by synthesizing oligosaccharide backbones from a disaccharide building block utilizing glycosyltransferases followed by modifications using heparan sulfate N-sulfotransferase and 6-O-sulfotransferases. This method offers a viable approach preparing heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with precisely located 6-O-sulfo groups. PMID:21506605

  14. Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from spent coffee grounds by alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-08-20

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), obtained during the processing of coffee powder with hot water to make soluble coffee, are the main coffee industry residues and retain approximately seventy percent of the polysaccharides present in the roasted coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to extract polysaccharides from SCG by using an alkali pretreatment with sodium hydroxide at 25°C, and determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracted polysaccharides. Galactose (60.27%mol) was the dominant sugar in the recovered polysaccharides, followed by arabinose (19.93%mol), glucose (15.37%mol) and mannose (4.43%mol). SCG polysaccharides were thermostable, and presented a typical carbohydrate pattern. Additionally, they showed good antioxidant activity through different methods and presented high antimicrobial percent inhibition against Phoma violacea and Cladosporium cladosporioides (41.27% and 54.60%, respectively). These findings allow identifying possible applications for these polysaccharides in the food industry. PMID:25965493

  15. [Polysaccharides of xylotrophic basidiomycetes].

    PubMed

    Shcherba, V V; Babitskaia, V G

    2008-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, composition, and structure of the polysaccharides synthesized by the fungi Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Crinipellis schevchenkovi in a submerged culture were studied. It has been demonstrated that the exo- and endopolysaccharides of submerged mycelia of the fungi studied are similar to the beta-(1-->3)-D-glucans of the fruiting bodies. PMID:18491603

  16. Dual role of dextran sulfate 5000 Da as anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagy agent.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, J Pedro; Safini, Najete; Tisminetzky, Sergio G; Skoko, Natasa

    2013-06-01

    Dextran sulfate 5,000 Da (DS), a sulfated polysaccharide, has been used in recombinant mammalian cell cultures to prevent cell aggregation, thereby increasing cell viability. Previous studies using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cultures had shown that low concentrations of DS are related to an inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, DS was used on anchorage-dependent CHO cells producing erythropoietin (EPO), in order to investigate the effect of this molecule on anti-apoptotic and pro-survival cellular pathways. DS 5,000 Da treatment was shown to prolong the life of cells and increase productivity of EPO by 1.8-fold comparing with controls, in standard batch conditions. At a molecular level, we show that DS inhibits apoptosis by DNA fragmentation delay and decrease of annexin V-labeled cells, causes a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, decreases p53 expression and increases the pro-survival factor Hsc70 expression. DS treatment also resulted in an enhanced LC3-I to LC3-II conversion and increased autophagosomes formation employing tagged-LC3. Our data show, for the first time, that low doses of DS may promote autophagy in different cell lines. These findings suggest that a better understanding and manipulation of phenomenon of autophagy could be of crucial importance in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, in particular in the field of protein production. PMID:23180219

  17. Development of novel self-assembled DS-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for improving oral bioavailability of vincristine sulfate by P-gp inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guixia Ling; Peng Zhang; Wenping Zhang; Jin Sun; Xiaoxue Meng; Yimeng Qin; Yihui Deng; Zhonggui He

    2010-01-01

    To improve the encapsulation efficiency and oral bioavailability of vincristine sulfate (VCR), novel self-assembled dextran sulphate-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles (DPNs) were successfully developed using self-assembly and nanoprecipitation method. By introducing the negative polymer of dextran sulphate sodium (DS), VCR was highly encapsulated (encapsulation efficiency up to 93.6%) into DPNs by forming electrostatic complex. In vitro release of VCR solution (VCR-Sol) and

  18. Oral versus postingestive origin of polysaccharide appetite in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that rats consume substantial amounts of polysaccharide solutions, even if the solutions are made bitter with the addition of sucrose octa acetate (SOA). The present experiment used the gastric sham-feeding preparation to determine if it is the orosensory or postingestive properties of polysaccharides that motivate rats to consume polysaccharide (Polycose) solutions. In Experiment 1, food deprived rats sham fed less of a 0.05% SOA + 32% Polycose solution than they did of a 32% glucose solution, but their SOA-Polycose intake was still considerable (44 ml/hr). The same rats refused to sham feed SOA-gum and SOA-sugar solutions that were similar to the SOA-Polycose solution in bitter taste, viscosity and free sugar content. In Experiment 2, rats sham fed as much of a 32% Polycose solution as they did of a 32% sucrose solution. Despite the gastric fistula, some of the ingested Polycose was absorbed as evidenced by an increase in the rats' blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits polysaccharide digestion, to the Polycose solution blocked the increase in blood glucose, but did not reduce the rats' sham feeding of the solution. These findings indicate that it is the orosensory (presumably taste) properties of polysaccharide solutions, not their postingestive effects, that initially attract rats to the solutions. The results question the assumption that polysaccharides are "tasteless" to animals. PMID:3614782

  19. Metabolic Engineering of an Aerobic Sulfate Reduction Pathway and Its Application to Precipitation of Cadmium on the Cell Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLIFFORD L. WANG; PRIYA D. MARATUKULAM; AMY M. LUM; DOUGLAS S. CLARK; J. D. Keasling

    2000-01-01

    The conversion of sulfate to an excess of free sulfide requires stringent reductive conditions. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is used in nature by sulfate-reducing bacteria for respiration and results in the conversion of sulfate to sulfide. However, this dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway is inhibited by oxygen and is thus limited to anaerobic environments. As an alternative, we have metabolically engineered a

  20. Sulfated derivative of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits inflammatory cytokines through MAPKs and NF-kappa B pathways in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wen-Yan; Fu, Ben-Dong; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Qian; Zhang, Cui; Song, Zhou; Qin, Qian-Qian; Li, Hui-Ping; Lv, Shuang; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Yi, Peng-Fei; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2012-10-01

    In the previous study, we found that sulfated derivative B2 of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-B2) has greater anti-inflammatory effects than 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Rh2-B2 remains unclear. We therefore assessed the effects of Rh2-B2 on inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that Rh2-B2 (1-5 mg/L) significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, and increased IL-10 production from protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, Rh2-B2 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase as well as decreased p65 nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) translocation into the nucleus by nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha degradation. The present results indicate that Rh2-B2 inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS through blocking mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:22614119

  1. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  2. Amine treatment of polysaccharide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, L. K.; Reiter, S. E.

    1984-11-27

    A thermostable, viscous xanthan polysaccharide solution prepared by the process of heating a xanthan polysaccharide solution in the presence of at least one C/sub 1/ to C/sub 10/ alkyl or C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ cycloalkyl substituted primary or secondary mono- or diamine having an upper limit of a total of 15 carbon atoms under conditions sufficient to form a thermostable, viscous xanthan polysaccharide solution. The thermostable, viscous xanthan polysaccharide solution may be used as a mobility buffer in a process for the enhanced recovery of oil.

  3. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in Mikawa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Handa, Nobuhiko

    1985-05-01

    Isolation and chemical elucidation of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in seawater were conducted. The water samples were collected in Mikawa Bay, Japan during a red tide bloom of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum. Dissolved polysaccharides were concentrated from 5-101 of seawater with dialysis followed by separation by gel flitration, and isolation by ethanol precipitation. A heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose and a glucan were isolated from the polysaccharide component having a molecular weight more than 4,000 Dalton and were characterized by several chemical analyses. The heteropolysaccharide is a mucilaginous polysaccharide having a highly branched structure and a molecular weight of 10 4-5 × 10 6 Daltons and probably contains a sulfate half ester: the glucan is a polysaccharide with ?-1,3- and 1,6-linkages (chrysolaminaran type). Concentrations of these were respectively ca. 20 and 67 ?g l -1 at 1 m, and 2 and 26 ?g l -1 at 6 m. A similar heteropolysaccharide was found in the boiling water extract of the particulate matter, while ?-glucan was isolated in a much less purified form than the seawater ?-glucan. In addition, a large amount of ?-1,4 glucan was found in the strong alkali extract of the particulate matter, indicating that this glucan must be a cell wall polysaccharide derived from phytoplankton. These results strongly suggest that the heteropolysaccharide and chrysolaminaran type polysaccharide dissolved in seawater were derived from water soluble carbohydrates of phytoplankton through extracellular release or cell lysis.

  4. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  5. Isolation and characterization of an anti-HSV polysaccharide from Prunella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Xu, H X; Lee, S H; Lee, S F; White, R L; Blay, J

    1999-11-01

    A water soluble substance was isolated from a Chinese herb, Prunella vulgaris, by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and gel permeation column chromatography. Chemical tests showed that the substance was an anionic polysaccharide. Using a plaque reduction assay, the polysaccharide at 100 microg/ml was active against the herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), but was inactive against cytomegalovirus, the human influenza virus types A and B, the poliovirus type 1 or the vesicular stomatitis virus. The 50% plaque reduction dose of the polysaccharide for HSV-1 and HSV-2 was 10 microg/ml. Clinical isolates and known acyclovir-resistant (TK-deficient or polymerase-defective) strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2 were similarly inhibited by the polysaccharide. Pre-incubation of HSV-1 with the polysaccharide at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C completely abrogated the infectivity of HSV-1, but pre-treatment of Vero cells with the polysaccharide did not protect cells from infection by the virus. The addition of the polysaccharide at 0, 2, 5.5 and 8 h post-infection of Vero cells with HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of five reduced the 20 h-yield of intracellular infectious virus by 100, 99, 99 and 94%, respectively. In contrast, a similar addition of heparin showed 85, 63, 53 and 3% reduction of intracellular virus yield, respectively. These results suggest that the polysaccharide may inhibit HSV by competing for cell receptors as well as by some unknown mechanisms after the virus has penetrated the cells. The Prunella polysaccharide was not cytotoxic to mammalian cells up to the highest concentration tested, 0.5 mg/ml and did not show any anti-coagulant activity. In conclusion, the polysaccharide isolated from P. vulgaris has specific activity against HSV and its mode of action appears to be different from other anionic carbohydrates, such as heparin. PMID:10588332

  6. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  7. Purification, chemical modification and immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides from Tremella aurantialba fruit bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-ju Du; Jing-song Zhang; Yan Yang; Qing-jiu Tang; Wei Jia; Ying-jie Pan

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafiltration and a series of chromatographic steps were used to isolate and purify polysaccharides from Tremella aurantialba fruit bodies. Three crude fractions (TAP50w, TAP10-50w, and TAP1-10w), five semi-purified fractions (TAPA-TAPE), and one\\u000a purified fraction (TAPA1) were obtained. A sulfated derivative of TAPA1 (TAPA1-s) was prepared by chemical modification. The\\u000a immunostimulating activity of the polysaccharide fractions in vitro was determined using

  8. Synthesized oversulfated and acetylated derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha linza and their potential antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Yu, Shuchi; Yin, Li; Zhao, Mingxing; Han, Zhiping

    2011-12-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide extracted from blue algae Enteromorpha linza is proved to possess excellent antioxidant activities. Two derivatives by means of oversulfated and acetylated coupling were synthesized and investigated their antioxidant activities including scavenging effect of superoxide, hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. And then the relationship between antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics was characterized. The results of chemical analysis and FT-IR showed that the modification of polysaccharide was successful. In addition, it was found that certain derivatives exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than raw material. They could serve as free-radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. PMID:21893089

  9. Acetate production from oil under sulfate-reducing conditions in bioreactors injected with sulfate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Callbeck, Cameron M; Agrawal, Akhil; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2013-08-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266-269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  10. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherif Hassan; Sanaa Abd El-Twab; Mona Hetta; Basant Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids,

  11. Structure and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan from the red alga, Gelidium crinale. Is there a specific structural requirement for the anticoagulant action?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria G. Pereira; Norma M. B. Benevides; Marcia R. S. Melo; Ana Paula Valente; Fábio R. Melo; Paulo A. S. Mourão

    2005-01-01

    Marine red algae are an abundant source of sulfated galactans with potent anticoagulant activity. However, the specific structural motifs that confer biological activity remain to be elucidated. We have now isolated and purified a sulfated galactan from the marine red alga, Gellidium crinale. The structure of this polysaccharide was determined using NMR spectroscopy. It is composed of the repeating structure

  12. Salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities and structural changes of the polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps Militaris.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the (13)C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable (34)S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  13. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  14. Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Lin; C. C. Wang; S. C. Chang; B. Stephen Inbaraj; B. H. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus was evaluated. Polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, protein hydrolysis, dialysis, and fractionation with a DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column. A total of 4 fractions, including 1 neutral polysaccharide (LBPN) and 3 acidic polysaccharides were obtained, and compared with crude polysaccharide (CP), crude extract of polysaccharide (CE),

  15. Mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides and their potential mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Tai; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Jin, Feng-Xin; Liu, De-Wen; Gao, Ming-Bo; Liu, Ze; Xin, Xiao-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe(2+)-Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O(2) (•-)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-Fe(2+) system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na(2)S(2)O(3) titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H(2)O(2). APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O(2) (•-), •OH and H(2)O(2) significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health. PMID:22408421

  16. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  17. POLYSACCHARIDES: MOLECULES, CLUSTERS, NETWORKS AND INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the structural organization of polysaccharides with respect to molecules, clusters (aggregates), networks and interactions. As for proteins, different levels of structural organization exist for polysaccharides. The primary structure describes the covalent sequence of monosaccha...

  18. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans and glucosamine may synergize in promoting synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. McCarty; A. L. Russell; M. P. Seed

    2000-01-01

    High-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) produced by the synovium may function physiologically to aid preservation of cartilage structure and prevent arthritic pain; both the size and concentration of HA in synovial fluid are diminished in osteoarthritis (OA). Glucosamine therapy for OA can be expected to increase synovial HA production by providing rate-limiting substrate. In addition, certain sulfated glycosaminoglycans and polysaccharides

  19. ESTIMATION OF THE SULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN CONTENT OF BOVINE SKIN WITH ALCIAN BLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures selected from the work of Bjornsson and Karlsson for the quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (SGAGs) with Alcian Blue were modified and adapted to the measurement of this type of polysaccharide in bovine skin. Modifications include: (1) pulverization of the skin under liquid nitr...

  20. Chondroitin / Dermatan Sulfate Modification Enzymes in Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Habicher, Judith; Haitina, Tatjana; Eriksson, Inger; Holmborn, Katarina; Dierker, Tabea; Ahlberg, Per E.; Ledin, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS). Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS. PMID:25793894

  1. Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharide gel extracted from Durio zibethinus in Penaeus monodon shrimp against Vibrio harveyi and WSSV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Komsil Pholdaeng; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2010-01-01

    Oral administration of polysaccharide gel (PG) in shrimp diets revealed immunostimulating potential and disease resistance in Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). PG from the fruit-rind of Durio zibethinus has been characterized to be a pectic polysaccharide with immunomodulating and antibacterial activities. PG inhibited growth of the shrimp bacterial pathogen, Vibrio harveyi 1526, by agar diffusion and broth microdilution tests. Clear

  2. Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

    1983-08-01

    The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

  3. Sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design considerations in anaerobic digesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of improvement in anaerobic digestion were investigated: inhibition of sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design. In the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, an undesirable end product, is produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of adding SRB-specific biochemical inhibitors to a waste stream as a

  4. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  5. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of a red microalgal polysaccharide on herpes-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

    2003-04-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a species of red microalga has proved to be a potent antiviral agent against various members of the herpes family. In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate differences between normal cells, those infected with herpes viruses, and infected cells treated with red microalgal polysaccharide. FT-IR enables the characterization of cell or tissue pathology based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the cells. The advantage of microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy over conventional FT-IR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell cultures or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and noninfected cells, and between infected cells treated with the polysaccharide and those not treated. In infected cells, there was an impressive decrease in sugar content and a considerable increase in phosphate levels in conjunction with the infection progress. Our results also proved that sugars penetrated and accumulated inside cells treated with the red microalgal polysaccharide. These could have been sugar fragments of low molecular weight present in the polysaccharide solution, despite purification by dialysis. Such sugar accumulation might be responsible for a breakdown in the internal steps of the viral replication cycle. PMID:14658634

  6. Outer membrane polysaccharide deficiency in two nongliding mutants of Cytophaga johnsonae.

    PubMed Central

    Godchaux, W; Gorski, L; Leadbetter, E R

    1990-01-01

    Phenol-extractable polysaccharides firmly associated with the outer membrane of the gliding bacterium Cytophaga johnsonae could be resolved by gel filtration in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into a high-molecular-weight (H) fraction (excluded by Sephadex G-200) and a low-molecular-weight (L) fraction. Fraction L was rich in components typical of lipid A and the core region of lipopolysaccharide (P, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate) and evidently was a lipopolysaccharide with a limited number of distal, repeating polysaccharide units, as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In relation to total carbohydrate, the H fraction was rich in amino sugar but poor in (possibly devoid of) the lipid A and core components. Two nongliding mutants were highly deficient in the H fraction; one of these was deficient in sulfonolipid but could be cured by provision of a specific sulfonolipid precursor, a process that also resulted in the return of both the H fraction and gliding, as well as the ability to move polystyrene latex spheres over the cell surface. Hence, the polysaccharide may be the component that is directly involved in motility, and the presence of sulfonolipids in the outer membrane is necessary for the synthesis or accumulation of the polysaccharide. This conclusion was reinforced by the fact that the second nongliding, polysaccharide-deficient mutant had a normal sulfonolipid content. Images FIG. 2 PMID:2307648

  7. Xylitol and erythritol decrease adherence of polysaccharide-producing oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Söderling, Eva M; Hietala-Lenkkeri, Aija-Maaria

    2010-01-01

    Xylitol consumption decreases counts of mutans streptococci. However, the mechanism behind this decrease is not well understood. We studied not only type strains and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci, but also other polysaccharide-forming oral streptococci. Growth inhibition and adherence of cells to a smooth glass surface-reflecting synthesis of water-insoluble polysaccharides were studied in the presence of 2% (0.13 mol/l) and 4% (0.26 mol/l) xylitol. The effect of xylitol was compared to a novel polyol sweetener, erythritol. Except for Streptococcus mutans 10449 and S. sobrinus OMZ 176, the glass surface adhesion of most polysaccharide-forming streptococci was reduced by the presence of both 4% xylitol and erythritol. For the S. mutans and S. sobrinus type strains, the growth inhibition with 4% xylitol and erythritol was 36-77% and for the clinical S. mutans isolates 13-73%. Of the other oral streptococci, only S. sanguinis was inhibited with 4% xylitol (45-55%). For both polyols, the magnitude of the growth inhibition observed was not associated with the magnitude of the decrease in adherence (xylitol: r = -0.18; erythritol: r = 0.49). In conclusion, both xylitol and erythritol can decrease polysaccharide-mediated cell adherence contributing to plaque accumulation through a mechanism not dependent on growth inhibition. PMID:19777305

  8. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell differentiation and cell death. PMID:24344650

  9. Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

  10. Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Abakuks, S.; Deters, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

  11. Remedial actions for acidic sulfate corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, A.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Div.)

    1992-08-01

    Objectives were to identify a reference acid sulfate environment which produced accelerated intergranular corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing under typical steam generator operating conditions and to identify inhibitors capable of limiting the progression of the corrosion. A background report summarized the occurrences of corrosion in operating steam generators attributed to acid sulfate environments and reviewed the laboratory corrosion tests performed in these environments. Although the corrosion in several operating plants is thought to be caused by acid sulfate environments, and previous laboratory testing his produced corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing in the presence of acid sulfates, the testing performed in this program did not produce accelerated intergranular corrosion. In some cases, the tests produced accelerated localized wastage, but this is not representative of the most relevant plant experience. Testing with more oxidizing conditions was found to reduce the aggressiveness of the corrosion. Given the range of test conditions addressed in the testing, it is concluded that the occurrence of intergranular corrosion with acid sulfate bulk chemistries is confined to a narrower range of operating variables than is typically thought to be the case for intergranular corrosion produced in alkaline environments. Zinc oxide and homologous and substituted derivatives of ethylene-diamine and propylene-diamine were identified as candidate inhibitors for acid sulfate-induced corrosion. They may also have corrosion inhibition capabilities in other crevice environments.

  12. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  13. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  14. Na+-sulfate cotransporter SLC13A1.

    PubMed

    Markovich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate is essential for normal physiology. The kidney plays a major role in sulfate homeostasis. Sulfate is freely filtered and strongly reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The apical membrane Na(+)-sulfate cotransporter NaS1 (SLC13A1) mediates sulfate (re)absorption across renal proximal tubule and small intestinal epithelia. NaS1 encodes a 595-amino acid (? 66 kDa) protein with 13 putative transmembrane domains. Its substrate preferences are sodium and sulfate, thiosulfate, and selenate, and its activity is inhibited by molybdate, selenate, tungstate, thiosulfate, succinate, and citrate. NaS1 is primarily expressed in the kidney (proximal tubule) and intestine (duodenum to colon). NaS1 expression is down-regulated in the renal cortex by high sulfate diet, hypothyroidism, vitamin D depletion, glucocorticoids, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and NSAIDs and up-regulated by low sulfate diet, thyroid hormone, vitamin D supplementation, growth hormone, chronic renal failure, and during post-natal growth. Disruption of murine NaS1 gene leads to hyposulfatemia and hypersulfaturia, as well as changes in metabolism, growth, fecundity, behavior, gut physiology, and liver detoxification. This suggests that NaS1 is an important sulfate transporter and its disruption leads to perturbed sulfate homeostasis, which contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24193406

  15. Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  16. Retinal structure and function preservation by polysaccharides of wolfberry in a mouse model of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Xiao, Jia; Peng, Bo; Xing, Feiyue; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L.; Lin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in a variety of genes that are mostly expressed by rod cells, which results in initial death of rod photoreceptors followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. RP is currently untreatable and usually leads to partial or complete blindness. Here, we explored the potential neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides of wolfberry, which are long known to possess primary beneficial properties in the eyes, on photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd10 mouse model of RP. We found that these polysaccharides provided long-term morphological and functional preservation of photoreceptors and improved visual behaviors in rd10 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that polysaccharides exerted neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified that polysaccharides modulated inflammation and apoptosis partly through inhibition of NF-?B and HIF-1? expressions, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated the synergistic protective effects of polysaccharides in preserving photoreceptors against degeneration in rd10 mice. Our study provides rationale and scientific support on using polysaccharides of wolfberry as one supplementary treatment of RP patients in the future. PMID:25535040

  17. Soluble polysaccharide and biomass of red microalga Porphyridium sp. alter intestinal morphology and reduce serum cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dvir, I; Chayoth, R; Sod-Moriah, U; Shany, S; Nyska, A; Stark, A H; Madar, Z; Arad, S M

    2000-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. on gastrointestinal physiology and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets containing dietary fibre from pelleted red microalgal cells (biomass) or their sulfated polysaccharide, pectin or cellulose (control) were fed to rats for a period of 30 d. All three fibre-supplemented diets increased the length of both the small intestine and colon, with a significantly greater effect in rats fed the algal polysaccharide. The polysaccharide also increased mucosa and muscularis cross-sectional area of the jejunum, and caused hypertrophy in the muscularis layer. The algal biomass significantly lowered gastrointestinal transit time by 44% in comparison with the control rats. Serum and mucosal cholecystokinin levels were lower in rats on the pectin and polysaccharide diets, while cholecystokinin levels in rats fed algal biomass were not different from those in the control animals. In comparison with the control diet, all the experimental diets significantly lowered serum cholesterol levels (22-29%). Feeding of non-fermentable algal polysaccharide or biomass significantly increased faecal weight and bile acid excretion compared with pectin-fed or control rats. The algal polysaccharide and biomass were thus shown to be potent hypocholesterolaemic agents active at low concentrations in the diet. Both metabolic and morphological changes were observed following consumption of algae, suggesting several possible mechanisms by which the alga affects lipid metabolism. The results presented in the present study encourage the use of red microalga as a functional food. PMID:11103217

