Sample records for sulfated polysaccharide inhibits

  1. Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Huang; Chan, Yi-Lin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2012-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans. After infection, inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases often develop. Still there are no effective drugs available against virus infection. Recently, extracts of algae have been shown to possess a broad range of biological activities including antivirus activity. In this study, we identified that the sulfated polysaccharide extracts from Ulva lactuca can inhibit JEV infection in Vero cells. Mechanistic studies further revealed that the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can block virus adsorption and thus make the virus unable to enter cells. The Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts also effectively decrease the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the JEV-infected primary mixed glia cells. In an animal study, the JEV-infected C3H/HeN mice appeared to have neurobehavioral abnormalities on the fifth day and died on the seventh day post infection. However, the JEV-infected mice pretreated with the Ulva sulfated polysaccharide extracts can delay the onset of hind limb paralysis and thereby prevent mice from death. PMID:22193590

  2. Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

    2010-05-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  3. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by modulating RANKL signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-?B, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-?B activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

  4. Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-?B, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-?B activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

  5. Inhibition activity of sulfated polysaccharide of Sepiella maindroni ink on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Subo; Cheng, Yanna; Wang, Fengshan; Sun, Lirui; Liu, Chunhui; Chen, Guanjun; Li, Yuhua; Ward, S G; Qu, Xianjun

    2008-06-01

    SIP-SII is the sulfated S. maindroni ink polysaccharide (SIP) isolated from cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni. SIP-SII weakly inhibited tumor cell growth without cytotoxicity in vitro assay. Herein, we examined the effects of SIP-SII on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9 as well as tumor cell invasion and migration. SIP-SII (0.8-500 microg/ml) significantly decreased the expression of MMP-2 activity in human ovarian carcinoma cells SKOV3 as evidenced by the gelatin zymography analysis. No significant decrease of MMP-9 was detected in the cell line after SIP-SII treatment. The expression of MMP-2 was also evaluated using Western blot analysis. The results showed that SIP-SII inhibited the expression of MMP-2 in SKOV3 and human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells ECV304 after 24 h incubation. Furthermore, the activity of invasion and migration of SKOV3 and ECV304 cells were measured. SIP-SII displayed an inhibitory effect on the penetration of SKOV3 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane in transwell chamber. A significant inhibition of ECV304 cell migration was observed in the presence of SIP-SII. These results suggest that SIP-SII might suppress invasion and migration of carcinoma cells via inhibition of MMP-2 proteolytic activity. PMID:18406565

  6. Inhibition of Chondroitin4-Sulfate-Specific Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes by Sulfated Polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine T. Andrews; Nicole Klatt; Yvonne Adams; Petra Mischnick; Reinhard Schwartz-Albiez

    2005-01-01

    Received 28 December 2004\\/Returned for modification 23 January 2005\\/Accepted 3 February 2005 Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin 4-sulfate (CSA) has been linked to the severe disease outcome of pregnancy-associated malaria. Soluble polysaccharides that release mature-stage parasitized erythrocytes into the peripheral circulation may help elucidate these interactions and have the potential to aid in developing therapeutic strategies. We

  7. Sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ecklonia cava accelerates antithrombin III-mediated plasma proteinase inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Kyo Jung; Yasantha Athukorala; Young-Jae Lee; Seon Heui Cha; Chi-Ho Lee; Thava Vasanthan; Kwang-Sik Choi; Sang-Ho Yoo; Se-Kwon Kim; You-Jin Jeon

    2007-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance is an important technique for studying molecular interactions and was used to investigate the molecular\\u000a interaction of anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides purified from an enzymatic hydrolysate of the brown alga Ecklonia cava (ECA) with blood coagulation factors. In a direct binding assay, binding affinity between ECA\\/antithrombin III (ATIII) and\\u000a activated blood coagulation factors was in the order: factor

  8. Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by calciumspirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide derived from a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Mishima; Jun Murata; Minako Toyoshima; Hideki Fujii; Motowo Nakajima; Toshimitsu Hayashi; Toshimitsu Kato; Ikuo Saiki

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) isolated from a blue-green alga, Spirulinaplatensis, which is a sulfated polysaccharide chelating calcium and mainly composed of rhamnose, on inva-sionof B16-BL6 melanoma, Colon 26 M3.1 carcinoma and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells through reconsti-tutedbasement membrane (Matrigel). Ca-SP significantly inhibited the invasion of these tumor cells throughMatrigel\\/fibronectin-coated filters. Ca-SP also inhibited the haptotactic migration

  9. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and semaphorin3A.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta; Tosato, Giovanna

    2008-04-15

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization, which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and fucoidan, but not others, reduce endothelial cell-surface levels of NRP1, NRP2, and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and block the binding and in vitro function of semaphorin3A and VEGF(165). Administration of fucoidan to mice reduces VEGF(165)-induced angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization in vivo. We find that dextran sulfate and fucoidan can bridge the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of the scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), and induce NRP1 and SREC-I coordinate internalization and trafficking to the lysosomes. Overexpression of SREC-I in SREC-I-negative cells specifically reduces cell-surface levels of NRP1, indicating that SREC-I mediates NRP1 internalization. These results demonstrate that engineered receptor internalization is an effective strategy for reducing levels and function of cell-surface receptors, and identify certain sulfated polysaccharides as "internalization inducers." PMID:18272814

  10. Highly Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity in Cell Lines and Human Tracheal-Bronchial Histocultures

    PubMed Central

    Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Volante, Marco; Veccelli, Elena; Oreste, Pasqua; Rusnati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exploits cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The interaction between RSV and HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was used to generate a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure that mimics the heparin/heparan sulfate biosynthetic precursor. The screening of a series of N-sulfated (K5-NS), O-sulfated (K5-OS), and N,O-sulfated (K5-N,OS) derivatives with different degrees of sulfation revealed the highly sulfated K5 derivatives K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) to be inhibitors of RSV. Their 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 1.07 nM and 3.81 nM in two different cell lines, and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. Inhibition of RSV infection was maintained in binding and attachment assays but not in preattachment assays. Moreover, antiviral activity was also evident when the K5 derivatives were added postinfection, both in cell-to-cell spread and viral yield reduction assays. Finally, both K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) prevented RSV infection in human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. Together, these features put K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) forward as attractive candidates for further development as RSV inhibitors. PMID:24914125

  11. Structural characterization and bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharide from Monostroma oxyspermum.

    PubMed

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Sudharsan, Sadhasivam; Vasanthkumar, Shanmugam; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from Monostroma oxyspermum through hot water extraction, anion-exchange and gel permeation column chromatography. The sulfated polysaccharide contained 92% of carbohydrate, 0% of protein, 7.8% of uronic acid, 22% of ash and 33% of moisture respectively. The elemental composition was analyzed using CHNS/O analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide determined through PAGE was found to be as 55 kDa. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that sulfated polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and glucose. The structural features of sulfated polysaccharide were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Further the sulfated polysaccharide showed total antioxidant and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were as 66.29% at 250 ?g/ml and 66.83% at 160 ?g/ml respectively. The sulfated polysaccharide also showed ABTS scavenging ability and reducing power were as 83.88% at 125 ?g/ml and 15.81% at 400 ?g/ml respectively. The anticoagulant activity was determined for human plasma with respect to Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT) was 20.09 IU and 1.79 IU at 25 ?g/ml respectively. These results indicated that the sulfated polysaccharide from M. oxyspermum had potent antioxidant and anticoagulant activities. PMID:25451755

  12. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

  13. Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Camila Lehnhardt; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Farias, Wladimir Ronald Lobo; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2013-01-01

    The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites. PMID:23519148

  14. Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds Inhibit Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Induce Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-3 in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs products from Sargassum henslowianum C. Agardh (FSAR) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVES), respectively, on proliferation of melanoma B16 cells and to investigate the underlying apoptosis promoting mechanisms. Cell viability analysis showed that both FCSPs products, i.e., FSAR and FVES, decreased the proliferation of the melanoma cells in a dose-response fashion, with FSAR being more potent at lower dosages, and FVES being relatively more anti-proliferative than FSAR at higher dosages. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V staining of the melanoma cells exposed to the FCSPs products confirmed that both FSAR and FVES induced apoptosis. The FCSPs-induced apoptosis was evidenced by loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and translocation of the cell membrane phospholipids and was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. The FCSPs bioactivity is proposed to be attributable to distinct structural features of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S. henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions that involve activation of caspase-3. PMID:22363242

  15. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds inhibit proliferation of melanoma cells and induce apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-12-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs products from Sargassumhenslowianum C. Agardh (FSAR) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVES), respectively, on proliferation of melanoma B16 cells and to investigate the underlying apoptosis promoting mechanisms. Cell viability analysis showed that both FCSPs products, i.e., FSAR and FVES, decreased the proliferation of the melanoma cells in a dose-response fashion, with FSAR being more potent at lower dosages, and FVES being relatively more anti-proliferative than FSAR at higher dosages. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V staining of the melanoma cells exposed to the FCSPs products confirmed that both FSAR and FVES induced apoptosis. The FCSPs-induced apoptosis was evidenced by loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and translocation of the cell membrane phospholipids and was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. The FCSPs bioactivity is proposed to be attributable to distinct structural features of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S.henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions that involve activation of caspase-3. PMID:22363242

  16. Catalytic synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides I: Characterization of chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaonuo; Zuo, Yuan; Tian, Jia; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, sulfated derivatives of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SASP) with high degree of substitution (DS) were synthesized by using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)/dimethylcyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as catalyst in homogeneous conditions. It was found that DMAP/DCC showed marked improvement in DS of sulfated samples. Compared to sulfated derivatives without catalyst, the DS of SASP increased from 0.91 to 1.28 with an increment in dosage of DMAP from 0 to 10mg. The influence of DMAP/DCC on the DS of sulfated derivatives was depended on the content of DMAP. The effect of DMAP might be due to its strong coordination to the hydroxy group. The results of FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that SO3(-) group (S(6+), binding energy of 172.3eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharide molecules. (13)C NMR results indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant for sulfated polysaccharide when compared with other positions. In the sulfation reaction, a sharp decrease in MW was observed. DMAP/DCC was an effective catalyst system in sulfated modification of polysaccharide. PMID:25499892

  17. Extraction, characterization and antimicrobial activity of sulfated polysaccharides from fish skins.

    PubMed

    Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Sila, Assaâd; Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from gray triggerfish (GTSP) and smooth hound (SHSP) skins. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities of GTSP and SHSP against Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 43251), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enterica (ATCC 43972) and Enterobacter sp were evaluated by determining clear growth inhibition zone diameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and by essays in liquid media. GTSP and SHSP were fractionated by a Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography. Fraction FGII, from GTSP, and fraction FSII, from SHSP, showed the most important inhibitory effects against the tested bacterial species. The sulfated polysaccharides from fish skins did not show hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Overall, the results suggested that those polysaccharides could offer promising sources of polysaccharides for future application as dietary ingredients in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:25647621

  18. Fucoidan a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae is a potent modulator of connective tissue proteolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karim Senni; Farida Gueniche; Alexandrine Foucault-Bertaud; Sylvie Igondjo-Tchen; Florence Fioretti; Sylvia Colliec-Jouault; Patrick Durand; Jean Guezennec; Gaston Godeau; Didier Letourneur

    2006-01-01

    Fucoidans are sulfated fucosylated polymers from brown algae cell wall that exhibit some heparin\\/heparan sulfate properties. We previously demonstrated that these polysaccharides were able in vitro to stimulate dermal fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. Here, we investigated the action of a 16kDa fucoidan fraction on parameters involved in connective tissue breakdown. This fucoidan is able to inhibit gelatinase A

  19. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Dengue Virus Infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Interacting with the Viral Envelope Protein E Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Vervaeke, Peter; Alen, Marijke; Noppen, Sam; Schols, Dominique; Oreste, Pasqua; Liekens, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes cytokine-mediated alterations in the barrier function of the microvascular endothelium, leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We observed that DENV (serotype 2) productively infects primary (HMVEC-d) and immortalized (HMEC-1) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, despite the absence of well-described DENV receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or the mannose receptor on the cell surface. However, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were highly expressed on these cells and pre-treatment of HMEC-1 cells with heparinase II or with glycosaminoglycans reduced DENV infectivity up to 90%, suggesting that DENV uses HSPGs as attachment receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 derivatives, which are structurally similar to heparin/heparan sulfate but lack anticoagulant activity, were able to block DENV infection of HMEC-1 and HMVEC-d cells in the nanomolar range. The highly sulfated K5-OS(H) and K5-N,OS(H) inhibited virus attachment and subsequent entry into microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope (E) protein, as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis using the receptor-binding domain III of the E protein. PMID:24015314

  20. Sulfated polysaccharides (chondroitin sulfate and carrageenan) plus glucosamine sulfate are potent inhibitors of HIV.

    PubMed

    Konlee, M

    1998-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate, a fusion inhibitor found in human milk, appears to work by blocking the ability of a virus, such as HIV, to infect a cell. There are questions about whether cow or goat milk can offer the same fusion-inhibiting benefits. One sulfated monosaccharide, glucosamine 6-sulfate, appears to have significant anti-HIV activity. Carrageenan, a seaweed derivative, shows promise as a vaginal microbicide, and should be tested further to determine its effectiveness against HIV transmission. PMID:11366556

  1. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and ?-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients. PMID:25301697

  2. Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 ?g/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively. PMID:21822410

  3. Anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides: Part I. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of new pullulan sulfates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Alban; A Schauerte; G Franz

    2002-01-01

    In order to develop new anticoagulants as potential heparin alternatives, two pullulans with different molecular weight (MW) were used as starting polymers for the partial synthesis of a structurally new class of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of these linear ?-1,4-\\/1,6-glucans was carried out by a method with a SO3–pyridine complex in DMF, which had been optimized for the modification of ?-1,3-glucans.

  4. Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.

    PubMed

    Croci, Diego O; Cumashi, Albana; Ushakova, Natalia A; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Usov, Anatolii I; Grachev, Alexey A; Morozevich, Galina E; Berman, Albert E; Sanderson, Craig J; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed. PMID:21387013

  5. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Derivatives of Polysaccharides Extracted from Auricularia auricular

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, two types of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives were successfully synthesized. Their antioxidant activities were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. In addition, the degree of sulfation was evaluated using ion-chromatography and IR spectra. The results verify that, when employing scavenging superoxide radical tests, both the sulfation of acid Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SAAAP) and the sulfation of neutral Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SNAAP) derivatives possessed considerable antioxidant activity and had a more powerful antioxidant competence than that of the native non-sulfated polysaccharides (AAAP and NAAP). On the other hand, AAAP and NAAP exhibited stronger activity on scavenging both the hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Available data obtained with in vitro measurements indicates that the sulfated groups of AAAP and NAAP played an important role on antioxidant activity. In sum, the research demonstrates that the antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives in vitro has a potential significance for seeking new natural antioxidant protective agents. PMID:21686185

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida: isolation, structural characteristics, and antitumor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olesya S. Vishchuk; Svetlana P. Ermakova; Tatyana N. Zvyagintseva

    During the last decade brown seaweeds attracted much attention as a source of polysaccharides, namely laminarans, alginic acids, and sulfated polysaccharides—fucoidans, with various structures and biological activities.In this study, sulfated polysaccharides were isolated from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica (formerly named Laminaria) and Undaria pinnatifida and their antitumor activity was tested against human breast cancer T-47D and melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell lines.The

  7. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2?8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  8. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}?8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  9. Antioxidant activity of different sulfate content derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huimin Qi; Quanbin Zhang; Tingting Zhao; Rong Chen; Hong Zhang; Xizhen Niu; Zhien Li

    2005-01-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) is a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharide; for simplicity, the sulfated polysaccharide is referred to as ulvan in this paper. In this study, different sulfate content ulvans were prepared with sulfur trioxide\\/N,N-dimethylformamide (SO3–DMF) in formamide, and their antioxidant activities were investigated including scavenging activity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power and metal chelating ability.

  10. Enhancement of antitumor activities in sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Yonghui; Cheung, Peter C K

    2009-11-25

    Two water-soluble derivatives, sulfated and carboxymethylated Ganoderma lucidem polysaccharides, coded as S-GL and CM-GL, were prepared using derivatization of water-insoluble polysaccharides (GL-IV-I) extracted from the fruit body of G. lucidem . The degree of substitution (DS) of S-GL and CM-GL was 0.94 and 1.09, respectively. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of GL-IV-I, S-GL, and CM-GL was determined with light scattering to be 13.3x10(4), 10.1x10(4), and 6.3x10(4), respectively. S-GL and CM-GL inhibited the in vitro proliferation of Sarcoma 180 (S-180) tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 26 and 38 microg/mL, respectively. They also inhibited the growth of S-180 solid tumors implanted in BALB/c mice, with low toxicity to the animals. Flow cytometric studies revealed that treatment of S-GL and CM-GL with S-180 tumor cells could mediate the cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of Bax increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically, as shown by immuno-histochemical staining of S-180 tumor tissue excised from the animals. The sulfated and carboxmethylated groups in the polysaccharides played an important part in enhancing their antitumor activities, leading to the potential to be developed into antitumor drugs. PMID:19863048

  11. In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuling; Liu, Dan; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shusheng

    2011-12-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (F1, F2) from seaweed Corallina officinalis were isolated through anion-exchange column chromatography. Their chemical characteristics were determined by GC, HPLC, FT-IR and UV spectra. F1 and F2 contained only two monosaccharides, namely galactose and xylose. The antioxidant activities of F1, F2 and the de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2) in vitro were investigated, including hydroxyl radicals scavenging effect, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical activity and reducing power. As expected, antioxidant assay showed that the two sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2) possessed considerable antioxidant properties and had more excellent abilities than de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2). PMID:21896282

  12. Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego O. Croci; Albana Cumashi; Natalia A. Ushakova; Marina E. Preobrazhenskaya; Antonio Piccoli; Licia Totani; Nadezhda E. Ustyuzhanina; Maria I. Bilan; Anatolii I. Usov; Alexey A. Grachev; Galina E. Morozevich; Albert E. Berman; Craig J. Sanderson; Maeve Kelly; Patrizia di Gregorio; Cosmo Rossi; Nicola Tinari; Stefano Iacobelli; Gabriel A. Rabinovich; Nikolay E. Nifantiev; Donald Gullberg

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions

  13. Sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly layer are species-specific inducers of acrosomal reaction in sperms of sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Alves, A P; Mulloy, B; Diniz, J A; Mourão, P A

    1997-03-14

    We have characterized the fine structure of sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly layer of three species of sea urchins and tested the ability of these purified polysaccharides to induce the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a homopolymer of 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan. The species Arbacia lixula and Lytechinus variegatus contain linear sulfated alpha-L-fucans with regular tetrasaccharide repeating units. Each of these sulfated polysaccharides induces the acrosome reaction in conspecific but not in heterospecific spermatozoa. These results demonstrate that species specificity of fertilization in sea urchins depends in part on the fine structure of egg jelly sulfated polysaccharide. PMID:9054385

  14. The binding of human betacellulin to heparin, heparan sulfate and related polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mummery, Rosemary S; Mulloy, Barbara; Rider, Christopher C

    2007-10-01

    Recombinant human betacellulin binds strongly to heparin, requiring of the order of 0.8 M NaCl for its elution from a heparin affinity matrix. This is in complete contrast to the prototypic member of its cytokine superfamily, epidermal growth factor, which fails to bind to the column at physiological pH and strength. We used a well-established heparin binding ELISA to demonstrate that fucoidan and a highly sulfated variant of heparan sulfate compete strongly for heparin binding. Low sulfated heparan sulfates and also chondroitin sulfates are weaker competitors. Moreover, although competitive activity is reduced by selective desulfation, residual binding to extensively desulfated heparin remains. Even carboxyl reduction followed by extensive desulfation does not completely remove activity. We further demonstrate that both hyaluronic acid and the E. coli capsular polysaccharide K5, both of which are unsulfated polysaccharides with unbranched chains of alternating N-acetylglucosamine linked beta(1-4) to glucuronic acid, are also capable of a limited degree of competition with heparin. Heparin protects betacellulin from proteolysis by LysC, but K5 polysaccharide does not. Betacellulin possesses a prominent cluster of basic residues, which is likely to constitute a binding site for sulfated polysaccharides, but the binding of nonsulfated polysaccharides may take place at a different site. PMID:17673511

  15. Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

  16. Evaluation of sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyopteris justii as antioxidant agents and as inhibitors of the formation of calcium oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Melo, Karoline Rachel Teodosio; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Vidal, Arthur Anthunes Jacome; Lima, Camila Renata Machado; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate crystals and other types of crystals are the cause of urolithiasis, and these are related to oxidative stress. The search for new compounds with antioxidant qualities and inhibitors of these crystal formations is therefore necessary. In this study, we extracted four sulfated polysaccharides, a fucoglucoxyloglucuronan (DJ-0.3v), a heterofucan (DJ-0.4v), and two glucans (DJ-0.5v and DJ-1.2v), from the marine alga Dictyopteris justii. The presence of sulfated polysaccharides was confirmed by chemical analysis and FT-IR. All the sulfated polysaccharides presented antioxidant activity under different conditions in some of the in vitro tests and inhibited the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Fucan DJ-0.4v was the polysaccharide that showed the best antioxidant activity and was one of the best inhibitors of the crystallization of calcium oxalate. Glucan DJ-0.5v was the second most potent inhibitor of the formation of oxalate crystals, as it stabilized dehydrated oxalate crystals (less aggressive form), preventing them from transforming into monohydrate crystals (more aggressive form). The obtained data lead us to propose that these sulfated polysaccharides are promising agents for use in the treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:24287990

  17. Purification and characterization of an avian myeloblastosis and human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase inhibitor, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, H; Kido, Y; Kobayashi, N; Motoki, Y; Neushul, M; Yamamoto, N

    1987-01-01

    A new reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor was extracted and purified from the red alga Schizymenia pacifica. The chromatographic behavior and chemical properties of this sea algal extract (SAE) suggest that it is a sulfated polysaccharide having a molecular weight of approximately 2,000,000. SAE is composed of galactose (73%), sulfonate (20%), and 3,6-anhydrogalactose (0.65%). SAE is a member of the lambda-carrageenan family, based on its infrared spectrum and products of hydrolysis. SAE selectively inhibited human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RT and replication in vitro. When MT-4 cells were treated with more than 10(4) inhibitory units (IU) of SAE per ml after HIV infection, significant inhibition of viral antigen synthesis was observed. Furthermore, more than 90% of cells were viable in the cultures exposed to 4 X 10(4) to 8 X 10(4) IU of SAE per ml, while almost all the MT-4 cells in the control culture had died by 10 days after HIV infection. The inhibitory effect of SAE on HIV replication was confirmed by plaque reduction assays. The 50% inhibitory dose of SAE was 9.5 x 10(3) IU/ml. Chondroitin sulfate A, dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, keratan polysulfate, and heparin also inhibited the RT of avian myeloblastosis virus. SAE immediately inhibited RT activity when added to an assay mixture after the start of the reaction. PMID:2449120

  18. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    DOEpatents

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  19. Antiviral activity of sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharide against Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhao, Xinghong; Cheng, Anchun; Jia, Renyong; Yuan, Guiping; Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiaojia; Dai, Shujun; Lu, Hongke; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of Paramyxovirinae subfamily and can infect most species of birds causing severe economic losses. The current control measure is vaccination, but infections cannot be completely prevented. It remains a constant threat to the poultry industry and new control measures are urgently needed. This study demonstrates that sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharides (sCVPSs) were potent inhibitors of NDV, with 50?% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 62.55 to 76.31 µg ml(-1) in Baby hamster kidney fibroblasts clone 21 (BHK-21) and from 101.57 to 125.90 µg ml(-1) in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). sCVPS is more effective than heparan sulfate (HS; as a positive control) with IC50 values of 99.28 µg ml(-1) in BHK-21 and 118.79 µg ml(-1) in CEF. sCVPSs and HS exhibit anti-NDV activity by prevention of the early stages of viral life. The mechanism of action study indicated that virus adsorption in BHK-21, and both virus adsorption and penetration in CEF were inhibited by sCVPSs. When the number of viruses was increased to an m.o.i. of 0.1 in the immunofluorescence study and to an m.o.i. of 1 in the fluorescent quantitative PCR study, viral infection was also significantly suppressed; the antiviral activity of sCVPSs was independent of the m.o.i. sCVPSs also prevented the cell-to-cell spread of NDV. In vivo tests carried out on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens showed that sCVPSs also inhibited virus multiplication in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. These results indicated that sCVPSs perform more effectively than HS as antiviral agents against NDV, and can be further examined for their potential as an alternative control measure for NDV infection. PMID:23884364

  20. The anti-DHAV activities of Astragalus polysaccharide and its sulfate compared with those of BSRPS and its sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Song, Meiyun; Wang, Yixuan; Xiong, Wen; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Shuaibing; Xu, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-03-01

    This paper studied the anti-duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its sulfate (sAPS) compared with those of Bush Sophora Root polysaccharide (BSRPS) and its sulfate (sBSRPS). The antiviral activities of APS and sAPS were measured by MTT and real-time PCR methods, in vitro. In vivo experiment, the mortality rate and the evaluation indexes of hepatic injury, peroxidative injury and immune level were measured. Just like the condition of BSRPS and sBSRPS, the anti-DHAV activities of sAPS were stronger than those of APS, both in vitro and in vivo. It indicated sulfated modification could enhance the antiviral ability of polysaccharide. But unlike the antiviral effects of BSPRS and sBSRPS in vivo, APS and sAPS did not reduce the mortality rates as their abilities of scavenging free radicals and alleviating the hepatic injuries were weaker than those of BSRPS and sBSRPS. And they even did not enhance the immune levels. PMID:25498644

  1. Structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from the green alga Codium divaricatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Mao, Wenjun; Yan, Mengxia; Liu, Xue; Xia, Zheng; Wang, Shuyao; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Chenglong; Zhang, Lifang; Cao, Sujian

    2015-05-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide, designated CP2-1, was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum by water extraction and purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. CP2-1 is a galactan which is highly sulfated and substituted with pyruvic acid ketals. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, the backbone of CP2-1 was mainly composed of (1?3)-?-d-galactopyranose residues, branched by single (1?)-?-d-galactopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was estimated to be about 12.2%. Sulfate groups were at C-4 of (1?3)-?-d-galactopyranose and C-6 of non-reducing terminal galactose residues. In addition, the ketals of pyruvic acid were found at 3,4- of non-reducing terminal galactose residues forming a five-membered ring. CP2-1 possessed a high anticoagulant activity as assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays. The investigation demonstrated that CP2-1 was an anticoagulant-active sulfated polysaccharide distinguishing from other sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae. PMID:25659687

  2. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from red seaweed Nemalion helminthoides.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Recalde, Mercedes; Matulewicz, María C; Pujol, Carlos A; Carlucci, María J

    2014-02-01

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides from the red seaweed Nemalion helminthoides: two xylomannan fractions (N3 and N4) and a mannan fraction (N6) were investigated to determine their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. N3 and N4 induced in vitro proliferation of macrophages of the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and significantly stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) in the same cells, whereas this response was not observed with the mannan N6. The cytokine production was also stimulated by sulfated xylomannans in vivo in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously with these polysaccharides. Remarkably, when mice were treated with N3 and N4 for 1 h before being infected with Herpes simplex virus type 2, they remained asymptomatic with no signs of disease. The in vitro and in vivo results suggest that sulfated xylomannans could be strong immunomodulators. PMID:24444887

  3. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simões, C. M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm?1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1?6)-(1?3)-?-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1?3)-?-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1?3)-?-D-gluco-(1?2)-?-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 ?g/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 ?g/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 ?g/mL). PMID:23511057

  4. Antitumor activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from Enteromorpha intestinalis targeted against hepatoma through mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuxia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Jingjie; Liu, Zhenxiong; Zhao, Shuguang

    2014-02-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide (EI-SP), extracted from Enteromorpha intestinalis that is a kind of algae, is found to have anticancer activity. This study was designed to investigate the anti-tumor effect of EI-SP on human hepatoma HepG2 cell line and its possible mechanisms. An MTT assay showed that EI-SP could specifically inhibit the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis by flow cytometry indicated that the apoptosis of tumor cells increased after treatment with EI-SP in range of 100-400 ?g/ml. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that EI-SP treatment led to decreased protein expression of Bcl-2 and an increase in Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Moreover, it was found that EI-SP caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m) and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Collectively, our results showed that the EI-SP induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells involving a caspases-mediated mitochondrial signalling pathway. PMID:24197975

  5. The sulfated O-specific polysaccharide from the marine bacterium Cobetia pacifica KMM 3879(T.).

    PubMed

    Kokoulin, Maxim S; Kalinovsky, Anatoliy I; Komandrova, Nadezhda A; Tomshich, Svetlana V; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Vaskovsky, Victor E

    2014-03-31

    The O-specific polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Cobetia pacifica KMM 3879(T) and studied by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including 1D TOCSY and 2D (1)H, (1)H-COSY, ROESY, (1)H, (13)C-HSQC, HMBC, H2BC and HMQC-TOCSY experiments. The following new structure of the sulfated O-polysaccharide from the C. pacifica KMM 3879(T) containing rhamnose (Rha), glucose (Glc), and galactose (Gal) was established: where R is -SO3H. PMID:24518985

  6. Mobilization of stem/progenitor cells by sulfated polysaccharides does not require selectin presence

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Elizabeth A.; Priestley, Gregory V.; Nakamoto, Betty; Collins, Robert G.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2000-01-01

    Employing carbohydrate ligands, which have been extensively used to block selectin function in vitro and in vivo, we have examined the involvement of such ligands in stem/progenitor cell mobilization in mice and monkeys. We found that sulfated fucans, branched and linear, are capable of increasing mature white cells in the periphery and mobilizing stem/progenitor cells of all classes (up to 32-fold) within a few hours posttreatment in a dose-dependent manner. To elicit the effect, the presence of sulfate groups was necessary, yet not sufficient, as certain sulfated hexosamines tested (chondroitin sulfates A or B) were ineffective. Significant mobilization of stem/progenitor cells and leukocytosis was elicited in selectin-deficient mice (L?/?, PE?/?, or LPE?/?) similar to that of wild-type controls, suggesting that the mode of action of sulfated fucans is not through blockade of known selectins. Other mechanisms have been entertained, in particular, the release of chemokines/cytokines, including some previously implicated in mobilization. Significant increases were documented in the levels of seven circulating chemokines/cytokines within a few hours after fucan sulfate treatment and support such a proposition. Additionally, an increase was noted in plasma metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, which might independently contribute to the mobilization process by enzymatically facilitating chemokine/cytokine release. Mobilization by sulfated polysaccharides provides a distinct paradigm in the mobilization process and uncovers an additional novel in vivo biological role for sulfated glycans. As similarly sulfated compounds were ineffective in vivo, the data also underscore the fact that polysaccharides with similar structures may elicit diverse in vivo effects. PMID:10841555

  7. Effect of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides and its sulfated derivatives on immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinghong; Zhang, Yuetian; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Zhao, Xingfang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Shu, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    One hundred mice were randomly divided into five groups. The mice in one group were injected with physiological saline as the normal control group. The mice in the other four groups were injected with physiological saline, sulfated Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (SCVP), Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide (CVP) and astragalus polysaccharide (AP) once daily for 7 d and then with cyclophosphamide (CY) in the last 3 d. The serum cytokine level, apoptosis protein expressions, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, changes in peripheral blood T-cell subsets, and immune organ index were then measured. Results showed that SCVP and CVP can overcome CY-induced immunosuppression by promoting spleen lymphocyte proliferation, raising serum IFN-? and IL-2 levels, enlarging immune organ indexes, and decreasing excessive apoptosis. Moreover, SCVP and CVP showed the potential to treat autoimmune diseases based on CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Results suggested that SCVP and CVP exhibited the potential to treat autoimmune and immunosuppression diseases. PMID:25785030

  8. Effect of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides and its sulfated derivatives on immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinghong; Zhang, Yuetian; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Zhao, Xingfang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Shu, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    One hundred mice were randomly divided into five groups. The mice in one group were injected with physiological saline as the normal control group. The mice in the other four groups were injected with physiological saline, sulfated Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (SCVP), Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide (CVP) and astragalus polysaccharide (AP) once daily for 7 d and then with cyclophosphamide (CY) in the last 3 d. The serum cytokine level, apoptosis protein expressions, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, changes in peripheral blood T-cell subsets, and immune organ index were then measured. Results showed that SCVP and CVP can overcome CY-induced immunosuppression by promoting spleen lymphocyte proliferation, raising serum IFN-? and IL-2 levels, enlarging immune organ indexes, and decreasing excessive apoptosis. Moreover, SCVP and CVP showed the potential to treat autoimmune diseases based on CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. Results suggested that SCVP and CVP exhibited the potential to treat autoimmune and immunosuppression diseases. PMID:25785030

  9. Chemical characteristics and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha linza (Chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaohui; Mao, Wenjun; Chen, Yin; Chen, Yanli; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan

    2013-03-01

    Two sulfated polysaccharides, designated MP and SP, were extracted from the marine green alga Enteromorpha linza using hot water and then purified using ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The anticoagulant activities of MP and SP were examined by determination of their activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) using human plasma. Results showed that MP and SP were composed of abundant rhamnose with small amounts of xylose and glucuronic acid, whereas SP also contained a small amount of galactose. Approximate molecular weights of MP and SP were 535 and 502 kDa, respectively. As compared with SP, MP had higher contents of sulfate ester (19.0%) and uronic acid (14.9%). The MP mainly consisted of (1?4)-linked rhamnose residues with partially sulfated groups at the C-3 position, and small amounts of (1?3, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1?2, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1?4)-linked glucuronic acid and (1?4)-linked xylose residues. The SP contained abundant (1?4)-linked rhamnose with minor amounts of (1?3)-linked rhamnose, (1?3, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1?2, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1?4)-linked glucuronic acid, (1?4)-linked xylose, and (1?3)-linked galactose residues. The sulfate groups were mainly located at C-3 of (1?4)-linked rhamnose residues. Both MP and SP, in particular the former, effectively prolonged APTT and TT. This work demonstrates that MP and SP have unique structural characteristics distinct from those of other sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha. The MP is a potential source of anticoagulant, and the difference in anticoagulant activities of the two sulfated polysaccharides is directly linked to the discrepancy of their chemical features.

  10. Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. PMID:23507892

  11. Sulfated modification can enhance the immune-enhancing activity of lycium barbarum polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Jing Liu; Jing Zhang; Saifuding Abula; Biao Zhao; Shiliang Ruan

    2010-01-01

    In test in vitro, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs) with different degrees of sulfation (DS), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were added into cultured chicken peripheral lymphocytes and the changes of lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay taking the non-modified LBPS as control. Two sLBPSs with better efficacy, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9 were selected. In test in vivo, one

  12. Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of a water-insoluble polysaccharides from Dictyophora indusiata.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Haitian; Chen, Jinghua; Xu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    The present study described the characterization and biological properties of water?soluble sulfated polysaccharides prepared from water?insoluble polysaccharide (DIP), which were extracted from Dictyophora indusiata. The sulfation of DIP was performed using the chlorosulfonic acid?pyridine method. The water solubilities of the sulfated derivatives were measured at room temperature according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and 1,1?diphenyl?2?picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as determined, together with the reduction ability of the sulfated polysaccharides. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of DIP and the sulfated derivatives on MCF?7 and B16 cells were then determined using an MTT assay. The substitution degrees of the sulfated polysaccharides were 0.584 (S1?DIP), 0.989 (S2?DIP) and 1.549 (S3?DIP) according to barium chloride?gelatin nephelometry. Infrared spectroscopy and 13C?nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the substitution of S?DIP occurred mainly at the C?6 position, followed by the C?4 and C?2 positions. A significant increase was noted in the antioxidant activity of the sulfated derivatives compared with that of DIP. In addition, the S?DIPs exhibited a more marked reducing capacity and clearing activity of hydroxyl radicals and DPPH. This indicated that the antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharides was significantly higher following sulfation. Furthermore, in in vitro cell investigations, DIP exhibited no inhibitory effects on the growth of the B16 or MCF?7 tumor cells. However, the sulfated derivatives exerted marked inhibitory effects on these cell lines. Sulfate modification may therefore contribute to an improvement in water solubility and in the antioxidant and antitumor activities of natural DIP. PMID:25484243

  13. Polysaccharides isolated from Digenea simplex inhibit inflammatory and nociceptive responses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana G; Mesquita, Jacilane X; Aragão, Karoline S; Franco, Alvaro X; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Brito, Tarcisio V; Dias, Jordana M; Silva, Renan O; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Abreu, Clara Myrla W S; de Paula, Regina Célia M; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharides (PLS) have notably diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we investigated the previously unexplored anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the PLS fraction isolated from the marine red alga Digenea simplex. We found that the PLS fraction reduced carrageenan-induced edema in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited inflammation induced by dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The fraction also inhibited neutrophil migration into both mouse paw and peritoneal cavity. This effect was accompanied by decreases in IL1-? and TNF-? levels in the peritoneal fluid. Pre-treatment of mice with PLS (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. This same dose of PLS also reduced total licking time in both phases of a formalin test, and increased latency in a hot plate test. Therefore, we conclude that PLS extracted from D. simplex possess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and can be useful as therapeutic agents against inflammatory diseases. PMID:24751242

  14. Sulfated modification of longan polysaccharide and its immunomodulatory and antitumor activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Meng, Fa-Yan; He, Zhou; Ning, Yuan-Ling; Li, Xue-Hua; Song, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Rui

    2014-06-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LP1) was prepared from Dimocarpus longan Lour. by hot water extraction, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its sulfated derivative (LP1-S) was prepared by the sulfuric acid method. Preliminary tests in vitro showed LP1 and LP1-S could stimulate murine lymphocytes proliferation, increase pinocytic activity of murine macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in macrophages. Furthermore, LP1-S exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells in vitro than LP1, which might be caused by the sulfate group in its structures. These results indicated that the LP1-S might be useful for developing safe antitumor drugs or health food. PMID:24680807

  15. A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Renan O.; Santana, Ana Paula M.; Carvalho, Nathalia S.; Bezerra, Talita S.; Oliveira, Camila B.; Damasceno, Samara R. B.; Chaves, Luciano S.; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P.; Soares, Pedro M. G.; Souza, Marcellus H. L. P.; Barbosa, André Luiz R.; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R.

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group—vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation. PMID:23342384

  16. The comparison of antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) and sulfated CP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-02-01

    Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) was extracted, purified and modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain a sulfated CP (sCP). Their antioxidative activities in vitro were compared through the free radical-scavenging test. The results demonstrated that the scavenging capabilities of sCP were significantly stronger than those of CP. In vivo test, the mice hepatic injury model was prepared by BCG/LPS method, then administrated respectively with sCP and CP at three dosages, the biochemical indexes in serum, antioxidative indexes in liver homogenate and histopathological change in liver of the mice were compared. The results showed that in high (200mg/kg) and middle (150mg/kg) dosages of sCP groups, the contents of ALT, AST and TNF-? in serum and MDA in liver homogenate were significantly lower than those in the model group and numerically lower than those in the CP groups, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver homogenate were significantly higher than those in the model group and numerically higher than those in the CP groups. In the model group there were obvious pathological changes in the liver, while in the sCP groups were near normal. These results indicate that sCP and CP possess antioxidative activity in vitro and in vivo, the activity of sCP is stronger than that of CP and sulfation modification can enhance the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide. PMID:25543057

  17. USING A 3-O-SULFATED HEPARIN OCTASACCHARIDE TO INHIBIT THE ENTRY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS-1

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Ronald; Balasubramaniam, Arun; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Zhang, Fuming; Bridges, Arlene; Linhardt, Robert J; Shukla, Deepak; Liu, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly sulfated polysaccharide and is present in large quantities on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) utilizes a specialized cell surface HS, known as 3-O-sulfated HS, as an entry receptor to establish infection. Here, we exploit an approach to inhibit HSV-1 infection by using a 3-O-sulfated octasaccharide, mimicking the active domain of the entry receptor. The 3-O-sulfated octasaccharide was synthesized by incubating a heparin octasaccharide (3-OH octasaccharide) with HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 3. The resultant 3-O-sulfated octasaccharide has a structure of ?UA2S-GlcNS6S-IdoUA2S-GlcNS6S-IdoUA2S-GlcNS3S6S-IdoUA2S-GlcNS6S (where ?UA is 4-deoxy-?-l-threo-hex-4-enopyranosyluronic acid, GlcN is d-glucosamine and IdoUA is l-iduronic acid). Results from cell based assays revealed that the 3-O-sulfated octasaccharide has stronger activity in blocking HSV-1 infection than that of the 3-OH octasaccharide, suggesting that the inhibition of HSV-1 infection requires a unique sulfation moiety. Our results suggest the feasibility of inhibiting HSV-1 infection by blocking viral entry with a specific oligosaccharide. PMID:18457417

  18. Occurrence of sulfated fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfate are essential for the polysaccharide effect preventing muscle damage induced by toxins and crude venom from Bothrops jararacussu snake.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Strauch, Marcelo A; Cons, Bruno L; Borges, Paula A; Patrão-Neto, Fernando C; Tavares-Henriques, Matheus S; Teixeira-Cruz, Jhonatha M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Cintra, Adélia C O; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Mourão, Paulo A S; Melo, Paulo A

    2015-05-01

    Snake envenoming is an important public health problem around the world, particularly in tropics. Beyond deaths, morbidity induced by snake venoms, such as myotoxicity, is of pivotal consequence to population. Bothrops jararacussu is the main venomous snake in southeast region of Brazil, and particularly presents strong myotoxic effect. The only available therapy, antibothropic antivenom, poorly affects venom-induced myotoxicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fucCS), a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties, and its derivatives to inhibit toxic activities of B. jararacussu crude venom and its isolated toxins, named bothropstoxins (BthTX-I and BthTX-II). The in vitro myotoxic activities induced by crude venom, by BthTX-I alone and by toxins together were abolished by fucCS. Carboxyl reduction (fucCS-CR) kept this ability whereas defucosilation (defucCS) abrogates myoprotection. We observed the same pattern in the response of these polysaccharides in antagonizing the increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels, the reduction of skeletal muscle CK content and the rise of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by crude venom and isolated toxins. FucCS inhibited edematogenic activity and partially prevented the reduction of total leukocytes in blood when pre-incubated with crude venom. Furthermore, the venom procoagulant effect was completely antagonized by increasing concentrations of fucCS, although this polyanion could stop neither the tail bleeding nor the skin hemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. The B. jararacussu phospholipase, hyaluronidase, proteolytic and collagenase activities were inhibited in vitro. The results suggest that fucCS could be able to interact with both toxins, and it is able to inhibit BthTX-II phospholipase activity. Light microscopy of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) muscle showed myoprotection by fucCS, once necrotic areas, edema and inflammatory cells were all decreased as compared to venom injection alone. Altogether, data show that fucCS was able to inhibit myotoxicity and inflammation induced by B. jararacussu venom and its phospholipase toxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Thus, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is a new polyanion with potential to be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of snakebites in the future. PMID:25702961

  19. Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres do not inhibit bone healing compared to bone wax or microfibrillar collagen.

    PubMed

    Ereth, Mark; Sibonga, Jean; Oliver, William; Nuttall, Gregory; Henderson, Jennifer; Dekutoski, Mark

    2008-03-01

    Topical hemostats may reduce bone bleeding but the presence of residual matter may inhibit bone growth. We compared a recently approved hemostat, microporous polysaccharide hemospheres (Arista AH, Medafor Inc, Minneapolis, Minnesota), with conventional hemostatic agents in a rabbit calvarial model. Standard defects were created and microfibrillar collagen (Avitene; C.R. Bard Inc, Murray Hill, New Jersey), bonewax, or microporous polysaccharide hemospheres was applied. Bone growth was evaluated after fluorescent labeling the mineralization front. At 7 weeks bonewax and microfibrillar collagen had reduced bone growth compared to control or microporous polysaccharide hemospheres. Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and control animals also had reduced rabbit calvarial defects compared to bonewax or microfibrillar collagen. PMID:19292252

  20. Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by complexation with polysaccharides: carrageenan versus dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by electrostatic complexation of drug molecules with oppositely charged polysaccharides represent a promising bioavailability enhancement strategy for poorly-soluble drugs owed to their high supersaturation generation capability and simple preparation. Using ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the model drug, we investigated the effects of using dextran sulfate (DXT) or carrageenan (CGN) on the (1) preparation efficiency, (2) physical characteristics, (3) supersaturation generation, (4) antimicrobial activity, and (5) cytotoxicity of the amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (nanoplex) produced. Owing to the higher charge density and chain flexibility of DXT, coupled with the greater hydrophobicity of CGN, the CIP-DXT nanoplex exhibited superior preparation efficiency and larger size than the CIP-CGN nanoplex. Whereas the low solubility and high gelation tendency of CGN resulted in superior supersaturation generation capability for the CIP-DXT nanoplex. The non-cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, colloidal, and amorphous state stability were established for both nanoplexes, making them an ideal supersaturated drug delivery system. PMID:25498670

  1. Effects of partial desulfation on antioxidant and inhibition of DLD cancer cell of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Pei, Yaping; Fang, Zhongxian; Sun, Peilong

    2014-04-01

    Ulva fasciata belonging to the family Ulvaceae, commonly known as 'sea lettuce', is an abundantly growing green seaweed in coastal seashore of South China. Three different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2 and UFP3) were extracted and separated from U. fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. The three native UFP fractions had partial desulfurization by solvolytic desulfation respectively and the effect of sulfate content on the exhibition of the antioxidant and anti-tumor capacities had been evaluated and compared. The results showed that each native polysaccharide (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3) with high sulfate content exhibited better antioxidant activities compared with the partial desulfated polysaccharides (DS-UFP1, DS-UFP2, DS-UFP3). Specifically, UFP2 with relatively high sulfate content, molecular weight and uronic acid content had consistently excellent antioxidant performances. However, UFP2 demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of DLD intestinal cancer cells. Instead, DS-UFP3 with the lowest sulfate content but highest uronic acid content and molecular weight exhibited the best antitumor activity. PMID:24463264

  2. Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-?B signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?-B?. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-?B, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. PMID:24626144

  3. Antitumor and antimetastatic activity of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the Okhotsk sea Fucus evanescens brown alga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Alekseyenko; S. Ya. Zhanayeva; A. A. Venediktova; T. N. Zvyagintseva; T. A. Kuznetsova; N. N. Besednova; T. A. Korolenko

    2007-01-01

    Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Fucus evanescens (brown alga in Okhotsk sea), was studied in C57Bl\\/6 mice with transplanted Lewis lung adenocarcinoma. Fucoidan after single\\u000a and repeated administration in a dose of 10 mg\\/kg produced moderate antitumor and antimetastatic effects and potentiated the\\u000a antimetastatic, but not antitumor activities of cyclophosphamide. Fucoidan in a dose

  4. Antitumor and antimetastatic activity of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the Okhotsk Sea Fucus evanescens brown alga.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, T V; Zhanayeva, S Ya; Venediktova, A A; Zvyagintseva, T N; Kuznetsova, T A; Besednova, N N; Korolenko, T A

    2007-06-01

    Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Fucus evanescens (brown alga in Okhotsk sea), was studied in C57Bl/6 mice with transplanted Lewis lung adenocarcinoma. Fucoidan after single and repeated administration in a dose of 10 mg/kg produced moderate antitumor and antimetastatic effects and potentiated the antimetastatic, but not antitumor activities of cyclophosphamide. Fucoidan in a dose of 25 mg/kg potentiated the toxic effect of cyclophosphamide. PMID:18239813

  5. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Fan Zhang; Xiaona Zhao; Saifuding Abula; Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. After purification, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid–pyridine method respectively at four designed modification conditions. Four sLBPSs at 5 concentrations, within the safety concentration scope, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivating system of chick embryo

  6. Effects of polysaccharides enriched in 2,4-disulfated fucose units on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. Practical and conceptual implications.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-11-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates have well-defined structures and constitute a reliable class of molecules for structure-activity relationship studies. We tested the effects of two of these polysaccharides, namely a sulfated fucan and a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. The compounds share similar 2,4-disulfated fucose units, which are required for high anticoagulant activity in this class of polymer. These residues occur either as branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfate or as components of the linear chain in the sulfated fucan. These polysaccharides possess anticoagulant activity but differ significantly in their mechanisms of action. The fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits thrombin by heparin cofactor II, whereas sulfated fucan inhibits thrombin by both antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. In addition, these polysaccharides also have serpin-independent anticoagulant activities. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, but not sulfated fucan, activates factor XII. As a result of the complex anticoagulant mechanism, the invertebrate polysaccharides differ in their effects on experimental thrombosis. For instance, the sulfated fucan inhibits venous thrombosis at lower doses than fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. In contrast, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is significantly more potent than sulfated fucan in arterial thrombosis. Finally, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate increases bleeding, while sulfated fucan has only a discrete effect. In conclusion, the location of 2,4-disulfated fucose units in the polysaccharide chains dictates the effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. PMID:19888516

  7. Effects of sulfation on the physicochemical and functional properties of a water-insoluble polysaccharide preparation from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Hengyu; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2010-03-24