  18. Interactions between acidified dispersions of milk proteins and dextran or dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides are often used to stabilize cultured milk products, although the nature of these interactions is not entirely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate phase behavior of milk protein dispersions with added dextran (DX; molecular weight = 2 × 10(6) Da) or dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight = 1.4 × 10(6) Da) as examples of uncharged and charged polysaccharides, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk (5-20% milk solids, wt/wt) was acidified to pH 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9 at approximately 0°C (to inhibit gelation) by addition of 3 N HCl. Dextran or DS was added to acidified milk samples to give concentrations of 0 to 2% (wt/wt) and 0 to 1% (wt/wt) polysaccharide, respectively. Milk samples were observed for possible phase separation after storage at 0°C for 1 and 24h. Possible gelation of these systems was determined by using dynamic oscillatory rheology. The type of interactions between caseins and DX or DS was probed by determining the total carbohydrate analysis of supernatants from phase-separated samples. At 5.0 to 7.5% milk solids, phase separation of milk samples occurred after 24h even without DX or DS addition, due to destabilization of caseins in these acidic conditions, and a stabilizing effect was observed when 0.7 or 1.0% DS was added. At higher milk solids content, phase separation was not observed without DX or DS addition. Similar results were observed at all pH levels. Gelation occurred in samples containing high milk solids (?10%) with the addition of 1.0 to 2.0% DX or 0.4 to 1.0% DS. Based on carbohydrate analysis of supernatants, we believe that DX interacted with milk proteins through a type of depletion flocculation mechanism, whereas DS appeared to interact via electrostatic-type interactions with milk proteins. This study helps to explain how uncharged and charged stabilizers influence the texture of cultured dairy products. PMID:25022675

  19. Manipulation of cellulose nanocrystal surface sulfate groups toward biomimetic nanostructures in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Zoppe, Justin O; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    We report a facile aqueous procedure to create multivalent displays of sulfonated ligands on CNCs for future applications as viral inhibitors. CNCs were decorated with model compounds containing sulfonate groups via reactions of epoxides and isothiocyanates with amines under alkaline conditions. At first, surface sulfate groups of CNCs were hydrolytically cleaved by alkaline hydrolysis to increase the number of available surface hydroxyls. Success of desulfation was confirmed via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CNC surface hydroxyl groups were then activated with epichlorohydrin before subsequent reactions. As proof of concept toward aqueous pathways for functionalizing nanoparticles with sulfonated ligands, 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt hydrate (CPSA) and 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate sodium salt monohydrate (4-SPITC) were chosen as model compounds to react with homobifunctional 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EBEA) molecular spacer. The approaches presented are not only applicable to polysaccharide nanocrystals, but also other classes of polymeric and inorganic substrates presenting surface hydroxyl groups, as in the case of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), silica or glass. CNCs carrying sulfonated ligands were characterized by ATR-FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Surface chemical compositions of desired elements were determined via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We anticipate that with these facile aqueous procedures as the proof of concept, a diverse library of target-specific functionalities can be conjugated to CNCs for applications in nanomedicine, especially related to viral inhibition. PMID:25933518

  20. Crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate at dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Deng, Sui-Ping; Zhong, Jiu-Ping; Tieke, Bernd; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2004-10-01

    The growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals beneath dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A (C 4S) was systematically examined under different surface pressure. The results indicated that the addition of C 4S can inhibit the crystal growth and prevent the aggregation of COM crystals. Under a DPPC monolayer, well-defined three-dimensional hexagonal prisms and three-dimensional rhombus prisms with sharply angled tips were obtained. The DPPC monolayer at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m can match the Ca 2+ distance of the (1¯ 0 1) face of COM better than at 20 mN/m. The addition of C 4S could cooperatively modulate the interaction strength between the monolayer (or itself) with the specific morphology determining faces such as (1¯ 0 1) and (0 2 0), and thus results in remarkable stabilization of the (1¯ 0 1) faces. The dramatic changes in morphological details were due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the Ca 2+-rich (1¯ 0 1) crystal faces of COM and the polyanionic polysaccharide C 4S together with the negatively charged sites of the zwitterionic DPPC monolayers. The increase of the concentration of C 4S can further enhance the stabilization of the (1¯ 0 1) face.

  1. Cellulose degradation by polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Vu, Van V; Span, Elise A; Phillips, Christopher M; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), also known as lytic PMOs (LPMOs), enhance the depolymerization of recalcitrant polysaccharides by hydrolytic enzymes and are found in the majority of cellulolytic fungi and actinomycete bacteria. For more than a decade, PMOs were incorrectly annotated as family 61 glycoside hydrolases (GH61s) or family 33 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM33s). PMOs have an unusual surface-exposed active site with a tightly bound Cu(II) ion that catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of crystalline cellulose, leading to glycosidic bond cleavage. The genomes of some cellulolytic fungi contain more than 20 genes encoding cellulose-active PMOs, suggesting a diversity of biological activities. PMOs show great promise in reducing the cost of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars; however, many questions remain about their reaction mechanism and biological function. This review addresses, in depth, the structural and mechanistic aspects of oxidative depolymerization of cellulose by PMOs and considers their biological function and phylogenetic diversity. PMID:25784051

  2. Natural polysaccharides as electroactive polymers.

    PubMed

    Finkenstadt, Victoria L

    2005-06-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs), a new class of materials, have the potential to be used for applications like biosensors, environmentally sensitive membranes, artificial muscles, actuators, corrosion protection, electronic shielding, visual displays, solar materials, and components in high-energy batteries. The commercialization of synthetic EAPs, however, has so far been severely limited. Biological polymers offer a degree of functionality not available in most synthetic EAPs. Carbohydrate polymers are produced with great frequency in nature. Starch, cellulose, and chitin are some of the most abundant natural polymers on earth. Biopolymers are a renewable resource and have a wide range of uses in nature, functioning as energy storage, transport, signaling, and structural components. In general, electroactive materials with polysaccharide matrices reach conductance levels comparable with synthetic ion-conducting EAPs. This review gives a brief history of EAPs, including terminology, describes evaluation methods, and reports on the current progress of incorporating polysaccharides as matrices for doped, blended, and grafted electroactive materials. PMID:15724215

  3. Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin; Department of Zoology REV)

    2001-09-25

    Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

  4. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

  5. Multistranded Helix in Xanthan Polysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Holzwarth; E. B. Prestridge

    1977-01-01

    The extracellular polysaccharide xanthan is shown by electron microscopy to be an unbranched, probably double-stranded fiber 4 nanometers wide and 2 to 10 micrometers long when native. Denaturation yields a single strand only 2 nanometers wide and 0.3 to 1.8 micrometers long. Renatured xanthan shows short unraveled regions with two or three strands arranged in a right-handed twist.

  6. Specific biological activities of Chinese lacquer polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Lu; T Yoshida; H Nakashima; M Premanathan; R Aragaki; T Mimura; Y Kaneko; N Yamamoto; T Miyakoshi; T Uryu

    2000-01-01

    The specific biological activities such as blood coagulant, anti-tumor, anti-HIV, and anticoagulant activities of a Chinese lacquer polysaccharide, a branched acidic polysaccharide, before and after sulfonation were investigated. The lacquer polysaccharide at a concentration of 0.016mg\\/ml was found to shorten the coagulation time of bovine plasma more than 1min by comparison with that of a blank, 5min and 25s, suggesting

  7. Capillary Electrophoresis Applied to Polysaccharide Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mila Toppazzini; Anna Coslovi; Sergio Paoletti

    \\u000a Capillary electrophoresis is a consolidated analytical approach for the structural characterization of polysaccharide mono-\\u000a and oligomer constituents, as demonstrated in this chapter, which surveys several applications of this technique on chemically\\u000a and enzymatically degraded polysaccharides, covering the last 10 to 12 years. Capillary electrophoresis is also demonstrated\\u000a to be highly reliable for determination of polysaccharides in biological samples, as it

  8. Ultrasonic-assisted production of antioxidative polysaccharides from Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Long, Shujun; Sun, Huili

    2014-10-01

    The beneficial effects of oyster extract against various disorders and diseases induced by oxidative stress have aroused great interest. In this article, ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis was employed to produce polysaccharides of Crassostrea hongkongensis (CHP) and their antioxidant activity was investigated. A single-factor experiment and then a four-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design were first used to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. On the basis of ridge analysis, the optimum conditions are obtained as ultrasonic treatment time of 24 min, power of 876 W, temperature of 49°C, and material-solvent ratio of 1:6 (w/v). It is found that ultrasound pretreatment before protease hydrolysis was a great help to improve CHP yield and purity, especially more favorable with flavorzyme, neutrase, alcalase, and pepsin. Furthermore, the polysaccharide fraction, which was obtained by ultrasonic pretreatment and then alcalase hydrolysis at the conditions of 3000 U/g, 55°C, pH 8.0, for 4 hr, exhibited an obvious scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (98.48 ± 0.55% and 99.20 ± 0.12%, respectively) and a lenoleic acid peroxidation inhibition effect (85.48 ± 0.65%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. These results reveal the potential application of CHP in functional food and nutraceuticals. PMID:24905048

  9. Polysaccharide production by microalgae. Final report on phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing overall biomass production rates. Three different algae were studied--unicellular blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis, filamentous blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and a green colonial alga, Scenedesmus sp. Batch cultures were grown with varying amounts of nitrate to limit nitrogen uptake at various stages in the batch growth curve. In the presence of high nitrate concentrations, the Synechococcus culture became stationary within four days, whereas both Spirulina and Scenedesmus maintained an appreciable growth rate and high daily productivities, for at least a week. With limiting nitrate concentrations, the cellular content of polysaccharide (measured as total carbohydrates) increased markedly, from 20-25 percent to 70-80 percent in Synechococcus and Spirulina. Depending on the level of nitrate used, onset of nitrogen limitation could be set at various culture densities. In all cases, little or no inhibition of total biomass production was noted.

  10. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus uses cell-surface heparan sulfate as an attachment factor.

    PubMed

    Huan, Chang-Chao; Wang, Yue; Ni, Bo; Wang, Rui; Huang, Li; Ren, Xiao-Feng; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Ding, Chan; Fan, Hong-Jie; Mao, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    It is well known that many viruses use heparan sulfate as the initial attachment factor. In the present study, we determined whether porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an emerging veterinary virus, infects Vero cells by attaching to heparan sulfate. Western blot analysis, real-time PCR, and plaque formation assay revealed that PEDV infection was inhibited when the virus was pretreated with heparin (an analogue of heparan sulfate). There was no inhibitory effect when the cells were pre-incubated with heparin. We next demonstrated that enzymatic removal of the highly sulfated domain of heparan sulfate by heparinase I treatment inhibited PEDV infection. We also confirmed that sodium chlorate, which interferes with heparan sulfate biosynthesis, also inhibited PEDV infection. Furthermore, we examined the effect of two heparin derivatives with different types of sulfation on PEDV infection. The data suggested de-N-sulfated heparin, but not N-acetyl-de-O-sulfated heparin, inhibits PEDV infection. In summary, our studies revealed that heparan sulfate acts as the attachment factor of PEDV in Vero cells. PMID:25896095

  11. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  12. [Immunological study on the antitumor effects of fungus polysaccharides compounds].

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Gao, P; Qian, J; Yan, W

    2000-05-30

    Fungus polysaccharides compounds (FPC) are the mixture of procyanidins oligomers, glycyrrhetinicacid and polysaccharides of hericium erinaceus, lentinus edodes and poria cocos. The antitumor effects of FPC and its immunity regulating effects as an immunostimulant on the mice burdened with sarcoma 180 (S-180) were studied. FPC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW) was gavaged to mice for 31 days. S-180 was transplanted to these mice on the 21th day. Lentinus edodes group was gavaged 200 mg/kg BW saccharine of lentinus edodes. The results showed that FPC could inhibit the growth of S-180 effectively. The inhibitory rates were 37.74%, 44.73% and 48.32% respectively. The antineoplastic activity of FPC (200 mg/kg. BW) was more effective than polysaccharide of lentinus edodes at the same dose. In S-180 burdened mice, the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2, NK activity and the induced IL-2, IFN-gamma levels were decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. As an immunostimulant, FPC could increase the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2 in S-180 burdened mice, but had no significant effects on the percentage of Lyt-2. Polysaccharide of lentinus edodes alone could also increase the immunity competence of mice burdened with S-180, but was not better than that of FPC at the same dose. It could be concluded that the compound of antineoplastic component could be synergetic. PMID:12725070

  13. Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, John James

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

  14. In vitro antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Sing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang-Hong; Hu, Ting; Li, Zi-Yi; Huang, Zhuo-Lie; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of two homogeneous polysaccharides, water extraction of polysaccharide (W-PTR) and alkali extraction of polysaccharide (A-PTR) from Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Sing. were evaluated. Results showed that W-PTR was stronger than A-PTR in O?(-·) scavenging activity, while A-PTR was stronger than W-PTR in the scavenging activities to ·OH, DPPH·, inhibition effects on liver lipid peroxidation, liver mitochondria swelling, and red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis. At concentration of 0.3 g/L, the O?(-·) scavenging activity of W-PTR and A-PTR were 85.7% and 71.7%. At concentration of 0.25 g/L, the ·OH scavenging activity of W-PTR and A-PTR were 64.20% and 74.97%. At the concentration of 0.3 g/L, the lipid peroxidation inhibition effects of A-PTR were 79.37%. At concentration of 0.8 g/L, the hemolysis inhibition rate of A-PTR was 77.16%. The polysaccharides of P. tuber-regium had strong antioxidant potency and might be exploited as effective natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative stress. PMID:24262568

  15. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. PMID:25659711

  16. Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

  17. Natural polysaccharides promote chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on magnetic nanoparticle/PVA composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruixia; Nie, Lei; Du, Gaolai; Xiong, Xiaopeng; Fu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the synergistic effects of natural polysaccharides and inorganic nanoparticles on cell adhesion and growth on intrinsically cell non-adhesive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite (nHAP) nanoparticles are effective in increasing osteoblast growth on PVA hydrogels. Herein, we blended hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), two important components of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), with Fe2O3/nHAP/PVA hydrogels. The presence of these natural polyelectrolytes dramatically increased the pore size and the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) while maintaining excellent compressive strength of hydrogels. Chondrocytes were seeded and cultured on composite PVA hydrogels containing Fe2O3, nHAP and Fe2O3/nHAP hybrids and Fe2O3/nHAP with HA or CS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay consistently confirmed that the addition of HA or CS promotes chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA and composite hydrogels. Particularly, the combination of HA and CS exhibited further promotion to cell adhesion and proliferation compared with any single polysaccharide. The results demonstrated that the magnetic composite nanoparticles and polysaccharides provided synergistic promotion to cell adhesion and growth. Such polysaccharide-augmented composite hydrogels may have potentials in biomedical applications. PMID:26037704

  18. Purification, characterization and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii residue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gaoxing; Yang, Wenjian; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Fang, Yong; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-19

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii residue was isolated and further purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography to yield PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3. Molecular weights were determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3 were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Sulfate and uronic acid content, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum were also evaluated. The antitumor activities of the polysaccharides against HepG-2 cells were studied in vitro. Results showed that the three polysaccharides could suppress the proliferation and enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of HepG-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect increased in the order of PEPE-1polysaccharides extracted from P. eryngii residue might be suitable for functional foods and natural antitumor drugs development. PMID:25263894

  19. A two-step sulfation in antibiotic biosynthesis requires a type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Eitel, Kornelia; Kaysser, Leonard; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie; Gust, Bertolt

    2013-10-01

    Caprazamycins (CPZs) belong to a group of liponucleoside antibiotics inhibiting the bacterial MraY translocase, an essential enzyme involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We have recently identified analogs that are decorated with a sulfate group at the 2?-hydroxy of the aminoribosyl moiety, and we now report an unprecedented two-step sulfation mechanism during the biosynthesis of CPZs. A type III polyketide synthase (PKS) known as Cpz6 is used in the biosynthesis of a group of new triketide pyrones that are subsequently sulfated by an unusual 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)-dependent sulfotransferase (Cpz8) to yield phenolic sulfate esters, which serve as sulfate donors for a PAPS-independent arylsulfate sulfotransferase (Cpz4) to generate sulfated CPZs. This finding is to our knowledge the first demonstration of genuine sulfate donors for an arylsulfate sulfotransferase and the first report of a type III PKS to generate a chemical reagent in bacterial sulfate metabolism. PMID:23912167

  20. Zusammensetzung der gelösten Polysaccharide von Fruchtsäften

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Kauschus; Hans-Peter Thier

    1985-01-01

    Summary The analytical procedure described for orange juice in part I has been applied for determining the composition of soluble polysaccharides in fruit juices (apple, grape, maracuja, pineapple), fruit purées (apricot, black und red currant, peach) and concentrated fruit juices (black and red currant, sour cherry). The polysaccharides were composed of the same sugar and uronic acid units but showed

  1. The polysaccharide composition of Poales cell walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwen G Smith; Philip J Harris

    1999-01-01

    Monocotyledon families can be divided into two groups depending on the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of ferulic acid ester-linked to their unlignified cell walls. The two groups also differ in the major types of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in their unlignified cell walls: in Group A they are glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAXs), and in Group B they are pectic polysaccharides. Previous

  2. Sulfation of dietary flavonoids by human sulfotransferases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, G.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids catechin, epicatechin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin were investigated as substrates and inhibitors of human sulfotransferases (hSULTs). Purified recombinant proteins and human intestine cytosol were used as enzyme sources. hSULT1A1 and hSULT1A3 as well as human intestine cytosol can catalyse the sulfation of the investigated flavonoids. Sulfation of catechin, epicatechin, eriodictyol, and hesperetin by recombinant hSULTs showed substrate inhibition at high flavonoid concentrations. Hesperetin and eriodictyol are potent inhibitors of purified hSULT1A1, hSULT1A3, hSULT1E1, and hSULT2A1. Catechin and epicatechin inhibited hSULT1A1 and hSULT1A3, but not hSULT1E1 and hSULT2A1. The sulfation efficacy and potency of inhibition is related to the C-ring structure of flavonoids. These results suggest that dietary flavonoids may regulate human SULT activity and, therefore, affect the regulation of hormones and neurotransmitters, detoxification of drugs, and the bioactivation of pro-carcinogens and pro-mutagens. PMID:19350454

  3. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  4. Biological and physicochemical properties of two polysaccharides from the mycelia of Grifola umbellate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yunpeng; Miao, Ye; Han, Yan; Xu, Jian; Wang, Qing

    2013-06-20

    In the present study, we firstly reported the antioxidant, antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of two polysaccharides (GUMP-1-1 and GUMP-1-2) isolated from Grifola umbellata mycelia. Chemical analysis indicated that two polysaccharide fractions contained different content of neutral sugar, uronic acid and protein, as well as varying monosaccharide compositions and average molecular weight. We found that they could significantly inhibit the growth of H22 implanted tumor and enhance the spleen index and splenocyte proliferation of H22 tumor-bearing mice. In addition, GUMP-1-2 had the stronger free radicals scavenging and ferrous ion chelating abilities than GUMP-1-1 in vitro. These results indicated that antitumor activity of two purified polysaccharides might be achieved by improving immune response and the different chemical composition and average molecular weight could affect their antitumor, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. PMID:23648036

  5. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide. PMID:25843860

  6. Unexplored possibilities of all-polysaccharide composites.

    PubMed

    Simkovic, Ivan

    2013-06-20

    Composites made solely from polysaccharides are mostly ecological because they can degrade without leaving behind ecologically harmful residues, in contrast to composites which contain synthetic polymers. Herein, the following groups of all-polysaccharide composites (APCs) are discussed: an all-cellulose group that includes cotton composites, cellulose combined with other polysaccharides, as well as those based on chitin/chitosan, heparin, hyaluronan, xylan, glucomannan, pectin, xyloglucan, arabinan, starch, carrageenan, alginate, galactan as one of the components in combination with other polysaccharides. They can be used in medical, paper, food, packing, textile, electronic, mechanical engineering and other applications. The composites were tested for absorptivity, biodegradability, crystallinity, rheology, and mechanical, optical, separation, gelling, pasting, film-forming, adhesive, antimicrobial properties, as well as water vapor permeability, water repellency, dye uptake, and fire-retardancy. Except for food applications, composites based on more than two types of polysaccharides have rarely been used and many possible combinations remain unexplored. PMID:23648032

  7. Endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate disrupts zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Kerri A.; Curtis, Lawrence R.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Fish in agricultural and remote areas may be exposed to endosulfan and its degradation products as a result of direct runoff, atmospheric transport and deposition. The following study used the zebrafish developmental model to investigate the responses to endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate, the major degradation product of endosulfan I and II. Embryos were dechorionated and waterborne exposed to the endosulfan I or endosulfan sulfate from 6 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Endosulfan I exposure concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 10 ?g/L and endosulfan sulfate from 1 to 100 ?g/L. Water solutions were renewed every 24 hours and fish were scored for overt developmental and behavioral abnormalities. Chemical analysis was performed on water, whole embryo, and larvae samples to determine waterborne exposure concentrations and tissue concentrations throughout the 5-day period. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint for both endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate was an abnormal response of the embryo/larvae to touch, suggesting that endosulfan I and sulfate are developmentally neurotoxic. The waterborne exposure EC50s for inhibition of touch response for endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate were 2.2 ?g/L and 23 ?g/L, respectively. The endosulfans were highly concentrated by the organisms, and the inhibition of touch response tissue EC50, determined from the measured tissue concentrations, was 367 ng/g for endosulfan I and 4552 ng/g for endosulfan sulfate. PMID:19883949

  8. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUA?1-3GalNAc?1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ?O-D-D, ?A-D-D, ?C-D-D, ?E-A-D, ?D-D-C, ?E-D-D and ?A-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ?C-A-D, ?C-D-C and ?A-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol ? stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ?A-D-A, ?A-D-D and ?A-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields. PMID:23019154

  9. Sulfated fucans from the egg jellies of the closely related sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and Strongylocentrotus pallidus ensure species-specific fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Castro, Michelle O; Valente, Ana-Paula; Biermann, Christiane H; Mourao, Paulo A S

    2002-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from egg jelly are the molecules responsible for inducing the sperm acrosome reaction in sea urchins. This is an obligatory event for sperm binding to, and fusion with, the egg. The sulfated polysaccharides from sea urchins have simple, well defined repeating structures, and each species represents a particular pattern of sulfate substitution. Here, we examined the egg jellies of the sea urchin sibling species Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and Strongylocentrotus pallidus. Surprisingly, females of S. droebachiensis possess eggs containing one of two possible sulfated fucans, which differ in the extent of their 2-O-sulfation. Sulfated fucan I is mostly composed of a regular sequence of four residues ([4-alpha-l-Fucp-2(OSO3)-1-->4-alpha-l-Fucp-2(OSO3)-1-->4-alpha-l-Fucp-1-->4-alpha-l-Fucp-1]n), whereas sulfated fucan II is a homopolymer of 4-alpha-l-Fucp-2(OSO3)-1 units. Females of S. pallidus contain a single sulfated fucan with the following repeating structure: [3-alpha-l-Fucp-2(OSO3)-1-->3-alpha-l-Fucp-2(OSO3)-1-->3-alpha-l-Fucp-4(OSO3)-1-->3-alpha-l-Fucp-4(OSO3)-1]n. The egg jellies of these two species of sea urchins induce the acrosome reaction in homologous (but not heterologous) sperm. Therefore, the fine structure of the sulfated alpha-fucans from the egg jellies of S. pallidus and S. droebachiensis, which differ in their sulfation patterns and in the position of their glycosidic linkages, ensures species specificity of the sperm acrosome reaction and prevents interspecies crosses. In addition, our observations allow a clear appreciation of the common structural features among the sulfated polysaccharides from sea urchin egg jelly and help to identify structures that confer finer species specificity of recognition in the acrosome reaction. PMID:11687579

  10. Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.

    PubMed

    Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

    2014-02-15

    Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells. PMID:24507248

  11. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin?