    The sulfation of a water-insoluble Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) was successfully carried out with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine in dimethyl formamide to prepare three sulfated GLP derivatives, named sGLP1, sGLP2, and sGLP3. The chemical structure of the sulfated GLP was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and (13)C NMR analyses. The sGLPs were evaluated for their water solubility, degree of substitution (DS), antioxidant properties, and bile acid-binding capacities. The results showed that sulfation improved the water solubility of GLP and increased its scavenging capacities against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity, Fe(II) chelating ability, reducing power, and bile acid-binding capacities. It was also observed that the DS may influence the physicochemical and functional properties of sGLPs. For instance, the sulfated GLP with the lowest DS had the greatest bile acid-binding capacity, and the sGLP that had the highest DS showed the lowest bile acid-binding ability under the experimental conditions. The results from this study suggested that sulfation is a possible approach to obtain novel water-soluble derivatives of GLP with improved physicochemical, functional, and biological properties for potential utilization in functional foods or supplemental products. PMID:20163182

  8. Mass preparation of oligosaccharides by the hydrolysis of chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides with a subcritical water microreaction system.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shuhei; Matsushima, Keiichiro; Ura, Haruo; Miyamoto, Nobuyuki; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-19

    The biological functions of chondroitin sulfate (CS) are executed by the interaction of specific oligosaccharide sequences in the polysaccharide chain with effective proteins. Thus, CS oligosaccharides are expected to have pharmacological applications. Furthermore, the demand for CS in health food supplements and medication is growing. However, the absorbency of CS polysaccharides in the digestive system is very low. Since the activity of orally administered CS is expected to increase by depolymerization, industrial production of CS oligosaccharides is required. In this study, hydrolysis with subcritical and super-critical water was applied to the depolymerization of CS for the first time, and hydrolytic conditions for oligosaccharide production were examined. CS oligosaccharides principally containing an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue at their reducing ends were successfully obtained. No significant desulfation was found in CS oligosaccharides prepared under optimized conditions. The production of CS oligosaccharides by this method will have a strong influence on the CS-related materials market. PMID:23454651

  9. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  10. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  11. The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-jun; Shen, Jie; Xia, Yong-mei; Zhang, Jue; Park, Hyeon-soo

    2012-10-15

    The antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated focusing on the inhibition on human liver cancer cells. The polysaccharides inhibited human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 during earlier phase with lower dosage but obviously became less functional in later phase regardless of the dosage applied. However, apoptosis of the drugged HepG2 cells appeared in later incubation phase with high dosage, and the apoptosis could be enhanced by supplemental dose of the intracellular polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the intracellular polysaccharides inhibited other human hepatocarcinoma cells such as BEL-7402 and Huh-7 but luckily stimulated human normal liver cell L02 only in a positive dose- and time-dependent manner; so did the sulfated extracellular polysaccharides when it inhibited HepG2 and L02 cells. However, the toxicity of sulfated extracellular polysaccharides to L02 cells can be eliminated by the intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:22939333

  12. Quantitative analysis of N-sulfated, N-acetylated, and unsubstituted glucosamine amino groups in heparin and related polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Riesenfeld, J; Rodén, L

    1990-08-01

    A colorimetric procedure for quantitative determination of free and substituted glucosamine amino groups in heparin and related polysaccharides has been developed. The total content of hexosamine amino groups is determined by a modification of the method of Tsuji et al. (1969, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 17, 1505-1510); this method involves acid hydrolysis under conditions effecting complete removal of N-acetyl and N-sulfate groups, deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid, and colorimetric analysis of the resultant anhydromannose residues by reaction with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH). N-sulfated glucosamine residues are cleaved selectively by treatment with nitrous acid at pH approximately 1.5 (J. E. Shively, and H.E. Conrad, 1976, Biochemistry 15, 3932-3942) and quantitated by the MBTH reaction. Under carefully controlled conditions, deamination at pH approximately 1.5 is highly specific for N-sulfated glucosamine residues, but an excess of reagent causes some cleavage of residues with unsubstituted amino groups as well. Deaminative cleavage at pH approximately 4.5 results in preferential degradation of unsubstituted glucosamine residues, but some cleavage (5-8%) of N-sulfated residues also occurs. However, analysis of the content of N-sulfated residues by the specific pH 1.5 procedure allows appropriate corrections to be made. From the value for total hexosamine content and the sum of N-sulfated and unsubstituted residues, the content of N-acetylated residues is calculated by difference. The modified deamination procedures, in combination with product analysis by the MBTH reaction, have been applied to several problems commonly encountered in the analysis and characterization of heparin. PMID:2221389

  13. Sulfated and sulfonated polysaccharide as chiral stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography and capillary electrochromatography–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Bragg, William; Hou, Jingguo; Lin, Na; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2009-01-01

    The applications of polysaccharide phenyl carbamate derivatives as chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) are often hindered by longer retention times, especially using a normal-phase (NP) eluent due to very low electroosmotic flow (EOF). Therefore, in this study, we propose an approach for the aforementioned problems by introducing two new types of negatively charged sulfate and sulfonated groups for polysaccharide CSPs. These CSPs were utilized to pack CEC columns for enantioseparation with a NP eluent. Compared to conventional cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate) or CDMPC CSPs, the sulfated CDMPC CSP (sulfur content 4.25%, w/w) shortened the analysis time up to 50% but with a significant loss of enantiomeric resolution (~60%). On the other hand, the sulfonated CDMPC CSP (sulfur content 1.76%, w/w) not only provided fast throughput but also maintained excellent resolving power. In addition, its synthesis is much more straightforward than the sulfated one. Furthermore, we studied several stationary phase parameters (CSP loading and silica gel pore size) and mobile phase parameters (including type of mobile phase and its composition) to evaluate the throughput and enantioselectivity. Using the optimized conditions, a chiral pool containing 66 analytes was screened to evaluate the enantioselectivity under three different mobile phase modes (i.e., NP, polar organic phase (POP) and reversed-phase (RP) eluents). Among these mobile phase modes, the RP mode showed the highest success rate, whereas some degree of complementary enantioselectivity was observed with NP and POP. Finally, the feasibility of applying this CSP for CEC–MS enantioseparation using internal tapered column was evaluated with NP, POP and RP eluents. In particular, the NP-CEC–MS provided significantly enhanced sensitivity when methanol was replaced with isopropanol in the sheath liquid. Using aminog-lutethimide as model chiral analyte, all three modes of CEC–MS demonstrated excellent durability as well as excellent reproducibility of retention time and enantioselectivity. PMID:19108837

  14. Chondroitin sulfate-binding peptides block chondroitin 6-sulfate inhibition of cortical neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron; Caplan, Michael; Panitch, Alyssa

    2010-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) expression is increased in the glial scar following spinal cord injury demonstrating the importance understanding the role of CS in the central nervous system (CNS). There have been conflicting studies on the effects of the most abundant types of CS, chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) and chondroitin 6-sulfate (C6S), found in the CNS. In this study, the effects of C4S and C6S on rat embryonic day 18 cortical neurons were investigated. C4S had no effect on neuron behavior whereas C6S inhibited neurite outgrowth at higher concentrations (>10mug/ml). Two C6S-binding peptides (C6S-1 and C6S-2) were tested for their ability to block the inhibitory activity of C6S on neurite outgrowth. Neurons cultured with C6S and C6S-binding peptide at higher peptide concentrations had neurite lengths similar to neurons cultured without C6S. Therefore, the C6S-binding peptides were effective at blocking the inhibitory activity of C6S. The C6S-1 peptide had a higher binding affinity than the C6S-2 peptide and was consequently more effective at blocking C6S inhibition of neurite growth. To date, this is the first study to employ an alternative strategy from enzymatic digestion of CS chains to increase neurite outgrowth. These studies warrant further investigation of the use of C6S-binding peptides to increase nerve regeneration following spinal cord injury. PMID:20450957

  15. Simple and Rapid Quality Control of Sulfated Glycans by a Fluorescence Sensor Assay—Exemplarily Developed for the Sulfated Polysaccharides from Red Algae Delesseria sanguinea

    PubMed Central

    Lühn, Susanne; Grimm, Juliane C.; Alban, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from algae are of great interest due to their manifold biological activities. Obstacles to commercial (especially medical) application include considerable variability and complex chemical composition making the analysis and the quality control challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple microplate assay for screening the quality of SP. It is based on the fluorescence intensity (FI) increase of the sensor molecule Polymer-H by SP and was originally developed for direct quantification of SP. Exemplarily, 65 SP batches isolated from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP) and several other algae polysaccharides were investigated. Their FI increase in the Polymer-H assay was compared with other analytical parameters. By testing just one concentration of a D.s.-SP sample, quality deviations from the reference D.s.-SP and thus both batch-to-batch variability and stability can be detected. Further, structurally distinct SP showed to differ in their concentration-dependent FI profiles. By using corresponding reference compounds, the Polymer-H assay is therefore applicable as identification assay with high negative predictability. In conclusion, the Polymer-H assay showed to represent not only a simple method for quantification, but also for characterization identification and differentiation of SP of marine origin. PMID:24727392

  16. Lycium ruthenicum polysaccharide attenuates inflammation through inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiang; Liu, Huajing; Shi, Shihui; Li, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Polysaccharide has been reported to possess diverse biological activities, however, the inflammatory activity of polysaccharide isolated from Lycium ruthenicum remains unknown so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. ruthenicum polysaccharide (LRGP3) on inflammatory reaction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and some potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that LRGP3 treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced NO production and the mRNA expression of iNOS, as well as the level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Furthermore, LRGP3 treatment prevented the I?B? degradation and reduced phospho-NF-?B p65 protein expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were suppressed by LRGP3 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, our results suggested that LRGP3 attenuated LPS-induced inflammation via inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24680899

  17. Inhibition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative injury induced by ?-irradiation in rat liver mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. L. Li; A. G. Zhou; X. M. Li

    2007-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and Ganoderma lucidum, the two precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, the possible antioxidant effects of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) isolated from dried L. barbarum fruits and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) isolated from dried G. lucidum against membrane damage induced by the

  18. Structural Characterization and Biological Activities of a Novel Polysaccharide from Cultured Cordyceps militaris and Its Sulfated Derivative.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yongshuai; Zhu, Jianhua; Liu, Ting; Bi, Sixue; Hu, Xianjing; Chen, Zhiyan; Song, Liyan; Lv, Wenjie; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-04-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CMPA90-1; compound 1) was isolated from the cultured fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. The chemical structure of compound 1 was elucidated by acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis, along with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional [(1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and two-dimensional NMR (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Sulfation of compound 1 by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method led to synthesis of its sulfated analogue (CMPA90-M1; compound 2). The ultrastructures of both compounds 1 and 2 were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results of antioxidant assays showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited free-radical-scavenging effects, ferrous-ion-chelating ability, and reducing power. Also, in the cytotoxicity assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 39.08 and 17.33 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:25785351

  19. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: inhibition by polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hee; Park, Jang-Soon; Lee, Seung-Woong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Young, Bae-Eun; Choi, Hwa-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the predominant cause of severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine. Until now there is no recorded clinically effective antiviral chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diseases caused by PEDV. This study aimed to investigate in vitro anti-PEDV effect of polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action. The polysaccharide exhibited potent antiviral activity against PEDV reducing the formation of a visible CPE [a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)=1.7±1.3?g/mL], compared to positive control, ribavirin and it did not show cytotoxicity at 100?g/mL [a 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50)=100?g/mL]. Polysaccharide also showed effective inhibitory effects when added at the viral attachment and entry steps. Moreover, polysaccharide effectively inactivated PEDV infection in time-, dose- and temperature-dependent manners. Overall, this research revealed that polysaccharide could inhibit PEDV infection, and that polysaccharide may be involved in PEDV-Vero cell interactions, as the virus attachment and entry to the Vero cells was hindered by the polysaccharide. Therefore, polysaccharide possessing effective inhibitory effect on viral attachment and entry steps of PEDV life cycle is a good candidate for development of antivirals. PMID:25300802

  20. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the degradation and inhibition cancer cell lines of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Cunshan; Yang, Hua; Huang, Xingyi; Ma, Haile; Qin, Xiaopei; Hu, Jiali

    2015-03-01

    The exposure of polysaccharides solutions to high-energy ultrasound produces a permanent reduction in viscosity and change in activity. However, the exact mechanism which occurs in the process is still not clear. In this work, degradation of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis (PP) was indirectly and directly judged by intrinsic viscosity and high performance gel permeation chromatography. The degradation process was established with dynamics and affirmed by theoretical derivation. Inhibition of cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, 95D) was also investigated by assays of tetrazolium colorimetric. The intrinsic viscosity of the degraded PP decreased exponentially with increase in ultrasonic time, and theoretical derivation was established and confirmed well. The distribution and new fraction of degraded polysaccharides was found. Ultrasound degraded preferentially large PP molecules and cleavage took place roughly at the centre of the molecules. During ultrasound degradation the molecular weight distribution was narrowed. The inhibition activities of SGC7901 with ultrasound degraded polysaccharides were increased. PMID:25498684

  1. Rheology and characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Qin, Minpu; Han, Longfei; Sun, Peilong

    2014-11-26

    The rheological characteristics of polysaccharides which were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were investigated in aqueous solutions under conditions of concentration, temperature, solution pH and salt concentrations. It was described by the power-law model with a consistency index (k) and a flow behavior index (n). The rheology results showed UFP exhibited as a shear-thickening fluid and a possible mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon that might be the collapse of UFP necklace-type structures. UFP characteristics were evaluated by determining the chemical analysis and zeta potential. The findings indicated UFP may consist of partially ulvan, as the results were in accordance with the ulvan structure. Additionally, a rod-climbing effect and cold-set gelation were observed in the UFP semidilute solution. Therefore, the cold-set gelling properties and unique shear-thickening fluid properties in this work could be valuable for the exploration of U. fasciata as a new source of water-soluble gelling polysaccharides. PMID:25256496

  2. A Murine Model of Inflammatory Bladder Disease: Cathelicidin Peptide Induced Bladder Inflammation and Treatment With Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Oottamasathien, Siam; Jia, Wanjian; McCoard, Lindsi; Slack, Sean; Zhang, Jianxing; Skardal, Aleksander; Job, Kathleen; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Dull, Randal O.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Studies show that LL-37 is a naturally occurring urinary defensin peptide that is up-regulated during urinary tract infections. Although normal urinary LL-37 levels are antimicrobial, we propose that increased LL-37 may trigger bladder inflammation. We further suggest that anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides known as semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether compounds can treat/prevent LL-37 mediated bladder inflammation. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were catheterized/instilled with LL-37 (320 ?M at 150 ?l) for 45 minutes. Animals were sacrificed at 12 and 24 hours, and tissues were examined using hematoxylin and eosin. Separate experiments were performed for myeloperoxidase to quantify inflammation. GM-1111 semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatments involved instillation of 10 mg/ml for 45 minutes directly before or after LL-37. Tissues were harvested at 24 hours. To compare semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether efficacy experiments were performed using 10 mg/ml heparin. Finally, tissue localization of semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether was examined using a fluorescent GM-1111-Alexa Fluor® 633 conjugate. Results Profound bladder inflammation developed after LL-37. Greater tissue inflammation occurred after 24 hours compared to that at 12 hours. Myeloperoxidase assays revealed a 21 and 61-fold increase at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatment after LL-37 showed mild attenuation of inflammation with myeloperoxidase 2.5-fold below that of untreated bladders. Semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ether treatment before LL-37 demonstrated almost complete attenuation of inflammation. Myeloperoxidase results mirrored those in controls. In heparin treated bladders minimal attenuation of inflammation occurred. Finally, instillation of GM-1111-Alexa Fluor 633 revealed urothelial coating, significant tissue penetration and binding to endovasculature. Conclusions We developed what is to our knowledge a new model of inflammatory bladder disease by challenge with the naturally occurring urinary peptide LL-37. We also noted that a new class of anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides prevents and mitigates bladder inflammation. PMID:21855919

  3. Sulfated, Low Molecular Weight Lignins Inhibit a Select Group of Heparin-Binding Serine Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brian L.; Thakkar, Jay N.; Liang, Aiye; Desai, Umesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs), designed as oligomeric mimetics of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), have been found to bind in exosite II of thrombin (Abdel Aziz et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 413 (2011) 348–352). To assess whether sulfated LMWLs recognize other heparin-binding proteins, we studied their effect on serine proteases of the coagulation, inflammatory and digestive systems. Using chromogenic substrate hydrolysis assay, sulfated LMWLs were found to potently inhibit coagulation factor XIa and human leukocyte elastase, moderately inhibit cathepsin G and not inhibit coagulation factors VIIa, IXa, and XIIa, plasma kallikrein, activated protein C, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Competition studies show that UFH competes with sulfated LMWLs for binding to factors Xa and XIa. These results further advance the heparin-mimicking property of sulfated LMWLs and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:22155248

  4. Inhibition on calcium oxalate crystallization and repair on injured renal epithelial cells of degraded soybean polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Peng, Hua; Zhu, Wen-Yu; Chen, He-Qun

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigated the inhibitory effect of degraded soybean polysaccharide (DPS) on the growth of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals. The results were compared with that of soybean polysaccharide without degradation (SPS). The data showed that DPS exhibited a much higher efficiency to inhibit CaOxa growth and stabilize calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) compared with SPS. As DPS concentration increased, the soluble Ca(2+) ions significantly increased, the aggregation degree of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals decreased, the shape of COD crystals became round and blunt, and the Zeta potential on CaOxa crystal surface reduced. The above results were all conducive for the inhibition of CaOxa crystallization. In addition, DPS displayed a distinct repairing effect on oxidative injured renal epithelial cells in African green monkey (Vero), with enhanced cell viability and extracellular superoxide dismutase activity after repair. The morphologies of the repaired cells and their regulatory capability on CaOxa growth were between the control and injured cells. The results indicated that the risk of stone formation can be reduced by DPS, and that DPS may be a potential green drug to prevent the formation of CaOxa stones. PMID:24751057

  5. Sulfated polysaccharides promote the assembly of amyloid beta(1-42) peptide into stable fibrils of reduced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Ramona; Arimon, Muriel; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; García, Raquel; Durany, Núria; Castel, Susanna; Cruz, Montserrat; Ventura, Salvador; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2008-11-21

    The histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are the self-aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in extracellular amyloid fibrils and the formation of intraneuronal Tau filaments, but a convincing mechanism connecting both processes has yet to be provided. Here we show that the endogenous polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate B (CSB) promotes the formation of fibrillar structures of the 42-residue fragment, Abeta(1-42). Atomic force microscopy visualization, thioflavin T fluorescence, CD measurements, and cell viability assays indicate that CSB-induced fibrils are highly stable entities with abundant beta-sheet structure that have little toxicity for neuroblastoma cells. We propose a wedged cylinder model for Abeta(1-42) fibrils that is consistent with the majority of available data, it is an energetically favorable assembly that minimizes the exposure of hydrophobic areas, and it explains why fibrils do not grow in thickness. Fluorescence measurements of the effect of different Abeta(1-42) species on Ca(2+) homeostasis show that weakly structured nodular fibrils, but not CSB-induced smooth fibrils, trigger a rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) that depends on the presence of both extracellular and intracellular stocks. In vitro assays indicate that such transient, local Ca(2+) increases can have a direct effect in promoting the formation of Tau filaments similar to those isolated from Alzheimer disease brains. PMID:18819917

  6. A chemically sulfated polysaccharide derived from Ganoderma lucidum induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenchang; Huang, Kai; Fu, Xiaorui; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Cui, Yingying; Li, Haopeng

    2014-10-01

    To develop new anticancer agents, we prepared a sulfated polysaccharide (SCGLP1) from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and the effect of SCGLP1 on human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line was investigated. Our result showed that treatment with SCGLP1 resulted in a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and cell viability of MG63 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and caused apoptotic death in MG63 cells through an increase in G0/G1 phase arrest, but had minor cytotoxic effect on human normal osteoblast (NHOst) cells. Western blot analysis identified that SCGLP1-induced apoptosis was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax and Bad, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the SCGLP1-induced apoptosis in MG63 cells. The data indicate that SCGLP1-induced apoptosis is primarily associated with caspase-3- and caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:24997619

  7. Grateloupia longifolia polysaccharide inhibits angiogenesis by downregulating tissue factor expression in HMEC-1 endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiong-Wen; Wang, Shun-Chun; Li, Mei-Hong; Lin, Li-Ping; Ding, Jian

    2006-01-01

    The antiangiogenic and antitumor properties of Grateloupia longifolia polysaccharide (GLP), a new type of polysaccharide isolated from the marine alga, were investigated with several in vitro and in vivo models. Possible mechanisms underlying its antiangiogenic activity were also assessed. GLP dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), with IC50 values of 0.86 and 0.64?mg?ml?1, respectively. In tube formation and cell migration assays using HMEC-1 cells, noncytotoxic doses of GLP significantly inhibited formation of intact tube networks and reduced the number of migratory cells. Inhibition by GLP was VEGF-independent. In the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, GLP (2.5??g?egg?1) reduced new vessel formation compared with the vehicle control. GLP (0.1?mg?plug?1) also reduced the vessel density in Matrigel plugs implanted in mice. The levels of pan and phosphorylated recptors for VEGF, VEGFR-1 (flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR) were not significantly altered by 5?mg?ml?1 GLP treatment of HMEC-1, although tissue factor (TF) showed significant decreases at both mRNA and protein levels following GLP treatment. In mice bearing sarcoma-180 cells, intravenous administration of GLP (200?mg?kg?1) decreased tumor weight by 52% without obvious toxicity. Vascular density in sections of the tumor was reduced by 64% after GLP treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that GLP has antitumor properties, associated at least, in part, with the antiangiogenesis induced by downregulation of TF. PMID:16715123

  8. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  9. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Blank, R D; Doty, S B

    2001-04-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate. PMID:11334711

  10. Sulfated Astragalus polysaccharide regulates the inflammatory reaction in LPS-infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Shen, Jing; Li, Shizhao; Zhi, Lihui; Yang, Xiaojun; Yao, Junhu

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the anti-inflammatory activities of APS and SAPS in LPS-treated broiler chicks. The sulfated modification of these compounds was performed using the classic chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. On d 16, the birds were injected intramuscularly with 0.5mL of either saline, APS (4 or 8mg/kg BW) or SAPS (4 or 8mg/kg BW) once a day for three successive days. On days 19 and 20, the birds were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5mL of LPS (1mg/kg BW). Saline was used as the blank control. The results showed that the LPS-treated birds exhibited higher expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IFN-? and lower expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-2 and occludin in the jejunum. Administration of SAPS down-regulated the expression of jejunal TNF-? and IL-1?. In addition, the expression of both ZO-2 and occludin was higher in birds that received high doses of APS and SAPS. On the other hand, APS and SAPS had no effect on the condition of the immune system. The expression of TLR4 in the jejunum was lower in the low-dose SAPS group. Our findings suggest that SAPS is a more effective anti-inflammatory agent than APS in vivo. PMID:24820152

  11. Drug delivery and cell interaction of adhesive poly(ethyleneimine)/sulfated polysaccharide complex particle films.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin; Torger, Bernhard; Wehrum, Diana; Vehlow, David; Urban, Birgit; Woltmann, Beatrice; Hempel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the authors report and review polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with zoledronate (ZOL) and simvastatin and their effects on bone cells. PEC NPs are intended for modification of bone substitute materials. For characterization, they can be solution casted on germanium (Ge) substrates serving as analytically accessible model substrate. PEC NPs were generated by mixing poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) either with linear cellulose sulfate (CS) or with branched dextransulfate (DS). Four important requirements for drug loaded PEC NPs and their films are addressed herein, which are the colloidal stability of PEC dispersions (1), interfacial stability (2), cytocompatibility (3), and retarded drug release (4). Dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) showed that both PEI/CS and PEI/DS PEC NP were obtained with hydrodynamic radii in the range of 35-170?nm and were colloidally stable up to several months. Transmission FTIR spectroscopy evidenced that films of both systems were stable in contact to the release medium up to several days. ZOL-loaded PEI/CS nanoparticles, which were immobilized on an osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix, reduced significantly the resorption and the metabolic activity of human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. FTIR spectroscopy at cast PEC/drug films at Ge substrates revealed retarded drug releases in comparison to the pure drug films. PMID:25708630

  12. Anionic polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chifumi Fukuda; Otto Kollmar; Thilo Schäfer; Ying-Hua Tian; Martin K. Schilling

    2002-01-01

    In liver preservation, the substitution of the anion Cl- by lactobionic acid (LB) prevents reperfusion edema and extends the preservation time for human livers. We studied the effect of compounds that are structurally related to lactobionic acid: anionic polycarbohydrates (sulfated anionic polysaccharide, SAP, and pentosan polysulfate, PPS) on liver function and leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in isolated perfusion and liver transplant

  13. Safflower polysaccharide inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongbing; Zeng, Hongxie; Ye, Yongqiang; Liu, Lianbin; Li, Shaojin; Zhang, Junyi; Luo, Rongcheng

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer accounts for 22.9% of all types of cancer in females worldwide. Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) is an active fraction purified from safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L). The present study investigated the effects of safflower polysaccharide on the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay following treatment of the MCF?7 cells with increasing concentrations of SPS. The results demonstrated that the SPS compound significantly inhibited the proliferation of the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and these inhibitory effects increased in a dose? and time?dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of SPS on breast cancer cells, following treatment for 72 h, was detected using an MTT assay and was calculated as 0.12 mg/ml. The apoptotic rate was detected using flow cytometry in the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and the results revealed that SPS induced cell apoptosis. The apoptotic rate of the MCF?7 cells treated with SPS was significantly higher compared with that of the untreated cells and increased in a dose?dependent manner. The expression of B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) was downregulated and the expression of Bcl?2?associated X protein was upregulated in the MCF?7 cells treated with SPS in a time?dependent manner. Additionally, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase?9 was significantly reduced and the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 was increased in the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell treated with SPS. These results demonstrated that SPS inhibited the metastasis of MCF?7 breast cancer cells and understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide novel strategies in breast cancer therapy. PMID:25673029

  14. Direct Inhibition of T-Cell Responses by the Cryptococcus Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan

    PubMed Central

    Yauch, Lauren E; Lam, Jennifer S; Levitz, Stuart M

    2006-01-01

    The major virulence factor of the pathogenic fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii is the capsule. Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major component of the capsule, is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide that is shed during cryptococcosis and can persist in patients after successful antifungal therapy. Due to the importance of T cells in the anticryptococcal response, we studied the effect of GXM on the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate a T-cell response. GXM inhibited the activation of cryptococcal mannoprotein–specific hybridoma T cells and the proliferation of OVA-specific OT-II T cells when murine bone marrow–derived DCs were used as antigen-presenting cells. Inhibition of OT-II T-cell proliferation was observed when either OVA protein or OVA323–339 peptide was used as antigen, indicating GXM did not merely prevent antigen uptake or processing. We found that DCs internalize GXM progressively over time; however, the suppressive effect did not require DCs, as GXM directly inhibited T-cell proliferation induced by anti-CD3 antibody, concanavalin A, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin. Analysis of T-cell viability revealed that the reduced proliferation in the presence of GXM was not the result of increased cell death. GXM isolated from each of the four major cryptococcal serotypes inhibited the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with tetanus toxoid. Thus, we have defined a new mechanism by which GXM can impart virulence: direct inhibition of T-cell proliferation. In patients with cryptococcosis, this could impair optimal cell-mediated immune responses, thereby contributing to the persistence of cryptococcal infections. PMID:17096589

  15. Methane flame inhibition by inorganic salt powders. I. Potassium sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Bezapashvili; A. N. Baratov; V. V. Azatyan; M. D. Museridze; Z. G. Dzotsenidze; V. N. Kobzar

    1979-01-01

    An investigation is made of the effect of potassium sulfate powder on the limits of flame expansion in methane-air mixtures. The temperature rise of powder particles in the flame is calculated for experimental conditions. The data obtained are discussed from the point of view of heterogeneous recombination of active centers for the combustion reaction on the solid particle surface. 3

  16. Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

  17. [Effect of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica on the morfology of lymfoid organs and functional characteristics of immunocompetent cells].

    PubMed

    lebedynskaya, E A; Makarenkova, I D; Lebedynskaya, O V; Akhmatova, N K; Zvyagintseva, T N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan from the brown alga Laminaria japonica on morphological characteristics of mouse lymphoid organs, subpopulations of spleen mononuclear leukocytes, cytokine production and cytotoxic activity of splenocytes has been investigated. Fucoidan promoted activation and proliferation of lymphoid hematopoietic cells in primary and secondary immunogenesis bodies, increased expression of markers CD19, NK, NKT, CD25, MHC II, TCR, TLR2 and TLR4, the cytotoxic activity of splenocytes and production of immunoregulatory and proinflammatory cytokines (IL- 2, IL-12, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-6). This suggests activation of effector mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immune responses via the Th-1 type. PMID:25386888

  18. Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae Growth and Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis by Fructus mume

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tien-Huang; Huang, Su-Hua; Wu, Chien-Chen; Liu, Hsin-Ho; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ching-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscess of diabetic patients in Asian countries. With the spread of multiple-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae, there is an increasing need for the development of alternative bactericides and approaches to block the production of bacterial virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), especially from the K1 and K2 serotypes, is considered the major determinant for K. pneumoniae virulence. We found that extracts of the traditional Chinese medicine Fructus mume inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae strains of both serotypes. Furthermore, Fructus mume decreased the mucoviscosity, and the CPS produced in a dose-dependent manner, thus reducing bacterial resistance to serum killing. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that Fructus mume downregulated the mRNA levels of cps biosynthesis genes in both serotypes, possibly by increasing the intracellular iron concentration in K. pneumoniae. Moreover, citric acid, a major organic acid in Fructus mume extracts, was found to have an inhibitory effect on growth and CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae. Taken together, our results indicate that Fructus mume not only possesses antibacterial activity against highly virulent K. pneumoniae strains but also inhibits bacterial CPS biosynthesis, thereby facilitating pathogen clearance by the host immune system. PMID:24062785

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heparan Sulfate: From Attachment to Entry Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Bridgette J.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    By targeting cells that provide protection against infection, HIV-1 causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infection starts when gp120, the viral envelope glycoprotein, binds to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor usually CCR5 or CXCR4. As many microorganisms, HIV-1 also interacts with heparan sulfate (HS), a complex group of cell surface associated anionic polysaccharides. It has been thought that this binding, occurring at a step prior to CD4 recognition, increases infectivity by pre-concentrating the virion particles at the cell surface. Early work, dating from before the identification of CCR5 and CXCR4, showed that a variety of HS mimetics bind to the gp120 V3 loop through electrostatic interactions, compete with cell surface associated HS to bind the virus and consequently, neutralize the infectivity of a number of T-cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains. However, progress made to better understand HIV-1 attachment and entry, coupled with the recent identification of additional gp120 regions mediating HS recognition, have considerably modified this view. Firstly, the V3 loop from CXCR4-using viruses is much more positively charged compared to those using CCR5. HS inhibition of cell attachment is thus restricted to CXCR4-using viruses (such as T-cell line-adapted HIV-1). Secondly, studies aiming at characterizing the gp120/HS complex revealed that HS binding was far more complex than previously thought: in addition to the V3 loop of CXCR4 tropic gp120, HS interacts with several other cryptic areas of the protein, which can be induced upon CD4 binding, and are conserved amongst CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses. In view of these data, this review will detail the present knowledge on HS binding to HIV-1, with regards to attachment and entry processes. It will discuss the perspective of targeting the gp120 co-receptor binding site with HS mimetic compounds, a strategy that recently gave rise to entry inhibitors that work in the low nanomolar range, independently of co-receptor usage. PMID:24312095

  20. Protective effect of polysaccharides on simulated microgravity-induced functional inhibition of human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Yang, Hui; Jin, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Ye, Lin-Jie; Li, Ji; Huang, Qing-Sheng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2014-01-30

    Polysaccharides are believed to be strong immunostimulants that can promote the proliferation and activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of five polysaccharides (Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (GFP), lentinan (LNT), G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and yeast glucan (YG)) on primary human NK cells under normal or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. Our results demonstrated that polysaccharides markedly promoted the cytotoxicity of NK cells by enhancing IFN-? and perforin secretion and increasing the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 under normal conditions. Meanwhile polysaccharides can enhance NK cell function under SMG conditions by restoring the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and reducing the early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, the antibody neutralization test showed that CR3 may be the critical receptor involved in polysaccharides induced NK cells activation. These findings indicated that polysaccharides may be used as immune regulators to promote the health of the public and astronauts during space missions. PMID:24299844

  1. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), TNF-? receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-?, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFR? is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. PMID:25857968

  2. Polygala tenuifolia polysaccharide (PTP) inhibits cell proliferation by repressing Bmi-1 expression and downregulating telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fubin; Song, Xiaowei; Li, Li; Wang, Jingfang; Lin, Leyuan; Li, Cong; Li, Hongtao; Lv, Yanju; Jin, Yinghua; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yu; Xin, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In our previous study, we isolated a homogeneous polysaccharide (PTP) with antitumor activity from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia. In view of the close correlation between Bmi-1 expression and progression of ovarian cancer, we intend to elucidate the mechanism of its activity by determining the Bmi-1 expression and the telomerase activity in human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cells following treatment with PTP at three concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL for 48 h. MTT and colony-forming assays revealed that PTP had a significant inhibitory effect on the cell growth and colony formation of OVCAR-3 cells. Furthermore, Western blot and real-time PCR analysis showed that PTP inhibited Bmi-1 both in protein and transcript levels. Besides, the telomerase activity in OVCAR-3 cells was also downregulated after PTP treatment for 48 h. Taken together, the inhibitory effect of PTP on the cell growth was at least in part mediated via the downregulation of Bmi-1 expression and the telomerase activity in OVCAR-3 cells, and PTP might be a new candidate for chemotherapeutic agent against human ovarian cancer. PMID:25501509

  3. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongsheng; Zhou, Ru; Ma, Lin; Hao, Yinju; Jin, Shaoju; Du, Juan; Zhao, Chengjun; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Aims of the Study To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Materials and Methods Male ICR mice were used to make the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) after intragastric administration with LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and Nimodipine (0.4 mg/kg) for seven successive days. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological scores were estimated and infarct volumes were measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Morphological changes in ischemic brains were performed for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The number of apoptotic neurons was detected by TUNEL staining. The Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1 activation were investigated by immunofluorescence and western-blot analysis. Results LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment groups significantly reduced infract volume and neurological deficit scores. LBP also relieved neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis. LBP at the dose of 40 mg/kg significantly suppressed overexpression of Bax, CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions Based on these findings we propose that LBP protects against focal cerebral ischemic injury by attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:24595452

  4. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina V...

  5. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  6. Fractone-heparan sulfates mediate BMP-7 inhibition of cell proliferation in the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Mercier, Frederic

    2012-10-24

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a heparin-binding growth factor that inhibits cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, the primary neurogenic niche in the adult brain. However, the physiological mechanisms regulating the activity of BMP-7 in the SVZ are unknown. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation through the anterior SVZ after intracerebroventricular injection in the adult mouse. To determine whether the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by BMP-7 is dependant on heparin-binding, heparitinase-1 was intracerebroventricularly injected to N-desulfate heparan sulfate proteoglycans before BMP-7 was injected. Heparatinase-1 drastically reduced the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. To determine where BMP-7 binds within the niche, we visualized biotinylated-BMP-7 after intracerebroventricular injection, using streptavidin Texas red on frozen brain sections. BMP-7 binding was seen as puncta in the SVZ at the location of fractones, the particulate specialized extracellular matrix of the SVZ, which have been identified primarily by N-sulfated heparan sulfate immunoreactivity (NS-HS+). BMP binding was also seen in NS-HS+ blood vessels of the SVZ. Injection of heparitinase-1 prior to biotinylated BMP-7 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-7 in the fractones and blood vessels, indicating that the binding is heparan sulfate dependant. These results indicate that BMP-7 requires heparan sulfates to bind and inhibit cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic niche. Heparan sulfates concentrated in fractones and SVZ blood vessels emerge as a functional stem cell niche component involved in growth factor activity. PMID:22985516

  7. Presence of sulfate does not inhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; McKenzie, Judith A.; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Angela; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.; Vasconcelos, Crisógono

    2009-07-01

    The hypothesis that sulfate inhibits dolomite formation evolved from geochemical studies of porewaters from deep-sea sedimentary sequences and has been tested with hydrothermal experiments. We examined the sulfate inhibition factor using aerobic culture experiments with Virgibacillus marismortui and Halomonas meridiana, two moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria, which metabolize independent of sulfate concentration. The culture experiments were conducted at 25 and 35 °C using variable SO 42- concentrations (0, 14, 28 and 56 mM) and demonstrate that halophilic aerobic bacteria mediate direct precipitation of dolomite with or without SO 42- in the culture media which simulate dolomite occurrences commonly found under the Earth's surface conditions. Hence, we report that the presence of sulfate does not inhibit dolomite precipitation. Further, we hypothesize that, if sedimentary dolomite is a direct precipitate, as in our low-temperature culture experiments, the kinetic factors involved are likely to be quite different from those governing a dolomite replacement reaction, such as in hydrothermal experiments. Consequently, the occurrence and, presumably, growth of dolomite in SO 42--rich aerobic cultures may shed new light on the long-standing Dolomite Problem.

  8. Inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria in aquifer sediment by iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Omoregie, Enoma O; Rose, Jerome; Masion, Armand; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Diels, Ludo; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-03-15

    Batch microcosms were setup to determine the impact of different sized zero valent iron (Fe(0)) particles on microbial sulfate reduction during the in situ bio-precipitation of metals. The microcosms were constructed with aquifer sediment and groundwater from a low pH (3.1), heavy-metal contaminated aquifer. Nano (nFe(0)), micro (mFe(0)) and granular (gFe(0)) sized Fe(0) particles were added to separate microcosms. Additionally, selected microcosms were also amended with glycerol as a C-source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition to metal removal, Fe(0) in microcosms also raised the pH from 3.1 to 6.5, and decreased the oxidation redox potential from initial values of 249 to -226 mV, providing more favorable conditions for microbial sulfate reduction. mFe(0) and gFe(0) in combination with glycerol were found to enhance microbial sulfate reduction. However, no sulfate reduction occurred in the controls without Fe(0) or in the microcosm amended with nFe(0). A separate dose test confirmed the inhibition for sulfate reduction in presence of nFe(0). Hydrogen produced by Fe(0) was not capable of supporting microbial sulfate reduction as a lone electron donor in this study. Microbial analysis revealed that the addition of Fe(0) and glycerol shifted the microbial community towards Desulfosporosinus sp. from a population initially dominated by low pH and metal-resisting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. PMID:24388832

  9. Heparan Sulfate Inhibits Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration and Engraftment in Mucopolysaccharidosis I*

    PubMed Central

    Watson, H. Angharad; Holley, Rebecca J.; Langford-Smith, Kia J.; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Wynn, Robert F.; Wraith, J. Edmond; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Bigger, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I Hurler (MPSI-H) is a pediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic deficiencies in IDUA, coding for ?-l-iduronidase. Idua?/? mice share similar clinical pathology with patients, including the accumulation of the undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate (HS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), progressive neurodegeneration, and dysostosis multiplex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment for Hurler patients, but reduced intensity conditioning is a risk factor in transplantation, suggesting an underlying defect in hematopoietic cell engraftment. HS is a co-receptor in the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) migration to the bone marrow (BM), but the effect of HS alterations on HSPC migration, or the functional role of HS in MPSI-H are unknown. We demonstrate defective WT HSPC engraftment and migration in Idua?/? recipient BM, particularly under reduced intensity conditioning. Both intra- but especially extracellular Idua?/? BM HS was significantly increased and abnormally sulfated. Soluble heparinase-sensitive GAGs from Idua?/? BM and specifically 2-O-sulfated HS, elevated in Idua?/? BM, both inhibited CXCL12-mediated WT HSPC transwell migration, while DS had no effect. Thus we have shown that excess overly sulfated extracellular HS binds, and sequesters CXCL12, limiting hematopoietic migration and providing a potential mechanism for the limited scope of HSCT in Hurler disease. PMID:25359774

  10. Biphasic Role of Chondroitin Sulfate in Cardiac Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells through Inhibition of Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Robert D.; Willis, Catherine M.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Klüppel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury. PMID:24667694

  11. Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms by expressing the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and bactenecin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Jayaraman; F B Mansfeld; T K Wood

    1999-01-01

      To identify novel, less-toxic compounds capable of inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in suspension cultures were exposed to several antimicrobial peptides. The bacterial peptide antimicrobials gramicidin S,\\u000a gramicidin D, and polymyxin B as well as the cationic peptides indolicidin and bactenecin from bovine neutrophils decreased\\u000a the viability of both SRB by 90% after a 1-h exposure

  12. A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID:24789779

  13. EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

    2005-10-01

    Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  14. A polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis 34 that inhibits coaggregation of S. sanguis 34 with Actinomyces viscosus T14V.

    PubMed Central

    McIntire, F C; Crosby, L K; Vatter, A E; Cisar, J O; McNeil, M R; Bush, C A; Tjoa, S S; Fennessey, P V

    1988-01-01

    Coaggregation between Actinomyces viscosus T14V and Streptococcus sanguis 34 depends on interaction of a lectin on A. viscosus T14V with a cell surface carbohydrate on S. sanguis 34. This carbohydrate was isolated, and its chemical makeup was established. The carbohydrate remained attached to S. sanguis 34 cells through extraction with Triton X-100 and treatment with pronase. It was cleaved from the cell residue by autoclaving and purified by differential centrifugation and column chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and Sephadex G-75. The polysaccharide contained phosphate which was neither inorganic nor monoester. Treatment with NaOH-NaBH4, followed by Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase, or with 48% HF at 4 degrees C, followed by NaBH4, yielded inorganic phosphate and oligosaccharide alditols. Therefore, the polysaccharide is composed of oligosaccharide units joined together by phosphodiester bridges. The structure and stereochemistry of the main oligosaccharide alditol was established previously (F. C. McIntire, C. A. Bush, S.-S. Wu, S.-C. Li, Y.-T. Li, M. McNeil, S. Tjoa, and P. V. Fennessey, Carbohydr. Res. 166:133-143). Permethylation analysis, 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the whole polysaccharide revealed the position of the phosphodiester linkages. The polysaccharide is mainly a polymer of (6) GalNAc(alpha 1-3)Rha(beta 1-4)Glc(beta 1-6)Galf(beta 1-6)GalNAc(beta 1- 3)Gal(alpha 1)-OPO3. It reacted as a single antigen with antiserum to S. sanguis 34 cells and was a potent inhibitor of coaggregation between A. viscosus T14V and S. sanguis 34. Quantitative inhibition of precipitation assays with oligosaccharides, O-allyl N-acetylgalactosaminides, and simple sugars indicated that specific antibodies were directed to the GalNAc end of the hexasaccharide unit. In contrast, coaggregation was inhibited much more effectively by saccharides containing betaGalNAc. Thus, the specificity of the A. viscosus T14V lectin is strikingly different from that of antibodies directed against the S. sanguis 34 polysaccharide. Images PMID:3360742

  15. Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2013-12-13

    Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100?mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500?mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67?±?0.38) and (5.42?±?0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30?µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60?µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p?polysaccharide against d-Gal-induced elevation of LPO and infiltration of inflammatory cells into liver tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Although our previous studies have reported on the protective role of ULP against liver toxicity, our present findings show that ULP improved the hepatic antioxidant defense system against d-Gal-induced DNA damage and necrosis in rats. PMID:24329421

  16. [Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].

    PubMed

    Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz. PMID:24720230

  17. Direct inhibition of the transforming growth factor-? pathway by protein-bound polysaccharide through inactivation of Smad2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Tetsu; Konagai, Ayano; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Miyao, Kazuhiro; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Tanabe, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitajima, Masaki; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Inhibition of the TGF-? pathway is an attractive strategy for the treatment of cancer. We recently screened for novel TGF-? inhibitors among commercially available drugs and identified protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) as a strong inhibitor of the TGF-?-induced reporter activity of 3TP-lux, a TGF-?1-responsive luciferase reporter. Protein-bound polysaccharide is used as a non-specific immunostimulant for the treatment of gastric and colorectal cancers in Japan. The anticancer activity of this agent may involve direct regulation of growth factor production and enzyme activity in tumors in addition to its immunomodulatory effect. Although several clinical studies have shown the beneficial therapeutic effects of PSK on various types of tumors, its mechanism of action is not clear. In the present study, Western blot analysis showed that PSK suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the Smad2 protein, thereby suggesting that PSK inhibits the Smad and MAPK pathways. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that PSK decreased the expression of several TGF-? pathway target genes. E-cadherin and vimentin immunohistochemistry showed that PSK suppressed TGF-?1-induced EMT, and FACS analysis showed that PSK inhibited the EMT-mediated generation of CD44(+) /CD24(-) cells. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms mediating the TGF-?-inhibiting activity of PSK and suggest that PSK can effectively treat diseases associated with TGF-? signaling. PMID:22034928

  18. Growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest of human gastric cancer cells by Lycium barbarum polysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Miao; Bingxiu Xiao; Zhen Jiang; Yanan Guo; Fang Mao; Junwei Zhao; Xia Huang; Junming Guo

    2010-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Lycium barbarum, and has potential anticancer activity. However, the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was\\u000a to observe the anticancer effect of LBP on human gastric cancer, and its possible mechanisms. Human gastric cancer MGC-803\\u000a and SGC-7901 cells were treated with various concentrations of LBP

  19. Indoxyl sulfate induces oxidative stress and hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes by inhibiting the AMPK/UCP2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Xu, Xinli; Nie, Ling; Xiao, Tangli; Guan, Xu; He, Ting; Yu, Yanlin; Liu, Liang; Huang, Yunjian; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhao, Jinghong

    2015-04-16

    As a typical protein-bound uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate is considered to be able to induce cardiomyocytes hypertrophy by promoting oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a member of the uncoupling protein family, may protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we aimed to determine whether UCP2 was involved in indoxyl sulfate-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. We demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate could increase the ROS levels in a time and dose-dependent manner in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Significant increases in [(3)H]-leucine incorporation, cell volume, and the mRNA expression levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and beta myosin heavy chain (?-MHC) were detected in cardiomyocytes after treatement with indoxyl sulfate at the concentration of 500?M for 48h, accompanied by a decreased expression of UCP2. In contrast, cardiomyocytes transfected with the lentiviral vector carrying UCP2 gene were resistant to indoxyl sulfate-induced ROS production and cell hypertrophy. Additionally, indoxyl sulfate-induced UCP2 reduction was correlated with the inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, while pretreatment with AICAR, an AMPK activator, effectively attenuated indoxyl sulfate-induced UCP2 down-regulation and hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that indoxyl sulfate-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy was partly due to the inhibition of AMPK/UCP2 signaling and the enhancement of oxidative stress. PMID:25703824

  20. Structure and anticoagulant activity of sulfated galactans. Isolation of a unique sulfated galactan from the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis and comparison of its anticoagulant action with that of sulfated galactans from invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Farias, W R; Valente, A P; Pereira, M S; Mourão, P A

    2000-09-22

    We have characterized the structure of a sulfated d-galactan from the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis. The following repeating structure (-4-alpha-d-Galp-1-->3-beta-d-Galp-1-->) was found for this polysaccharide, but with a variable sulfation pattern. Clearly one-third of the total alpha-units are 2,3-di-O-sulfated and another one-third are 2-O-sulfated. The algal sulfated d-galactan has a potent anticoagulant activity (similar potency as unfractionated heparin) due to enhanced inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa by antithrombin and/or heparin cofactor II. We also extended the experiments to several sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates with simple structures, composed of a single repeating structure. A 2-O- or 3-O-sulfated l-galactan (as well as a 2-O-sulfated l-fucan) has a weak anticoagulant action when compared with the potent action of the algal sulfated d-galactan. Possibly, the addition of two sulfate esters to a single alpha-galactose residue has an "amplifying effect" on the anticoagulant action, which cannot be totally ascribed to the increased charge density of the polymer. These results indicate that the wide diversity of polysaccharides from marine alga and invertebrates is a useful tool to elucidate structure/anticoagulant activity relationships. PMID:10882718

  1. Polysaccharide Isolated from Zizyphus jujuba (?? Hóng Z?o) Inhibits Interleukin-2 Production in Jurkat T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Bo-Yang; Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Zizyphus jujuba (?? Hóng Z?o), a traditional Chinese herb widely used in many Asian countries, has been shown to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of deproteinated polysaccharide (DP) isolated from Z. jujuba. The DP isolated from Z. jujuba consisted of two polysaccharide fractions and their molecular weights (MWs) were found to be 143,108 and 67,633 Da, respectively. The DP could significantly decrease interleukin (IL)-2 production in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner after 48 h of incubation, with the inhibition being 47.5%, 61.2%, and 81.7% for DP concentrations of 0.75, 1.75, and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. Thus, our study showed that DP isolated from Z. jujuba may possess anti-inflammatory activity as it could significantly reduce IL-2 production in activated Jurkat T cells. PMID:24860737

  2. Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) Inhibits the Expression of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: Implications for Membrane Microfiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Yanina, Svetlana; Gassman, Paul L.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2:1 molar ratio preparation of bismuth with a lipophilic dithiol (3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total polysaccharides and proteins secreted by B. diminuta decreased by approximately 95% over a 5-day period when exposed to the bismuth-BAL chelate (BisBAL) at near MIC (12 ?M). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that a possible mechanism of biofilm disruption by BisBAL is the inhibition of carbohydrate Oacetylation. FTIR also revealed extensive homology between EPS samples with and without BisBAL treatment, with proteins, polysaccharides, and peptides varying predominantly only in the amount expressed. EPS secretion decreased following BisBAL treatment as verified by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes.