    PubMed Central

    Maccarana, Marco; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Kongsgaard, Mads; Magnusson, S. Peter; Oldberg, Åke; Malmström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile strength of DS-epi1-null skin. PMID:19687302

  12. The aggregation of a?42 induced by nano copper and the antagonistic action of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guoguang; Zou, Jinmei

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effect of A?42 induced by copper nanoparticle (Cu NPs) was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence technique. Five hundred nanometers of copper nanoparticle capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used to evaluate the aggregation and fibrils of A?42. The morphologies of A?42 incubated in the presence of Cu NPs changed gradually. The aggregation and fibrils were observed in AFM images. However, in the presence of polysaccharides, the Cu NPs-induced fibrillation of A?42 was inhibited. Interestingly, the formed Cu NPs-polysaccharides complexes can even remodel the preformed A?42 fibrils into the low neurotoxic amorphous aggregates, which were maybe ascribed to the higher affinity of polysaccharides for A?42 than Cu NPs. Besides, it was found that the binding constant of Cu NPs to A?42 is smaller than that of polysaccharides. The relationship among polysaccharides, copper nanoparticle, and A?42 morphologies and its neurotoxicity were discussed, and the binding force was analyzed. PMID:25410807

  13. Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunyan; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi; Cui, Jiangxia

    2013-01-01

    Background Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. Objective: To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. Materials and Methods The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Results and Conclusion Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples. PMID:23661989

  14. Antithrombin activity and disaccharide composition of dermatan sulfate from different bovine tissues.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Simone A; Daniel, Robyn A; Desilva, Kirthi; Seymour, Robert B

    2008-03-01

    Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan that selectively inhibits the action of thrombin through interaction with heparin cofactor II. Unlike heparin it does not interact with other coagulation factors and is able to inhibit thrombin associated with clots. This property has made dermatan sulfate an attractive candidate as an antithrombotic drug. Previous studies have showed that dermatan sulfate derived from porcine/bovine intestinal mucosa/skin or marine invertebrates is capable of stimulating heparin cofactor II-mediated thrombin inhibition in vitro. This biological activity is reported for the first time in this study using dermatan sulfate derived from mammalian tissues other than intestinal mucosa or skin. Ten different bovine tissues including the aorta, diaphragm, eyes, large and small intestine, esophagus, skin, tendon, tongue, and tongue skin were used to prepare dermatan sulfate-enriched fractions by anion exchange chromatography and acetone precipitation. Heparin cofactor II/dermatan sulfate-mediated thrombin inhibition measured in vitro revealed activity comparable to or higher than the commercial standard with 2-fold differences observed between some tissues. Analysis of the extracted dermatan sulfate using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis revealed significant differences in the relative percentage of all the mono-sulfated disaccharides, in particular the predominant mammalian disaccharide uronic acid-->N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-4-O-sulfate, confirming previous reports regarding variations in sulfation in dermatan sulfate from different tissues. Overall, these findings demonstrate that dermatan sulfate extracted from a range of bovine tissues exhibits in vitro antithrombin activity equivalent to or higher than that observed for porcine intestinal mucosa, identifying additional sources of dermatan sulfate as potential antithrombotic agents. PMID:18156656

  15. Localization and characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the body of the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Annelida).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Hanna B F; Mateus, Samuel H; Ferreira, Laina C; Ribeiro, Cristiane C; Palumbo-Junior, Antonio; Domingos, Maria-Aparecida O; Cinelli, Leonardo P; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the compartmental distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) in adults and their occurrence during the development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. S-GAGs were extracted from the body of earthworms to identify their composition and the time of their appearance and disappearance in embryonic, newborn, juvenile, and adult earthworms. S-GAGs were also analyzed in earthworm tissue using histochemical metachromatic staining. Purified S-GAGs obtained from the whole body of adult earthworms were composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS). In addition, an unknown, highly sulfated polysaccharide (HSP) was detected. In order to characterize specifically the S-GAG composition in the integument, earthworms were dissected and as much as possible of their viscera was removed. HS and CS were the predominant sulfated polysaccharides in the dissected integument, whereas in viscera, CS, HS and the HSP were found in proportions similar to those identified in the body. The qualitative S-GAG composition in juveniles was similar to that obtained from adult earthworms. CS was the predominant S-GAG in newborn earthworms, accompanied by lesser amounts of HS and by tiny amounts of the HSP. This study provides a detailed descriptive account of the pattern of S-GAG synthesis during development, and also the characterization of the tissue distribution of these compounds in the body of earthworms. PMID:20546857

  16. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Holleman, James W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  17. Sulfation of keratan sulfate proteoglycan reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Kamiyama, Shin; Hazawa, Masaharu; Yasuda, Takeshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Imai, Takashi

    2013-01-16

    This study focuses on clarifying the contribution of sulfation to radiation-induced apoptosis in human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, using 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporters (PAPSTs). Overexpression of PAPST1 or PAPST2 reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in Namalwa cells, whereas the repression of PAPST1 expression enhanced apoptosis. Inhibition of PAPST slightly decreased keratan sulfate (KS) expression, so that depletion of KS significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis. In addition, the repression of all three N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferases (CHST2, CHST6, and CHST7) increased apoptosis. In contrast, PAPST1 expression promoted the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt in irradiated Namalwa cells. These findings suggest that 6-O-sulfation of GlcNAc residues in KS reduces radiation-induced apoptosis of human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. PMID:23238079

  18. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. PMID:24879929

  19. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Kerryn; Meikle, Peter; Hopwood, John; Fuller, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA), which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues. PMID:25513953

  20. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

  1. Purification, characterization and biological activities in vitro of polysaccharides extracted from tea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yangyang; Mao, Fangfang; Liu, Yiran; Wei, Xinlin

    2013-11-01

    Three polysaccharide fractions (NTSPS, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2) were isolated and purified from the water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds with yields of 32.74%, 25.22%, and 11.09%, respectively. The average molecular weight of NTSPS, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 was determined by HPGPC system, with an Mw of 4.588, 500 and 100 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis by ion chromatography revealed they differed from each other in monosaccharide kinds and molar ratio. Furthermore, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 were heteropolysaccharide bounded with protein (2.83% and 2.12%) and 17 general amino acids were detected in them on an ion-chromatographic analyzer. The IR spectrum of ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 revealed the typical characteristics of polysaccharides and protein. In addition, the antitumor and immunological activity of the three polysaccharide fractions in vitro were also evaluated. It was found inhibition activity of NTSPS, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 on K562 cells increased with increasing sample concentration and the inhibition ratios of them at 400 ?g/mL were beyond 30.13 ± 3.54%, 36.61 ± 2.75% and 32.33 ± 2.53%, respectively. They also exhibited strong ability in promoting proliferation of mice splenic lymphocyte. Results of these studies indicated the three purified polysaccharides had a potential application as natural antitumor drugs. PMID:24099943

  2. Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

    2014-09-01

    Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 ?g/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

  3. Improved biocompatibility of thrombo-resistant iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings on Nitinols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Ma; Meng Liu; Xiuli Yue; Zhengbao Zha; Zhifei Dai

    2010-01-01

    Biocompatibility of two multilayer coatings of (Fe3+\\/Hep)10 and (Fe3+\\/DS\\/Fe3+\\/Hep)5 was comparatively analyzed with respect to protein adsorption, leukocyte adhesion and cell–material interaction. Both of them showed significantly high albumin-to-fibrinogen adsorption ratio, suggesting good biocompatibility. Furthermore, the (Fe3+\\/DS\\/Fe3+\\/Hep)5 coating was found to exhibit the lowest non-specific protein adsorption due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate. Compared with uncoated Nitinol surfaces, iron-polysaccharide

  4. Conformational analysis of the oligosaccharides related to side chains of holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C-H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc-GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  5. Conformational Analysis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Side Chains of Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C–H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc–GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  6. Immunologically active polysaccharide from Cetraria islandica.

    PubMed

    Ingolfsdottir, K; Jurcic, K; Fischer, B; Wagner, H

    1994-12-01

    A new alkali-soluble polysaccharide has been isolated from Iceland moss, Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach., by ethanol fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The mean M(r) was estimated to be 18,000. Sugar and methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy showed the polysaccharide to be a branched galactomannan with a backbone composed of two structural elements; (1-->6)-linked alpha-D-mannopyranosyl and alpha-D-(1-->6)-galactopyranosyl units. The polysaccharide showed pronounced immunostimulating activity in an in vitro phagocytosis assay and in the in in vivo carbon clearance assay. PMID:7809205

  7. Potential antidiabetic activity of extracellular polysaccharides in submerged fermentation culture of Coriolus versicolor LH1.

    PubMed

    Yang, John Powen; Hsu, Taihao; Lin, Fangyi; Hsu, Wenkuang; Chen, Yucheng

    2012-09-01

    The separation and purification of extracellular polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 were investigated along with their ?-glucosidase inhibition properties. Three polysaccharide fractions (ePS-F2-1, ePS-F3-1, and ePS-F4-1) were separated from the culture medium of LH1 using a DEAE anion-exchange column and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel filtration column. Their chemical compositions was determined. On the basis of an ?-glucosidase inhibition assay, the enzyme inhibition activities of ePS-F2-1, ePS-F3-1, and ePS-F4-1 were investigated. Among these, ePS-F4-1 had the highest enzyme inhibition effects on ?-glucosidase. According to the results of the chemical component analysis, ePS-F3-1 and ePS-F4-1 are the polysaccharides which are combined with triterpenoides, and ePS-F2-1 is complexed with proteins and triterpenoides. PMID:24751027

  8. Glucosamine sulfate--environmental antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2009-10-01

    We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk (every media of 20 ml) left opened for 1 week with and without Arthryl supplements 1,500 mg, the content of one package of the medication. A similar volume (20 ml) is ingested in taking the medication. Experiments with three repeatable results were taken for consideration. Arthryl inhibited environmental bacterial colonies' growth in every media but fungi growth was not impaired. Milk stayed liquid for the whole week with supplement of the Arthryl compared with sour milk transformation without Arthryl. Sample B showed inhibitory properties of the bacterial colonies on the fungi growth. The sample with Arthryl showed progressive growth of fungi without bacterial growth after 10 days of follow up compared with bacterial growth on media without Arthryl. Glucosamine sulfate as a new trademark Arthryl has environmental antibacterial properties but does not inhibit growth of fungal colonies. PMID:19495827

  9. Effect of nitrilotriacetic acid on batch methane fermentation of sulfate-containing wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Qing-Hao; Li Xiu-Fen; Chen Jian

    2008-01-01

    The effects of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on methane production and sulfate reduction during the treatment of sulfate laden organic wastewater were investigated in batch assays. The results showed that the methane fermentation was stimulated, while the sulfate reduction was inhibited. At a sodium acetate concentration of 7.0g\\/L, temperature of 35°C, and 0.9–15.0 of COD\\/SO42? ratio, the methane production was increased

  10. Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. John Hoffer; Ludmila N. Kaplan; Mazen J. Hamadeh; Ariadna C. Grigoriu; Murray Baron

    2001-01-01

    Glucosamine sulfate is a controversial osteoarthritis remedy that is presumed to stimulate articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis by increasing glucosamine concentrations in the joint space. However, this is not plausible because even large oral doses of the product have no effect on serum glucosamine concentrations. We propose instead that sulfate could mediate the clinical benefit attributed to this treatment. Sulfate is

  11. Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Kluger, Bernhard; Sarkanj, Bojan; Lemmens, Marc; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96 h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061 mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059 mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44× less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range. PMID:25492089

  12. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor).

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kacew, S; Lee, B M

    1999-08-01

    A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis. In B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, APS (180 micrograms/ml) was the most effective in inhibition of B[a]P binding to DNA in mouse liver cells. Oxidative DNA damage (by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) was significantly decreased by APS (180 micrograms/ml) and CPS (180 micrograms/ml). In induction of glutathione S-transferase activity, GPS was found to be the most effective among plant polysaccharides. In screening anti-tumor promoting effects, APS (180 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 cells. In addition, APS significantly inhibited PMA-induced tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cells. APS and CPS significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. These results suggest that some plant polysaccharides produced both anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities in in vitro models and, therefore, might be considered as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:10426820

  13. High pressure thermogravimetric analysis of the direct sulfation of Spanish calcium-based sorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Alvarez; Juan. F. González

    1999-01-01

    Under typical conditions found in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), the calcination reaction of limestones is thermodynamically inhibited, and the sorbent reacts with SO2 by a direct mechanism. Direct sulfation reactivity of different Spanish sorbents was studied by high-pressure thermogravimetric analysis. We have found that the physical structure of the surface of the particles influences the sulfation behaviour of the

  14. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 ?g/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. PMID:24906751

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  16. Antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Soniamol; Sabulal, Baby; George, Varughese; Antony, Kuttikkadan Rony; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

    2011-09-01

    In this study, polysaccharides were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Polyporaceae) and their antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using in vivo models. Potential antitumor activity was shown by G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) against solid tumor induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells. GLP at 100 mg kg(-1) body mass showed 80.8 and 77.6% reduction in tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively, when administered 24 h after tumour implantation. Again, GLP at the same dose but when administered prior to tumour inoculation, showed 79.5 and 81.2% inhibition of tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively. GLP showed significant dose-dependent activity in carrageenean-induced (acute) and formalin-induced (chronic) inflammation assays. At 100 mg kg(-1), GLP exhibited 57.6 and 58.2% inhibition in carrageenean-induced and formalin-induced assays, respectively. PMID:21945912

  17. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  18. Efecto del carragenano sulfatado en la respuesta celular de la langosta Panulirus interruptus Effect of sulfated carrageenan on the cellular response of the lobster Panulirus interruptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Araceli Soto; María Teresa Viana

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the cellular defense reaction of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus was studied after being inoculated with the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan. Three in vivo experiments were undertaken, where 0.2 mg mL -1 carrageenan were administered to adult lobsters and hemolymph samples were taken at different times (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h). The

  19. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zengtao; Chen, Xiuping; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Chen, Lidian; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), a basidiomycete white rot fungus, has long been prescribed to prevent and treat various human diseases, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from G. lucidum, such as triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, sterols, and alkaloids, among others. This paper examines the potential role of G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) in tumor therapy and the possible mechanisms involved. Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the anti-tumor activities of GLPS are mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic effects. GLPS affects immune cells and immune-related cells including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In addition, recent data also suggest that GLPS suppresses tumorigenesis or inhibits tumor growth through direct cytotoxic effect and anti-angiogenic actions. However, many questions still need to be answered before both G. lucidum and GLPS can be widely accepted and used as anti-tumor agents. PMID:21213395

  20. Synthesis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Branching Sites of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Fomitskaya, Polina A.; Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl ?-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 ?-l-fucosyl or ?-l-fucosyl-(1?3)-?-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific ?-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-?-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the ?-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  1. Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Fomitskaya, Polina A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl ?-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 ?-l-fucosyl or ?-l-fucosyl-(1?3)-?-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific ?-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-?-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the ?-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Terry

    -reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction-sensitive metals has been proposed as a promising strategy to remediate metal-contaminated

  3. Maintaining quality of litchi fruit with acidified calcium sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acidified calcium sulfate (ACS) on quality of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv ‘Brewster’) fruit after harvest was evaluated. ACS at 1.25% or higher concentrations significantly inhibited the activities of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in pericarp during storage at both 5 and 10 ºC...

  4. Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    2014-03-01

    Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of ?-D-fructofuranose units with ?(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.

  5. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  6. Borate-Rhamnogalacturonan II Bonding Reinforced by Ca2+ Retains Pectic Polysaccharides in Higher-Plant Cell Walls1

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hironobu; Asaka, Tomoyuki; Matoh, Toru

    1999-01-01

    The extent of in vitro formation of the borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) complex was stimulated by Ca2+. The complex formed in the presence of Ca2+ was more stable than that without Ca2+. A naturally occurring boron (B)-RG-II complex isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv Aokubi-daikon) root contained equimolar amounts of Ca2+ and B. Removal of the Ca2+ by trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid induced cleavage of the complex into monomeric RG-II. These data suggest that Ca2+ is a normal component of the B-RG-II complex. Washing the crude cell walls of radish roots with a 1.5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, pH 6.5, released 98% of the tissue Ca2+ but only 13% of the B and 22% of the pectic polysaccharides. The remaining Ca2+ was associated with RG-II. Extraction of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-washed cell walls with 50 mm trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid, pH 6.5, removed the remaining Ca2+, 78% of B, and 49% of pectic polysaccharides. These results suggest that not only Ca2+ but also borate and Ca2+ cross-linking in the RG-II region retain so-called chelator-soluble pectic polysaccharides in cell walls. PMID:9880361

  7. Chemical and structural studies of serotype polysaccharide antigens of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, K; Shiota, T; Ikeda, T

    1988-01-01

    The g antigen of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 was previously shown to consist of polysaccharides of various molecular weights. In this study, two such polysaccharides, LII and LIII, were purified by gel filtration and affinity chromatography procedures. By a double immunodiffusion analysis, fraction LII was found to contain a region in the serotype-specific g site not present in the serospecific g site of fraction LIII. This region was designated x. In addition to the serotype-specific g site, the cross-reactive sites, g-a, g-d, and g-(a-d), were all present on a single molecule of fractions LII and LIII. Polysaccharides LII and LIII were composed of galactose, glucose, and rhamnose. Analysis of inhibition of the precipitin reaction suggested that the serotype g site of fraction LII (the putative form of g antigen) may consist of two immunodominant regions, one a galactose-containing region (region x) and the other a glucose-containing region, while the serotype g site of fraction LIII appeared to have one immunodominant region containing a glucose determinant. The methylation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of LII and LIII fractions provided information on the linkage and the anomeric structures of the sugar components of the polysaccharides. Images PMID:3139566

  8. Antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide purified from Pteridium aquilinum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Zhang, Fangfang; Luo, Yunbo; Ma, Liyan; Kou, Xiaohong; Huang, Kunlun

    2009-01-26

    A water-soluble crude polysaccharide, obtained from fern Pteridium aquilinum, was fractionated by DEAE-Sepharose Fast-Flow column chromatography, and purified by Sephacryl S-400 HR column chromatography. The average molecular weight (M(w)) of the purified polysaccharide (PLP) is 458,000 Da. The monosaccharide components of PLP were characterized by gas chromatography (GC), and the majority of the monosaccharide components was glucose (relative mass 58.1%) with low levels of galactose, mannose, rhamnose, and arabinose (relative mass 18.7%, 6.8%, 10.2%, and 6.1%, respectively). The Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of PLP revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. On the basis of the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), DPPH radical-scavenging, the superoxide radical assay, and self-oxidation of 1,2,3-phentriol assay, the antioxidant activities of PLP were investigated. The purified polysaccharide was demonstrated to have strong reductive power (FRAP value: 827.6 micromol/L), moderate scavenging activities against DPPH radicals (83.1%) and superoxide radicals (60.5%), and moderate inhibiting power for self-oxidation of 1,2,3-phentriol (52.4%). PMID:19036355

  9. Effect of sulfate on anaerobic reduction of nitrobenzene with acetate or propionate as an electron donor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Wen, Yue; Ding, Ning; Xu, Yue; Zhou, Qi

    2012-09-15

    Sulfate is frequently found in wastewaters that contain nitrobenzene. To reveal the effect of sulfate on the reductive transformation of nitrobenzene to aniline--with acetate or propionate as potential electron donors in anaerobic systems--an acetate series (R1-R5) and a propionate series (R6-R10) were set up. Each of these was comprised of five laboratory-scale sequence batch reactors. The two series were amended with the same amount of nitrobenzene and electron donor electron equivalents, whereas with increasing sulfate concentrations. Results indicated that the presence of sulfate could depress nitrobenzene reduction. Such depression is linked to the inhibition of nitroreductase activity and/or the shift of electron flow. In the acetate series, although sulfate did not strongly compete with nitrobenzene for electron donors, noncompetitive inhibition of specific nitrobenzene reduction rates by sulfate was observed, with an inhibition constant of 0.40 mM. Propionate, which can produce intermediate H? as preferred reducing equivalent, is a more effective primary electron donor for nitrobenzene reduction as compared to acetate. In the propionate series, sulfate was found to be a preferential electron acceptor as compared to nitrobenzene, resulting in a quick depletion of propionate and then a likely termination of H?-releasing under higher sulfate concentrations (R9 and R10). In such a situation, nitrobenzene reduction slowed down, occurring two-stage zero-order kinetics. PMID:22704132

  10. Immobilized phosphorylase for synthesis of polysaccharides from glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous processes for enzymatic production of carbohydrates from glucose are discussed. Key reactant in process is identified as phosphorylase which catalyzes reversible formation or degradation of polysaccharide. Chemical compounds and reactions to synthesize polysaccharides are analyzed.

  11. Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane. PMID:24052236

  12. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor A. Schepetkin; Gang Xie; Liliya N. Kirpotina; Robyn A. Klein; Mark A. Jutila; Mark T. Quinn

    2008-01-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through

  13. GAG-ID: Heparan Sulfate (HS) and Heparin Glycosaminoglycan High-Throughput Identification Software.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yulun; Huang, Rongrong; Orlando, Ron; Sharp, Joshua S

    2015-06-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate are very large linear polysaccharides that undergo a complex variety of modifications and are known to play important roles in human development, cell-cell communication and disease. Sequencing of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides like heparin and heparan sulfate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) remains challenging because of the presence of multiple isomeric sequences in a complex mixture of oligosaccharides, the difficulties in separation of these isomers, and the facile loss of sulfates in MS/MS. We have previously introduced a method for structural sequencing of heparin/heparan sulfate oligosaccharides involving chemical derivatizations that replace labile sulfates with stable acetyl groups. This chemical derivatization scheme allows the use of reversed phase LC for high-resolution separation and MS/MS for sequencing of isomeric heparan sulfate oligosaccharides. However, because of the large number of analytes present in complex mixtures of heparin/HS oligosaccharides, the resulting LC-MS/MS data sets are large and cannot be annotated with existing glycomics software because of the specifically designed chemical derivatization strategy. We have developed a tool, called GAG-ID, to automate the interpretation of derivatized heparin/heparan sulfate LC-MS/MS data based on a modified multivariate hypergeometric distribution to weight the annotation of more intense peaks. The software is tested on a LC-MS/MS data set collected from a mixture of 21 synthesized heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides. By testing the discrimination of scoring with this system, we show that stratifying peaks into different intensity classes benefits the discrimination of scoring, and GAG-ID is able to properly assign all 21 synthetic tetrasaccharides in a defined mixture from a single LC-MS/MS run. PMID:25887393

  14. Heparan Sulfate Containing Unsubstituted Glucosamine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Nadanaka, Satomi; Purunomo, Eko; Takeda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of heparan sulfate (HS) in the extracellular matrix by heparanase is linked to the processes of tumor invasion and metastasis. Thus, a heparanase inhibitor can be a potential anticancer drug. Because HS with unsubstituted glucosamine residues accumulates in heparanase-expressing breast cancer cells, we assumed that these HS structures are resistant to heparanase and can therefore be utilized as a heparanase inhibitor. As expected, chemically synthetic HS-tetrasaccharides containing unsubstituted glucosamine residues, GlcA?1–4GlcNH3+(6-O-sulfate)?1–4GlcA?1–4GlcNH3+(6-O-sulfate), inhibited heparanase activity and suppressed invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro. Bifunctional NDST-1 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1) catalyzes the modification of N-acetylglucosamine residues within HS chains, and the balance of N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase activities of NDST-1 is thought to be a determinant of the generation of unsubstituted glucosamine. We also report here that EXTL3 (exostosin-like 3) controls N-sulfotransferase activity of NDST-1 by forming a complex with NDST-1 and contributes to generation of unsubstituted glucosamine residues. PMID:24753252

  15. Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bathe, Mark; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS intrinsic stiffness, and steric interactions on CS osmotic pressure are investigated. At physiological ionic strength (0.15 M NaCl), the sulfation type and pattern, as measured by a standard statistical description of copolymerization, are found to have a negligible influence on CS osmotic pressure, which depends principally on the mean volumetric fixed charge density. The intrinsic backbone stiffness characteristic of polysaccharides such as CS, however, is demonstrated to contribute significantly to its osmotic pressure behavior, which is similar to that of a solution of charged rods for the 20-disaccharide chains considered. Steric excluded volume is found to play a negligible role in determining CS osmotic pressure at physiological ionic strength due to the dominance of repulsive intermolecular electrostatic interactions that maintain chains maximally spaced in that regime, whereas at high ionic-strength steric interactions become dominant due to electrostatic screening. Osmotic pressure predictions are compared to experimental data and to well-established theoretical models including the Donnan theory and the Poisson-Boltzmann cylindrical cell model. PMID:16055525

  16. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  17. Functional improvements in ?-lactoglobulin by conjugating with soybean soluble polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Inada, Naoki; Hayashi, Mai; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hattori, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS) was hydrolyzed by autoclaving for 6 and 12 h to obtain SSPS (6 h) and SSPS (12 h). Bovine ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) was conjugated with each SSPS by the Maillard reaction to improve its function. Conjugation between BLG and each SSPS was confirmed by Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. BLG-SSPS (6 h) and BLG-SSPS (12 h), respectively, retained approximately 56 and 43% of the retinol-binding activity of BLG. Structural analyses by intrinsic fluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies indicated that the native structure of BLG had almost been maintained in each conjugate and that the surface structure was covered by conjugated SSPS. The emulsifying properties of BLG were improved in each conjugate at pH 3, 5, and 7 in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. The antibody responses to BLG-SSPS (6 h) and BLG-SSPS (12 h) were considerably reduced in BALB/c mice. We conclude that conjugation with SSPS was very effective for improving the function of BLG and this study would contribute to greater utilization of SSPS. PMID:25315246

  18. Characterization of acidic polysaccharides from the mollusks through acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiuling; Wen, Chengrong; Lu, Jiaojiao; Teng, Nan; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-01

    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exist widely in nature. Herein we propose an elegant methodology to identify UACPs by analyzing their disaccharides produced from the acid hydrolysis using HPLC-MS(n) upon 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Based on the optimization of experimental conditions by the single factor experiment and orthogonal test design, the combination of 1.3M TFA at 105°C for 3h is found to be the optimum. Subsequently, these conditions were applied to investigate the distribution of UACPs in 20 selected species of edible Bivalvia and Gastropoda. PMP-disaccharides derived from UACPs in mollusks were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of the reference PMP-disaccharides from hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), and AGSP with ?4)-GlcA(1?2)-Man(1? repeating units. The analysis reveals the prevalence of CS in the shellfishes as well as the HP, and existence of three non-GAG UACPs in 7 mollusks. PMID:26076626

  19. Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Miguel A.; Vargas, Miguel A.; Regueiro, Verónica; Llompart, Catalina M.; Albertí, Sebastián; Bengoechea, José A.

    2004-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the defense of areas exposed to microorganisms. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APs) are one of the most important weapons of this system and that they make up the protective front for the respiratory tract. On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). Klebsiella pneumoniae CPS mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to human neutrophil defensin 1, ?-defensin 1, lactoferrin, protamine sulfate, and polymyxin B. K. pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O antigen did not play an important role in AP resistance, and CPS was the only factor conferring protection against polymyxin B in strains lacking O antigen. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the amount of CPS expressed by a given strain and the resistance to polymyxin B. We also showed that K. pneumoniae CPS mutant bound more polymyxin B than the wild-type strain with a concomitant increased in the self-promoted pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that CPS protects bacteria by limiting the interaction of APs with the surface. Finally, we report that K. pneumoniae increased the amount of CPS and upregulated cps transcription when grown in the presence of polymyxin B and lactoferrin. PMID:15557634

  20. Composition of the coagulant polysaccharide fraction from Strychnos potatorum seeds.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, M; Corsaro, M M; Lanzetta, R; Parrilli, M; Folkard, G; Grant, W; Sutherland, J

    1994-10-01

    The composition of the coagulant polysaccharide fraction from Strychnos potatorum seeds is described. This fraction comprises a 1:1.7 mixture of a galactomannan and a galactan. The structure of these polysaccharides is also discussed. In addition, the coagulant properties of the polysaccharide fractions of two other Strychnos species, innocua and nux-vomica, have been assayed. PMID:7982225

  1. The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Park, Hyeon-soo; Xia, Yong-mei; Kim, Gon-sup; Cui, Steve W

    2014-03-15

    Medicinal mushroom polysaccharides such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) have been commonly hypothesized to suppress tumor cells proliferation through immune effects. To verify this hypothesis through investigating comprehensive miRNA expression in polysaccharide treated cancer cells, an anticancer mycelia GLP was employed to disclose miRNA differential expression of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), by using a miRNA microarray assay based on Sanger miR-Base Release 16. The experiment and the analysis result indicates that among the 61 differential expressed miRNAs (p ? 0.01), 17 of them were regulated significantly. GLP can inhibit HepG2 cells directly through regulation of hepatocarcinoma genes. A newly found miR-3131 exhibited the strongest upregulation (92-folds, Log2 = 6.53, p = 0.000016). The miRNAs responded synergistically in both hepatocarcinoma and immune-related aspects. PMID:24528735

  2. Biosynthesis of poly(?-glutamic acid) from l -glutamic acid, citric acid, and ammonium sulfate in Bacillus subtilis IFO3335

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Kunioka; Atsuo Goto

    1994-01-01

    Poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) production in Bacillus subtilis IFO3335 was studied. When l-glutamic acid, citric acid, and ammonium sulfate were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, a large amount of PGA without a by-product such as a polysaccharide was produced. The time courses of cell growth, PGA, glutamic acid, and citric acid concentrations during cultivation were investigated. It was found that

  3. Sulfation of melatonin: enzymatic characterization, differences of organs, species and genders, and bioactivity variation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangge; Huo, Xiaokui; Dong, Peipei; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Chao; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaochi

    2015-04-15

    Exogenous melatonin (Mel) is widely used in clinic for multiple therapeutic purposes. In metabolism pathways of Mel, 6-hydroxymelatonin-sulfate (S-O-Mel) and N-acetylserotonin sulfate (S-NAS) are the most abundant metabolites account for over 90% of total Mel metabolites in humans, indicating that sulfation plays an important role in reflecting the functions and clearance of Mel in vivo. In the present study, we characterized Mel sulfation using various human organ cytosols (liver, lung, kidney, small intestine and brain), liver cytosols from five different animal species, and cDNA-expressed human sulfotransferase (SULT) for the first time. Our results demonstrated that liver, lung, kidney and small intestine of humans had high catalytic efficiency for Mel sulfation, however, brain contained a very low reaction rate. Interestingly, organ cytosols prepared from females exhibited higher sulfation activity than those of males. SULT isoforms 1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1 and 1E1 exhibited metabolic activities toward Mel. According to kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), chemical inhibition, correlation analysis, molecular docking and sulfation assays with recombinant human SULTs isoforms, SULT1A1 was determined as the major enzyme responsible for Mel sulfation. Furthermore, considerable species differences in Mel sulfation were observed, and the total intrinsic clearance rate of Mel sulfation was as follows: monkey>rat>dog>human>pig>mouse. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects of Mel and its sulfated metabolites were evaluated by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, and S-O-Mel as a bioactive form, exhibited potent bioactivity. Our investigation provided a global view of the enzyme-dependent sulfation of Mel that can guide biomedical research on Mel. PMID:25738837

  4. Isolation and identification of anti-tumor polysaccharide LSP21 from Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin-Hui; Yu, Fan; Liu, Jia; Gao, Jing; Yan, Li-Fang; Dong, Meng-Meng

    2014-09-01

    Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze is a traditional Chinese folk medicine used for the treatment of fever, hemorrhage, hepatitis and other disorders. Recently, it was found that the crude polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSP) has significant anti-tumor activity. However, research on the isolation and identification of anti-tumor polysaccharide fractions from LSP has not yet been reported. In this study, three polysaccharides LSP11, LSP21, LSP31 were isolated and purified from LSP by using DEAE-52 cellulose column and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. It was found that LSP21 exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro. Further research showed that LSP21 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and could induce cell body shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and reduction in the number of tumor cells with normal morphology which suggested that its cytotoxicity on tumor cell might be related to both inhibition on cell proliferation and inducement of cell death. Finally, the structural characteristics of LSP21 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that LSP21 is a heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 1.31×10(6) Da and consists of glucose, galactose and mannose in the ratio of 1.77:1:2.38. PMID:24991730

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii and Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275.

    PubMed

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-15

    Polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii (PEPS) and exopolysaccharides from Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST1275 EPS) were sulphated, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated and crude polysaccharides were determined. Degree of sulphonation of PEPS and ST1275 EPS was 0.69 and 0.31, respectively. Characteristic bands in FT-IR spectra indicated that the sulphate group was at the C6 position of the galactose skeleton. Antioxidant activities of PEPS and ST1275 EPS were significantly (P<0.05) improved after sulphonation. For tested crude and sulphated polysaccharides, sulphated PEPS had the largest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003 while sulphated ST1275 EPS had the largest inhibition zone against Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 54001. Furthermore, sulphated PEPS had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli ATCC 25922, and both sulphated PEPS and sulphated ST1275 EPS had the lowest MICs on S. aureus CMCC 26003 and L. monocytogenes CMCC 54001. PMID:25038675

  6. Plagioclase dissolution during CO?-SO? cosequestration: effects of sulfate.

    PubMed

    Min, Yujia; Kubicki, James D; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-02-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising methods to mitigate the adverse impacts of global climate change. The performance of GCS can be affected by mineral dissolution and precipitation induced by injected CO2. Cosequestration with acidic gas such as SO2 can reduce the high cost of GCS, but it will increase the sulfate's concentration in GCS sites, where sulfate can potentially affect plagioclase dissolution/precipitation. This work investigated the effects of 0.05 M sulfate on plagioclase (anorthite) dissolution and subsequent mineral precipitation at 90 °C, 100 atm CO2, and 1 M NaCl, conditions relevant to GCS sites. The adsorption of sulfate on anorthite, a Ca-rich plagioclase, was examined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and then simulated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the dissolution rate of anorthite was enhanced by a factor of 1.36 by the formation of inner-sphere monodentate complexes between sulfate and the aluminum sites on anorthite surfaces. However, this effect was almost completely suppressed in the presence of 0.01 M oxalate, an organic ligand that can exist in GCS sites. Interestingly, sulfate also inhibited the formation of secondary mineral precipitation through the formation of aluminum-sulfate complexes in the aqueous phase. This work, for the first time, reports the surface complexation between sulfate and plagioclase that can occur in GCS sites. The results provide new insights for obtaining scientific guidelines for the proper amount of SO2 coinjection and finally for evaluating the economic efficiency and environmental safety of GCS operations. PMID:25549263

  7. Homologous overexpression of rfaH in E. coli K4 improves the production of chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate, are among the top ranked products in industrial biotechnology for biomedical applications, with a growing world market of billion dollars per year. Recently a remarkable progress has been made in the development of tailor-made strains as sources for the manufacturing of such products. The genetic modification of E. coli K4, a natural producer of chondroitin sulfate precursor, is challenging considering the lack of detailed information on its genome, as well as its mobilome. Chondroitin sulfate is currently used as nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and several new therapeutic applications, spanning from the development of skin substitutes to live attenuated vaccines, are under evaluation. Results E. coli K4 was used as host for the overexpression of RfaH, a positive regulator that controls expression of the polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and other genes necessary for the virulence of E. coli K4. Various engineering strategies were compared to investigate different types of expression systems (plasmid vs integrative cassettes) and integration sites (genome vs endogenous mobile element). All strains analysed in shake flasks on different media showed a capsular polysaccharide production improved by 40 to 140%, compared to the wild type, with respect to the final product titer. A DO-stat fed-batch process on the 2L scale was also developed for the best performing integrative strain, EcK4r3, yielding 5.3 g?L-1 of K4 polysaccharide. The effect of rfaH overexpression in EcK4r3 affected the production of lipopolysaccharide and the expression of genes involved in the polysaccharide biosynthesis pathway (kfoC and kfoA), as expected. An alteration of cellular metabolism was revealed by changes of intracellular pools of UDP-sugars which are used as precursors for polysaccharide biosynthesis. Conclusions The present study describes the identification of a gene target and the application of a successful metabolic engineering strategy to the unconventional host E. coli K4 demonstrating the feasibility of using the recombinant strain as stable cell factory for further process implementations. PMID:23659469

  8. Bioaugmentation and functional partitioning in a zero valent iron-anaerobic reactor for sulfate-containing wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingxin Zhang; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yiwen Liu; Xinlei An; Shuo Chen; Huimin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate inhibits anaerobic digestion because it stimulates sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) to compete with methanogens for electron utilization and sulfide produced has toxicity to microorganism. Considering that zero-valent iron (ZVI) is expected to abbreviate the above negative effects due to its reductibility, a ZVI bed was packed into an anaerobic (ZVI-anaerobic) reactor (R1) for improvement of sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. The

  9. Polysaccharides from seeds of Strychnos species.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, M M; Giudicianni, I; Lanzetta, R; Marciano, C E; Monaco, P; Parrilli, M

    1995-08-01

    The chemical composition of polysaccharide fractions from Strychnos nux-vomica and S. innocua seeds and comparison with those from S. potatorum seeds are reported. The structural features of the galactomannans from the three Strychnos species are also discussed. PMID:7669279

  10. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    E-print Network

    Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from

  11. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  12. Polysaccharides: Candidates of promising vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants remain the only adjuvants approved for human use in the USA for over 80 years because of alum's simplicity, tolerability, safety and cost-efficiency. Recent development of vaccines, especially the increasing applications of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines, makes aluminium adjuvants cannot stimulate enough immunity to the antigens, since aluminium adjuvants can only induce Th2 type immune responses. So, novel adjuvants are urgent to make up the disadvantages of aluminium adjuvants. However, some major hurdles need to be overcome, not only the scientific knowledge of adjuvants but also unacceptable side-effects and toxicity. A number of carbohydrate-based polysaccharides from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and recognize pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells, followed by triggering innate immunity and regulating adaptive immunity. What is more, polysaccharides are safe and biodegradable without tissue deposits as observed in aluminium adjuvants. Therefore, polysaccharide-based compounds and formulations are potential vaccine adjuvant candidates. Here, we mainly review polysaccharide-based adjuvants investigated in recent years. PMID:25994059

  13. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Pascale B.; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

  14. Interference with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as potential antitumor strategy: superiority of a sulfated galactofucan from the brown alga Saccharina latissima and Fucoidan over heparins.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tino; Ehrig, Karina; Liewert, Inga; Alban, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    The present study demonstrates that fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSP) from brown algae interfere with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in human Burkitt's lymphoma cells by binding CXCL12 and thereby blocking both CXCL12-induced CXCR4 receptor activation and downstream effects like migration and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9. This mode of action is currently considered as promising strategy for tumor therapy and may contribute to the known in vivo antitumor, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity of FCSP. In terms of the inhibition of the CXCR4 activation, FCSP from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-FCSP) proved to be more active than a commercial "Fucoidan" from Fucus vesiculosus, and both FCSP were superior to heparins by more than one order of magnitude. Fractionation of S.l.-FCSP revealed that its main fraction is composed of a homogeneous, higher sulfated galactofucan (S.l.-SGF) which consistently exhibited stronger activities and can therefore be considered as the active ingredient of S.l.-FCSP. By subjecting Fucoidan to the same fractionation procedure, the inhibitory activity of the obtained purified Fucoidan on the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis tended to be weaker and its antioxidant and antiproliferative effects were lost. This was probably due to the separation of contaminants including phenolic compounds, whose content additionally showed marked batch-to-batch variability. Regarding the need of standardized, well-characterized FCSP preparations for any potential medical application, our results indicate that S.l.-SGF is a promising candidate for further investigations and that S. latissima may be a more appropriate source of FCSP than F. vesiculosus or other algae species with high contents of co-extractable compounds. PMID:25878069

  15. Distinct pattern of antibody reactivity with oligomeric or polymeric forms of the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, S; Ciciriello, S; Koster, M; Eby, R

    1991-01-01

    The chain length of oligosaccharides required for antibody binding has been studied by using the capsular polysaccharide from Haemophilus influenzae type b or oligosaccharides derived from it. The concentration of competing antigens required to achieve a 50% inhibition of antibody binding by human polyclonal antisera in an in vitro competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay decreased progressively from greater than 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-7) M as the inhibiting saccharide chain length increased from 1 to 262 repeat units. Even small oligosaccharides (one or two repeat units) are potentially capable of competing to a significant level if a high enough concentration of saccharides is used. A similar pattern of reactivity was seen with a monoclonal anti-polyribosyl ribitol phosphate antibody, suggesting that the differences in the avidity of the antibody subpopulations in the polyclonal antisera do not contribute to the binding patterns observed. The binding reaction was specific as evaluated with pneumococcal saccharides. Furthermore, an oligosaccharide-protein conjugate binds antibody better than the free oligosaccharides do. Such a difference in binding was not observed between the polysaccharide and a polysaccharide-protein conjugate. Overall, the data suggest that identical epitopes are expressed by oligomeric and polymeric forms of the antigen and that a particularly more stable conformation in polysaccharides is preferred by antibodies. Covalent coupling of oligomers to protein increases the expression of stable conformation of epitopes. The data further suggest that this kind of antigenic analysis may be important for the design and synthesis of glycoconjugate vaccines. PMID:1718875

  16. On Scaffold Hopping: Challenges in the Discovery of Sulfated Small Molecules as Mimetics of Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal S.; Mosier, Philip D.; Zhou, Qibing

    2012-01-01

    The design of sulfated, small, non-saccharide molecules as modulators of proteins is still in its infancy as standard drug discovery tools such as library of diverse sulfated molecules and in silico docking and scoring protocol have not been firmly established. Databases, such as ZINC, contain too few sulfate-containing non-saccharide molecules, which severely limits the identification of new hits. Lack of a generally applicable protocol for scaffold hopping limits the development of sulfated small molecules as synthetic mimetics of the highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans. We explored a sequential ligand-based (LBVS) and structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) approach starting from our initial discovery of monosulfated benzofurans to discover alternative scaffolds as allosteric modulators of thrombin, a key coagulation enzyme. Screening the ZINC database containing nearly 1 million non-sulfated small molecules using a pharmacophore developed from the parent sulfated benzofurans followed by a genetic algorithm-based dual-filter docking and scoring screening identified a group of 10 promising hits, of which three top-scoring hits were synthesized. Each was found to selectively inhibit human alpha-thrombin suggesting the possibility of this approach for scaffold hopping. Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed allosteric inhibition mechanism for the best molecule and human plasma studies confirmed good anticoagulation potential as expected. Our simple sequential LBVS and SBVS approach is likely to be useful as a general strategy for identification of sulfated small molecules hits as modulators of glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. PMID:23164711

  17. Sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design considerations in anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of improvement in anaerobic digestion were investigated: inhibition of sulfate reduction, nutrient limitation, and reactor design. In the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, an undesirable end product, is produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of adding SRB-specific biochemical inhibitors to a waste stream as a method of preventing sulfate reduction in continuous anaerobic digesters. Two classes of inhibitory compounds were identified: (1) sulfate analogs and (2) transition metal divalent cations. Molybdate was found to have an immediate inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction, and a delayed effect on other trophic groups. Non-specific inhibition was not caused by a dynamic imbalance due to cessation of fatty acid degradation via sulfate reduction. Transition metals had no effect on sulfate reduction or overall digester performance in high sulfate digesters. The hypothesis that nutrient limitation could be synergistically coupled with the addition of SRB-specific inhibitors was investigated. Recovery of sulfate reduction was slower after molybdate removal from the feed when phosphate was limited as compared with when it was continually added, although this effect may have been an indirect result of non-specific inhibition. Periodic pulse nutrient addition was investigated as a method of (1) reducing cell growth, sludge production and related disposal costs and (2) reducing nutrient addition costs. Sustained waste treatment performance was demonstrated for iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen-free feeds. When withheld nutrients were added in pulses, effective operation could be maintained over long periods. Increasing pulse strength delayed the onset of adverse effects related to nutrient starvation.

  18. Antitumor activity of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide fractions on Ehrlich tumor and Sarcoma 180.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Jean Mary; Alves, Endi Pricila; Aguilera, Charlise; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Silveira, Marcia Luciane Lange; Wisbeck, Elisabeth; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida

    2014-07-01

    The medicinal properties of fungi of the genus Pleurotus have attracted great interest due to their therapeutic properties. Polysaccharides synthesized by Pleurotus, including the ?-glucans are considered the main responsible for its therapeutic properties. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of polysaccharidic fractions extracted from mycelial biomass of Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 in inhibiting the development of Ehrlich Tumor (ET) and Sarcoma 180 (S-180). FC, FI and FII fractions provided 60.6, 76.5 and 73.6% of ET inhibition, respectively (mean value of about 70%) while FS, FIII-1 and FIII-2 showed no inhibition against ET. FII and FIII-2 resulted in 85.6 and 93.6% (mean value of about 90%) while FIII-1, FC and FS resulted in 54.1 and 0%, respectively, of S-180 inhibition. The yields of the fractions FS, FI, FII, FIII-1 and FIII-2 obtained from P. ostreatus mycelial biomass were 11.6, 1.3, 0.4, 0.65 and 0.35%, respectively. FII fraction (30mg/kg) apparently had no toxic effect on healthy animals, since no difference between the body weights of animals in substance control (SC) and negative control (NC) groups was observed. PMID:24768967

  19. Preparation of free-standing films of natural polysaccharides using hot press technique and their surface functionalization with biomimetic apatite.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Mineo; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Ohashi, Masafumi

    2011-11-01

    This study demonstrated that gel-like polyion complexes obtained by mixing of aqueous solution of chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and hyaluronic acid with that of chitosan were able to form their free-standing films using hot press treatments. These films, having thicknesses ca. 50 and 100 ?m, depending on the spacer thickness, were homogeneous and non-porous at the microscopic level, and were not water-soluble. The present fabrication process required neither cross-coupling agents nor introduction of other functional groups to the polysaccharides. Hydroxyapatite deposition on the film surfaces under body fluid conditions was also achieved. PMID:21839621

  20. Biosynthesis of heparin. Availability of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kusche, M.; Torri, G.; Casu, B.; Lindahl, U. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1990-05-05

    Heparin preparations isolated from pig intestinal mucosa and from bovine lung were fractionated with regard to affinity for antithrombin. The resulting fractions, with high (HA) or low (LA) affinity for the proteinase inhibitor, were analyzed by 13C NMR or by identification of di- and tetrasaccharides obtained through deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid. Structural differences between corresponding HA and LA fractions were essentially restricted to minor constituents, in particular 3-O-sulfated glucosamine units that occurred (1 or 2 residues/chain) in all HA preparations but were scarce or absent in LA heparin. The HA fractions also consistently showed higher contents of nonsulfated iduronic acid and, to a lesser extent, N-acetylated glucosamine units than the LA fractions. The two tetrasaccharide sequences, -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3- and -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3(6-OSO3)- , recently implicated as part of the acceptor site for glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfate groups were identified in mucosal LA heparin; it was calculated that the preparation contained approximately one potential acceptor site/polysaccharide chain. Yet this material did not yield any labeled HA components on incubation with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phospho-(35S)sulfate in the presence of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase, solubilized from a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. The failure to incorporate any 3-O-sulfate groups could conceivably be explained by the occurrence of a D-glucuronic rather than L-iduronic acid unit linked at the reducing ends of the above tetrasaccharide sequences. Alternatively, 3-O-sulfation may be restricted by other, as yet unidentified, inhibitory structural elements that are preferentially expressed in polysaccharide sequences selected for the generation of LA heparin.Au

  1. Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-11

    Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

  2. A green biocide enhancer for the treatment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilms on carbon steel surfaces using glutaraldehyde

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    A green biocide enhancer for the treatment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilms on carbon, was found to enhance the efficacy of glutaraldehyde in its treatment of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB dosages considerably in the inhibition of SRB biofilm establishment and the treatment of established

  3. Chondrocyte culture in three dimensional alginate sulfate hydrogels promotes proliferation while maintaining expression of chondrogenic markers.