  3. Sulfated hexasaccharides attenuate metastasis by inhibition of P-selectin and heparanase.

    PubMed

    Borsig, Lubor; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

    2011-05-01

    Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs) endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation. PMID:21532885

  4. Chemical characterization of lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its inhibition against liver oxidative injury of high-fat mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Tao Wu; Xue-Jun He; Ying-Kai Hong; Tao Ma; Yan-Ping Xu; Hui-Hua Li

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated chemical structure of lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its modulatory effect on oxidative stress in high-fat mice. The polysaccharides mainly contained xylose and glucose. Little amount of rhamnose, mannose and galactose was observed. The lycium barbarum polysaccharides had IR bands at 800–1200cm?1, 1450–1800cm?1, 2500–3000cm?1, and 3200–3600cm?1, which were distinctive absorptions of polysaccharides. Rats are fed with

  5. VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC OF HEPARAN SULFATE

    E-print Network

    Desai, Umesh R

    ;3 Abstract In our previous work, we discovered potent HSV-1 inhibitory activity arising from sulfated form HSV-1 and HSV-2, and 29 nM to 763 nM against HIV-1. Cytotoxicity studies displayed selectivity indices­gD interaction of HSV-1, which appears to be mediated by a rare 3-O-sulfated GlcNp residue.8,10,16 Similar

  6. EDTA Inhibits Biofilm Formation, Extracellular Vesicular Secretion, and Shedding of the Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan by Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Emma J.; Wolf, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can grow as a biofilm on a range of synthetic and prosthetic materials. Cryptococcal biofilm formation can complicate the placement of shunts used to relieve increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis and can serve as a nidus for chronic infection. Biofilms are generally advantageous to pathogens in vivo, as they can confer resistance to antimicrobial compounds, including fluconazole and voriconazole in the case of C. neoformans. EDTA can inhibit biofilm formation by several microbes and enhances the susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sublethal concentrations of EDTA on the growth of cryptococcal biofilms. EDTA inhibited biofilm growth by C. neoformans, and the inhibition could be reversed by the addition of magnesium or calcium, implying that the inhibitory effect was by divalent cation starvation. EDTA also reduced the amount of the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan shed into the biofilm matrix and decreased vesicular secretion from the cell, thus providing a potential mechanism for the inhibitory effect of this cation-chelating compound. Our data imply that the growth of C. neoformans biofilms requires the presence of divalent metals in the growth medium and suggest that cations are required for the export of materials needed for biofilm formation, possibly including extracellular vesicles. PMID:22941091

  7. Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Hannah L.; Williams, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Fry, Stephen C.; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L.; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Åsa V.; Söderholm, Johan D.; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1–99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5–10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64–81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75–90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  8. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bryony N; Wigley, Paul; Simpson, Hannah L; Williams, Jonathan M; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J M; Fry, Stephen C; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  9. Specific sulfation and glycosylation—a structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in ?-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in ?-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs. PMID:24639954

  10. Efficacy of Zhuling polyporus polysaccharide with BCG to inhibit bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Qin, Gui-Fang; Han, Bo; Li, Cai-Xia; Yang, Hong-Gai; Nie, Pi-Hu; Zeng, Xing

    2015-03-15

    There is growing interest in reducing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) side effects while keeping intact its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of Sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus FRIES (Zhuling) and its main ingredient Polyporus Polysaccharide (PPS) to attenuate side effects of BCG therapy in vivo. The results show that bladder cancer development in model rats exhibited significantly reduced cancer invasiveness with Zhuling PPS combined with BCG. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis showed expression of costimulatory molecules CD86, CD40, and TLR4/CD14 significantly increased with Zhuling PPS in combination with BCG. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed stronger CD86 and CD40 staining. Our findings show Zhuling PPS strongly reduced side effects and displayed synergistic effects during BCG instillation in rat bladder cancer models. The findings also suggest that the attenuation effect may result from direct activation of dendritic cell (DC) TLR4. PMID:25542103

  11. Astragalus polysaccharide improves palmitate-induced insulin resistance by inhibiting PTP1B and NF-?B in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Ding, Ye; Wang, Jun-Bo; Li, Yong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Palmitate-reduced glucose uptake was restored by APS. APS prevented palmitate-induced C2C12 myotubes from impaired insulin signaling by inhibiting Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increasing Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, the increases in protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) protein level and NF-?B activation associated with palmitate treatment were also prevented by APS. However the treatment with APS didn't change AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in palmitate-induced myotubes. The results of the present study suggest that Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting expression of PTP1B and regulating NF-?B but not AMPK pathway. PMID:22728372

  12. Natural Antibodies in Normal Human Serum Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Capsular Polysaccharide Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Skurnik, David; Kropec, Andrea; Roux, Damien; Theilacker, Christian; Huebner, Johannes; Pier, Gerald B.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Hemophilus influenzae type b induce functional opsonic or bactericidal antibodies to surface capsular polysaccharides (CP). Targeting the comparable Staphylococcus aureus CP seems logical, but to date such efforts have failed in human trials. Studies using immunization-induced animal antibodies have documented interference in opsonic and protective activities of antibodies to CP by antibodies to another S. aureus cell surface polysaccharide, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). Here we evaluated whether natural antibody to PNAG in normal human serum (NHS) had a similar deleterious effect. Methods.?Functional and/or protective activities of antibody to S. aureus CP and PNAG antigens in patients with bacteremia, in mice immunized with combinations of CP and PNAG conjugate vaccines, and in serum samples of healthy subjects with natural antibody to PNAG, to which immunization-induced animal antibodies to CP antigens were added, were evaluated. Results.?Antibodies to PNAG and CP that mutually interfered with opsonic killing of S. aureus were detected in 9 of 15 bacteremic patients. Active immunization of mice with combinations of PNAG and CP conjugate antigens always induced antibodies that interfered with each other's functional activity. Non-opsonic natural antibodies to PNAG found in NHS interfered with the functional and protective activities of immunization-induced antibody to CP antigens during experimental infection with S. aureus. Conclusions.?Both immunization-induced animal antibodies and natural antibodies to PNAG in NHS interfere with the protective activities of immunization-induced antibody to S. aureus CP5 and CP8 antigens, representing potential barriers to successful use of CP-specific vaccines. PMID:22806596

  13. Inhibition of a U(VI)- and sulfate-reducing consortia by U(VI).

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jennifer L; Wu, Hsin-I; Gentile, Margaret E; Kitanidis, Peter K; Criddle, Craig S

    2007-09-15

    The stimulation of microbial U(VI) reduction is currently being investigated as a means to reduce uranium's mobility in groundwater, but little is known about the concentration at which U(VI) might inhibit microbial activity, or the effect of U(VI) on bacterial community structure. We investigated these questions with an ethanol-fed U(VI)- and sulfate-reducing enrichment developed from sediment from the site of an ongoing field biostimulation experiment at Area 3 of the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC). Sets of triplicate enrichments were spiked with increasing concentrations of U(VI) (from 49 microm to 9.2 mM). As the U(VI) concentration increased to 224 microM, the culture's production of acetate from ethanol slowed, and at or above 1.6 mM U(VI) little acetate was produced over the time frame of the experiment. An uncoupling inhibition model was applied to the data, and the inhibition coefficient for U(VI), Ku, was found to be approximately 100 microM U(VI), or 24 mg/L, indicating the inhibitory effect is relevant at highly contaminated sites. Microbial community structure at the conclusion of the experiment was analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. T-RFs associated with Desulfovibrio-like organisms decreased in relative abundance with increasing U(VI) concentration, whereas Clostridia-like T-RFs increased. PMID:17948804

  14. A New Role for RPTP{sigma} in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Inhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yuntao Duan (University of Michigan School of Medicine; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV)

    2010-02-23

    It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and regeneration. In the adult nervous system, CSPGs are enriched in perineuronal nets, and their abundance is increased in reactive astrocytes following injury to brain or spinal cord. Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) enhances experience-dependent neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex and results in substantially improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the positive effects of ChaseABC treatment on neuronal plasticity have been known for some time, the underlying mechanisms remained enigmatic. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTP?) has now been identified as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs. Similarly to ChaseABC treatment, functional ablation of Ptprs, the gene encoding RPTP?, promotes neurite outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs in vitro and enhances axonal growth into CSPG-rich scar tissue following SCI in vivo. The discovery of neuronal RPTP? as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs not only provides important mechanistic clues about CSPG function, but also identifies a potential new target for enhancing axonal growth and plasticity after nervous system injury.

  15. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of promyelomonocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Noriyuki; Fujioka, Masaki; Edamatsu, Takeo; Fujieda, Ayako; Sekine, Fujio; Wada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Tsuneo

    2011-09-01

    Protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) is extracted from Coriolus versicolor (CM101), and is clinically used in combination therapy for gastrointestinal cancer and small cell lung carcinoma. PSK is a biological response modifier (BRM), and its mechanism of action is partly mediated, by modulating host immune systems, such as the activation of immune effector cells and the neutralization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) activity. Direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation has been reported as another mechanism, but how PSK induces such an effect remains to be elucidated. Here, the anti-proliferative activity of PSK was examined using seven different human malignant cell lines (WiDr, HT29, SW480, KATOIII, AGS, HL60 and U937), and PSK was found to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells most profoundly. Therefore, HL-60 cells were used to clarify the mechanism of anti-proliferative activity. Caspase-3 activation followed by apoptosis are involved at least in part in the PSK-induced anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells. PMID:21868514

  16. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 ?M regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

  17. The new sulfated O-specific polysaccharide from marine bacterium Cobetia pacifica KMM 3878, containing 3,4-O-[(S)-1-carboxyethylidene]-D-galactose and 2,3-O-disulfate-D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Kokoulin, Maxim S; Kalinovsky, Anatoliy I; Komandrova, Nadezhda A; Tomshich, Svetlana V; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Vaskovsky, Victor E

    2014-10-01

    The O-specific polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Cobetia pacifica KMM 3878 and studied by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including, 1D TOCSY and 2D (1)H, (1)H COSY, (1)H, (13)C HSQC, (1)H, (1)H ROESY, (1)H, (13)C HMBC and (1)H, (13)C H2BC experiments. The following new structure of the sulfated O-polysaccharide from C. pacifica KMM 3878 containing 3,4-O-[(S)-1-carboxyethylidene]-D-galactose and 2,3-O-disulfate-D-galactose was established: ?4)-?-D-Gal2,3R-(1?6)-?-D-Gal3,4(S-Pyr)-(1?6)-?-D-Gal-(1? Where R is -SO3H. PMID:25217756

  18. A polysaccharide from Trametes robiniophila inhibits human osteosarcoma xenograft tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingkai; Ma, Shuo; Liu, Ning; Liu, Jiakun; Wang, Wenbo

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, we isolated and purified one polysaccharide (TRP) from Trametes robiniophila, which had a backbone of 1,3,6- and 1,4-linked glucpyranosyl moieties, with 1-linked arabinofuranosyl and galactopyranosyl terminal at the O-3 position of 1,3,6-linked glucpyranosyl residues. TRP was further evaluated for its antitumor activity against xenografted U-2 OS osteosarcoma in BALB/c nude mice together with the possible mechanism of action. We found that oral administration of TRP significantly suppressed U-2 OS tumor growth in mice via the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of TUNEL-positive cells in tumor tissues. Moreover, TRP administration increased the levels of the proapoptotic Bax protein and decreased the level of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, thus resulting in a rise of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved PARP became evident in tumor tissues from mice following TRP treatment, but caspase-8 keep unchanged. Besides, overexpression of metadherin (MTDH) was attenuated in tumor tissues of TRP-fed mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TRP-induced apoptosis of tumor tissues is through a mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:25839806

  19. Free radical scavenging, anti-glycation and tyrosinase inhibition properties of a polysaccharide fraction isolated from the rind from Punica granatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rout; R. Banerjee

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the isolation of a polysaccharide fraction from Pomegranate (PFP), which was found to inhibit 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2?-Azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] ABTS+ radical activities by 69% and 88%, respectively with 4?g\\/ml concentration. The activity of PFP for free radical scavenging was also evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR) Spectrophotometer and DPPH dot blot test. Anti-glycation ability of PFP

  20. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide inhibits the growth of vascular endothelial cell and the induction of VEGF in human lung cancer cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi-zhen Cao; Zhi-Bin Lin

    2006-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (Gl-PP) has shown some effects as anti-tumors in mice and potential anti-angiogenesis. In this study, we elucidated the possible mechanism of Gl-PP action on anti-angiogenesis of tumor. Our research indicated that the proliferation of HUVECs was inhibited by Gl-PP in a dose-dependent fashion, but not because of cytotoxicity. Flow cytometric studies revealed that Gl-PP treatment of

  1. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Wu, Di; Sun, Wenjing; Ping, Lifeng

    2015-05-01

    HEG-5 is a novel polysaccharide-protein purified from the fermented mycelia of Hericium erinaceus CZ-2. The present study aims to investigate the effects of HEG-5 on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Here, we first uncover that HEG-5 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis suggested that HEG-5 could decrease the expressions of Bcl2, PI3K and AKT1, while increase the expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-3, p53, CDK4, Bax and Bad. These findings indicated that the Caspase-8/-3-dependent, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways involved in the molecular events of HEG-5 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence that HEG-5 may be taken as a potential candidate for treating gastric cancer. PMID:25703932

  2. Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

  3. Heparin-like properties of sulfated alginates with defined sequences and sulfation degrees.

    PubMed

    Arlov, Øystein; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Sundan, Anders; Espevik, Terje; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund

    2014-07-14

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans have a vast range of protein interactions relevant to the development of new biomaterials and pharmaceuticals, but their characterization and application is complicated mainly due to a high structural variability and the relative difficulty to isolate large quantities of structurally homogeneous samples. Functional and versatile analogues of heparin/heparan sulfate can potentially be created from sulfated alginates, which offer structure customizability through targeted enzymatic epimerization and precise tuning of the sulfation degree. Alginates are linear polysaccharides consisting of ?-D-mannuronic acid (M) and ?-L-guluronic acid (G), derived from brown algae and certain bacteria. The M/G ratio and distribution of blocks are critical parameters for the physical properties of alginates and can be modified in vitro using mannuronic-C5-epimerases to introduce sequence patterns not found in nature. Alginates with homogeneous sequences (poly-M, poly-MG, and poly-G) and similar molecular weights were chemically sulfated and structurally characterized by the use of NMR and elemental analysis. These sulfated alginates were shown to bind and displace HGF from the surface of myeloma cells in a manner similar to heparin. We observed dependence on the sulfation degree (DS) as well as variation in efficacy based on the alginate monosaccharide sequence, relating to relative flexibility and charge density in the polysaccharide chains. Co-incubation with human plasma showed complement compatibility of the alginates and lowering of soluble terminal complement complex levels by sulfated alginates. The sulfated polyalternating (poly-MG) alginate proved to be the most reproducible in terms of precise sulfation degrees and showed the greatest relative degree of complement inhibition and HGF interaction, maintaining high activity at low DS values. PMID:24844124

  4. A new sulfated beta-galactan from clams with anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Amornrut, C; Toida, T; Imanari, T; Woo, E R; Park, H; Linhardt, R; Wu, S J; Kim, Y S

    1999-09-15

    A new polysaccharide composed of galactan sulfate with a beta-(1-->3)-glycosidic linkage has been isolated from the marine clam species Meretrix petechialis. The polysaccharide was homogeneous in its composition containing D-galactose. The glycosidic linkage was examined by 2D DQF-COSY and 2D NOESY spectroscopy. The coupling constant of anomeric proton was 7.8 Hz, suggesting a beta-galacto configuration. The downfield shift of H-2 of galactose residue demonstrated the presence of 2-O-sulfonate group. TQF-COSY confirmed that the C-6 position was substituted with a sulfonate group. The anti-HIV activity of the polysaccharides has been evaluated by the inhibition of syncytia formation. The fusion index and percentage fusion inhibition of sulfated galactan were 0.34 and 56% at 200 micrograms/mL. PMID:10612006

  5. Microbial polysaccharides and their derivatives as current and prospective pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Smelcerovic, Andrija; Knezevic-Jugovic, Zorica; Petronijevic, Zivomir

    2008-01-01

    The ability to produce polysaccharides is widely found among microbial species. The structural diversity of the microbial polysaccharides (MPS) leads to a wide diversity of their applications. This review focuses pharmacological properties of MPS and their derivatives. They have been reported to possess many biological activities, such as antiviral, antitumor, antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. So, the MPS of the type beta-1,3-D-glucans, including curdlan and scleroglucan, show antitumor and antiviral activity. A number of biological and synthetic sulfated polysaccharides, including sulfated polysaccharides from marine microalgae, inhibit viral infections. Many of MPS demonstrate a series of attractive properties as carrier materials in drug delivery systems and nonviral gene delivery. Furthermore, MPS have found an application as wound-healing agents, blood plasma expanders and vaccines. Some MPS, like chitin, chitosan and alginate have an unusual combination of biological activities and physicochemical properties leading to the development of novel or improved pharmaceuticals. They have become of a great interest not only as drug and cell carriers but also as new functional materials of high biological activity, and recent progress in MPS chemistry is quite noteworthy. This review also examines the advances in the application of MPS in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:19075698

  6. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  7. QSulf1, a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, inhibits fibroblast growth factor signaling in mesoderm induction and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouwen; Ai, Xingbin; Freeman, Stephen D; Pownall, Mary E; Lu, Qun; Kessler, Daniel S; Emerson, Charles P

    2004-04-01

    The signaling activities of multiple developmental ligands require sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans as coreceptors. QSulf1 and its mammalian orthologs are cell surface HS 6-O-endosulfatases that are expressed in embryonic mesodermal and neural progenitors and promote Wnt signal transduction. In this study, we have investigated the function of QSulf1 in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, which requires 6-O-sulfated HS for FGF receptor (FGFR) dimerization and tyrosine kinase activation. Here, we report that QSulf1 inhibits FGF2- and FGF4-induced mesoderm formation in the Xenopus embryo and FGF-dependent angiogenesis in the chicken embryo through 6-O-desulfation of cell surface HS. QSulf1 regulates FGF signaling through inhibition of HS-mediated FGFR1 activation by interfering with FGF-HS-FGFR1 ternary complex formation. Furthermore, QSulf1 can produce enzymatically modified soluble heparin that acts as a potent inhibitor of FGF2-induced angiogenesis in the chicken embryo. QSulf1, therefore, has dual regulatory functions as a negative regulator of FGF signaling and a positive regulator of Wnt signaling. Therefore, QSulf1 provides another reagent to produce enzymatically modified heparin compounds, in vivo and in vitro, to modulate cellular signaling in stem cell-based therapies to promote tissue regeneration and in cancer therapies to control cell growth and block angiogenesis. PMID:15051888

  8. INHIBITION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION BY SULFATE REDUCTION IN MICROCOSMS (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High sulfate (>1,000 mg/L) concentrations are potentially problematic for field implementation of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes because its reduction competes for electron donor with reductive dechlorination. As a result of this competition, reductive dechl...

  9. Effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on human hepatoma QGY7703 cells: Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhang; Haixia Chen; Jin Huang; Zhong Li; Caiping Zhu; Shenghua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), extracted from Lycium barbarum that is a kind of traditional Chinese herb, is found to have anticancer activity. In this study, the effect of LBP on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in the human hepatoma QGY7703 cell line were investigated. The effects of this compound were also tested on the concentration of calcium

  10. [Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

  11. Marine sulfated glycans with serpin-unrelated anticoagulant properties.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Bianca F; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms are a rich source of sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) from the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea and sulfated galactan from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis are one of these unusual molecules. Besides their uncommon structures, they also exhibit high anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects. Earlier, it was considered that the anticoagulant activities of these two marine glycans were driven mainly by a catalytic serpin-dependent mechanism likewise the mammalian heparins. Its serpin-dependent anticoagulant action relies on promoting thrombin and/or factor Xa inhibition by their specific natural inhibitors (the serpins antithrombin and heparin cofactor II). However, as opposed to heparins, these two previously mentioned marine glycans were proved still capable in promoting coagulation inhibition using serpin-free plasmas. This puzzle observation was further investigated and clearly demonstrated that the cucumber FucCS and the red algal sulfated galactan have an unusual serpin-independent anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the formation of factor Xa and/or thrombin through the procoagulants tenase and prothrombinase complexes, respectively. These marine polysaccharides with unusual anticoagulant effects open clearly new perspectives for the development of new antithrombotic drugs as well as push the glycomics project. PMID:24772670

  12. Momordica charantia polysaccharides could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Juanjuan; Sun, Fumou; Li, Yihang; Zhou, Xiaoling; Duan, Zhenzhen; Duan, Fugang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hansen; Qi, Suhua; Shen, Jiangang

    2015-04-01

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a medicinal plant for stroke treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but its active compounds and molecular targets are unknown yet. M. charantia polysaccharide (MCP) is one of the important bioactive components in MC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through scavenging superoxide (O2(-)), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3) signaling cascades. We conducted experiments with in vivo global and focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat models and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) neural cells. The effects of MCP on apoptotic cell death and infarction volume, the bioactivities of scavenging O2(-), NO and ONOO(-), inhibiting lipid peroxidation and modulating JNK3 signaling pathway were investigated. Major results are summarized as below: (1) MCP dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death in neural cells under OGD condition in vitro and reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains in vivo; (2) MCP had directing scavenging effects on NO, O2(-) and ONOO(-) and inhibited lipid peroxidation; (3) MCP inhibited the activations of JNK3/c-Jun/Fas-L and JNK3/cytochrome C/caspases-3 signaling cascades in ischemic brains in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that MCP could be a promising neuroprotective ingredient of M. charantia and its mechanisms could be at least in part attributed to its antioxidant activities and inhibiting JNK3 signaling cascades during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25510970

  13. Purified polysaccharides of Geoffroea spinosa barks have anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities devoid of hemorrhagic risks.