    PubMed

    Mhanna, Rami; Kashyap, Aditya; Palazzolo, Gemma; Vallmajo-Martin, Queralt; Becher, Jana; Möller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2014-05-01

    The loss of expression of chondrogenic markers during monolayer expansion remains a stumbling block for cell-based treatment of cartilage lesions. Here, we introduce sulfated alginate hydrogels as a cartilage biomimetic biomaterial that induces cell proliferation while maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype of encapsulated chondrocytes. Hydroxyl groups of alginate were converted to sulfates by incubation with sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex (SO3/pyridine), yielding a sulfated material cross-linkable with calcium chloride. Passage 3 bovine chondrocytes were encapsulated in alginate and alginate sulfate hydrogels for up to 35 days. Cell proliferation was five-fold higher in alginate sulfate compared with alginate (p=0.038). Blocking beta1 integrins in chondrocytes within alginate sulfate hydrogels significantly inhibited proliferation (p=0.002). Sulfated alginate increased the RhoA activity of chondrocytes compared with unmodified alginate, an increase that was blocked by ?1 blocking antibodies (p=0.017). Expression and synthesis of type II collagen, type I collagen, and proteoglycan was not significantly affected by the encapsulation material evidenced by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Alginate sulfate constructs showed an opaque appearance in culture, whereas the unmodified alginate samples remained translucent. In conclusion, alginate sulfate provides a three dimensional microenvironment that promotes both chondrocyte proliferation and maintenance of the chondrogenic phenotype and represents an important advance for chondrocyte-based cartilage repair therapies providing a material in which cell expansion can be done in situ. PMID:24320935

  4. In-situ radiotracer and electrochemical study of sulfate accumulation on Al 2024 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kolics, A.; Thomas, A.E.; Wieckowski, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    We have applied radiotracer, electrochemical and ultrahigh vacuum techniques to study sulfate accumulation in passive films on pure aluminum and Al 2024 alloy in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} containing 0.1 mM Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. We have found that the sulfate coverage is pH and electrode potential dependent and that sulfate is bonded to the surface in two distinctively different ways. While the breakdown of the passive film results in sulfate removal, the subsequent repassivation reintroduces the sulfate anion into the passive film. There is a strong tendency of sulfate to remain in the passive film which explains the inhibitive properties of sulfate in aluminum corrosion. Our data reveal that the anomalous sulfate accumulation during the negative-going polarization can be attributed to the copper content of the alloy surface. The formation of copper-containing nodules determines the electrode potential threshold below which sulfate anions desorb. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Removal of sulfate from high-strength wastewater by crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Tait, Stephan; Clarke, William P; Keller, Jurg; Batstone, Damien J

    2009-02-01

    Sulfate causes considerable problems in anaerobic digesters, related to generation of sulfides, loss of electrons (and hence methane), and contamination of gas streams. Removal of sulfides is generally expensive, and still results in methane losses. In this paper, we evaluate the use of precipitation for low-cost sulfate removal, in highly contaminated streams (>1 gS L(-1)). The main precipitate assessed is calcium sulfate (gypsum), though the formation of complex precipitates such as jarosite and ettringite to remove residual sulfate is also evaluated. The four main concerns in contaminated wastewater are:- high solubility, caused by high ion activity and ion pairing; slow kinetics; inhibition of nucleation; and poisoning of crystals by impurities, rendering product unsuitable for reuse as seed. These concerns were addressed through batch experiments on a landfill wastewater with a similar composition to other sulfate rich industrial wastewaters (high levels of organic and inorganic contaminants). Crystallisation rates were rapid and comparable to what is observed by others for pure solutions (2-5 h). The kinetics of crystallisation showed a 2nd order dependence on supersaturation, which have implications for crystalliser design, as discussed in the paper. No spontaneous nucleation was observed (seed was required). Seed poisoning did not occur, and product crystals were as effective as pure seed. Solubility was increased by an order of magnitude compared to a pure solution (2.6x10(-3) M2 vs. 0.22x10(-3) M2). As evaluated using equilibrium modelling, this was caused equally by non-specific ion activity, and specific ion pairing. Jarosite and ettringite could not be formed at reasonable pH and temperature levels. Given the lack of complex precipitates, and relatively high solubility, gypsum crystallisation cannot practically be used to remove sulfate to very low levels, and gas-sulfide treatment will likely still be required. It can however, be used for low-cost bulk removal of sulfate. PMID:19059623

  6. Heparan Sulfate-Dependent Enhancement of Henipavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Dhondt, Kévin P.; Châlons, Marie; Mély, Stéphane; Raoul, Hervé; Negre, Didier; Cosset, François-Loïc; Gerlier, Denis; Vivès, Romain R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nipah virus and Hendra virus are emerging, highly pathogenic, zoonotic paramyxoviruses that belong to the genus Henipavirus. They infect humans as well as numerous mammalian species. Both viruses use ephrin-B2 and -B3 as cell entry receptors, and following initial entry into an organism, they are capable of rapid spread throughout the host. We have previously reported that Nipah virus can use another attachment receptor, different from its entry receptors, to bind to nonpermissive circulating leukocytes, thereby promoting viral dissemination within the host. Here, this attachment molecule was identified as heparan sulfate for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Cells devoid of heparan sulfate were not able to mediate henipavirus trans-infection and showed reduced permissivity to infection. Virus pseudotyped with Nipah virus glycoproteins bound heparan sulfate and heparin but no other glycosaminoglycans in a surface plasmon resonance assay. Furthermore, heparin was able to inhibit the interaction of the viruses with the heparan sulfate and to block cell-mediated trans-infection of henipaviruses. Moreover, heparin was shown to bind to ephrin-B3 and to restrain infection of permissive cells in vitro. Consequently, treatment with heparin devoid of anticoagulant activity improved the survival of Nipah virus-infected hamsters. Altogether, these results reveal heparan sulfate as a new attachment receptor for henipaviruses and as a potential therapeutic target for the development of novel approaches against these highly lethal infections. PMID:25759505

  7. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.

  8. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  9. Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

  10. Impact of sulfate pollution on anaerobic biogeochemical cycles in a wetland sediment.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Darren S; Mitchell, Alison

    2012-03-15

    The impact of sulfate pollution is increasingly being seen as an issue in the management of inland aquatic ecosystems. In this study we use sediment slurry experiments to explore the addition of sulfate, with or without added carbon, on the anaerobic biogeochemical cycles in a wetland sediment that previously had not been exposed to high levels of sulfate. Specifically we looked at the cycling of S (sulfate, dissolved and particulate sulfide--the latter measured as acid volatile sulfide; AVS), C (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, methane and the short chain volatile fatty acids formate, acetate, butyrate and propionate), N (dinitrogen, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and redox active metals (Fe(II) and Mn(II)). Sulfate had the largest effects on the cycling of S and C. All the added S at lower loadings were converted to AVS over the course of the experiment (30 days). At the highest loading (8 mmol) less than 50% of consumed S was converted to AVS, however this is believed to be a kinetic effect. Although sulfate reduction was occurring in sediments with added sulfate, dissolved sulfide concentrations remained low throughout the study. Sulfate addition affected methanogenesis. In the absence of added carbon, addition of sulfate, even at a loading of 1 mmol, resulted in a halving of methane formation. The initial rate of formation of methane was not affected by sulfate if additional carbon was added to the sediment. However, there was evidence for anaerobic methane oxidation in those sediments with added sulfate and carbon, but not in those sediments treated only with carbon. Surprisingly, sulfate addition had little apparent impact on N dynamics; previous studies have shown that sulfide can inhibit denitrification and stimulate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. We propose that because most of the reduced sulfur was in particulate form, levels of dissolved sulfide were too low to interfere with the N cycle. PMID:22204939

  11. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80?g or normal saline 0.4mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator. PMID:25962819

  12. A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Erwa, H. H.; Haseeb, M. A.; Idris, A. A.; Lapeyssonnie, L.; Sanborn, W. R.; Sippel, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Vaccination against cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) has regained interest with the use of capsular polysaccharides (or polyosides) of the meningococcus as specific immunizing agents. These compounds proved to be effective in the USA against meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. This study considers whether the polysaccharides of the serotype A meningococcus, which is prevalent in the African CSM belt, could be protective in epidemic conditions. Taking advantage of the usual seasonal peak of CSM cases, controlled field trials were undertaken in the Sudan early in 1973. 21 640 persons were vaccinated, half of them with a meningococcal polyoside A vaccine and the other half with tetanus toxoid as a placebo. In the former group there were no cases of meningitis, whereas in the latter 10 cases were reported, of which 7 were confirmed by laboratory tests. These studies indicate that the meningococcal polyoside A vaccine is efficient in epidemic conditions and could be used to control outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis. PMID:4211056

  13. [Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Giunter, E A; Ovodov, Iu S

    2007-01-01

    Callus and suspension cultures of campion (Silene vulgaris) produced pectin polysaccharides, similar in structure to the polysaccharides of intact plants. The major components of the pectins were D-galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose residues. The maximum content of pectins was found in callus. The monosaccharide composition of arabinogalactans isolated from cells and a culture medium of callus cultures were similar, with the ratio between arabinose and galactose of 1: (2.3-6.5) being retained. The arabinogalactans from the cells and culture medium of the suspension cultures also had a similar structure, and the arabinose to galactose ratio was 1: (1.5-1.8). In contrast to the callus cultures, the suspension cultures produced arabinogalactans with an increased content of arabinose residues and a decreased content of galactose residues. The greatest content of arabinogalactan was detected in the culture medium of the suspension cultures. PMID:17345866

  14. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  15. Viscosity stability of aqueous polysaccharide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.E.; Soules, D.A.; Ahmed, H.

    1983-01-01

    The viscosity stability of carbohydrate polymers under thermal-oxidative, mechanical and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is examined and compared with the performance of a synthetic water-soluble polymer, hydrolyzed (30%) poly(acrylamide) (HPAM). Under thermal-oxidative conditions HPAM is the most stable polymer and the carbohydrate polymers prepared by fermentation systhesis or Sclerotium glucanicum polysaccharide, are more stable than nonfermentation polysaccharides. In acid catalyzed hydrolysis, the same differential performance between fermentation and nonfermentation carbohydrate polymers is observed. A molecular weight dependence is not observed under either thermal-oxidative or acid catalyzed degradation conditions, but a dependence is observed in mechanical degradation. The influence of oxygen as an antagonist to polymer stability is investigated in the presence of 2 stabilizing additives, magnesium oxide and tetraethylenepentamine. The use of either of these additives in field applications can result in well-bore problems. 32 references.

  16. A novel phenol-bound pectic polysaccharide from Decalepis hamiltonii with multi-step ulcer preventive activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BM Srikanta; MN Siddaraju; SM Dharmesh

    AIM: To investigate H+, K +-ATPase inhibition, anti-H pylori , antioxidant, and the in vivo antiulcer potential of a pectic polysaccharide from Swallow root (Decalepis hamiltonii ; SRPP). METHODS: SRPP, with known sugar composition (rhamnose: arabinose: xylose: galactose in the ratio of 16:50:2:32 (w\\/w), with 141 mg\\/g of uronic acid) was examined for anti-ulcer potency in vivo against swim\\/ ethanol

  17. Complex cooperative functions of heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape nervous system development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bülow, Hannes E

    2014-10-01

    The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein-protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate-dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

  18. Complex Cooperative Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Shape Nervous System Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein–protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate–dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

  19. Biological pre-treatment of wastewater containing sulfate using anaerobic immobilized cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chien Kuo; Tzu-Yueh Shu

    2004-01-01

    Biological reduction of sulfate to sulfide using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was investigated. A respirometer was used to study the sulfide toxicity in the systems fed glucose, the results showed that sulfide would start to inhibit methanogens when the dissolved sulfide and total sulfide concentrations were 276.4 and 304.6mg\\/L, respectively. When chemostats were used to study the Monod kinetic coefficients,

  20. M402, a Novel Heparan Sulfate Mimetic, Targets Multiple Pathways Implicated in Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Zhou; Sucharita Roy; Edward Cochran; Radouane Zouaoui; Chia Lin Chu; Jay Duffner; Ganlin Zhao; Sean Smith; Zoya Galcheva-Gargova; Juliane Karlgren; Nancy Dussault; Rain Y. Q. Kwan; Erick Moy; Marishka Barnes; Alison Long; Chris Honan; Yi Wei Qi; Zachary Shriver; Tanmoy Ganguly; Birgit Schultes; Ganesh Venkataraman; Takashi Kei Kishimoto

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic, designed to inhibit multiple factors implicated in tumor-host cell interactions,

  1. Preparation and characterization of polysaccharide-based nanoparticles with anticoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Cláudio; Garcia, Thiago; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Finotelli, Priscila V; Cinelli, Leonardo P; Caramella, Carla; Cabral, Lúcio M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce and characterize nanoparticles (NPs), combining chondroitin sulfate (CS) and fucoidan (FC) with chitosan for therapeutic purposes. These NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential determination, and transmission electronic microscopy. The anticoagulant activity was determined for FC NPs and compared with FC solution at the same concentration. FC NPs showed regular shapes and better anticoagulant activity than free polysaccharide solution. FC solution did not affect coagulation compared to FC NPs, which increased up to two-fold, even at a lower concentration. Cytotoxicity and permeability tests were conducted using Caco-2 cell monolayer, exhibiting no toxic effect in this cell line and higher permeability for NP2 samples than FC solution at the same concentration. PMID:22787393

  2. KfoE encodes a fructosyltransferase involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Yang, Aihua; Liu, Jie; Ding, Xiaofan; Liu, Liming; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli K4 synthesizes a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) consisting of a fructose-branched chondroitin (GalNAc-GlcA(fructose)n), which is a biosynthetic precursor of chondroitin sulfate. Here, the role of kfoE in the modification of the chondroitin backbone was investigated using knock-out and recombinant complementation experiments. kfoE disruption and complementation had no significant effect on cell growth. CPS production was increased by 15 % in the knock-out strain, and decreased by 21 % in the knock-out strain complemented with recombinant kfoE. CPS extracted from the knock-out strain was chondroitin, whereas CPS extracted from the complemented strain was a fructose-branched chondroitin. The results demonstrated that the kfoE gene product altered the fructose group at the C3 position of the GlcA residue during production of K4CPS. PMID:24737071

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect of the polysaccharide fraction isolated from mactra veneriformis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingchong Wang; Hao Wu; Nian Chang; Kun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Total macromolecule extract was obtained from the soft body of Mactra veneriformis by the coupling techniques of decoction and alcohol precipitation. The extract was deproteinized with an ion exchange column,\\u000a and resulted in the purifying of the crude polysaccharide fraction. It was found by chemical analysis that the crude polysaccharide\\u000a part is composed of abundant polysaccharides (> 95%) and few

  4. Medium optimization for polysaccharide production of Cordyceps sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chienyan Hsieh; Ming-Jin Tsai; Tai-Hao Hsu; Der-Ming Chang; Chaur-Tsuen Lo

    2005-01-01

    As a potential anticarcinogenic agent, polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to possess strong antioxidation activity. The aim of the present research was to study the optimal\\u000a medium to produce polysaccharides of C. sinensis by using response surface methodology (RSM). The composition of optimized medium for polysaccharide production calculated\\u000a from the regression model of RSM was 6.17% sucrose, 0.53%

  5. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  6. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3?M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4?h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1?mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  7. Antioxidant and antitumor effects of polysaccharides from the fungus Pleurotus abalonus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Daoyuan; Jiao, Yadong; Yang, Xingbin; Yuan, Li; Guo, Jianjun; Zhao, Yan

    2015-07-25

    Dietary supplement of edible Pleurotus abalonus (P. abalonus) rich in fungal polysaccharides is associated with anticancer health benefit. We here isolated the polysaccharides (PAP) from the fruiting bodies of P. abalonus, and evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the polysaccharides in human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells. HPLC analysis showed that PAP consisted of d-mannose, d-ribose, l-rhamnose, d-glucuronic acid, d-glucose and d-galactose, and their corresponding mole percentages were 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.9%, 1.4%, 87.9% and 4.4%, respectively. PAP was shown to exert a high antioxidant activity in vitro and a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against LoVo cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that PAP exhibited a stimulatory effect on apoptosis of LoVo cells, and induced the cell-cycle arrest at the S phase. We also found that PAP could increase the generation of intracellular ROS which was a critical mediator in PAP-induced cell growth inhibition. These findings suggest that PAP may serve as a potential novel dietary agent for human colon cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26091901

  8. Water-soluble polysaccharides from agro-industrial by-products: functional and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assaâd; Bayar, Nadia; Ghazala, Imen; Bougatef, Ali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2014-08-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from almond (AWSP) and pistachio (PWSP) juice processing by-products. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using NMR and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The complexities of the spectra reflected the heterogeneity of these polysaccharides. The ACE inhibitory activities (IC50 AWSP=2.81mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=2.59mgmL(-1)) and antioxidant properties of AWSP and PWSP were investigated based on the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay (IC50 AWSP=2.87mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=1.61mgmL(-1)). Reducing power, ?-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50AWSP=4.46mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=3.39mgmL(-1)), and ferrous chelating assays (IC50 AWSP=0.22mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=0.19mgmL(-1)) were also performed. The findings revealed that water-soluble polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. AWSP and PWSP showed excellent interfacial concentration-dependent properties. Overall, the results suggested that both AWSP and PWSP are promising sources of natural antioxidants and ACE inhibitory agents and could, therefore, be used as alternative additives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:24875325

  9. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of different polysaccharides from the roots of Angelica dahurica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi-Fang; Ye, Yi-Ping; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Feng-Yang

    2011-06-01

    The total crude polysaccharides (CADPs), isolated from the roots of Angelica dahurica by H(2) O extraction, EtOH precipitation, and dialysis, and the four fractions ADP1, ADP2, ADP3, and ADP4, obtained by gel filtration of the CADPs, were analyzed to characterize their composition and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different in vitro tests such as the malondialdehyde (MDA)-production, the ferrous ion (Fe(2+) )-chelating, and the HO(.) radical-scavenging assays. The predominant neutral monosaccharides in the four fractions were identified as arabinose, galactose, and glucose, while the composition and ratio of the monosaccharides were different between the fractions. The CADPs and its fractions were found to significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation, chelate Fe(2+) , and scavenge HO(.) radicals, indicating that these polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity. Among the four fractions, ADP4 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, which was stronger than that of the control antioxidant vitamin E (Vit E). Taken together, the chemical composition of these polysaccharides might affect their antioxidant activity, and ADP4 could be explored as a source of potential novel natural antioxidants for food and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:21674784

  11. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4 ·5H2...

  12. Antitumor activity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides against cervical carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Gao, Xu; Cai, Yaping; Shao, Xingyue; Jia, Guiyan; Huang, Yulan; Qin, Xuegong; Wang, Jingwei; Zheng, Xiaoliang

    2013-07-25

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as folk medicine in different countries to treat different ailments in humans. P. oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P), extracted from P. oleracea L., is found to have bioactivities such as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (POL-P3b) was successfully purified from Galium verum L. by DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. To evaluate the anticancer efficacy and associated mechanisms of POL-P3b on cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo, we showed that treatment of HeLa cell with POL-P3b inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, POL-P3b significantly inhibited tumor growth in U14-bearing mice. Further analysis indicated that POL-P3b possesses the activity of inhibiting cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo at a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the mechanisms were associated with Sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest, triggering DNA damage and inducing apoptosis. PMID:23768576

  13. Involvement of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate in the metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuchuan; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Yamada, Shuhei; Hashiguchi, Taishi; Mizumoto, Shuji; Oguri, Kayoko; Okayama, Minoru; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The altered expression of cell surface chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) in cancer cells has been demonstrated to play a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. However, the functional highly sulfated structures in CS/DS chains and their involvement in the process have not been well documented. In the present study, a structural analysis of CS/DS from two mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL)-derived cell lines with different metastatic potentials revealed a higher proportion of Delta(4,5)HexUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) generated from E-units (GlcUA-GalNAc(4, 6-O-disulfate)) in highly metastatic LM66-H11 cells than in low metastatic P29 cells, although much less CS/DS is expressed by LM66-H11 than P29 cells. This key finding prompted us to study the role of CS-E-like structures in experimental lung metastasis. The metastasis of LM66-H11 cells to lungs was effectively inhibited by enzymatic removal of tumor cell surface CS or by preadministration of CS-E rich in E-units in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis showed that LM66-H11 rather than P29 cells expressed more strongly the CS-E epitope, which was specifically recognized by the phage display antibody GD3G7. More importantly, this antibody and a CS-E decasaccharide fraction, the minimal structure recognized by GD3G7, strongly inhibited the metastasis of LM66-H11 cells probably by modifying the proliferative and invading behavior of the metastatic tumor cells. These results suggest that the E-unit-containing epitopes are involved in the metastatic process and a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:18930920

  14. Immunochemical characterization of two surface polysaccharides of Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed Central

    Pantosti, A; Tzianabos, A O; Onderdonk, A B; Kasper, D L

    1991-01-01

    Immunochemical analysis of the capsular polysaccharide from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 revealed a novel structure composed of two distinct polysaccharides. Immunoelectrophoresis of an extract of purified surface polysaccharide from fermenter-grown organisms showed a complex precipitin profile with varying anodal mobility. DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography of the polysaccharide extract failed to separate the majority of this aggregate. Disaggregation of this complex was accomplished by very mild acid treatment; purification was achieved by DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography. Polysaccharide A had a neutral charge at pH 7.3, a net negative charge at pH 8.6, and an average Mr = 110,000; chemical analysis showed it to contain galactose, galactosamine, and an unidentified amino sugar. Polysaccharide B eluted from the anion-exchange column with increased salt concentration; it had a net negative charge and an average Mr = 200,000, and contained fucose, galactose, quinovosamine, galacturonic acid, and glucosamine. Neither of these polysaccharides contained detectable 3-deoxy-D-manno-octolusonic acid, and both were recognized as distinct antigens on the basis of their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies CE3 and F10, which reacted with the complex before acid treatment. These data indicate that the capsule of B. fragilis NCTC 9343 comprises two discrete, surface-exposed polysaccharides with differing physiochemical properties that are distinct from the lipopolysaccharide of this organism. The finding of two surface polysaccharides has not been described for other bacteria pathogenic to humans. Images PMID:2037368

  15. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. PMID:25498681

  16. Purification, characterization, and modification of T lymphocyte-stimulating polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xing-Feng; Zhen, Yun; Ruan, Li; Fang, Ji-Nian

    2002-05-01

    The hot-water extract of the spores of Ganoderma lucidum was shown to have a stimulating effect on concanavalin A-induced mitogenic activity of T lymphocytes. Bioassay-guided separation led to the isolation of a polysaccharide with potent T lymphocyte-stimulating activity by ethanol fractionation, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Based on the composition and methylation analyses, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and NMR spectroscopy, the native polysaccharide was shown to be a beta-D-(1-->3)-glucan with branches of terminal glucosyl residues substituted at C-6 of the glucose residues in the main chain. The branching ratio is approximately 20%. A series of sulfated or carboxymethylated derivatives were prepared and their structural features were elucidated by chemical and spectral analyses. The solution conformation and T lymphocyte proliferation effect of the glucans before and after derivatization were compared and discussed. The data obtained indicate that the introduction of ionic groups would significantly affect the original conformation of the native glucan in aqueous solution and further affect T lymphocyte-stimulating activity. The triple-helical structure of the glucans, the nature of the ionic groups, and the density of negative charge were considered to be closely related to this activity. PMID:12036016

  17. Reversible inactivation of bladder surface glycosaminoglycan antibacterial activity by protamine sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, C L; Stauffer, C W; Schmidt, J D

    1988-01-01

    Prior studies in our laboratory have shown that the bladder surface is lined with glycosaminoglycans which appear to be an important antibacterial defense mechanism that operates by resisting bacterial adherence and infection. The present study further implicates bladder surface glycosaminoglycans as the key antiadherent factor and also suggests a potential model for diseases (such as urinary tract infections) whereby the antiadherent surface of the bladder is inactivated biochemically. Protamine sulfate treatment of bladder tissue was found to significantly increase bacterial adherence to the urinary bladder by approximately 2.3-fold. This effect was reversed by a second treatment of the bladder with pentosanpolysulfate (a polysaccharide known to duplicate the surface antiadherent effect). Protamine sulfate had no effect on bacterial viability or bacterial adherence when bacteria were pretreated with it. PMID:3281908

  18. Antibacterial and antiviral study of dialdehyde polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Le

    Concerns for microbial contamination and infection to the general population, especially the spread of drug-resistant microorganisms, have greatly increased. Polymeric biocides have been found to be a feasible strategy to inactivate drug-resistant bacteria. However, current polymeric biocide systems involve multi-step chemical reactions and they are not cost-effective. Desirable antimicrobial systems need to be designed to be environmentally friendly, broad-spectrum effective against microorganisms, flexible for various delivery methods and economically affordable. We demonstrated that dialdehyde polysaccharides (including dialdehyde starch and dialdehdye cellulose) were broad-spectrum polymeric biocides against gram-positive/negative bacteria, bacteriophages and human virus. These polymers can be easily converted from starch and cellulose through one-step periodate oxidation. Destructions of microorganism by dialdehyde polysaccharides have been achieved in aqueous suspension or by solid surface contact. The dialdehdye functions of dialdehdye polysaccharides were found to be the dominant action against microorganism. The reactivity of the dialdehyde functionality was found to be pH-dependent as well as related to the dispersion of dialdehyde polysaccharides. Degradation of dialdehyde starch during cooking was confirmed. Degradation of dialdehyde starch was more liable in alkaline condition. Carboxylic acid and conjugated aldehyde functionalities were the two main degradation products, confirmed from the spectroscopic studies. The pH effect on the polysaccharide structure and the corresponding antimicrobial activity was very complicated. No decisive conclusions could be obtained from this study. Liner inactivation kinetics was found for dialdehyde starch aqueous suspension against bacteria. This linear inactivation kinetics was derived from the pseudo-first chemical reaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacteria. The established inactivation kinetics was successfully predicated the response of bacteria to dialdehyde starch with time. Inactivation of bacteria by dialdehyde starch was speculated to be the crosslinking-interaction between the dialdehyde starch and the bacterial surface. Amino groups of bacterial surfaces were blocked by dialdehyde starch. This crosslinking action was also suggested from the preliminary study of the bacterial dehydrogenase activity. However, membrane damage was found in the dialdehdye starch treated bacteria from the fluorescent study.