    PubMed

    Souza, Racquel O S; Assreuy, Ana M S; Madeira, Juliana C; Chagas, Francisco D S; Parreiras, Luane A; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pereira, Maria G

    2015-06-25

    Polysaccharides were extracted from the barks of Geoffroea spinosa, purified using anion exchange chromatography and characterized by chemical and methylation analysis, complemented by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. These polysaccharides were tested for their anticoagulant, antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities and also for their effects on bleeding. Unfractionated polysaccharide contains low levels of protein and high levels of carbohydrate (including hexuronic acid). The purified polysaccharides (fractions FII and FIII) are composed of arabinose (Ara), rhamnose (Rha), hexuronic acid, small amounts of galactose, but no sulfate ester. They have highly complex structure, which was partially characterized. NMR and methylation analysis indicate that the polysaccharides have a core of ?-Rhap and branches of 5-linked ?-Araf. Residues of 4-linked ?-GalpA are also found in the structure. The unfractionated (TPL) and fraction FIII, but not fractions FI and FII, prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). TPL, FII and FIII inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. More significantly, both unfractionated and purified fractions exhibited potent antithrombotic effect (31-60%) and the fractions did not modify the bleeding tendency. These plant polysaccharides could be alternative source of new anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antithrombotic compounds devoid of the undesirable risk of hemorrhage. PMID:25839813

  14. Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Yana; Hui, Jing; Kou, Wei; Xin, Ru; Jia, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hu, Fengqing; Zhang, Huili; Liu, Hongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail's pace. The methods of strain identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous molds from fruit body which was collected from birch wood on Changbai Mountain, cultivated mycelia on an inclined plane, and examined its micromorphology based on macroscopic examination. The strain was identified as I. obliquus by sequencing its ITS (internal transcribed spacer) domain. We subsequently investigated some of the mycelium polysaccharides' biological activities. The strain used in this study as the producers of antioxidation and anticancer polysaccharides was LNUF008. After fermentation in a 30-L fermenter, mycelia were obtained. The polysaccharides were extracted by transonic recirculation and ethanol precipitation. In order to identify the antioxidation effect, we designed an assay to test the inhibition of endogenous and Fe(2+)-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation as well as ferrous sulfate/ascorbate (Fe(2+)-VC)-induced mitochondrial swelling. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method was used to study the antiproliferation activity of the polysaccharides on SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. The results indicate that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. The submerged culture method of growing I. obliquus will enable large-scale production of the polysaccharides. PMID:18795365

  15. A RG-II Type Polysaccharide Purified from Aconitum coreanum Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Inhibiting the NF-?B Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-01-01

    Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [?6) -?-D-Galp (1?3)-?-L-Rhap-(1?4)-?-D-GalpA-(1?3)-?-D-Galp-(1?] with the side chain ?5)-?-D-Arap (1?3, 5)-?-D-Arap (1? attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1?3,4)-L-Rhap. T-?-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1?3,6)-?-D-Galp residues and T-?-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-?B–p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-I?B-? expression as well as the degradation of I?B-? and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-?B signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-?B DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

  16. [NO3-/NO2- inhibits sulfate-reducing activity of the enrichment culture of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes from an off-shore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ying-Yue; Yu, Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Tan, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Long-term injection of sulfate-rich water into oil reservoirs stimulates the proliferation of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) therein and results in production of a great amount of H2S, leading to souring in oil reservoirs and related environmental problems. In this study, we first, using modified API RP 38 medium, enriched SRP present in production water from a producing well at Bohai Bay, China, and then examined the inhibitory effects of nitrate or nitrite on sulfate reduction activity of the SRP. Results showed that the enriched SRP culture exhibited a high sulfate reduction activity as indicated by a sulfate-reducing rate of 10.4 mmol SO4(2-) x d(-1) x g(-1) dry cell. In presence of 0.4, 0.8, 1.8, and 4.2 mmol x L(-1) nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited for 5, 9, 20, and over 35 days, respectively. With the addition of 0.6, 0.9, 1.4, 2.6 and 4.6 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite, the inhibitory period lasted 3, 12, 22, and over 39 days, respectively. The SRP enrichment culture could dissimilatorily reduce nitrate to ammonium. When sulfate, nitrate and nitrite coexisted, nitrate or nitrite was preferentially used over sulfate as electron acceptor by the enriched SRP. This competitive use of electron acceptor and the strong inhibitory effect of nitrite possibly accounted for the suppression of nitrate and nitrite on the sulfate-reducing activity of the enriched SRP cultures from offshore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay. PMID:25509091

  17. Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Jeong Eun; Ha, Suk Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-12-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO) are known to possess various pharmacological properties including antitumor activity. However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in A549 cells. These results suggested that PFIO could suppress the invasion and migration of human lung carcinoma by reducing the expression levels and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25270791

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits adult neurogenesis and is regulated by fractone-associated heparan sulfates in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Douet, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    Fractones are extracellular matrix structures that display a fractal ultrastructure and that are visualized as puncta after immunolabeling for laminin or heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In the adult brain, fractones are found throughout the subventricular zone (SVZ). The role of fractones is just emerging. We have recently shown that fractones sequester fibroblast growth factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-7 from the brain ventricles to regulate cell proliferation in the SVZ of the lateral ventricle, the primary neural stem cell niche and neurogenic zone in adulthood. Here, we have examined in vivo the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) on cell proliferation in the SVZ and we have determined whether BMP-4 interacts with fractones to promote this effect. To examine BMP-4 effect on cell proliferation, BMP-4 was intracerebroventricularly injected, and bromodeoxyuridine immunolabeling was performed on frozen sections of the adult mouse brain. To identify the location of BMP-4 binding, biotinylated-BMP-4 was injected, and its binding localized post-mortem with streptavidin, Texas red conjugate. Injection of heparitinase-1 was used to desulfate fractones and determine whether the binding and the effect of BMP-4 on cell proliferation are heparan sulfate-dependent. BMP-4 inhibited cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic zone. Biotinylated-BMP-4 bound to fractones and some adjacent blood vessels. Co-injection of heparitinase-1 and biotinylated-BMP-4 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-4, indicating that the binding was heparan sulfate dependent. Moreover, preventing the binding of BMP-4 to fractones by heparitinase-1 reinforced the inhibitory effect of BMP-4 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. These results show that BMP-4 inhibits cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic zone and that the binding of BMP-4 to fractone-associated heparan sulfates moderates this inhibitory effect. Together with our previous results, these data support the view that fractones capture growth factors and modulate their activity in the neural tissues lining the ventricles. PMID:24681169

  19. Functions of Chondroitin Sulfate and Heparan Sulfate in the Developing Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Maeda; M. Ishii; K. Nishimura; K. Kamimura

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans are major components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix in\\u000a the brain. Both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate are unbranched highly sulfated polysaccharides composed of repeating\\u000a disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, and glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. During their biosynthesis in the Golgi apparatus, these glycosaminoglycans are highly modified\\u000a by sulfation

  20. Chemical sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of acharan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wu, S J; Chun, M W; Shin, K H; Toida, T; Park, Y; Linhardt, R J; Kim, Y S

    1998-12-15

    Acharan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan prepared from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. This polysaccharide has a repeating disaccharide structure of -->4)-2-deoxy-2-acetamido-alpha-D-glucopyranose (1-->4)-2-sulfo-alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid (1-->). Its structure is related to heparin and heparan sulfate but is distinctly different from all known members of these classes of glycosaminoglycans. Because of its structural similarities to heparin, chemically modified acharan sulfate was studied to understand the chemical structure effected its anticoagulant activity. After de-N-acetylation, acharan sulfate was N-sulfonated using either chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine or sulfur trioxide-trimethylamine complex. The sulfate level in these products ranged from 22 to 24%(w/w), significantly less than that of heparin at 36%. The molecular weight of both N-sulfoacharan sulfates were comparable with that of heparin. In vitro anticoagulant activity assays showed that N-sulfoacharan sulfate derivatives were moderately active for the inhibition of thrombin and neither product showed any measurable anti-factor Xa activity. The differences in the activities of N-sulfoacharan sulfates produced by these two methods are probably ascribable to a small level of concomitant O-sulfonation obtained when using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine. PMID:9870894

  1. Inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a flow-through column system by (per)chlorate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Tom, Lauren M.; Boussina, Aaron; Jin, Yong T.; Wong, Hayden; Piceno, Yvette M.; Carlson, Hans K.; Conrad, Mark E.; Anderson, Gary; Coates, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a primary cause of oil reservoir souring. Here we show that amendment with chlorate or perchlorate [collectively (per)chlorate] potentially resolves this issue. Triplicate packed columns inoculated with marine sediment were flushed with coastal water amended with yeast extract and one of nitrate, chlorate, or perchlorate. Results showed that although sulfide production was dramatically reduced by all treatments, effluent sulfide was observed in the nitrate (10 mM) treatment after an initial inhibition period. In contrast, no effluent sulfide was observed with (per)chlorate (10 mM). Microbial community analyses indicated temporal community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Nitrate addition stimulated Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae growth, supporting their role in nitrate metabolism. (Per)chlorate showed distinct effects on microbial community structure compared with nitrate and resulted in a general suppression of the community relative to the untreated control combined with a significant decrease in sulfate reducing species abundance indicating specific toxicity. Furthermore, chlorate stimulated Pseudomonadaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, members of which are known chlorate respirers, suggesting that chlorate may also control sulfidogenesis by biocompetitive exclusion of sulfate-reduction. Perchlorate addition stimulated Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfomonadaceae, which contain sulfide oxidizing and elemental sulfur-reducing species respectively, suggesting that effluent sulfide concentrations may be controlled through sulfur redox cycling in addition to toxicity and biocompetitive exclusion. Sulfur isotope analyses further support sulfur cycling in the columns, even when sulfide is not detected. This study indicates that (per)chlorate show great promise as inhibitors of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms and respiratory processes are involved. PMID:25071731

  2. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum were sulfated and carboxymethylated as reported. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory effects of sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides were studied. Generally, sulfated polysaccharides showed better bioactivities than that of carboxymethylated polysaccharides. The two derivatives were injected intraperitoneally with or without 5-fluorouracil over a period of 7 days in BALB/c female mice. The polysaccharide derivatives increased mouse thymus and spleen index, an indication of improved immunity in mice. At the same time, they improved superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase contents in the mice body. PMID:23044102

  3. Hexavalent chromium reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough causes transitory inhibition of sulfate reduction and cellgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Klonowska, A.; Clark, M.E.; Thieman, S.B.; Giles, B.J.; Wall,J.D.; Fields, M.W.

    2008-01-07

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a well-studiedsulfate reducer that can reduce heavy metals and radionuclides [e.g.,Cr(VI) and U(VI)]. Cultures grown in a defined medium had a lag period ofapproximately 30 h when exposed to 0.05 mM Cr(VI). Substrate analysesrevealed that although Cr(VI) was reduced within the first 5 h, growthwas not observed for an additional 20 h. The growth lag could beexplained by a decline in cell viability; however, during this time smallamounts of lactate were still utilized without sulfate reduction oracetate formation. Approximately 40 h after Cr exposure (0.05 mM),sulfate reduction occurred concurrently with the accumulation of acetate.Similar amounts of hydrogen were produced by Cr-exposed cells compared tocontrol cells, and lactate was not converted to glycogen duringnon-growth conditions. D. vulgaris cells treated with a reducing agentand then exposed to Cr(VI) still experienced a growth lag, but theaddition of ascorbate at the time of Cr(VI) addition prevented the lagperiod. In addition, cells grown on pyruvate displayed more tolerance toCr(VI) compared to lactate-grown cells. These results indicated that D.vulgaris utilized lactate during Cr(VI) exposure without the reduction ofsulfate or production of acetate, and that ascorbate and pyruvate couldprotect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(VI)/Cr(III) toxicity.

  4. Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens. The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens. PMID:23786718

  5. Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kallon, Sanpha; Li, Xiaorong; Ji, Jun; Chen, Cuiying; Xi, Qianyun; Chang, Shuang; Xue, Chunyi; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei; Zhang, Youngliang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens.The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens. PMID:23786718

  6. Different K s values for hydrogen of methanogenic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria: An explanation for the apparent inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob K. Kristjansson; Peter Schönheit; Rudolf K. Thauer

    1982-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Marburg) and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus (AZ) are anaerobic sewage sludge bacteria which grow on H2 plus sulfate and H2 plus CO2 as sole energy sources, respectively. Their apparent Ks values for H2 were determined and found to be approximately 1 µM for the sulfate reducing bacterium and 6 µM for the methanogenic bacterium. In mixed cell suspensions of the

  7. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 ?g/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  8. Effective inhibition of melanoma tumorigenesis and growth via a new complex vaccine based on NY-ESO-1-alum-polysaccharide-HH2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A safe and effective adjuvant plays an important role in the development of a vaccine. However, adjuvants licensed for administration in humans remain limited. Here, for the first time, we developed a novel combination adjuvant alum-polysaccharide-HH2 (APH) with potent immunomodulating activities, consisting of alum, polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide HH2. Methods The adjuvant effects of APH were examined using NY-ESO-1 protein-based vaccines in prophylactic and therapeutic models. We further determined the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect of NY-ESO-1-APH (NAPH) vaccine using adoptive cellular/serum therapy in C57/B6 and nude mice. Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses were evaluated. Results The APH complex significantly promoted antigen uptake, maturation and cross-presentation of dendritic cells and enhanced the secretion of TNF-?, MCP-1 and IFN-? by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with individual components. Vaccination of NAPH resulted in significant tumor regression or delayed tumor progression in prophylactic and therapeutic models. In addition, passive serum/cellular therapy potently inhibited tumor growth of NY-ESO-1-B16. Mice treated with NAPH vaccine produced higher antibody titers and greater antibody-dependent/independent cellular cytotoxicity. Therefore, NAPH vaccination effectively stimulated innate immunity, and boosted both arms of the adaptive humoral and cellular immune responses to suppress tumorigenesis and growth of melanoma. Conclusions Our study revealed the potential application of APH complex as a novel immunomodulatory agent for vaccines against tumor refractory and growth. PMID:25070035

  9. Protein-bound polysaccharide K suppresses tumor fibrosis in gastric cancer by inhibiting the TGF-? signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    SHINBO, TOSHIFUMI; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; TSUKADA, TOMOYA; HARADA, SHINICHI; KINOSHITA, JUN; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; OKAMOTO, KOICHI; NINOMIYA, ITASU; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; KITAGAWA, HIROHISA; FUJIMURA, TAKESHI; YASHIRO, MASAKAZU; HIRAKAWA, KOUSEI; OHTA, TETSUO

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most frequent metastatic pattern of gastric cancer and its prognosis is extremely poor. PC is characterized by rich fibrosis and the development of obstructive disorders such as ileus, jaundice and hydronephrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major causes of tissue fibrosis and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has a pivotal function in the progression of EMT. Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is a biological response modifier that can modulate the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway in vitro. In the present study, we established a fibrotic tumor model using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and a human gastric cancer cell line to evaluate whether PSK attenuates tumor fibrosis. HPMCs exposed to PSK did not undergo the morphological change from a cobblestone-like pattern to a spindle-shape pattern normally induced by treatment with TGF-?. Immunofluorescence further demonstrated that PSK suppressed TGF-?-induced overexpression of ?-SMA in the HPMCs. We further showed that HPMCs contributed to the proliferation of tumor fibrosis by using a mouse xenograft model. Additionally, PSK treatment of these mice significantly reduced the area of observable tumor fibrosis. These results suggest that seeded cancer cells transformed HPMCs into myofibroblast-like cells through their release of TGF-? in the microenvironment, facilitating the development of fibrous tumors in organs covered with HPMCs. Therefore, our study indicates that PSK has potential utility as an anti-fibrotic agent in the treatment of gastric cancer patients with PC. PMID:25435013

  10. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

  11. Chemical structure and anticoagulant activity of highly pyruvylated sulfated galactans from tropical green seaweeds of the order Bryopsidales.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Canelón, Dilsia J; Vera, Beatriz E; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-05-20

    Sulfated and pyruvylated galactans were isolated from three tropical species of the Bryopsidales, Penicillus capitatus, Udotea flabellum, and Halimeda opuntia. They represent the only important sulfated polysaccharides present in the cell walls of these highly calcified seaweeds of the suborder Halimedineae. Their structural features were studied by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. Their backbone comprises 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linkages, constituted by major amounts of 3-linked 4,6-O-(1'-carboxy)ethylidene-d-galactopyranose units in part sulfated on C-2. Sulfation on C-2 was not found in galactans from other seaweeds of this order. In addition, a complex sulfation pattern, comprising also 4-, 6-, and 4,6-disulfated galactose units was found. A fraction from P. capitatus, F1, showed a moderate anticoagulant activity, evaluated by general coagulation tests and also kinetics of fibrin formation was assayed. Besides, preliminary results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms involved is direct thrombin inhibition. PMID:25817682

  12. Doxorubicin-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles suppress the growth of murine colorectal carcinoma and inhibit the metastasis of murine mammary carcinoma in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqiang; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Hai; Liu, Huaiyu; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-05-01

    As a synergistic drug combination, doxorubicin-loaded cisplatin crosslinked polysaccharide-based nanoparticles (Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP) have demonstrated enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity via optimized biodistribution, controlled drug release, prolonged blood circulation, and improved tolerability, compared to the non-crosslinked nanoparticles or free doxorubicin. Herein, we apply the Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP nanoparticles as an efficient antitumor agent to treat colorectal and breast tumors in three different in vivo models, i.e. subcutaneously implanted colorectal carcinoma, dimethylhydrazine-induced autochthonous colorectal carcinoma, and metastatic mammary carcinoma, which more closely simulate the natural milieu of the original tumor with intact pathological and immunological responses. Based on the properties of this combination in higher tumor accumulation and penetrating efficiency, the Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP nanoparticles significantly decreased the tumor sizes in CT26 cell line xenograft tumors compared to control. In addition, the affected animals' lifespan was significantly extended after the Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP treatment, in the autochthonous colon cancer model. Moreover, with the aid of iRGD, Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP could effectively block primary tumor growth and prevent the metastasis of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma. In conclusion, Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP nanoparticles remarkably inhibit growth of colorectal carcinoma and metastasis of mammary carcinoma in vivo, which provides potential application as a safe and efficient antitumor agent in treatment of these cancers. PMID:25771007

  13. A polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum inhibits tumor growth by induction of apoptosis and activation of immune response in CT26-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Huang, Jianqin; Feng, Yanling; Xie, Mingyong

    2014-09-24

    Ganoderma atrum is one species of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom with various biological activities. Recently, a novel polysaccharide, PSG-1, was purified from G. atrum. The antitumor activity and its mechanism of action were studied. In vitro, PSG-1 has little effect on inhibiting proliferation of CT26 tumor cells. However, the tumor size was significantly decreased in PSG-1-treated mice. The results showed that PSG-1 induced apoptosis in CT26 cells. Moreover, the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were markedly increased in PSG-1-treated mice. In contrast, the contents of cyclic GMP and DAG and the PKC activity were decreased. Similarly, the expression of PKA protein was upregulated, while PKC protein expression in PSG-1-treated group was lowered. Additionally, PSG-1 increased the immune organ index and serum biochemistry parameter. In general, PSG-1 enhances the antitumor immune response, induces apoptosis in CT26-bearing mice, and could be a safe and effective adjuvant for tumor therapy or functional food. PMID:25179589

  14. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-C. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-Y. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-C. [Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lee, K.-M. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kmlee@ctust.edu.tw

    2008-03-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

  15. Sulphated polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus seaweeds both inhibit viral attachment/entry and cell-cell fusion, in NDV infection.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

    2015-02-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

  16. Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

    2015-01-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

  17. SULFATION OF FUCOIDIN IN FUCUS EMBRYOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Hogsett; Ralph S. Quatrano

    ABSTRACT Zygotes of the brown,alga Fucus,distichus,L. Powell accumulate,a sulfated polysaccharide,(fucoidin) in the cell wall at the site of rhizoid formation. Previous work,indicated that zygotes grown,in seawater,minus,sulfate do not sulfate the preformed,fucan (an unsulfated fucoidin) but form rhizoids. Under these condi- tions, we determined whether sulfation of the fucan is required for its localization in the rhizoid wall. This was accomplished,by

  18. Inhibition of Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) Induces Resistance to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vu, John P.; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP?/? and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP?/? and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n=22), PG 97–269 (n=9), or vehicle (n=31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP?/? mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97–269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP?/? and VIPHyb or PG 97–269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

  19. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg-1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  20. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Potently Inhibit Invasion and Serve as a Central Organizer of the Brain Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Schildts, Michela J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Smith, George M.; Smith, Amy A.; Scheffler, Bjorn; Reynolds, Brent A.; Silver, Jerry; Steindler, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most pervasive and lethal of all brain malignancies. One factor that contributes to this poor prognosis is the highly invasive character of the tumor. GBM is characterized by microscopic infiltration of tumor cells throughout the brain, whereas non-neural metastases, as well as select lower grade gliomas, develop as self-contained and clearly delineated lesions. Illustrated by rodent xenograft tumor models as well as pathological human patient specimens, we present evidence that one fundamental switch between these two distinct pathologies–invasion and noninvasion–is mediated through the tumor extracellular matrix. Specifically, noninvasive lesions are associated with a rich matrix containing substantial amounts of glycosylated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), whereas glycosylated CSPGs are essentially absent from diffusely infiltrating tumors. CSPGs, acting as central organizers of the tumor microenvironment, dramatically influence resident reactive astrocytes, inducing their exodus from the tumor mass and the resultant encapsulation of noninvasive lesions. Additionally, CSPGs induce activation of tumor-associated microglia. We demonstrate that the astrogliotic capsule can directly inhibit tumor invasion, and its absence from GBM presents an environment favorable to diffuse infiltration. We also identify the leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase receptor (PTPRF) as a putative intermediary between extracellular glycosylated CSPGs and noninvasive tumor cells. In all, we present CSPGs as critical regulators of brain tumor histopathology and help to clarify the role of the tumor microenvironment in brain tumor invasion. PMID:24068827

  1. Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits isoprenaline-induced cardiac hypertrophy via suppressing Ca²?-mediated calcineurin/NFATc3 and CaMKII signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Jia, Guizhi; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zhining; Wang, Hongxin

    2014-07-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by increased sympathetic drive can subsequently lead to congestive heart failure, which represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is an active compound extracted from Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus (AM), a frequently used "Qi-invigorating" herbal medicine in traditional medicine broadly used for the treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases. Currently, little is known about the effect of APS on cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate its effect on cardiac hypertrophy and to clarify its possible mechanisms. In vitro cardiac hypertrophic model induced by isoprenaline (ISO) was employed to explore the anti-hypertrophic action of APS. We found that 10 ?M ISO treatment for 48 h caused cultured cardiomyocytes to undergo significant increases in cell surface area, total protein content, protein synthesis as well as the expression of hypertrophic markers, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), which were effectively inhibited by APS in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, we found that APS pretreatment alleviated the augment of intracellular free calcium during cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO. Our further study revealed that the upregulated expression of calcineurin, translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 3 (NFATc3) into nucleus and activation of calmodulin kinase II (reflected by p-CaMKII) were dose dependently suppressed by the application of APS. According to this research, APS exerted its anti-hypertrophic action via inhibiting Ca(2+)-mediated calcineurin/NFATc3 and CaMKII signaling cascades, which provided new insights into the application of APS to the therapy of heart diseases. PMID:24975447

  2. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

  3. QSulf1, a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, inhibits fibroblast growth factor signaling in mesoderm induction and angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shouwen Wang; Xingbin Ai; Stephen D. Freeman; Mary E. Pownall; Qun Lu; Daniel S. Kessler; Charles P. Emerson Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The signaling activities of multiple developmental ligands require sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans as coreceptors. QSulf1 and its mammalian orthologs are cell surface HS 6-O-endosulfatases that are expressed in embryonic mesodermal and neural progenitors and promote Wnt signal transduction. In this study, we have investigated the function of QSulf1 in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, which requires 6-O-sulfated HS for

  4. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zuo; D. Örnek; B. C. Syrett; R. M. Green; C.-H. Hsu; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

    2004-01-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris)

  5. Polysaccharide Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  6. ?-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR? Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Maíra; Pereira Leite, Daniela Ferraz; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21356367

  7. Agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 inhibit experimental colitis induced by oil of mustard and by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Edward S; Schneider, Craig R; Wallace, Nathaniel H; Hornby, Pamela J

    2006-08-01

    Oil of mustard (OM) is a potent neuronal activator that is known to elicit visceral hyperalgesia when given intracolonically, but the full extent to which OM is also proinflammatory in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. We have previously shown that male CD-1 mice given a single administration of 0.5% OM develop a severe colitis that is maximum at day 3 and that gradually lessens until essentially absent by day 14. OM-induced neuronal stimulation is reported to be reduced by cannabinoid agonists, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R)-/- mice have exacerbated experimental colitis. Therefore, we examined the role of cannabinoids in this OM-induced 3-day model of colitis in CD-1 mice and in a 7-day dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model in BALB/c mice. In OM colitis, the CB1R-selective agonist ACEA and the CB2R-selective agonist JWH-133 reduced (P < 0.05) colon weight gain (means +/- SE; 82 +/- 13% and 47 +/- 15% inhibition, respectively), colon shrinkage (98 +/- 24% and 42 +/- 12%, respectively), colon inflammatory damage score (49 +/- 11% and 40 +/- 12%, respectively), and diarrhea (58 +/- 12% and 43 +/- 11%, respectively). Histological damage was similarly reduced by these treatments. Likewise, CBR agonists attenuated DSS colitis, albeit at higher doses; ACEA at 10 mg/kg, twice daily, inhibited (P < 0.05) macroscopic and microscopic scores (46 +/- 9% and 63 +/- 7%, respectively); whereas 20 mg/kg, twice daily, of JWH-133 was required to diminish (P < 0.05) macroscopic and microscopic scores (29 +/- 7% and 43 +/- 5%, respectively). CB1R and CB2R immunostaining of colon sections revealed that CB1R in enteric neurons was more intense in colitic vs. control mice; however, CB1R was also increased in the endothelial layer in OM colitis only. CB2R immunostaining was more marked in infiltrated immune cells in OM colitis. These findings validate the OM colitis model with respect to the DSS model and provide strong support to the emerging idea that cannabinoid receptor activation mediates protective mechanisms in experimental colitis. The demonstration of CB1R agonist effects in colitis support the neurogenic nature of the OM-induced colitis model and reinforce the importance of neuronal activation in intestinal inflammation. PMID:16574988

  8. Interactions between Brucella melitensis and Human Phagocytes: Bacterial Surface O-Polysaccharide Inhibits Phagocytosis, Bacterial Killing, and Subsequent Host Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Prada, Carmen M.; Zelazowska, Elzbieta B.; Nikolich, Mikeljon; Hadfield, Ted L.; Roop II, R. Martin; Robertson, Gregory L.; Hoover, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within host phagocytic cells. Smooth organisms present O-polysaccharides (OPS) on their surface. The wboA gene, which codes for the enzyme glycosyl transferase, is essential for the assembly of O-chain in Brucella. Deletion of wboA in smooth, virulent B. melitensis 16M results in a rough mutant designated WRR51. Unlike B. abortus, both smooth and rough strains of B. melitensis are resistant to complement-mediated killing. To determine the role of surface OPS in the interactions of B. melitensis with monocytes/macrophages (M/M), 16M and WRR51 were transformed with the plasmid pBBR1MCS-6y encoding green fluorescent protein, and the transformants were used to infect human mononuclear phagocytes with and without fresh human serum as a source of complement. Human monocytes were cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to allow their differentiation into macrophages during the course of infection. Intracellular bacteria were easily visualized using fluorescence microscopy. Infection in M/M, identified by surface staining and fate of infected phagocytes, was quantitated by flow cytometry. Rough bacteria were internalized, with no requirement for opsonization by serum, at a higher rate than smooth organisms. Smooth B. melitensis survived and multiplied for at least 6 days inside M/M, but rough organisms were eliminated by death of the infected cells. In human monocytes cultured for 1 day without serum in order to trigger the apoptotic pathway, infection by rough brucellae accelerated phagocyte death; smooth brucellae inhibited apoptosis. This study suggests that the presence of surface OPS on live B. melitensis benefits the bacterium by preventing the death of macrophages, Brucella's preferred target for intracellular replication. PMID:12654833

  9. Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII ? in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Simon, Maria; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei; Di, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Shaobo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II ? expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated. Method Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II ? protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The CaMK II ? expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes. Conclusion GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II ? expression to protect epileptic neurons. PMID:25010576

  10. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cells by aqueous extracts and pectic polysaccharides from the roots of Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich. and Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp.

    PubMed

    Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Thöle, Christian; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    In Malian traditional medicine infusions of the roots of Vernonia kotschyana or Cochlospermum tinctorium in water are used for treating gastric ulcer. Helicobacter pylori is known to play a major role in gastric ulcer development, and it was of interest to evaluate a potential anti-adhesive activity towards H. pylori by crude water extracts and isolated polysaccharide fractions from the roots of V. kotschyana and C. tinctorium. The inhibitory effects were examined by an in vitro flow cytometric assay using human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cells, where fluorescent-labeled H. pylori were pre-treated with the test fractions. The crude extract Ctw50 from C. tinctorium, containing a mixture of inulin, pectic polysaccharides, phenols and protein, led to a 43% reduction of bacterial attachment. The isolated pectic type fractions CtwA1 and CtwA2 from C. tinctorium, and Vko-I from V. kotschyana resulted in approximately 30% inhibition of H. pylori adhesion. These fractions consist of rhamnogalacturonan backbones with side chains of arabinogalactans and/or arabinans. The low degree of uronic acids in the fractions compared to anti-adhesive polysaccharides reported previously, suggests that the neutral side chains might play a role in the binding of bacterial adhesins. The fraction Vko-III.1 from V. kotschyana consisting mainly of galacturonic acid resulted only in a 19% inhibition of H. pylori adhesion. The anti-adhesive properties shown by the crude water extracts and isolated polysaccharide fractions in the present study might partly explain the anti-ulcer activities by the roots of V. kotschyana and C. tinctorium. PMID:24657817

  11. Proteoglycans synthesized by cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells after exposure to lead: lead selectively inhibits the synthesis of versican, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Yamamoto, C; Kaji, T

    2000-11-23

    To investigate the effects of lead on the formation of extracellular matrix in the vascular wall, we characterized proteoglycans synthesized by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells after exposure to the metal by biochemical techniques. Confluent cultures of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells were metabolically labeled with [(35)S]sulfate or [(35)S]methionine/cysteine in the presence of lead nitrate. The amount of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was evaluated by the incorporation of [(35)S]sulfate into GAGs by the cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation method. The labeled proteoglycans were characterized by DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography and Sepharose CL-2B molecular sieve chromatography. The GAG M(r) and composition were analyzed by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and the core protein M(r) was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, before and after digestion with papain or chondroitin ABC lyase. Lead significantly decreased the [(35)S]sulfate incorporation into GAGs accumulated in the cell layer and the conditioned medium. [(35)S]Sulfate-labeled proteoglycans obtained from the cell layer and the conditioned medium were separated into three peaks on DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and only the peak with the highest charge density was decreased by lead. The highly charged peak was eluted near the void volume on Sepharose CL-2B molecular sieve chromatography and sensitive to chondroitin ABC lyase on Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, indicating that lead selectively inhibits the synthesis of large and highly charged chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (CS/DSPGs). However, the size of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains of the CS/DSPGs was M(r) approximately 47000 in both the control and lead-treated cultures. On the other hand, lead decreased the accumulation of a large CS/DSPG with a core protein of approximately 450 kDa in the cell layer and the conditioned medium; the core protein was identified as versican core by Western blot analysis. It is therefore suggested that lead inhibits the synthesis of the versican core protein in vascular smooth muscle cells without a change in length of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate side chains. As a result, versican-poor extracellular matrix would be induced by lead in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:11118666

  12. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of a chemically sulfated galactoglucomannan obtained from the lichen Cladonia ibitipocae.

    PubMed

    Martinichen-Herrero, J C; Carbonero, E R; Sassaki, G L; Gorin, P A J; Iacomini, M

    2005-03-01

    A galactoglucomannan (GGM), isolated from the lichen Cladonia ibitipocae, consisted of a (1-->6)-linked main chain of alpha-mannopyranose units, substituted by alpha- and beta-D-galacto (alpha- and beta-D-Galp)-, beta-D-gluco (beta-D-Glcp)- and alpha-D-mannopyranosyl (alpha-D-Manp) groups, and was sulfated giving a sulfated polysaccharide (GGM-SO4) with 42.2% sulfate corresponding to a degree of substitution of 1.29. NMR studies indicated that after sulfation, the OH-6 groups of galactopyranosyl and mannopyranosyl units were preferentially substituted. GGM-SO4 was investigated in terms of its in vitro anticoagulant and in vivo antithrombotic properties. Those of the former were evaluated by its activated partial thromboplastin (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), using pooled normal human plasma, and compared with that of 140 USP units mg(-1) for a porcine intestinal mucosa heparin. Anticoagulant activity was detected in GGM-SO4, but not in GGM. The in vivo antithrombotic properties of GGM-SO4 were evaluated using a stasis thrombosis model in Wistar rats, intravenous administration of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight totally inhibiting thrombus formation. It caused dose-dependent increases in tail transection bleeding time. The results obtained showed that this sulfated polysaccharides is a promising anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent. PMID:15769521

  13. Inhibition of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase by beta-D-4-O-sulfo-N-acetylgalactosaminides bearing various hydrophobic aglycons.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Hiroko; Tomoyama, Yuri; Takagi, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Koutaro; Yamada, Chika; Kaio, Ken-ichi; Tsukimori, Masaki; Nagao, Kazuya; Itakura, Yuya; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Nakano, Hirofumi; Habuchi, Osami

    2010-02-01

    N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST) transfers sulfate to position 6 of GalNAc(4SO4) residues of chondroitin sulfate to yield chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E). We have previously demonstrated that phenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) could serve as an acceptor for GalNAc4S-6ST, thereby inhibiting GalNAc4S-6ST competitively. In this paper we compared the inhibitory effects of various glycosides in which various hydrophobic aglycons were attached to D-GalNAc(4SO4) via ss anomeric configuration. p-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) and p-chlorophenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) were stronger inhibitors than phenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4). Among inhibitors examined here, 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) was the strongest inhibitor; the Ki of 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) for the competitive inhibition was 0.008 mM, which was much lower than the Ki of phenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4), 0.98 mM. In contrast, 7-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) showed only weak inhibition to GalNAc4S-6ST. 3-Estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) did not inhibit chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase under the concentration where GalNAc4S-6ST was inhibited by 90%. When 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) was added to the culture medium of chondrosarcoma cells expressing human GalNAc4S-6ST, a significant, albeit small, reduction in the cellular synthesis of CS-E was observed. These results suggest that estradiol group of 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) may enhance the inhibitory activity of the glycoside through increasing the affinity to the enzyme and may allow the glycosides to diffuse at a low efficiency into the cells to inhibit cellular synthesis of CS-E. PMID:20016933

  14. The development of a gene vector electrostatically assembled with a polysaccharide capsule.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Kitahara, Takashi; Kawakami, Shigeru; Nishida, Koyo; Nakamura, Junzo; Teshima, Mugen; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Kodama, Yukinobu; To, Hideto; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gene vector electrostatically assembled with a polysaccharide capsule. We used pDNA/polyethylenimine (PEI) complexes as efficient non-viral vectors. The pDNA/PEI complex was electrostatically encapsulated with various polysaccharides such as fucoidan, lambda-carrageenan, xanthan gum, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The pDNA/PEI complex was shown as nanoparticles with positive zeta-potential, although the ternary complexes encapsulated with polysaccharides were shown as nanoparticles with negative zeta-potential. The pDNA/PEI complex showed high agglutination activity and cytotoxicity, although the ternary complexes encapsulated with polysaccharides had no agglutination activities and lower cytotoxicities. The pDNA/PEI complex showed high uptake and high transgene efficiency in B16-F10 cells. On the other hand, most of the ternary complexes show little uptake and gene expression. The ternary complex encapsulated by CS, however, showed comparable transgene efficiency to the pDNA/PEI complex. The uptake and gene expression of the ternary complex encapsulated by CS were significantly inhibited by hypothermia and the addition of CS, suggesting that the ternary complex was taken by CS-specific receptor-mediated energy-dependent process. PMID:19473696

  15. The potent activity of sulfated polysaccharide, ascophyllan, isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum to induce nitric oxide and cytokine production from mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells: Comparison between ascophyllan and fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2011-11-30

    Ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide, which has similar but distinct characteristic monosaccharide composition and entire chemical structure to fucoidan. In this study, we examined the effects of ascophyllan, fucoidan isolated from A. nodosum (A-fucoidan), and fucoidan from Sigma (S-fucoidan) as a representative fucoidan derived from other source (Fucus vesiculosus) on mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. No significant cytotoxic effects of ascophyllan and A-fucoidan on RAW264.7 cells were observed up to 1000?g/ml, while S-fucoidan showed cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Ascophyllan induced extremely higher level of nitric oxide (NO) production from RAW264.7 cells than those induced by fucoidans over the concentration range tested (0-200?g/ml). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis revealed that expression level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in ascophyllan-treated RAW264.7 cells was much higher than the levels detected in the cells treated with fucoidans. Furthermore, the activities of ascophyllan to induce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from RAW264.7 cells were also greater than those induced by fucoidans especially at lower concentration range (3.1-50?g/ml). The activities of ascophyllan to induce NO and cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages were also stronger than those of fucoidans. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using infrared dye labeled nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and AP-1 consensus sequences suggested that ascophyllan can strongly activate these transcription factors. Marked increase in the nuclear translocation of p65, and the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B-? were also observed in ascophyllan-treated RAW264.7 cells. Analysis using mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors and western blot analysis suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase are mainly involved in ascophyllan-induced NO production. PMID:22024029

  16. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. But as far as we ... containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. ...

  17. Molecular Signature of Kappa-Carrageenan Mimics Chondroitin4Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate and Enables Interaction with Arylsulfatase B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Bhattacharyya; Joanne K. Tobacman

    The common food additive kappa-carrageenan (?-CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide that resembles chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). All have a sulfate group on C4 of a glycoside (galactose for carrageenan and N-acetylgalactosamine for C4S), and the sulfate-bearing glycoside is linked in a ?-1,4-configuration to an unsulfated, 6-carbon sugar (galactose for carrageenan, glucuronate for C4S, and iduronate for DS). The

  18. Unique Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate from the Bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Safely Inhibits Arterial Thrombosis after Photochemically Induced Endothelial Lesion*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Angélica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing ?4.6 mg g?1 of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional 1H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg?1, 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg?1), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC50 = 0.835 ?g ml?1) and thrombin (IC50 = 9.3 ?g ml?1) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg?1, the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

  19. Unique extracellular matrix heparan sulfate from the bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) safely inhibits arterial thrombosis after photochemically induced endothelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Angélica M; Kozlowski, Eliene O; Pomin, Vitor H; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L; Pavão, Mauro S G

    2010-03-01

    Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing approximately 4.6 mg g(-1) of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional (1)H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg(-1), 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg(-1)), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC(50) = 0.835 microg ml(-1)) and thrombin (IC(50) = 9.3 microg ml(-1)) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg(-1), the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

  20. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Functions as Receptor for Specific Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, and Anti-RAGE Antibody or Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Delivered in Vivo Inhibit Pulmonary Metastasis of Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Takahashi, Jun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Altered expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) at the surfaces of tumor cells plays a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived tumor cell line with high metastatic potential had a higher proportion of E-disaccharide units, GlcUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate), in CS chains than low metastatic LLC cells and that such CS chains are involved in the metastatic process. The metastasis was markedly inhibited by the pre-administration of CS-E from squid cartilage rich in E units or by preincubation with a phage display antibody specific for CS-E. However, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition remains to be investigated. In this study the receptor molecule for CS chains containing E-disaccharides expressed on LLC cells was revealed to be receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predominantly expressed in the lung. Interestingly, RAGE bound strongly to not only E-disaccharide, but also HS-expressing LLC cells. Furthermore, the colonization of the lungs by LLC cells was effectively inhibited by the blocking of CS or HS chains at the tumor cell surface with an anti-RAGE antibody through intravenous injections in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide the clear evidence that RAGE is at least one of the critical receptors for CS and HS chains expressed at the tumor cell surface and involved in experimental lung metastasis and that CS/HS and RAGE are potential molecular targets in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:22493510

  1. An extracellular Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide: relation to Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin and its implication in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and biomaterial-associated infections. The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of ?-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. Extracellular mucous layer extracts of S. epidermidis contain another major polysaccharide, referred to as 20-kDa polysaccharide (20-kDaPS), composed mainly out of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and being partially sulfated. 20-kDaPS antiserum prevents adhesion of S. epidermidis on endothelial cells and development of experimental keratitis in rabbits. Here we provide experimental evidence that 20-kDaPS and PIA represent distinct molecules and that 20-kDaPS is implicated in endocytosis of S. epidermidis bacterial cells by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results Analysis of 75 clinical coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood-cultures and central venous catheter tips indicated that 20-kDaPS is expressed exclusively in S. epidermidis but not in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. Tn917-insertion in various locations in icaADBC in mutants M10, M22, M23, and M24 of S. epidermidis 1457 are abolished for PIA synthesis, while 20-kDaPS expression appears unaltered as compared to wild-type strains using specific anti-PIA and anti-20-kDaPS antisera. While periodate oxidation and dispersin B treatments abolish immuno-reactivity and intercellular adhesive properties of PIA, no abrogative activity is exerted towards 20-kDaPS immunochemical reactivity following these treatments. PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. Preincubation of non-20-kDaPS-producing clinical strain with increasing amounts of 20-kDaPS inhibits endocytosis by human macrophages, whereas, preincubation of 20-kDaPS-producing strain ATCC35983 with 20-kDaPS antiserum enhances bacterial endocytosis by human macrophages. Conclusions In conclusion, icaADBC is not involved in 20-kDaPS synthesis, while the chemical and chromatographic properties of PIA and 20-kDaPS are distinct. 20-kDaPS exhibits anti-phagocytic properties, whereas, 20-kDaPS antiserum may have a beneficial effect on combating infection by 20-kDaPS-producing S. epidermidis. PMID:22594478

  2. Sulfation of fucoidin in focus embryos: III. Required for localization in the rhizoid wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM E. HOGSETT; RALPH S. QUATRANO

    1978-01-01

    Zygotes of the brown alga Fucus distichus L. Powell accumulate a sulfated polysaccharide (fucoidin) in the cell wall at the site of rhizoid formation. Previous work indicated that zygotes grown in seawater minus sulfate do not sulfate the preformed fucan (an unsulfated fucoidin) but form rhizoids. Under these condi- tions, we determined whether sulfation of the fucan is required for

  3. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  4. Sulfated alpha-L-galactans from the sea urchin ovary: selective 6-desulfation as eggs are spawned.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Andrade, Leonardo; Valente, Ana Paula; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2010-06-01

    The sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a jelly coat, which contains sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. These molecules are responsible for inducing the species-specific acrosome reaction, an obligatory event for the binding of sperm and fusion with the egg. The mechanism of biosynthesis of these sulfated polysaccharides is virtually unknown. The egg jelly of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a simple 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan. Here, we pulse labeled the sea urchin ovary in vitro with (35)S-sulfate to follow the biosynthesis of the sulfated alpha-L-galactan. We found that the ovary contains a 2,6-disulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan, which incorporates (35)S-sulfate more avidly than the 2-sulfated isoform. The 2,6-disulfated alpha-L-galactan was purified by anion exchange chromatography, analyzed by electrophoresis and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We also investigated the location of the sulfated polysaccharides on the oocytes using histochemical procedures. The stain revealed high amounts of sulfated polysaccharide in mature oocytes and accessory cells. The amount of intracellular sulfated polysaccharides decreased as oocytes are spawned. We speculate that 2,6-disulfated galactan is initially synthesized in the ovary and that 6-sulfate ester is removed when the polysaccharide is secreted into the egg jelly. Similar events related to remodeling of sulfated polysaccharides have been reported in other biological systems. PMID:20147451

  5. Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1?3)-?-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M.; Ciancia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A highly sulfated 3-linked ?-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

  6. Sulfate inhibition of molybdate assimilation by planktonic algae and bacteria: some implications for the aquatic nitrogen cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Cole; Robert W. Howarth; Scott S. Nolan; Roxanne Marino

    1986-01-01

    Molybdenum is required for both dinitrogen fixation and nitrate assimilation. In oxic waters the primary form of molybdenum is the molybdate anion. Using radioactive [99Mol Na2MoO4, we have shown that the transport of molybdate by a natural assemblage of freshwater phytoplankton is light-dependent and follows typical saturation kinetics. The molybdate anion is strikingly similar to sulfate and we present data

  7. Extraction, characterization of the polysaccharide extracts from Se-enriched G. lucidum (Se-GLP) and its inhibition against oxidative damage in ischemic reperfusion mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Lin Shi; Hui Han; Geng-Zhen Chen; Xi Chen; Ying-Kai Hong; Ling-Kong Chen; Dan Chen; Zhen Lu

    2010-01-01

    By analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the polysaccharide extracts from Se-enriched Ganoderma lucidum (Se-GLP) was comprised mainly of glucose, xylose, arabose and mannose in the molar ratio of 1:4.3:0.7:0.18. the infrared (IR) spectra of the Se-GLP displayed a broad stretching intense characteristic peak at around 3402 and 3105cm?1 for the hydroxyl group, and one weak C–H stretching bands at

  8. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase\\/Akt signaling pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Jen Hsu; Shiuh-Sheng Lee; Wan-Wan Lin

    Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a remedy to promote health and longevity in China. The polysaccharide component with a branched (133)--D-glucan moiety from G. luci- dum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor ef- fects. In this study, we investigated the effect of PS-G on neutrophil viability, which is manifested by spontaneous

  9. Polysaccharides from Smilax glabra inhibit the pro-inflammatory mediators via ERK1/2 and JNK pathways in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chuan-Li, Lu; Wei, Zhu; Min, Wang; Meng-Mei, Hu; Wen-Long, Chen; Xiao-Jie, Xu; Chuan-Jian, Lu

    2015-05-20

    The rhizomes of Smilax glabra have been used as both food and folk medicine in many countries for a long time. However, little research has been reported on polysaccharides of S. glabra. In the present study, two polysaccharide fractions, SGP-1 and SGP-2, were isolated from the rhizomes of S. glabra with the number average molecular weights of 1.72×10(2)kDa and 1.31×10(2)kDa, and the weight average molecular weights of 1.31×10(5)kDa and 1.18×10(5)kDa, respectively, and their mainly monosaccharide compositions were both galactose and rhamnose (2.5:1). Both SGP-1 and SGP-2 significantly suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, as well as the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-? and IL-6. Additionally, SGP-1 and SGP-2 repressed the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). These findings strongly suggested polysaccharides were also the anti-inflammatory active ingredient for S. glabra, and the potential of SGP-1 and SGP-2 as the anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25817687

  10. Cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-o-endosulfatase from a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshuang; Han, Wenjun; Cai, Xingya; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2015-03-20

    Sulfatases are potentially useful tools for structure-function studies of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To date, various GAG exosulfatases have been identified in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, endosulfatases that act on GAGs have rarely been reported. Recently, a novel HA and CS lyase (HCLase) was identified for the first time from a marine bacterium (Han, W., Wang, W., Zhao, M., Sugahara, K., and Li, F. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 27886-27898). In this study, a putative sulfatase gene, closely linked to the hclase gene in the genome, was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. The recombinant protein showed a specific N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfatase activity that removes 4-O-sulfate from both disaccharides and polysaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting that this sulfatase represents a novel endosulfatase. The novel endosulfatase exhibited maximal reaction rate in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 30 °C and effectively removed 17-65% of 4-O-sulfates from various CS and DS and thus significantly inhibited the interactions of CS and DS with a positively supercharged fluorescent protein. Moreover, this endosulfatase significantly promoted the digestion of CS by HCLase, suggesting that it enhances the digestion of CS/DS by the bacterium. Therefore, this endosulfatase is a potential tool for use in CS/DS-related studies and applications. PMID:25648894

  11. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  12. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

  13. Anticoagulant motifs of marine sulfated glycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-07-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides, like the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin, are known to exhibit anticoagulant properties when certain structural features are present. The structural requirement for this action is well-established for heparin, in which a pentasaccharide motif plays a key role for keeping the high-affinity interaction to antithrombin. Over the last years of this glycomic era, several novel anticoagulant sulfated glycans have been described. Those from marine sources have been awakening special attention mainly because of their impressive anticoagulant effects together with structural uniqueness. The commonest of these glycans are the sulfated fucans (SFs), the sulfated galactans (SGs), and the marine invertebrate GAGs like the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and ascidian dermatan sulfate. Since these marine sulfated glycans do not bear within their polymeric chains the specific pentasaccharide motif of heparin, other structural features must be necessary to trigger the anticoagulant effect. The objective of this report is to present the anticoagulant motifs of the marine SFs, SGs and GAGs. PMID:24838988

  14. Antioxidant activity of the polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tehila Tannin-Spitz; Margalit Bergman; Dorit van-Moppes; Shlomo Grossman

    2005-01-01

    The cells of the red microalga Porphyridium UTEX 637 are encapsulated within a sulfated polysaccharide whose external part (i.e., the soluble fraction) dissolves into the medium. It is thought that the main function of the polysaccharide is to protect the algal cells from the extreme environmental conditions, such as drought and high light, prevailing in their native sea-sand habitat. In

  15. Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kardosová, A; Machová, E

    2006-07-01

    Eleven polysaccharides have been isolated from the leaves of Arctium lappa var. herkules, Aloe barbadensis, Althaea officinalis var. robusta, Plantago lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts and roots of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii, stems of Mahonia aquifolium, and peach-tree (Prunus persica) gum exudates. The polysaccharides were investigated for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of soyabean lecithin liposomes by OH radicals. The highest inhibition was found with glucuronoxylans of A. officinalis var. robusta and P. lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts. Their antioxidant activity accounted for approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol. The activity of eight polysaccharides ranged from 20 to 45%, while the fructofuranan from P. lanceolata var. libor roots was practically inactive. PMID:16797146

  16. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  17. Isolation and purification of cell wall polysaccharide of Bacillus anthracis (delta Sterne).