  19. Identification of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Network Essential for Cytochrome Anchoring and Biofilm Formation in Geobacter sulfurreducens? †

    PubMed Central

    Rollefson, Janet B.; Stephen, Camille S.; Tien, Ming; Bond, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Transposon insertions in Geobacter sulfurreducens GSU1501, part of an ATP-dependent exporter within an operon of polysaccharide biosynthesis genes, were previously shown to eliminate insoluble Fe(III) reduction and use of an electrode as an electron acceptor. Replacement of GSU1501 with a kanamycin resistance cassette produced a similarly defective mutant, which could be partially complemented by expression of GSU1500 to GSU1505 in trans. The ?1501 mutant demonstrated limited cell-cell agglutination, enhanced attachment to negatively charged surfaces, and poor attachment to positively charged poly-d-lysine- or Fe(III)-coated surfaces. Wild-type and mutant cells attached to graphite electrodes, but when electrodes were poised at an oxidizing potential inducing a positive surface charge (+0.24 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode [SHE]), ?1501 mutant cells detached. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibrils surrounding wild-type G. sulfurreducens which were absent from the ?1501 mutant. Similar amounts of type IV pili and pilus-associated cytochromes were detected on both cell types, but shearing released a stable matrix of c-type cytochromes and other proteins bound to polysaccharides. The matrix from the mutant contained 60% less sugar and was nearly devoid of c-type cytochromes such as OmcZ. The addition of wild-type extracellular matrix to ?1501 cultures restored agglutination and Fe(III) reduction. The polysaccharide binding dye Congo red preferentially bound wild-type cells and extracellular matrix material over mutant cells, and Congo red inhibited agglutination and Fe(III) reduction by wild-type cells. These results demonstrate a crucial role for the xap (extracellular anchoring polysaccharide) locus in metal oxide attachment, cell-cell agglutination, and localization of essential cytochromes beyond the Geobacter outer membrane. PMID:21169487

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  1. Biological sulfate reduction using gas-lift reactors fed with hydrogen and carbon dioxide as energy and carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Houten, R.T. van; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-20

    Feasibility and engineering aspects of biological sulfate reduction in gas-lift reactors were studied. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide were used as energy and carbon source. Attention was paid to biofilm formation, sulfide toxicity, sulfate conversion rate optimization, and gas-liquid mass transfer limitations. Sulfate-reducing bacteria formed stable biofilms on pumice particles. Biofilm formation was not observed when basalt particles were used. However, use of basalt particles led to the formation of granules of sulfate-reducing biomass. The sulfate-reducing bacteria, grown on pumice, easily adapted to free H[sub 2]S concentrations up to 450 mg/L. Biofilm growth rate then equilibrated biomass loss rate. These high free H[sub 2]S concentrations caused reversible inhibition rather than acute toxicity. When free H[sub 2]S concentrations were kept below 450 mg/L, a maximum sulfate conversion rate of 30 g SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  2. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds. PMID:21087484

  3. Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Sulfate Brines and the Astrobiological Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, C. L.; Chevrier, V. F.; Ivey, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    We suggest sulfate-reducing bacteria as a model for life on Mars, as sulfate brines have been shown to be stable in martian conditions. We have performed experiments to determine the survivability of these bacteria in high sulfate concentrations.

  4. Cardiovascular effects in vitro of a polysaccharide from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhao-Hua; Huang, Lan; Song, Ming-Bao; Song, Yao-Ming

    2015-05-01

    A polysaccharide (SMP1) was isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study is designed to investigate whether SMP1 prevents H9c2 cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. The present study showed that exposure of H9c2 cells to 100mM H2O2 for 24h caused a significant increase in cell death and apoptosis, but pretreatment with SMP1 eliminated H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, pretreatment with SMP1 significantly prevented the mitochondria disruption, cytochrome c release, the rise of the ratio between proapoptotic Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, and caspase-3 activation in H9c2 cells upon H2O2 stimulation. Moreover, the decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities together with the elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in PC12 cells exposed to H2O2 were remarkably reversed to normal levels by pretreatment with SMP1. These results suggest that SMP1 protects H9c2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, inactivation of caspase-3 cascade and enhancement of antioxidant capacity. PMID:25659695

  5. Sulfation of p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide with a microsomal fraction from cultured chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Habuchi, O.; Conrad, H.E.

    1985-10-25

    Chick embryo chondrocyte microsomes containing intact Golgi vesicles took up 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phospho(TVS)sulfate ((TVS)PAPS) in a time- and temperature-dependent, substrate-saturable manner. When (TVS)PAPS and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide (pNP-GalNAc) were added to the incubation in the absence of detergent, the microsomes catalyzed the transfer of sulfate from (TVS)PAPS to pNP-GalNAc to form pNP-GalNAc-6-TVSO4. The apparent Km values for PAPS in the uptake and the pNP-GalNAc sulfation reactions were 2 X 10(-7) and 2 X 10(-6) M, respectively. The sulfation of pNP-GalNAc by the microsomal preparation was inhibited by detergent. The microsomal fraction also catalyzed the transfer of sulfate from (TVS)PAPS to oligosaccharides prepared from chondroitin. However, in contrast to the sulfation of pNP-GalNAc, the rate of sulfation of these oligosaccharides was low in the absence of detergent and was markedly stimulated when detergent was added. Sulfation of pNP-GalNAc by the freeze-thawed microsomes was inhibited when the octasaccharide prepared from chondroitin was present in the reaction mixture. As the PAPS that had been internalized in the microsomal vesicles was consumed in the sulfation of pNP-GalNAc, more (TVS)PAPS was taken up and the sulfated pNP-GalNAc was released from the vesicles. These observations suggest that pNP-GalNAc may serve as a model membrane-permeable substrate for study of the 6-sulfo-transferase reaction involved in sulfation of chondroitin sulfate in intact Golgi vesicles.

  6. Heparin interacts with elongation factor 1? of Cryptosporidium parvum and inhibits invasion

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Atsuko; Murakoshi, Fumi; Ishiwa, Akiko; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Cagayat Recuenco, Frances; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause serious watery diarrhea, cryptosporidiosis, in human and other mammals. C. parvum invades gastrointestinal epithelial cells, which have abundant glycosaminoglycans on their cell surface. However, little is known about the interaction between C. parvum and glycosaminoglycans. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of sulfated polysaccharides on C. parvum invasion of host cells and identified the parasite ligands that interact with sulfated polysaccharides. Among five sulfated polysaccharides tested, heparin had the highest, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion. Heparan sulfate-deficient cells were less susceptible to C. parvum infection. We further identified 31 parasite proteins that potentially interact with heparin. Of these, we confirmed that C. parvum elongation factor 1? (CpEF1?), which plays a role in C. parvum invasion, binds to heparin and to the surface of HCT-8 cells. Our results further our understanding of the molecular basis of C. parvum infection and will facilitate the development of anti-cryptosporidial agents. PMID:26129968

  7. Preparation, Separation, and Conformational Analysis of Differentially Sulfated Heparin Octasaccharide Isomers using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Youjin; Andaya, Armann; Leary, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a linear sulfated polysaccharide widely used in medicine because of its anticoagulant properties. The various sulfation and/or acetylation patterns on heparin impart different degrees of conformational change around the glycosidic bonds and subsequently alter its function as an anticoagulant, anticancer, or antiviral drug. Characterization of these structures is important for eventual elucidation of its function but presents itself as an analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of the carbohydrates. Heparin octasaccharide structural isomers of various sulfation patterns were investigated using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS). In addition to distinguishing the isomers, we report the preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis for multiple sulfated or acetylated oligosaccharides. Herein, our data indicate that heparin octasaccharide isomers were separated based on their structural conformations in the ion mobility cell. Subsequent to this separation, isomers were further distinguished using product ions resulting from tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, IMMS analysis was used to successfully characterize and separate individual isomers and subsequently measure their conformations. PMID:22283665

  8. Improvement and modification of whey protein gel texture using polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie L Turgeon; Martin Beaulieu

    2001-01-01

    Whey proteins (WP) and polysaccharides are two gelling biopolymers used in the food industry for their wide range of rheological and textural properties. Mixed gels containing more than one gelling agent are usually classified into three types: interpenetrating, coupled, and phase-separated networks. Large deformation behavior of whey protein gels mixed with polysaccharides is presented. pH, and the concentration and nature

  9. Isolation, purification and identification of polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongmin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Changxin; Zhao, Yu

    2004-12-01

    Four polysaccharides from the water extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris were isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weights were determined using gel-filtration chromatography. Among the four isolated polysaccharides, the structures of two of them (CPS-2 and CPS-3) were elucidated by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, IR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:15567241

  10. A SOLVENT-FREE PROCESS TO ESTERIFY POLYSACCHARIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel process for the preparation of acetates of polysaccharides will be discussed. The process involves the acetylation of polysaccharides with acetic anhydride in the presence of iodine as a catalyst. No solvent is required to bring about the acetylation. The method is simple, rapid, and char...

  11. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Xie, Gang; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Klein, Robyn A.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through C-IV was estimated to be 733, 550, 310, and 168 kDa, respectively, and sugar composition analysis revealed that Opuntia polysaccharides consisted primarily of galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Analysis of the effects of Opuntia polysaccharides on human and murine macrophages demonstrated that all four fractions had potent immunomodulatory activity, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interleukin 6. Furthermore, modulation of macrophage function by Opuntia polysaccharides was mediated, at least in part, through activation of nuclear factor ?B. Together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of extracts from O. polyacantha and support the concept of using Opuntia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18597716

  12. Polysaccharides Isolated from Açaí Fruit Induce Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Holderness, Jeff; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Freedman, Brett; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Quinn, Mark T.; Hedges, Jodi F.; Jutila, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The Açaí (Acai) fruit is a popular nutritional supplement that purportedly enhances immune system function. These anecdotal claims are supported by limited studies describing immune responses to the Acai polyphenol fraction. Previously, we characterized ?? T cell responses to both polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions from several plant-derived nutritional supplements. Similar polyphenol and polysaccharide fractions are found in Acai fruit. Thus, we hypothesized that one or both of these fractions could activate ?? T cells. Contrary to previous reports, we did not identify agonist activity in the polyphenol fraction; however, the Acai polysaccharide fraction induced robust ?? T cell stimulatory activity in human, mouse, and bovine PBMC cultures. To characterize the immune response to Acai polysaccharides, we fractionated the crude polysaccharide preparation and tested these fractions for activity in human PBMC cultures. The largest Acai polysaccharides were the most active in vitro as indicated by activation of myeloid and ?? T cells. When delivered in vivo, Acai polysaccharide induced myeloid cell recruitment and IL-12 production. These results define innate immune responses induced by the polysaccharide component of Acai and have implications for the treatment of asthma and infectious disease. PMID:21386979

  13. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Xie, Gang; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Klein, Robyn A; Jutila, Mark A; Quinn, Mark T

    2008-10-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average M(r) of fractions C-I through C-IV was estimated to be 733, 550, 310, and 168 kDa, respectively, and sugar composition analysis revealed that Opuntia polysaccharides consisted primarily of galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Analysis of the effects of Opuntia polysaccharides on human and murine macrophages demonstrated that all four fractions had potent immunomodulatory activity, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6. Furthermore, modulation of macrophage function by Opuntia polysaccharides was mediated, at least in part, through activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of extracts from O. polyacantha and support the concept of using Opuntia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18597716

  14. Quantification and identification of polysaccharide contents in Hericium erinaceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choong Yew Keong; Badrul Amini Abdul Rashid; Young Swee Ing; Zakiah Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to identify and quantify sugar and polysaccharide contents in locally grown Hericium erinaceus. Desig\\/methodolog\\/approach – The experiment is presented of chromatography methods to determine sugars in Malaysian–grown H. erinaceus. After the extraction, the crude polysaccharide solution was followed by hydrolysis with acid as well as enzymes reaction, respectively. Findings – In thin–layer

  15. Polysaccharide production by Aureobasidium pullulans cells immobilized by entrapment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. West; Beth Strohfus

    1998-01-01

    Cells of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 201253 were entrapped within 4% agar cubes or 5% calcium alginate beads and were examined for their production of the polysaccharide pullulan. The immobilized fungal cells were utilized twice in batch cultures for 7 days of polysaccharide production in medium containing corn syrup as a carbon source. The entrapped cells produced higher pullulan

  16. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  17. Studies on optimal conditions for polysaccharide production by Porphyridium cruentum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Thepenier; C. Gudin

    1985-01-01

    Summary Exocellular polysaccharide production byPorphyridium cruentum was studied in fed-batch cultures. Growth of the culture was characterized by a brief log phase, followed by a lineartype phase. The duration and the slope of the latter phase are largely dependent on culture conditions. The presence of polysaccharide in the culture medium was observed as soon as the log phase was over

  18. Research Progress on Polysaccharides Hypoglycemic Mechanism and Therapeutic Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Wang; Li-Ping Wei; Zhong Zhang; Tao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Plenty of experiments have demonstrated that polysaccharides have effect of hyperglycemic. We review the possible mechanisms that polysaccharide reduce blood sugar and the therapeutic potential in this paper. The mechanisms include improve islet morphology and function, stimulate insulin secretion, enhance the insulin sensitivity, improve glycometabolism, modulate autoimmunity, improve the activities of glycometabolism related enzymes, suppress insulin metabolism, ameliorate the lipid

  19. [Immunomodulatory function of polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus].

    PubMed

    Xu, H M; Xie, Z H; Zhang, W Y

    1994-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a Chinese herbal medicine. The Apollo oral liquid contains polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (PHE). The effects of PHE on proliferation of mice T and B lymphocytes were studied. Results showed that (1) 3-fold proliferation of thymocytes was demonstrated when PHE were administrated with Con A than Con A alone. Such effect on thymocyte was not observed when PHE was used alone. (2) Proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was also stimulated when PHE were taken together with lipopolysaccharide, which was 50% and 3 times stronger than that of using lipopolysaccharide and PHE alone respectively. PMID:7950232

  20. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-?-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-?-D-glucosidic and 1,4-?-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. PMID:23911463

  1. Comparison of polysaccharides from two species of Ganoderma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polysaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar. PMID:22245941

  2. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA)

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  3. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China)] [School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230022 (China); Luo, Cheng, E-mail: Luo58@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  4. Mechanistic studies on the antidiabetic activity of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Radix Ophiopogonis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Linwei; Li, Peibo; Lau, Clara Bik San; Chan, Yuet Wa; Xu, Dingzhou; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Su, Weiwei

    2012-01-01

    To study the hypoglycemic mechanisms of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Radix Ophiopogonis, the influences of the extract on activity of NIT-1 insulinoma cells damaged by streptozotocin (STZ), activity of ?-glucosidase, glucose absorption into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles, gluconeogenesis by H4IIE hepatoma cells and glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. The results show that the extract improved the activity of NIT-1 cells damaged by STZ, inhibited glucose absorption into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles and reduced the activity of ?-glucosidase. However, gluconeogenesis in H4IIE cells and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not change significantly in the presence of the extract. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic mechanisms of the polysaccharide-rich extract of Radix Ophiopogonis are caused by protection in pancreatic islet cells and the inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This is possibly the first report on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the antidiabetic effect of Radix Ophiopogonis. PMID:21560174

  5. Antitumor metastasis activity of pectic polysaccharide purified from the peels of Korean Citrus Hallabong.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Park, Hye-Ryung; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Cho, Sun Young; Choi, Hyuk-Joon; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-10-13

    A polysaccharide fraction, HBE-III, was successfully purified in a high yield (40.4%) from its crude polysaccharide (HBE-0) which was prepared from pectinase hydrolysates of the peels of the Korean Citrus Hallabong. In experimental lung metastasis studies of Colon 26-M3.1 carcinoma cells, prophylactic administration of HBE-III significantly inhibited lung metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vitro cytotoxicity analysis, HBE-III (up to 1000 ?g/mL) did not affect the growth of Colon 26-M3.1 cells and normal cells. HBE-III enhanced production of IL-6 and IL-12 by murine peritoneal macrophages. In an assay for natural killer (NK) cell activity, HBE-III (1000 ?g/mouse, i.v.) significantly augmented NK cytotoxicity against Yac-1 tumor cells. The depletion of NK cells by injection of mouse anti-asialo GM1 serum abolished the inhibitory effect of HBE-III on lung metastasis of Colon 26-M3.1 cells. These data suggest that HBE-III may inhibit tumor metastasis via activation of macrophages and NK cells. PMID:25037331

  6. Prophylactic Administration of Fucoidan Represses Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Han; Chan, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Wang, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs. PMID:25854641

  7. Similar mechanisms of action of defined polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides: characterization of binding and tumor necrosis factor alpha induction.

    PubMed Central

    Otterlei, M; Sundan, A; Skjåk-Braek, G; Ryan, L; Smidsrød, O; Espevik, T

    1993-01-01

    Little has been reported about the effects of different polysaccharides on cytokine production from human monocytes. In this study, we show that several well-defined polysaccharides, including polymers with different sizes of beta 1-4-linked D-mannuronic acid (poly-M, high-M alginate, and M-blocks) and cellulose oxidized in the C-6 position, induced human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Poly-M was the most efficient polysaccharide tested and, on a weight basis, was approximately as efficient as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. TNF-alpha production was shown to depend strongly on the molecular weights of poly-M and high-M alginate, with maximal TNF-alpha production occurring at molecular weights above 50,000 and 200,000, respectively. G-blocks, alpha 1-4-linked L-guluronic acid polymers that did not induce cytokine production from monocytes, reduced the cytokine production induced by the beta 1-4-linked polyuronic acids and LPS. Furthermore, both G-blocks and LPS were found to inhibit the binding of poly-M to monocytes, as measured by flow cytometry. In addition, we found that the binding of LPS to monocytes was inhibited by G-blocks, M-blocks, and poly-M. Our results indicate that beta 1-4-linked polyuronic acids and LPS may stimulate monocytes to produce TNF-alpha by similar mechanisms and may bind to a common receptor. PMID:8478081

  8. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan. PMID:9249151

  9. Biosynthesis of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate: unique substrate specificity of heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinghua Chen; Michael B. Duncan; Kevin Carrick; R. Marshall Pope; Jian Liu

    2003-01-01

    Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase transfers sulfate to the 3-OH position of a glucosamine to generate 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS), which is a rare component in HS from natural sources. We previously reported that 3-O- sulfotransferase isoform 5 (3-OST-5) generates both an antithrombin-binding site to exhibit anticoagulant activity and a binding site for herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein D to serve as

  10. Production of exocellular polysaccharide by Azotobacter chroococcum.

    PubMed

    De la Vega, M G; Cejudo, F J; Paneque, A

    1991-09-01

    Environmental conditions affect the production of extracellular polysaccharide by Azotobacter chroococcum ATCC 4412. Production of exocellular polymer from a variety of carbon sources depended on the air flow rate. A high sucrose concentration in medium (8%) markedly favored expopolysaccharide production, which reached 14 g/L in about 72 h. In cell suspensions incubated in the presence of 8% sucrose in a nitrogen-free medium, biopolymer final concentration of 9 g/L corresponds to 68 g/g biomass. Maximum efficiency of sucrose conversion into exopolysaccharide peaked at 70% for initial disaccharide concentration of 6%. High performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography of acid hydrolysates of the exopolymer revealed the presence of mannuronosyl, guluronosyl, and acetyl residues, but not neutral sugars. The infrared spectrum corroborated the presence of carboxylate anions and O-acetyl groups in the exopolymer. Though the presence of more than one kind of polysaccharide cannot be ruled out, these data suggest that, under the experimental conditions used in this work, only a type of alginate-like exopolysaccharide is produced by A. chroococcum ATCC 4412. PMID:1768080

  11. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    PubMed Central

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  12. Renal brush-border membrane Na(+)-sulfate cotransport: stimulation by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Tenenhouse, H S; Lee, J; Harvey, N

    1991-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the interaction of phosphonoformic acid (PFA) with the Na(+)-sulfate cotransporter and the effect of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine; T3) on Na(+)-dependent sulfate transport and Na(+)-dependent PFA binding in mouse renal brush-border membrane vesicles. PFA inhibits Na(+)-dependent sulfate transport in a competitive manner [apparent inhibitory constant (Ki) = 4.3 +/- 1.1 mM]. T3 administered in pharmacological doses significantly stimulates Na(+)-dependent sulfate transport in renal brush-border membranes compared with vehicle-treated controls. Although T3 has no effect on Na(+)-dependent glucose transport, T3 also stimulates Na(+)-dependent phosphate transport. Kinetic studies demonstrate that T3 increases the apparent maximal velocity (Vmax) for Na(+)-sulfate cotransport without changing the apparent Michaelis constant (Km). T3 does not significantly affect either Na(+)-dependent PFA binding or the phosphate- and sulfate-displaceable components of Na(+)-dependent PFA binding. Finally, Na(+)-dependent brush-border membrane sulfate transport is unchanged in phosphate-deprived mice that exhibit increased Na(+)-phosphate cotransport and in X-linked Hyp mice that exhibit impaired Na(+)-phosphate cotransport. The present results demonstrate that 1) PFA is a competitive inhibitor of Na(+)-sulfate cotransport, 2) T3 stimulates Na(+)-dependent sulfate, as well as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transport, but has no effect on PFA binding, and 3) phosphate deprivation and the X-linked Hyp mutation do not influence Na(+)-sulfate cotransport.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832265

  13. Genetic determinants of immune-response to a polysaccharide vaccine for typhoid

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Herman F.; Sarkar-Roy, Neeta; Varma, Binuja; Ghosh, Trina; Maiti, Sujit; Narayanasamy, K.; Whisnant, Carol C.; Stephenson, James L.; Wagener, Diane K.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in immunological response among vaccine recipients are determined both by their genetic differences and environmental factors. Knowledge of genetic determinants of immunological response to a vaccine can be used to design a vaccine that circumvents immunogenetic restrictions. The currently available vaccine for typhoid is a pure polysaccharide vaccine, immune response to which is T-cell independent. Little is known about whether genetic variation among vaccinees associates with variation in their antibody response to a polysaccharide vaccine. We conducted a study on 1,000 individuals resident in an area at high-risk for typhoid; vaccinated them with the typhoid vaccine, measured their antibody response to the vaccine, assayed >2,000 curated SNPs chosen from 283 genes that are known to participate in immune-response; and analyzed these data using a strategy to (a) minimize the statistical problems associated with testing of multiple hypotheses, and (b) internally cross-validate inferences, using a half-sample design, with little loss of statistical power. The first stage analysis, using the first half-sample, identified 54 SNPs in 43 genes to be significantly associated with immune response. In the second-stage, these inferences were cross-validated using the second half-sample. First-stage results of only 8 SNPs (out of 54) in 7 genes (out of 43) were cross-validated. We tested additional SNPs in these 7 genes, and found 8 more SNPs to be significantly associated. Haplotypes constructed with these SNPs in these 7 genes also showed significant association. These 7 genes are DEFB1, TLR1, IL1RL1, CTLA4, MAPK8, CD86 and IL17D. The overall picture that has emerged from this study is that (a) immune response to polysaccharide antigens is qualitatively different from that to protein antigens, and (b) polymorphisms in genes involved in polysaccharide recognition, signal transduction, inhibition of T-cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory signaling and eventual production of antimicrobial peptides are associated with antibody response to the polysaccharide vaccine for typhoid. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11568-010-9134-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21119757

  14. Cell wall polysaccharides in black currants and bilberries—characterisation in berries, juice, and press cake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hauke Hilz; Edwin J. Bakx; Henk A. Schols; Alfons G. J. Voragen

    2005-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides from black currants and bilberries were characterised in three approaches. First, compositions of skin, pulp, and seeds show the distribution of polysaccharides over these tissues. A sequential extraction of cell wall material with different aqueous extractants informs about the extractability of the different polysaccharides, viz. pectins, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Finally, by isolation of cell wall polysaccharides from

  15. Surface modification of lipid nanocapsules with polysaccharides: From physicochemical characteristics to in vivo aspects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of polysaccharide [6], polysaccharides as a surface material of polymer or lipid nanoparticles are used to alter1 Surface modification of lipid nanocapsules with polysaccharides: From physicochemical;2 Abstract Attachment of polysaccharides on the surface of nanoparticles offers possibility to modify

  16. Bioinspired matrices assembled by polysaccharide-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le

    Bioinspired matrices assembled on the basis of noncovalent interactions between proteins and polysaccharides have been proved suitable to deliver therapeutically relevant proteins or DNAs. Our initial efforts were dedicated to the relationship between mechanical properties of hydrogels assembled based on specific interactions between low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and heparin binding peptides (HBPs) such as HIP, ATIII, and PF4ZIP peptides. The measured differences in affinity and kinetics for LMWH-HBP binding likely lead to observed differences in the phase separation behavior of the poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LMWH/PEG-HIP hydrogels versus the PEG-LMWH/PEG-ATIII hydrogels. More attention has been given to the PF4ZIP peptide employed for the noncovalent assembly of heparinized hydrogels. Multifunctional star PEG-PF4ZIP bioconjugates complexed with star PEG-LMWH form hydrogels that exhibit increasing elastic moduli with increasing mole ratio of PEG-PF4ZIP. The viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels can be controlled via alterations in the ratio between LMWH and PF4ZIP peptide, and comparisons with other PEG-LMWH/PEG-HBP hydrogels suggest the importance of both LMWH/HBP binding kinetics and the binding capacity of LMWH in determining rheological properties in these hydrogels. Characterization of the PEG-LMWH/PEG-PF4ZIP hydrogels suggests that useful moduli for soft tissue engineering applications are obtained at physiological temperatures and after applying high shear. Furthermore, in the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) release, bFGF/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) co-release, and hydrogel erosion results, the combination of growth factor (GF) release profiles and hydrogel erosion profiles suggests that GF delivery from the assembled hydrogels is mainly an erosion-controlled process that may permit co-release of GF with PEG-LMWH and may therefore also improve the bioactivity of GF delivered from these matrices. Hydrogels with such engineered mechanical properties and biological activities may find expanded use in controlled delivery of therapeutics and in other biological applications. In addition to the multivalent PEG-HBPs, a growth factor with two LMWH-binding sites, VEGF, was also employed to physically crosslink PEG-unfractionated LMWH based on protein-polysaccharide interactions, and the assembled networks can be selectively eroded in the presence of the growth factor receptors. The VEGF released from these hydrogels is bioactive and able to increase proliferation of VEGF-responsive cell lines. A receptor-mediated hydrogel erosion and protein delivery are suggested from the release of VEGF crosslinks in response to cell surface KDR. Employing similar approaches, other therapeutically important difunctional proteins or synthetic peptides can also act as crosslinks of environmentally-responsive systems and be delivered in a targeted manner. The multivalent PEG-HBPs are also capable of binding both heparin and plasmid DNA sufficiently well to make them valuable for serving as DNA delivery vectors. Transfection studies suggest the PEG-HBPs possess significant transfection efficiency. Apart from the highly toxic PEG-ATIII vector, increased heparin affinity of PEG-HBPs correlated well with increased cellular uptake and increased transfection efficiency. In general, cell surface binding and cellular uptake, mediated by heparan sulfate, play a key role in the transfection pathway. Given that the structures and components of PEG-HBPs can be accurately tuned, the multivalent PEG-HBPs may find broader applications in gene delivery.

  17. Dynamics of water solutions of natural polysaccharides by fast field cycling nmr relaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusova, Alena; Conte, Pellegrino; Kucerik, Jiri; de Pasquale, Claudio; Alonzo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Cryobiology studies the effect of low temperatures on living systems such as microorganisms and plants. In particular, plants growing in cold or frozen environments can survive such extreme conditions due to the cold hardening process. Hardening is a three step process during which, first, translocation of polysaccharides to the plant roots affects water structure in the cell-soil surface. For this reason, increase of cell-membrane permeability and resistance to temperatures from -5°C to -10°C is achieved. In a second step, chemical alteration of cell membrane arises and resistance to temperatures up to -20°C is obtained. The last hardening step consists in the vitrification of the plant tissues which allow plants to survive at temperatures as low as -50°C. Since polysaccharides play a very important role in the initial part of the cold hardening process, it is of paramount importance to study the effect of such natural biopolymers on water structure. Here, we present preliminary data obtained by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry on the effect of hyaluronan (an anionic, non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan) on water structure at different concentrations of the polysaccharide. Although hyaluronan is a polysaccharide found exceptionally in animal, human or bacterial bodies, in the present work it was used as a model "pilot" compound. In fact, it has an unique ability to hold water and it contains both polysaccharide and protein-like acetamido functionalities. For this reason, hyaluronan promotes the future research on other plant biopolymers such as, for instance, starch and other very specific proteins. Results revealed that different water-structure systems surround the molecule of hyaluronan in diluted and semidiluted systems. Namely, at the lowest hyaluronan concentration, three hydration shells can be recognized. The first hydration shell is made by bound water (BW) which is strongly fixed to the hyaluronan surface mainly through electrostatic interactions. A second hydration shell contains water molecules, also recognized as partly-bound (PBW), which are not directly interacting with the hyaluronan chains but with BW. Finally, water molecules, which dynamics is resembling that of the pure and undisturbed water, are indicated either as a bulk water or free water (FW). As hyaluronan concentration is increased the third FW hydration shell is lost and all water molecules are affected by the presence of hyaluronan molecules. This work showed the great potential of FFC-NMR relaxometry in revealing water nature in polysaccharide solutions and the possibility for future applications on complex biological systems. Acknowledgements A.P. gratefully acknowledges a bilateral Erasmus project between Brno University of Technology and University of Palermo which provided grant sustainment for working in Italy. Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic, project MSM 0021630501 is also acknwledged. This work was partially funded by Ce.R.T.A. s.c.r.l. (Centri Regionali per le Tecnologie Alimentari; Italy). Authors kindly acknowledge Dr. Vladimír Velebný (CPN company, Dolní Dobrou?, Czech Republic) for providing of hyaluronan sample.

  18. Electron Donors Utilized by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Eutrophic Lake Sediments †

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard L.; Klug, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Mineralization rates of 14C-labeled substrates were determined in the presence and absence of Na2MoO4, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, in the profundal sediments of a shallow eutrophic lake. Sulfate reduction was inhibited by Na2MoO4 at all concentrations tested (0.2 to 200 mM), whereas methane production was inhibited at Na2MoO4 concentrations greater than 20 mM. Initial mineralization rates of glucose were unaffected by Na2MoO4; however, Na2MoO4 decreased the mineralization rates of lactate (58%), propionate (52%), an amino acid mixture (85%), and acetate (14%). These decreases in the rates of mineralization were attributed to inhibition of sulfate reduction. Hydrogen stimulated the reduction of 35SO42? 2.5- to 2.8-fold, demonstrating potential hydrogen oxidation by sulfate-reducing bacteria. These results indicate that sulfate reducers utilize an array of substrates as electron donors and are of potential significance to the in situ mineralization of lactate, propionate, and free amino acids in these sediments. PMID:16345804

  19. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION VIA THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to excessive vanadium (V) occurs in some occupations and with consumption of some dietary regimens for weight reduction and body-building. Because vanadium is vasoactive, individuals exposed to excessive V may develop adverse vascular effects. We showed previously that v...

  20. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  1. Status of Copper Sulfate - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish - February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  2. Status of copper sulfate - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. The update will include information and dates for both the initial labe...

  3. Phosphate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Amine; Giuseppe Palleschi

    2004-01-01

    Construction and assembly of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate biosensors has been reviewed to give readers up?to?date information on the state of the art in this area which is becoming more and more important for the solution of practical problems faced in the monitoring of food safety and the environment. Special attention was paid concerning the papers published during the last

  4. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  5. Sulfate reduction below the sulfate-methane transition in Black Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Kamyshny, Alexey, Jr.; Vogt, Christoph; Vamvakopoulos, Kyriakos; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2011-05-01

    A sudden increase in salinity about 7000 years ago caused a shift in the deposited sediments of the Black Sea from limnic to brackish-marine. Due to the development of an anoxic deep water basin and a relatively high sulfate concentration, organic matter is mineralized primarily through sulfate reduction in modern Black Sea sediments. Earlier studies showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria are abundant within the limnic sub-surface sediment in spite of extremely low concentrations of sulfate and organic carbon. A main objective of the present study was therefore to understand the depth distribution of sulfate reduction across the different sediment units, even deep below the sulfate-methane transition. Our study combined experimental measurements of sulfate reduction using 35S radiotracer with analyses of sulfur and iron geochemistry in pore water and sediment. Potential sulfate reduction rates were measured with 35S in sediment samples that were amended with sulfate and organic substrates and incubated in time-series up to 48 h. Sulfate reduction could thereby be detected and quantified at depths where concentrations of sulfate were otherwise too low to enable calculation of the rates. The results demonstrate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are active several meters below the sulfate-methane transition in Black Sea sediments. The cryptic sulfate reduction below the sulfate-methane transition may be driven by sulfate produced from re-oxidation of reduced sulfur species with oxidized iron minerals buried in the deep limnic sediment.

  6. Electron donors for biological sulfate reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warounsak Liamleam; Ajit P. Annachhatre

    2007-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction is widely used for treating sulfate-containing wastewaters from industries such as mining, tannery, pulp and paper, and textiles. In biological reduction, sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide as the end product. The process is, therefore, ideally suited for treating metal-containing wastewater from which heavy metals are simultaneously removed through the formation of metal sulfides. Metal sulfide precipitates

  7. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Visser

    1995-01-01

    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will determine the endproduct of the anaerobic mineralisation proces: methane or sulfide.The occurrence of the sulfate reduction proces is often considered unwanted due

  8. AKT signalling and mitochondrial pathways are involved in mushroom polysaccharide-induced apoptosis and G1 or S phase arrest in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fengju; Wang, Guibin; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Zhao, Min

    2013-06-15

    This study describes molecular mechanisms for inhibiting tumour cell proliferation using polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in human hepatoma cells. The results show that regarding cell cycle-related proteins, three types of polysaccharides significantly enhance the expression of p27(Kip) in HepG2 and Bel-7404 cells, while suppressing the activity of cyclin D1/CDK4 and/or cyclin E/CDK2. Considering apoptosis-related factors, the polysaccharides suppressed AKT activity through the inhibition of AKT phosphorylation at Thr(308) and/or Ser(473). The growth of HepG2 and Bel-7404 cells was suppressed by the up-regulation of a subunit of PI3K and phospho-PTEN, which are modulators of AKT activity. The polysaccharides also activated the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway by stimulating the activation of Bcl-2 family proteins to release cytochrome c and Smac and cleave caspase-9 and caspase-3 in HepG2 and Bel-7404 cells. These factors have a potent effect on cell cycle arrest in G(1) and/or S phase and induce apoptosis in HepG2 and Bel-7404 cells. PMID:23497867

  9. Antitumor activity of polysaccharide extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia against gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Jian-Li; Yang, Wei; Hou, Xiao; Li, Qi-Jiu

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine the antitumor effects of polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium on gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. Polysaccharides were extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium and an antitumor component, known as Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium polysaccharides 2 (POMP2), with a relative molecular weight of 29 kDa, was then sequentially purified using Sephadex G200 size?exclusion chromatography and diethylaminoethyl?52 cellulose ion?exchange chromatography. The MTT method was used to determine the proliferation of BGC?823 cells treated with POMP2; cell migration assay, colony formation assay and in vivo antitumor tests were used to assess the effect of POMP2 on migration, cell survival and the in vivo tumor formation of BGH-823 cells. Results of the MTT assay indicated that POMP2 had a marked inhibitory effect on the BGC?823 human gastric cancer cell line; when administered at a concentration of 400 mg/l for 72 h, the rate of inhibition was 35.6%. In addition, the colony forming capacity of the BGC?823 cells was significantly reduced following treatment with POMP2. A migration assay indicated that the invasive capabilities of the BGC?823 cells were also significantly inhibited by POMP2. Furthermore, in vivo tests of mice engrafted with BGC?823 cancer cells demonstrated that both tumor weight and volume were markedly reduced following two weeks of treatment with POMP2. The results of the present study suggested that the polysaccharide POMP2 may have a potential application as a natural antitumor treatment for gastric cancer. PMID:25892617

  10. Plant polysaccharides IV. Chemical composition of polysaccharides and their regulatory properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Rakhimov; A. U. Kariev; A. A. Umarov

    1996-01-01

    The primary screening of the polysaccharides for growth-stimulating activity was conducted under laboratory conditions. An experiment with a cotton plant of the variety S-4880 under field conditions was carried out in the Tinchlik kolkhoz [collective farm], Tashkentskaya Oblast. In order to reveal biological activity, substances (1)-(5) were investigated with solutions having concentrations of from 0.01 to 0.5%. Seeds of the

  11. Auto-associative amphiphilic polysaccharides as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Leila N; Hendra, Frédéric; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2012-06-01

    Self-assembly of amphiphilic polysaccharides provides a positive outlook for drug delivery systems without the need for solvents or surfactants. Various polymeric amphiphilic polysaccharides undergo intramolecular or intermolecular associations in water. This type of association, promoted by hydrophobic segments, led to the formation of various drug delivery systems such as micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes and hydrogels. Here, we review a selection of the most important amphiphilic polysaccharides used as drug delivery systems and their pharmaceutical applications. Attention focuses on amphiphilic chitosan owing to its unique properties such as excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity and antimicrobial and bioadhesive properties. PMID:22305936

  12. Impregnation of silver nanoparticles into polysaccharide substrates and their properties.

    PubMed

    Hassabo, Ahmed G; Nada, Ahmed A; Ibrahim, Hassan M; Abou-Zeid, N Y

    2015-05-20

    A method to impregnate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into different polysaccharides substrates (cellulose powder (CP), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (Chit)) by using glucose as reducing agent, is presented. X-ray diffraction analyses of polysaccharides coated with AgNPs showed the formation of silver particle sizes in the range of 3.7-5.6 nm and have almost spherical shape. The entire prepared composite shows antimicrobial effect. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharides loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The results suggest excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:25817678

  13. Comparison of polysaccharides from different Dendrobium using saccharide mapping.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Guan, J; Chen, X J; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2011-07-15

    Multiple species of Dendrobium are widely used as Shihu, a well known Chinese herb, for medicinal purpose in China. Small molecules such as phenols, alkaloids and coumarins are obviously varied in different species of Dendrobium. But there are few reports on polysaccharides, one of major active components, from Dendrobium. In this study, polysaccharides from different species or locations of Dendrobium were compared using saccharide mapping. The results showed that polysaccharides of Dendrobium from different species or locations were obviously varied in spite of they had some similar characters, which is helpful to control the quality of Dendrobium. PMID:21530129

  14. Effect of COD\\/Sulfate Ratios on Batch Anaerobic Digestion Using Sulfate-Reduction Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heng-heng Cao; Hong-guo Zhang; Ding-gui Luo; Yong-heng Chen

    2011-01-01

    A study on effects of the COD\\/sulfate ratio on characteristics of sulfate-reduction bacteria (SRB) in activated sludge of a UASB reactor was performed in batch anaerobic digestion experiment. Changes of pH in samples were 7.22~8.17 which was beneficial to the growth of SRB with high sulfate removal efficiency. Sulfate reduction efficiencies of COD\\/sulfate ratios from 0.43 to 3.03 were 18.7(R1),

  15. Production of chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Schiraldi; Donatella Cimini; Mario De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The production of microbial polysaccharides has recently gained much interest because of their potential biotechnological\\u000a applications. Several pathogenic bacteria are known to produce capsular polysaccharides, which provide a protection barrier\\u000a towards harsh environmental conditions, and towards host defences in case of invasive infections. These capsules are often\\u000a composed of glycosaminoglycan-like polymers. Glycosaminoglycans are essential structural components of the mammalian extracellular

  16. Ablation of Keratan Sulfate Accelerates Early Phase Pathogenesis of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Natori, Takamitsu; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Uchimura, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Suzumura, Akio; Sobue, Gen; Ishiguro, Naoki; Imagama, Shiro; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers consist of three major classes, i.e., polynucleotides (DNA, RNA), polypeptides (proteins) and polysaccharides (sugar chains). It is widely accepted that polynucleotides and polypeptides play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. But, sugar chains have been poorly studied in this process, and their biological/clinical significance remains largely unexplored. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motoneuron-degenerative disease, the pathogenesis of which requires both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous processes. Here, we investigated the role of keratan sulfate (KS), a sulfated long sugar chain of proteoglycan, in ALS pathogenesis. We employed ALS model SOD1G93A mice and GlcNAc6ST-1?/? mice, which are KS-deficient in the central nervous system. Unexpectedly, SOD1G93AGlcNAc6ST-1?/? mice exhibited a significantly shorter lifespan than SOD1G93A mice and an accelerated appearance of clinical symptoms (body weight loss and decreased rotarod performance). KS expression was induced exclusively in a subpopulation of microglia in SOD1G93A mice, and became detectable around motoneurons in the ventral horn during the early disease phase before body weight loss. During this phase, the expression of M2 microglia markers was transiently enhanced in SOD1G93A mice, while this enhancement was attenuated in SOD1G93AGlcNAc6ST-1?/? mice. Consistent with this, M2 microglia were markedly less during the early disease phase in SOD1G93AGlcNAc6ST-1?/? mice. Moreover, KS expression in microglia was also detected in some human ALS cases. This study suggests that KS plays an indispensable, suppressive role in the early phase pathogenesis of ALS and may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23825599

  17. Effect of Polygonum hydropiper sulfated flavonoids on lens aldose reductase and related enzymes.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, H; Ohmi, I; Sakai, S; Fukuda, A; Toihara, Y; Fujimoto, T; Okamura, N; Yagi, A

    1996-04-01

    The sulfated flavonoids in Polygonum hydropiper showed potent inhibiton against lens aldose reductase. Among these flavonoids isorhamnetin 3,7-disulfate (5) was most potent. Kinetic analysis showed that 5 exhibited noncompetitive inhibition against both dl-glyceraldehyde and NADPH. PMID:8699190

  18. The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan, brevican, phosphacan, and versican are differentially regulated following spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard L Jones; Richard U Margolis; Mark H Tuszynski

    2003-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules that are widely expressed throughout the developing and adult CNS. In vitro studies demonstrate their potential to restrict neurite outgrowth, and it is believed that CSPGs also inhibit axonal regeneration after CNS injury in vivo. Previous studies demonstrated that CSPGs are generally upregulated after spinal cord injury, and more recent reports

  19. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes C. M Scholten; Peter M van Bodegom; Jaap Vogelaar; Alexander van Ittersum; Kees Hordijk; Wim Roelofsen; Alfons J. M Stams

    2002-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without 13C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the

  20. 3 -Hydroxypregnane Steroids Are Pregnenolone Sulfate-Like GABAA Receptor Antagonists

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    3 -Hydroxypregnane Steroids Are Pregnenolone Sulfate-Like GABAA Receptor Antagonists Mingde Wang,1 -hydroxypregnane steroids may com- petitively antagonize potentiation induced by their 3 diaste- reomers. Because -hydroxysteroids, 3 - hydroxysteroids acted noncompetitively with respect to potenti- ating steroids and inhibited

  1. Immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Rim, Hong-Kun; Jung, Ji-Yun; An, Hyo-Jin; Shin, Ji-Sun; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Hong, Hee-Do; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-09-01

    Cheonggukjang is a Korean whole soybean paste fermented by Bacillus subtilis and regarded as a healthy food. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang (PSCJ) in RAW 264.7 macrophages and an animal model. PSCJ induced mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by activating nuclear factor-?B, and subsequently increased the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-? in murine recombinant interferon-?-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, after daily oral administration of PSCJ, immobility time decreased significantly in the PSCJ-administered group (200 or 400 mg/kg) on day 10. Taken together, these results suggest that the PSCJ has a possible role improving immune function through regulatory effects on immunological parameters, such as NO and TNF-? productions and changes in indicators related to fatigue. PMID:23831309

  2. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by tuberose callus.

    PubMed

    Honda, Y; Inaoka, H; Takei, A; Sugimura, Y; Otsuji, K

    1996-04-01

    A high yield of extracellular polysaccharide (ECP) was obtained from callus cultures of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa), which could be separated into an unadsorbed and two acidic fractions (TPS-1, -2) by ion-exchange column chromatography. The yields of each fraction were markedly increased by the addition of 10(-5) M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to the medium. Of the three fractions, the amount of TPS-1 accounted for over 60% of total yield of ECP, which was a predominant polysaccharide consisting of arabinose (Ara), mannose (Man) and galactose (Gal) as major neutral monosaccharides. Judging from the patterns of electrophoresis and ultra-centrifugation, TPS-1 was identified to be homogeneous. Methylation and GC-mass spectrometry analyses of this fraction revealed the presence of 1,2,3-linked Man, 1-linked Ara, 1,3-linked Ara, 1-linked Gal and 1,3,4-linked glucuronosyl (GlcUA) residues in a molar ratio of 1.0:1.08:0.85:0.75:1.08. Based on additional analyses of the mild acid hydrolysate and the absolute configuration of the constituent monosaccharides, a possible structure for TPS-1 was a glucuronomannan possessing the unit of -->4)-beta-D-GlcUAp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1--> with branching at the C-3 position, where -->1)-alpha-L-Araf, -->1)-beta-D-galp, -->1)-alpha-L-Araf-(3-->1)-alpha-L-Araf or -->1)-alpha-L-Araf-(3-->1)-beta-D-Galp were attached randomly. About 35% of the GlcUA moieties were present as methyl esters. Further confirmation was made by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:8722088

  3. Electron donors for biological sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Liamleam, Warounsak; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2007-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction is widely used for treating sulfate-containing wastewaters from industries such as mining, tannery, pulp and paper, and textiles. In biological reduction, sulfate is converted to hydrogen sulfide as the end product. The process is, therefore, ideally suited for treating metal-containing wastewater from which heavy metals are simultaneously removed through the formation of metal sulfides. Metal sulfide precipitates are more stable than metal hydroxides that are sensitive to pH change. Theoretically, conversion of 1 mol of sulfate requires 0.67 mol of chemical oxygen demand or electron donors. Sulfate rich wastewaters are usually deficient in electron donors and require external addition of electron donors in order to achieve complete sulfate reduction. This paper reviews various electron donors employed in biological sulfate reduction. Widely used electron donors include hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, sugar, and molasses. The selection criteria for suitable electron donors are discussed. PMID:17572039

  4. Volcanic sulfate deposition to Greenland and Antarctica: A modeling sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Matthew; Krüger, Kirstin; Timmreck, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    Reconstructions of the atmospheric sulfate aerosol burdens resulting from past volcanic eruptions are based on ice core-derived estimates of volcanic sulfate deposition and the assumption that the two quantities are directly proportional. We test this assumption within simulations of tropical volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections with the MAECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model. An ensemble of 70 simulations is analyzed, with SO2 injections ranging from 8.5 to 700 Tg, with eruptions in January and July. Modeled sulfate deposition flux to Antarctica shows excellent spatial correlation with ice core-derived estimates for Pinatubo and Tambora, although the comparison suggests the modeled flux to the ice sheets is 4-5 times too large. We find that Greenland and Antarctic deposition efficiencies (the ratio of sulfate flux to each ice sheet to the maximum hemispheric stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden) vary as a function of the magnitude and season of stratospheric sulfur injection. Changes in simulated sulfate deposition for large SO2 injections are connected to increases in aerosol particle size, which impact aerosol sedimentation velocity and radiative properties, the latter leading to strong dynamical changes including strengthening of the winter polar vortices, which inhibits the transport of stratospheric aerosols to high latitudes. The resulting relationship between Antarctic and Greenland volcanic sulfate deposition is nonlinear for very large eruptions, with significantly less sulfate deposition to Antarctica than to Greenland. These model results suggest that variability of deposition efficiency may be an important consideration in the interpretation of ice core sulfate signals for eruptions of Tambora-magnitude and larger.

  5. Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides in bilberries and black currants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hilz

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: bilberries; Vaccinium myrtillus ; black currants; Ribes nigrum ; cell wall; polysaccharides; structure; rhamnogalacturonan<\\/span>sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are involved in cell signaling, adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and growth factors storage. As a central molecule, HSPG regulates cell behavior and tumor progression. HS accompanied by its glycosaminoglycan counterparts regulates tissue homeostasis and cancer development. These molecules present opposite effects according to tumor type or cancer model. Studies in this area may contribute to unveil glycosaminoglycan activities on cell dynamics during breast cancer exploring these polysaccharides as antitumor agents. Heparanase is a potent tumor modulator due to its protumorigenic, proangiogenic, and prometastatic activities. Several lines of evidence indicate that heparanase is upregulated in all human sarcomas and carcinomas. Heparanase seems to be related to several aspects regulating the potential of breast cancer metastasis. Due to its multiple roles, heparanase is seen as a target in cancer treatment. We will describe recent findings on the function of HSPGs and heparanase in breast cancer behavior and progression. PMID:23984412

  6. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  7. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    PubMed

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems. PMID:18830142

  8. Transport of estradiol-17?-glucuronide, estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: evidence for different transport systems.

    PubMed

    Wlcek, Katrin; Hofstetter, Lia; Stieger, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Important reactions of drug metabolism, including UGT mediated glucuronidation and steroidsulfatase mediated hydrolysis of sulfates, take place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. Consequently, UGT generated glucuronides, like estradiol-17?-glucuronide, have to be translocated back into the cytoplasm to reach their site of excretion. Also steroidsulfatase substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, have to cross the ER membrane to reach their site of hydrolysis. Based on their physicochemical properties such compounds are not favored for passive diffusion and therefore likely necessitate transport system(s) to cross the ER membrane in either direction. The current study aims to investigate the transport of taurocholate, estradiol-17?-glucuronide, and estrone-3-sulfate in smooth (SER) and rough (RER) endoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles isolated from Wistar and TR(-) rat liver. Time-dependent and bidirectional transport was demonstrated for taurocholate, showing higher uptake rates in SER than RER vesicles. For estradiol-17?-glucuronide a fast time-dependent efflux with similar efficiencies from SER and RER but no clear protein-mediated uptake was shown, indicating an asymmetric transport system for this substrate. Estrone-3-sulfate uptake was time-dependent and higher in SER than in RER vesicles. Inhibition of steroidsulfatase mediated estrone-3-sulfate hydrolysis decreased estrone-3-sulfate uptake but had no effect on taurocholate or estradiol-17?-glucuronide transport. Based on inhibition studies and transport characteristics, three different transport mechanisms are suggested to be involved in the transport of taurocholate, estrone-3-sulfate and estradiol-17?-glucuronide across the ER membrane. PMID:24406246

  9. Extracellular polysaccharide production by a strain of Pleurotus djamor isolated in the south of Brazil and antitumor activity on Sarcoma 180.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gisele Martini; De Barba, Fabiana Figueredo Molin; Schiebelbein, Ana Paula; Pereira, Bruna Parmezzani; Chaves, Mariane Bonatti; Silveira, Marcia Luciane Lange; Pinho, Mauro Souza Leite; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Wisbeck, Elisabeth

    2013-12-01

    Polysaccharides with medicinal properties can be obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and culture broth of several fungus species. This work was carried out in batch culture using a stirred tank reactor with two different initial glucose concentrations (40-50 g/L) and pH values (3.0-4.0) to enhance extracellular polysaccharides production by Pleurotus djamor UNIVILLE 001 and evaluate antitumor effect of intraperitonial administration of Pleurotus djamor extract on sarcoma 180 animal model. According to factorial design, the low pH value (pH 3.0) led to a gain of 1.6 g/L on the extracellular polysaccharide concentration, while glucose concentration in the tested range had no significant effect on the concentration of polysaccharide. With 40 g/L initial glucose concentration and pH 3.0, it was observed that yield factor of extracellular polysaccharide on substrate (YP/S = 0.072) and maximum extracellular polysaccharide productivity (Q(Pmax) = 11.26 mg/L.h) were about 188% and 321% respectively higher than those obtained in the experiment performed at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, the highest values of the yield factor of biomass on substrate (YX/S = 0.24) and maximal biomass productivity (Q(Xmax) = 32.2 mg/L.h) were also reached. In tumor response study, mean tumor volume on the 21th day was 35.3 cm(3) in untreated group and 1.6 cm(3) in treated group (p = 0.05) with a tumor inhibition rate of 94%. These impressive results suggests an inhibitory effect of P.djamor extract on cancer cells. PMID:24688493

  1. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kiho, T; Hui, J; Yamane, A; Ukai, S

    1993-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides were obtained from a hot-water extract and alkaline extracts of the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. They showed significant activity in normal mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a result of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP) obtained from 5% sodium hydroxide extract slightly lowered the plasma glucose level in normal mice by oral (p.o.) administration. A neutral polysaccharide (CS-F30) exhibited higher hypoglycemic activity than its crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP), exhibited by i.p. injection, and it significantly lowered the glucose level by p.o. administration (50 mg/kg). However, it hardly affected the plasma insulin level in normal mice. CS-F30 ([alpha]D + 21 degrees in water) is composed of galactose, glucose and mannose (molar percent, 62:28:10), and its molecular weight is about 45000. PMID:8130781

  2. A novel polysaccharide, isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels induces the apoptosis of cervical cancer HeLa cells through an intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Cao; X.-Q. Li; X. Wang; H.-T. Fan; X.-N. Zhang; Y. Hou; S.-B. Liu; Q.-B. Mei

    2010-01-01

    A novel polysaccharide isolated from Angelica sinensis, named APS-1d showed cytotoxic activity towards several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the precise antitumor mechanisms of this compound are unknown. In this study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of APS-1d in human cervical cancer HeLa cells both in vitro and in vivo, and further elucidated the mechanisms of this action. Inhibition

  3. Polysaccharides derived from Lycium barbarum suppress IGF-1-induced angiogenesis via PI3K\\/HIF-1?\\/VEGF signalling pathways in MCF7 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Huang; Qing-Yuan Zhang; Qiu-Ying Jiang; Xin-Mei Kang; Ling Zhao

    Lycium barbarum (LB) is a berry-type fruit. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), derived from LB, has anti-tumour properties and exhibits potent anti-angiogenic effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate possible signal transduction pathways functioning to mediate the breast cancer-suppressive effects of LBPs. Using MCF-7 cells, we determined that a 90h treatment with 0.50mg\\/ml of LBPs resulted in significant inhibition

  4. Immunogenicity in a mouse model of a conjugate vaccine made with a synthetic single repeating unit of type 14 peumococcal polysaccharide coupled to CRM197

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatme Mawas; J. Niggeman; Christopher Jones; Michael J. Corbel; Johannis P. Kamerling; Johannes F. G. Vliegenthart

    2002-01-01

    Oligosaccharides (OSs) related to the pneumococcal type 14 capsular polysaccharide (Pn14PS) were studied for their ability to inhibit the binding between anti-PS14 antisera and native PS14. A synthetic tetrasaccharide corresponding to the repeating unit of the Pn14PS, a hexasaccharide mimic, and an octasaccharide fragment obtained by Pn14PS depolymerization were good inhibitors. CRM197 conjugates of the tetrasaccharide and an octasaccharide mimic

  5. Designing Allosteric Inhibitors of Factor XIa. Lessons from the Interactions of Sulfated Pentagalloylglucopyranosides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We recently introduced sulfated pentagalloylglucopyranoside (SPGG) as an allosteric inhibitor of factor XIa (FXIa) (Al-Horani et al., J. Med Chem.2013, 56, 867–87823316863). To better understand the SPGG–FXIa interaction, we utilized eight SPGG variants and a range of biochemical techniques. The results reveal that SPGG’s sulfation level moderately affected FXIa inhibition potency and selectivity over thrombin and factor Xa. Variation in the anomeric configuration did not affect potency. Interestingly, zymogen factor XI bound SPGG with high affinity, suggesting its possible use as an antidote. Acrylamide quenching experiments suggested that SPGG induced significant conformational changes in the active site of FXIa. Inhibition studies in the presence of heparin showed marginal competition with highly sulfated SPGG variants but robust competition with less sulfated variants. Resolution of energetic contributions revealed that nonionic forces contribute nearly 87% of binding energy suggesting a strong possibility of specific interaction. Overall, the results indicate that SPGG may recognize more than one anion-binding, allosteric site on FXIa. An SPGG molecule containing approximately 10 sulfate groups on positions 2 through 6 of the pentagalloylglucopyranosyl scaffold may be the optimal FXIa inhibitor for further preclinical studies. PMID:24844380

  6. Importance of sulfation of gastrin or cholecystokinin (CCK) on affinity for gastrin and CCK receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.; Yu, D.H.; Wank, S.A.; Mantey, S.; Gardner, J.D.; Jensen, R.T. (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    We investigated the importance of sulfation of gastrin or cholecystokinin (CCK) on influencing their affinity for gastrin or CCK receptors by comparing the abilities of sulfated gastrin-17 (gastrin-17-II), desulfated gastrin-17 (gastrin-17-I), CCK-8 and desulfated CCK-8 (des(SO3)CCK-8) to interact with CCK or gastrin receptors on guinea pig pancreatic acini. For inhibiting binding of 125I-gastrin to gastrin receptors, gastrin-17-II (Kd 0.08 nM) greater than CCK-8 (Kd 0.4 nM) greater than gastrin-17-I (Kd 1.5 nM) greater than des(SO3)CCK-8 (Kd 28 nM). For inhibiting binding of 125I-Bolton Hunter-labeled CCK-8 to CCK receptors the relative potencies were: CCK-8 much greater than des(SO3)CCK-8 = gastrin-17-II greater than gastrin-17-I. Each peptide interacted with both high and low affinity CCK binding sites. The relative abilities of each peptide to interact with high affinity CCK receptors showed a close correlation with their abilities to cause half-maximal stimulation of enzyme secretion. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to older studies, sulfation of both CCK and gastrin increase their affinities for both gastrin and CCK receptors. Moreover, the gastrin receptor is relatively insensitive to the position of the sulfate moiety, whereas the CCK receptor is extremely sensitive to both the presence and exact position of the sulfate moiety.

  7. Characterization of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide and its effect on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Tang, Xiuli; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Zesheng

    2013-10-01

    To investigate structure-bioactivity relationship of LBP, Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) was extracted and separated into five fractions using ultrafiltration membrane method. Then the effects of these polysaccharide fractions on human liver cancer cells (SMMC-7721) were observed by MTT assay, LSCM and FCM. And the components, molecular weight and conformation of LBP fractions were analyzed by GC, HPLC and AFM. The results showed that LBP-a8, LBP-a3, LBP-a1 and LBP-a4 could inhibit the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. But LBP-p8 could promote the growth of SMMC-7721 cells. LBP-a4 (10.2 kDa), which consists of uronic acid (11.5%), protein (0.34%) and neutral sugar (39.02%), could arrest SMMC-7721 cells at G0/G1 phase and enhance the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration significantly. Nevertheless, LBP-p8 (6.50×10(3) kDa), which consists of uronic acid (13.4%), protein (4.77%) and neutral sugar (26.26%), did not change the cell cycle and Ca(2+) concentration in cytoplasm significantly. The molecular conformation of LBP-a4 and LBP-p8 was spherical and flocculent molecular shape, respectively, suggesting that spherical molecular shape was benefit to LBP's apoptosis inducing activity while flocculent molecular shape did not have that function. PMID:23817098

  8. Biochemical analysis and hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hua-Li; Chen, Chen; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2015-06-01

    Purification, characterization and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum L. were investigated in this study. A water soluble polysaccharide (LBP) was obtained with ultrafiltration membranes separation, which was further purified by chromatography of DEAE cellulose column and Sephadex G-150 to get LBP3a and LBP3b. The high performance permeation chromatography (HPGPC) analysis showed that the average molecular weight (Mw) of LBP3b was 4.92kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the LBP3b was comprised of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose with a molar ratio of 5.52:5.11:28.06:1.00:1.70. The preliminary structure features of LBP3b were investigated by UV, FT-IR, NMR and SEM. In vitro cell experiments showed that LBP3b had significantly inhibited the absorption of glucose in a dose-dependent manner. The study showed that LBP3b had potential use as an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:25819220

  9. Formation and Ecotoxicity of N-Heterocyclic Compounds on Ammoxidation of Mono- and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16–30 ?g/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4–160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52–16.03 mg/g of educt). PMID:23967874

  10. Antidiabetic Activity of Polysaccharides from Tuberous Root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera in KKAy Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yihui; Wan, Luosheng; Xiao, Zuoqi; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Yonglong; Chen, Jiachun

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The present study investigated the antidiabetic effect and the potential mechanisms of two new polysaccharides (LSP1, LSP2) and the total polysaccharides (TLSP), isolated from the tuberous roots. Upon the intragastric administration in obese insulin-resistant diabetic KKAy mice for 28 days, TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 all caused a remarkable decrease of fasting blood glucose and significant improvement of insulin resistance and serum lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. In addition, liver histological analysis showed that TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 significantly ameliorated the hepatocyte hypertrophy and decreased the lipid accumulation in the mice liver. Further experiments suggested that TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 effectively inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic glycolysis and hepatic glycogen content. Furthermore, the mechanistic analysis showed the increased expression of insulin-receptor ? subunit, insulin-receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors ?. These results suggested that TLSP, LSP1, and LSP2 manifest strong antidiabetic activity, therefore hold a great promise for therapeutic application in diabetic therapy and other related metabolic disorders. PMID:23762123

  11. Characterization of pumpkin polysaccharides and protective effects on streptozotocin-damaged islet cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yan; Chen, Guang-Tong; Meng, Guo-Liang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The polysaccharides from pumpkin fruit (PP) were obtained and purified by hot-water extraction, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of PP were determined by gel filtration chromatography, gas chromatography, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the molecular weight of PP was about 23 kDa and PP was composed of D-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose with a molar ratio of 1 : 7.79 : 70.32 : 7.05. FTIR and NMR spectra indicated that PP was the polysaccharide containing pyranose ring. Additionally, PP protected islets cells from streptozotocin (STZ) injury in vitro via increasing the levels of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and reducing the production of NO. The experiment of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction further proved that PP inhibited apoptosis via modulating the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 in STZ-damaged islet cells. In conclusion, PP could be explored as a novel agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:25835364

  12. Peripheral antinociception and anti-inflammatory effects of sulphated polysaccharides from the alga Caulerpa mexicana.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, José Gerardo; Rodrigues, José Ariévilo Gurgel; de Sousa Oliveira Vanderlei, Edfranck; Souza, Ricardo Basto; Quinderé, Ana Luíza Gomes; Coura, Chistiane Oliveira; de Araújo, Ianna Wivianne Fernandes; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2014-10-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides from marine algae are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulphated polysaccharides from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SPs) in nociceptive and inflammatory models in rodents. Cm-SPs (10 or 20 mg/kg), administered i.v. in Swiss mice, significantly reduced nociceptive responses, as measured by the number of writhes in response to acetic acid. Cm-SPs (10 or 20 mg/kg) also reduced second-phase responses in the formalin test, but did not exhibit a significant antinociceptive effect in the hot plate test, suggesting that its antinociceptive action occurs through a peripheral mechanism. Cm-SPs (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), administered s.c. in wistar rats 1 hr before carrageenan, dextran, histamine or serotonin, were tested in paw oedema models. Cm-SPs (10 or 20 mg/kg) reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw. In addition, Cm-SPs (20 mg/kg) inhibited dextran- or histamine-induced paw oedema, but not serotonin-induced oedema, suggesting that histamine is the major target of Cm-SPs anti-oedematogenic activity. Finally, Cm-SPs (20 mg/kg) administered in mice did not show significant signs of toxicity. In conclusion, Cm-SPs appear to be promising natural modulatory agents for pain and inflammatory conditions. PMID:24674382

  13. Compositions and phase diagrams for aqueous systems based on proteins and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Tolstoguzov, V

    2000-01-01

    Limited thermodynamic compatibility of proteins with other proteins and proteins with polysaccharides is a fundamental phenomenon that has been demonstrated in more than 200 biopolymer pairs. These systems can undergo a liquid-liquid phase separation resulting in the different macromolecular components primarily concentrated in the different phases. This occurs under conditions (pH values and ionic strengths) inhibiting attraction between nonidentical biopolymers, i.e., the formation of interbiopolymer complexes. Generally, phase separation takes place when the total concentration of the macromolecular components exceeds a certain critical value. The excluded volume of the macromolecules determines both their thermodynamic activity and phase separation threshold. Phase diagrams of biopolymer mixtures and physicochemical features of biphasic systems are considered here. Attention is centered on the limited compatibility of the main classes of proteins and various polysaccharides and on the effects of variables such as pH, ionic strength, temperature and shear forces on the phase state, equilibrium and structure of these two-phase liquid systems. The general nature of the phenomenon of thermodynamic incompatibility of biopolymers accounts for its importance in structure formation in cytoplasm. PMID:10610360

  14. Polysaccharides of Aloe vera induce MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression during the skin wound repair of rat.

    PubMed

    Tabandeh, Mohammad Reza; Oryan, Ahmad; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Polysaccharides are the main macromolecules of Aloe vera gel but no data about their effect on extracellular matrix (ECM) elements are available. Here, mannose rich Aloe vera polysaccharides (AVP) with molecular weight between 50 and 250 kDa were isolated and characterized. Open cutaneous wounds on the back of 45 rats (control and treated) were daily treated with 25mg (n=15) and 50 mg (n=15) AVP for 30 days. The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 gene expression were analyzed using real time PCR. The levels of n-acetyl glucosamine (NAGA), n-acetyl galactosamine (NAGLA) and collagen contents were also measured using standard biochemical methods. Faster wound closure was observed at day 15 post wounding in AVP treated animals in comparison with untreated group. At day 10 post wounding, AVP inhibited MMP-3 gene expression, while afterwards MMP-3 gene expression was upregulated. AVP enhanced TIMP-2 gene expression, collagen, NAGLA and NAGA synthesis in relation to untreated wounds. Our results suggest that AVP has positive effects on the regulation of ECM factor synthesis, which open up new perspectives for the wound repair activity of Aloe vera polysaccharide at molecular level. PMID:24491493

  15. MicroRNA-885-3p inhibits the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cell xenografts by disrupting angiogenesis via targeting BMPR1A and blocking BMP/Smad/Id1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, F; Qiu, H; Cui, H; Ni, X; Li, J; Liao, W; Lu, L; Ding, K

    2015-04-01

    The previous studies in this lab discovered that microRNA-885-3p (miR-885-3p) was regulated by a sulfated polysaccharide that bound to bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA (BMPR1A) to inhibit angiogenesis. However, its specific role and its mechanism of action in tumor cells have not been elucidated. We show that miR-885-3p markedly suppresses angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. MiR-885-3p inhibits Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and downregulates DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1 (Id1), a proangiogenic factor, by targeting BMPR1A, leading to impaired angiogenesis. Overexpression or silencing of BMPR1A affects angiogenesis in a Smad/Id1-dependent manner. We further show that miR-885-3p impairs the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice by suppressing angiogenesis through disruption of BMPR1A and Smad/Id1 signaling. These results support a novel role for miR-885-3p in tumor angiogenesis by targeting BMPR1A, which regulates a proangiogenic factor, and provide new evidence that targeting miRNAs might be an effective therapeutic strategy for improving colon cancer treatment. PMID:24882581

  16. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P. [Florida A and M Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  17. Sulfate Anion Delays the Self-Assembly of Human Insulin by Modifying the Aggregation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Owczarz, Marta; Arosio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying protein self-assembly and of their dependence on solvent composition has implications in a large number of biological and biotechnological systems. In this work, we characterize the aggregation process of human insulin at acidic pH in the presence of sulfate ions using a combination of Thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, size exclusion chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the increase of sulfate concentration inhibits the conversion of insulin molecules into aggregates by modifying the aggregation pathway. At low sulfate concentrations (0–5 mM) insulin forms amyloid fibrils following the nucleated polymerization mechanism commonly observed under acidic conditions in the presence of monovalent anions. When the sulfate concentration is increased above 5 mM, the sulfate anion induces the salting-out of ?18–20% of insulin molecules into reversible amorphous aggregates, which retain a large content of ?-helix structures. During time these aggregates undergo structure rearrangements into ?-sheet structures, which are able to recruit monomers and bind to the Thioflavin T dye. The alternative aggregation mechanism observed at large sulfate concentrations is characterized by a larger activation energy and leads to more polymorphic structures with respect to the self-assembly in the presence of chloride ions. The system shown in this work represents a case where amorphous aggregates on pathway to the formation of structures with amyloid features could be detected and analyzed. PMID:24988354

  18. Exploiting Differential Surface Display of Chondroitin Sulfate Variants for Directing Neuronal Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Vimal P.; Hsiao, Tony W.; Zhang, Jianxing; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Hlady, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (CSPGs) are known to be primary inhibitors of neuronal regeneration at scar sites. However, a variety of CSPGs are also involved in neuronal growth and guidance during other physiological stages. Sulfation patterns of CS chains influence their interactions with various growth factors in the central nervous system (CNS), thus influencing neuronal growth, inhibition, and pathfinding. This report demonstrates the use of differentially sulfated CS chains for neuronal navigation. Surface-immobilized patterns of CS glycosaminoglycan chains were used to determine neuronal preference toward specific sulfations of five CS variants: CS-A, CS-B (dermatan sulfate), CS-C, CS-D, and CS-E. Neurons preferred CS-A, CS-B, and CS-E and avoided CS-C containing lanes. In addition, significant alignment of neurites was observed using underlying lanes containing CS-A, CS-B, and CS-E chains. To utilize differential preference of neurons toward the CS variants, a binary combinations of CS chains were created by backfilling a neuro-preferred CS variant between the microcontact printed lanes of CS-C stripes, which are avoided by neurons. The neuronal outgrowth results demonstrate for the first time that a combination of sulfation variants of CS chains without any protein component of CSPG is sufficient for directing neuronal outgrowth. Biomaterials with surface immobilized GAG chains could find numerous applications as bridging devices for tackling CNS injuries where directional growth of neurons is critical for recovery. PMID:23947484

  19. Monofluorophosphate is a selective inhibitor of respiratory sulfate-reducing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Hans K; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Justice, Nicholas B; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Mosqueda, Lorraine A; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

    2015-03-17

    Despite the environmental and economic cost of microbial sulfidogenesis in industrial operations, few compounds are known as selective inhibitors of respiratory sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM), and no study has systematically and quantitatively evaluated the selectivity and potency of SRM inhibitors. Using general, high-throughput assays to quantitatively evaluate inhibitor potency and selectivity in a model sulfate-reducing microbial ecosystem as well as inhibitor specificity for the sulfate reduction pathway in a model SRM, we screened a panel of inorganic oxyanions. We identified several SRM selective inhibitors including selenate, selenite, tellurate, tellurite, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, chlorate, monofluorophosphate, vanadate, molydate, and tungstate. Monofluorophosphate (MFP) was not known previously as a selective SRM inhibitor, but has promising characteristics including low toxicity to eukaryotic organisms, high stability at circumneutral pH, utility as an abiotic corrosion inhibitor, and low cost. MFP remains a potent inhibitor of SRM growing by fermentation, and MFP is tolerated by nitrate and perchlorate reducing microorganisms. For SRM inhibition, MFP is synergistic with nitrite and chlorite, and could enhance the efficacy of nitrate or perchlorate treatments. Finally, MFP inhibition is multifaceted. Both inhibition of the central sulfate reduction pathway and release of cytoplasmic fluoride ion are implicated in the mechanism of MFP toxicity. PMID:25698072

  20. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.