    PubMed

    Ekwunife, F S; Singh, J; Taylor, K G; Doyle, R J

    1991-08-15

    A polysaccharide fraction was isolated form sodium-dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) treated cell walls of Bacillus anthracis (delta Sterne) by hydrofluoric acid (HF) hydrolysis and ethanolic precipitation. The polysaccharide fraction was subsequently purified by several washings with absolute ethanol. Purity of the isolated polysaccharide was tested using the anthrone assay and amino acid analyzer. The molecular mass of the polysaccharide fraction as determined by gel filtration chromatography was about 12000 Da. Preliminary analyses of the polysaccharide was done using thin layer chromatography and amino acid analyzer, and results obtained from these analyses were further confirmed by gas liquid chromatography and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that the polysaccharide moiety contained galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylmannosamine in an approximate molar ratio of 3:2:1. This moiety was devoid of muramic acid, alanine, diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, and lipid, thus indicating that the isolated polysaccharide was of pure quality. PMID:1769521

  18. Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Cumpstey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives. PMID:24151557

  19. Low sodium dodecyl sulfate concentrations inhibit tobacco mosaic virus coat protein amorphous aggregation and change the protein stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Rafikova; Yu. V. Panyukov; A. M. Arutyunyan; L. S. Yaguzhinsky; V. A. Drachev; E. N. Dobrov

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low SDS concentrations on amorphous aggregation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein (CP) at 52°C and on the protein structure were studied. It was found that SDS completely inhibits the TMV CP (11.5 M) unordered aggregation at the detergent\\/CP molar ratio of 15 : 1 (0.005% SDS). As judged by fluorescence spectroscopy, these SDS concentrations did not

  20. Structure of a sulfated xylofucan from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.

    PubMed

    Bilan, Maria I; Shashkov, Alexander S; Usov, Anatolii I

    2014-07-01

    A polysaccharide composed of L-fucose, D-xylose, and sulfate in a molar proportion of about 5:2:3 was isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Polysaccharide structure was elucidated by methylation analysis, Smith degradation, as well as by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to contain a backbone of 3-linked ?-L-fucopyranose residues, about two thirds of which are sulfated at O-2 forming trisaccharide repeating units ?3)-?-L-Fucp2S-(1?3)-?-L-Fucp2S-(1?3)-?-L-Fucp-(1?. This structural regularity is masked by random distribution of non-sulfated ?-D-Xylp residues attached to position 4 of the backbone. The polysaccharide is a new representative of a complex 'fucoidan' family of sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweeds. PMID:24879011

  1. A ?-Tocopherol–Rich Mixture of Tocopherols Inhibits Colon Inflammation and Carcinogenesis in Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jihyeung; Hao, Xingpei; Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D.; Lu, Gang; Xiao, Hang; Newmark, Harold L.; Yang, Chung S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a ?-tocopherol–rich mixture of tocopherols (?-TmT, containing 57% ?-T, 24% ?-T, and 13% ?-T) on colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)–treated mice. In experiment 1, 6-week-old male CF-1 mice were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and 1 week later, 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 1 week. The mice were maintained on either a ?-TmT (0.3%)–enriched or a standard AIN93M diet, starting 1 week before the AOM injection, until the termination of experiment. In the AOM/DSS–treated mice, dietary ?-TmT treatment resulted in a significantly lower colon inflammation index (52% of the control) on day 7 and number of colon adenomas (9% of the control) on week 7. ?-TmT treatment also resulted in higher apoptotic index in adenomas, lower prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitrotyrosine levels in the colon, and lower prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and 8-isoprostane levels in the plasma on week 7. Some of the decreases were observed even on day 7. In experiment 2 with AOM/DSS–treated mice sacrificed on week 21, dietary 0.17% or 0.3% ?-TmT treatment, starting 1 week before the AOM injection, significantly inhibited adenocarcinoma and adenoma formation in the colon (to 17–33% of the control). Dietary 0.3% ?-TmT that was initiated after DSS treatment also exhibited a similar inhibitory activity. The present study showed that ?-TmT effectively inhibited colon carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS–treated mice, and the inhibition may be due to the apoptosis-inducing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and reactive nitrogen species–trapping activities of tocopherols. PMID:19155443

  2. Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP)-targeted delivery of soluble TRAIL potently inhibits melanoma outgrowth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced melanoma is characterized by a pronounced resistance to therapy leading to a limited patient survival of ~6 - 9 months. Here, we report on a novel bifunctional therapeutic fusion protein, designated anti-MCSP:TRAIL, that is comprised of a melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP)-specific antibody fragment (scFv) fused to soluble human TRAIL. MCSP is a well-established target for melanoma immunotherapy and has recently been shown to provide important tumorigenic signals to melanoma cells. TRAIL is a highly promising tumoricidal cytokine with no or minimal toxicity towards normal cells. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL was designed to 1. selectively accrete at the cell surface of MCSP-positive melanoma cells and inhibit MCSP tumorigenic signaling and 2. activate apoptotic TRAIL-signaling. Results Treatment of a panel of MCSP-positive melanoma cell lines with anti-MCSP:TRAIL induced TRAIL-mediated apoptotic cell death within 16 h. Of note, treatment with anti-MCSP:sTRAIL was also characterized by a rapid dephosphorylation of key proteins, such as FAK, implicated in MCSP-mediated malignant behavior. Importantly, anti-MCSP:TRAIL treatment already inhibited anchorage-independent growth by 50% at low picomolar concentrations, whereas > 100 fold higher concentrations of non-targeted TRAIL failed to reduce colony formation. Daily i.v. treatment with a low dose of anti-MCSP:TRAIL (0.14 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth retardation of established A375 M xenografts. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL activity was further synergized by co-treatment with rimcazole, a ?-ligand currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Conclusions Anti-MCSP:TRAIL has promising pre-clinical anti-melanoma activity that appears to result from combined inhibition of tumorigenic MCSP-signaling and concordant activation of TRAIL-apoptotic signaling. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL alone, or in combination with rimcazole, may be of potential value for the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:21092273

  3. Chondroitin sulfate reduces cell death of rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation by inhibiting p38, NF?B and iNOS.

    PubMed

    Martín-de-Saavedra, María Dolores; del Barrio, Laura; Cañas, Noelia; Egea, Javier; Lorrio, Silvia; Montell, Eulàlia; Vergés, Josep; García, Antonio G; López, Manuela G

    2011-05-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the central nervous system where it can constitute part of the perineuronal nets. Constituents of the perineuronal nets are gaining interest because they have modulatory actions on their neighbouring neurons. In this study we have investigated if CS could afford protection in an acute in vitro ischemia/reoxygenation model by using isolated hippocampal slices subjected to 60min oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by 120min reoxygenation (OGD/Reox). In this toxicity model, CS afforded protection of rat hippocampal slices measured as a reduction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release; maximum protection (70% reduction of LDH) was obtained at the concentration of 3mM. To evaluate the intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the protective effect of CS, we first analysed the participation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and ERK1/2 by western blot. OGD/Reox induced the phosphorylation of p38 and dephosphorylation of ERK1/2; however, CS only inhibited p38 but had no effect on ERK1/2. Furthermore, OGD/Reox-induced translocation of p65 to the nucleus was prevented in CS treated hippocampal slices. Finally, CS inhibited iNOS induction caused by OGD/Reox and thereby nitric oxide (NO) production measured as a reduction in DAF-2 DA fluorescence. In conclusion, the protective effect of CS in hippocampal slices subjected to OGD/Reox can be related to a modulatory action of the local immune response by a mechanism that implies inhibition of p38, NF?B, iNOS and the production of NO. PMID:21335047

  4. Heparan Sulfate, Including that in Bruch’s Membrane, Inhibits the Complement Alternative Pathway: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Una; Yu, Ling; Kumar, Pallavi; Ding, Jin-Dong; Jiang, Haixiang; Hageman, Gregory S.; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Frank, Michael M.; Hauser, Michael A.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes

    2013-01-01

    An imbalance between activation and inhibition of the complement system has been implicated in the etiologies of numerous common diseases. Allotypic variants of a key complement fluid phase regulatory protein, complement factor H (CFH), are strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of worldwide visual dysfunction, although its specific role in AMD pathogenesis is still not clear. CFH was isolated from individuals carrying combinations of two of the non-synonymous coding variants most strongly associated with AMD risk, V62/H402 (risk haplotype variants), I62/Y402 (non-risk haplotype variants), and V62/Y402. These proteins were used in two functional assays (cell surface- and fluid phase-based) measuring cofactor activity of CFH in the factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. Though no variant-specific differences in the cofactor activity were detected, when heparan sulfate (HS) was added to these assays it accelerated the rate of C3b cleavage and this effect could be modulated by degree of HS sulfation. Bruch’s membrane/choroid, a site of tissue damage in AMD, contains high concentrations of glycosaminoglycans, including HS. Addition of human Bruch’s membrane/choroid to the fluid phase assay accelerated the C3b cleavage and this effect was lost after treatment of the tissue with heparinase III. Binding of CFH variants to Bruch’s membrane/choroid isolated from elderly, non-AMD donor eyes, was similar, as was the functional activity of bound CFH. These findings refine our understanding of interactions of HS and complement and support the hypothesis that these interactions play a role in the transition between normal aging and AMD in Bruch’s membrane/choroid. PMID:20876352

  5. Hydration of pectic polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ryden, P; MacDougall, A J; Tibbits, C W; Ring, S G

    2000-11-01

    The hydration and swelling of pectic polysaccharides was examined at different pHs and ionic strengths as a function of osmotic stress. For weakly charged pectic polysaccharides at low concentrations of a monovalent salt (20 mM), the main driving force for swelling originates from a polyelectrolyte effect due to the translational entropy of ions within the film. Swelling is reduced at higher salt concentrations and lower pHs. Polyelectrolyte collapse and minimal swelling is observed for more highly charged pectic polysaccharides. Replacement of the Na(+) counterion with Ca(2+) results in minimal swelling and the formation of network structures even for the weakly charged pectic polysaccharides. PMID:10951326

  6. [Radiochemistry of polysaccharides (review)].

    PubMed

    Sharpaty?, V A

    1999-01-01

    Data on the radiolysis of polysaccharides (in the form of aqueous solutions in liquid or frozen states, and native "dry" preparations) is surveyed to explore the possibility of participation of free radicals in formation of ruptures in macromolecules, low-molecular products of polysaccharides decomposition, carbonyl, carboxyl, and peroxide groups in the macromolecules. The reaction schemes for principal transformation pathways of polysaccharides free radicals account for ultimate molecular products of the radiolysis. Effects of the adsorbed structured water on formation and conversions of free radicals, of postradiation polymer decomposition, and radiation protection of polysaccharides are discussed. PMID:10347609

  7. Synthesis of per-sulfated flavonoids using 2,2,2-trichloro ethyl protecting group and their factor Xa inhibition potential

    E-print Network

    Desai, Umesh R

    Synthesis of per-sulfated flavonoids using 2,2,2-trichloro ethyl protecting group and their factor November 2004; accepted 30 November 2004 Available online 28 December 2004 Abstract--The synthesis of per-sulfated as a protecting group. The two-step synthesis results in exclusive formation of the per-sulfated product

  8. Heterogeneity of Heparan Sulfates in Human Lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole C. Smits; Antoine A. Robbesom; Elly M. M. Versteeg; P. N. Richard Dekhuijzen; Toin H. van Kuppevelt

    Heparan sulfates (HS), a class of glycosaminoglycans, are long linear complex polysaccharides covalently attached to a protein core. The HS molecules are made up of repeating disaccharides onto which modification patterns are superimposed. This re- sults in a large structural heterogeneity and forms the basis of specific interactions of HS toward a vast array of proteins, including growth factors and

  9. [Hepatoprotective effects of extracts and polysaccharides from seaweed].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Zaporozhets, T S; Kuznetsova, T A; Kryzhanovski?, S P; Kovalev, N N; Zviagintseva, T N

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants of natural origin are considered as possible agents for prevention and treatment of liver diseases. Marine algae and in particular their extracts and obtained from them sulfated polysaccharides are significant sources of natural antioxidants. The recent data on the effect of the extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed on the functional activity of the liver with injuries induced by CCl4, some drugs (paracetamol, diclofenac), N-nitrosocompounds, aflatoxin are presented in the review. Particular attention is paid to the effect of sulfated polysaccharides and in particular fucoidans on the functional activity of the liver in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. Fucoidan is highly safe and active not only as an antioxidant but also as an inhibitor of HCV replication, has antiinflammatory and immunomodulating effects. The data of the review allow to conclude that seaweed extracts and sulfated polysaccharides may be a basis for development of new generation drugs in the future for the treatment and prevention of liver diseases. PMID:25300119

  10. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  11. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)?B, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

  12. Structure, biology, evolution, and medical importance of sulfated fucans and galactans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2008-12-01

    Sulfated fucans and galactans are strongly anionic polysaccharides found in marine organisms. Their structures vary among species, but their major features are conserved among phyla. Sulfated fucans are found in marine brown algae and echinoderms, whereas sulfated galactans occur in red and green algae, marine angiosperms, tunicates (ascidians), and sea urchins. Polysaccharides with 3-linked, beta-galactose units are highly conserved in some taxonomic groups of marine organisms and show a strong tendency toward 4-sulfation in algae and marine angiosperms, and 2-sulfation in invertebrates. Marine algae mainly express sulfated polysaccharides with complex, heterogeneous structures, whereas marine invertebrates synthesize sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans with regular repetitive structures. These polysaccharides are structural components of the extracellular matrix. Sulfated fucans and galactans are involved in sea urchin fertilization acting as species-specific inducers of the sperm acrosome reaction. Because of this function the structural evolution of sulfated fucans could be a component in the speciation process. The algal and invertebrate polysaccharides are also potent anticoagulant agents of mammalian blood and represent a potential source of compounds for antithrombotic therapies. PMID:18796647

  13. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  14. Preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen; Liu, Wenlong; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Ying

    2014-04-15

    Animal polysaccharides belong to a class of biological macromolecules. They are natural biopolymers with numerous advantages for biomedical applications, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-antigenicity and non-toxicity. Electrospinning is a versatile and facile technique which can produce continuous fibers with nanoscale from a wide range of natural and synthetic polymers. The review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the preparation of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning and their potential biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery. Various animal polysaccharides including chitin and chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), are discussed. The challenges and some useful strategies in electrospinning of animal polysaccharides also are summarized. In addition, future study of animal polysaccharides nanofibers by electrospinning is proposed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:24733749

  15. Structural Analysis and Anti-Complement Activity of Polysaccharides from Kjellmaniella crsaaifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Luyu; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    Two polysaccharides, named KCA and KCW, were extracted from Kjellmaniella crassifolia using dilute hydrochloric acid and water, respectively. Composition analysis showed that these polysaccharides predominantly consisted of fucose, with galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid as minor components. After degradation and partial desulfation, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed, which showed that the polysaccharides consisted of sulfated fucooligosaccharides, sulfated galactofucooligosaccharides and methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated/multi-sulfated fucooligosaccharides. The structures of the oligomeric fragments were further characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and ESI-CID-MS3). Moreover, the activity of KCA and KCW against the hemolytic activity of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was determined. The activity of KCA was found to be similar to KCW, suggesting that the method of extraction did not influence the activity. In addition, the degraded polysaccharides (DKCA and DKCW) displayed lower activity levels than the crude polysaccharides (KCA and KCW), indicating that molecular weight had an effect on activity. Moreover, the desulfated fractions (ds-DKCA and ds-DKCW) showed less or no activity, which confirmed that sulfate was important for activity. In conclusion, polysaccharides from K. crassifolia may be good candidates for the treatment of diseases involving the complement pathway. PMID:25786064

  16. A Unique 2-Sulfated ?-Galactan from the Egg Jelly of the Sea Urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Michelle O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; Santos, Livia L.; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E. S.; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Pol-Fachin, Laércio; Verli, Hugo; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly of sea urchins act as species-specific inducers of the sperm acrosome reaction, which is a rare molecular mechanism of carbohydrate-induced signal-transduction event in animal cells. The sea urchin polysaccharides differ in monosaccharide composition (l-fucose or l-galactose), glycosylation, and sulfation sites, but they are always in the ?-anomeric configuration. Herein, structural analysis of the polysaccharide from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis surprisingly revealed a unique sulfated ?-d-galactan composed by (3-?-d-Galp-2(OSO3)-1?3-?-d-Galp-1)n repeating units. Subsequently, we used the G. crenularis galactan to compare different 2-sulfated polysaccharides as inducers of the acrosome reaction using homologous and heterologous sperm. We also tested the effect of chemically over-sulfated galactans. Intriguingly, the anomeric configuration of the glycosidic linkage rather than the monosaccharide composition (galactose or fucose) is the preferential structural requirement for the effect of these polysaccharides on sea urchin fertilization. Nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics indicate that sulfated ?-galactan or ?-fucan have less dynamic structural behavior, exhibiting fewer conformational populations, with an almost exclusive conformational state with glycosidic dihedral angles ?/? = ?102°/131°. The preponderant conformer observed in the sulfated ?-galactan or ?-fucan is not observed among populations in the ?-form despite its more flexible structure in solution. Possibly, a proper spatial arrangement is required for interaction of the sea urchin-sulfated polysaccharides with the specific sperm receptor. PMID:19403528

  17. PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate, diminishes contact hypersensitivity responses through inhibition of L- and P-selectin functions.

    PubMed

    Alban, Susanne; Ludwig, Ralf J; Bendas, Gerd; Schön, Michael P; Oostingh, Gertie J; Radeke, Heinfried H; Fritzsche, Juliane; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is initiated by an interaction of selectin adhesion molecules and appropriate carbohydrate ligands. Targeting those interactions seems a promising approach to treat chronic inflammation. We developed a beta-1, 3-glucan sulfate (PS3) with inhibitory activity toward L and P-selectins under static conditions. Here, detailed investigation showed inhibition of P- and L-selectins, but not E-selectin under flow conditions (relative reduction of interaction with appropriate ligands to 34.4+/-16.6, 8.5+/-3.6, or 99.5+/-9.9%, respectively, by PS3 for P-, L- or E-selectin). Intravital microscopy revealed reduction of leukocyte rolling in skin microvasculature from 22.7+/-5.0 to 12.6+/-4.0% after injection of PS3. In the next experiments, mice were sensitized with 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), and lymphocytes were transferred into syngeneic recipients, which were challenged by DNFB. Inflammatory responses were reduced when immunity was generated in mice treated with PS3 or in L-selectin-deficient mice. No effect was observed when L-selectin-deficient donor mice were treated with PS3, further suggesting that PS3 acted primarily through inhibition of L-selectin. Elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity response was reduced in P-selectin-deficient and in PS3-treated mice. Again, PS3 had no effect in P-selectin-deficient mice. PS3 is a potent P- and L-selectin inhibitor that may add to the therapy of inflammatory diseases. PMID:19052560

  18. Intravenous heparinase inhibits remnant lipoprotein clearance from the plasma and uptake by the liver: in vivo role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Ji, Z S; Sanan, D A; Mahley, R W

    1995-03-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are involved in the binding and uptake of apolipoprotein (apo) E-enriched remnant lipoproteins by cultured cells in vitro. To define the role of hepatic HSPG in remnant lipoprotein clearance in vivo, heparinase (30 units) was infused intravenously into mice to hydrolyze the liver HSPG and determine the effect of HSPG hydrolysis on remnant clearance by the liver. Liver HSPG were prelabeled by peritoneal injection of [35S]Na2SO4. Injection of heparinase decreased the amount of 35S-labeled liver HSPG by approximately 20-40% within 10-15 min. Heparinase infusion significantly inhibited the clearance of chylomicrons, chylomicron remnants, chylomicron remnants + apoE, rabbit beta-very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL), and beta-VLDL + apoE. Compared with saline injection in control mice, heparinase injection retarded the plasma clearance of the remnants by 1.5- to 2-fold and decreased liver uptake by 1.3- to 1.6-fold. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of thick slices of liver from mice injected with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3', 3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled beta-VLDL + apoE revealed markedly less intense fluorescence from hepatocytes in heparinase-treated animals compared with those in saline-treated control animals. Intravenous heparinase infusion did not inhibit the clearance of mouse low density lipoproteins (LDL), a ligand for the LDL receptor, and did not affect the clearance of alpha 2-macroglobulin, a ligand for the LDL receptor-related protein. The results suggest an important role of the liver HSPG in remnant clearance in vivo. PMID:7539827

  19. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Lu, Jie; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Li, Min; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Yang, Ning; Li, Wei-Dong

    2013-04-01

    Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

  20. Effects of two sulfated triterpene saponins echinoside A and holothurin A on the inhibition of dietary fat absorption and obesity reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuming; Wang, Jiahui; Yanagita, Ryo C; Liu, Chunhua; Hu, Xiaoqian; Dong, Ping; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Two similarly sulfated triterpene saponins from Pearsonothuria graeffei were prepared to investigate the anti-obesity effects of echinoside A (EA) and holothurin A (HA). The in vitro inhibitory activities of EA and HA toward pancreatic lipase were investigated, and two in vivo studies were performed: (i) Male Wistar rats were orally administered the lipid emulsion with or without a saponin (HA or EA). The serum's total triglyceride concentration was measured at various times. (ii) C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups, high fat (HF), EA (0.03%), HA (0.04%), and orlistat (0.01%), and the weight of adipose tissue and level of fatty acids excreted in the feces were determined. Both EA and HA repressed the pancreatic lipase activity and increased fatty acid excretion in the feces. Treatment with EA and HA significantly decreased the adipose tissue accumulation in mice. EA and HA manifested different inhibitory activities in vitro, but each of them dramatically inhibited lipid absorption in vivo and showed strong anti-obesity activity. PMID:25036496

  1. [Modulation of polysaccharide extracted from Laminaria on phase compositions of urinary crystal calcium oxalate].

    PubMed

    Deng, Sui-Ping; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2007-11-01

    The influence of sulfate polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from marine algae Laminaria japonica aresch on the growth of urinary crystal calcium oxalate (CaO(xa)) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. SPS can stabilize thermodynamic metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. As the concentration of SPS increases from 0 to 0.60 mg x mL(-1), the mass percentage of COD crystals increases from 0 to 100%, and the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate increases from 1.0 to 19.6. The ability of SPS to stabilize the existence of COD in aqueous solution and to increase the concentration of soluble calcium ions is favorable to the inhibition of CaO(xa) stone. Indicating that SPS is a potential green drug for prevention and cure of CaO(xa) urinary stones. PMID:18260434

  2. Facile synthesis of multilayered polysaccharidic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kwag, Dong Sup; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lee, Eun Seong

    2014-08-10

    In this study, we developed facile synthesis method of multilayered polysaccharidic vesicles (hereafter termed 'mPSVs') using polysaccharides such as starch, hyaluronate (HA), and glycol chitosan (GC) via simple chemistry and using enzymatic reactions among polysaccharides. The enzymatic degradation of the HA shell by hyaluronidase (HYAL) enzyme contributed to accelerate the release of protein/peptide from the mPSVs. The mPSVs containing folate ligand and apoptotic cell death-inducing D-(KLAKLAK)2 peptide were effectively accumulated in in vivo KB tumor cells, primarily owing to passive tumor penetration via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting via specific binding to folate receptors expressed on KB tumor cells. These mPSVs resulted in a significant increase in the in vivo tumor inhibition. This vesicle system is expected to exhibit great potential as an advanced platform technology for biomedical applications involving small molecular drugs with protein/gene targets. PMID:24878178

  3. Polysaccharides from the green seaweed Codium decorticatum. Structure and cell wall distribution.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Paula Virginia; Raffo, María Paula; Alberghina, Josefina; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall polysaccharides from Codium decorticatum and their assembly were studied and these results were compared with those obtained previously for this genus. The water soluble polysaccharides are: (i) Pyruvylated and sulfated 3- and 6-linked ?-D-galactans with sulfate mainly on C-4 and also on C-6. Pyruvate ketals are linked to O-3 and O-4 of terminal ?-D-galactose or O-4 and O-6 of 3-linked ?-D-galactose. (ii) Sulfated 3-linked ?-L-arabinans substituted on C-2 or C-2 and C-4 predominantly with sulfate, but also with single stubs of arabinose, and (iii) 4-linked ?-D-mannans with a low degree of sulfation on C-2. The whole polysaccharide system comprises 6.9% of sulfated polysaccharides and 32.9% of fibrillar polysaccharides, mostly insoluble mannans. By in situ localization it was possible to detect two similar fibrillar layers separated by a zone rich in charged polymers. Besides, arabinogalactan proteins co-localized with the fibrillar components. PMID:25498707

  4. Anti-HSV1 activity of brown algal polysaccharides and possible relevance to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Matthew; Bell, Tracey; Dénes, Ádám; Falshaw, Ruth; Itzhaki, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) induces the formation of the characteristic abnormal molecules of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, beta-amyloid, and abnormally phosphorylated, AD-like tau (P-tau). Formation of these molecules is inhibited by treatment with the antiviral agent acyclovir (ACV), which prevents viral DNA replication. A totally different mechanism of antiviral action against herpes simplex viruses is shown by sulfated fucans. The antiviral activity of sulfated fucans from five brown algae (Scytothamnus australis, Marginariella boryana, Papenfussiella lutea, Splachnidium rugosum and Undaria pinnatifida) was investigated in relation to the HSV1-induced formation of beta-amyloid, and AD-like tau. Antiviral activity was also related to specific structural features of these polysaccharides. Four sulfated fucan extracts each prevented the accumulation of HSV1-induced beta-amyloid and AD-like tau in HSV1-infected Vero cells. The structures of these extracts had some similarities but also key differences, indicating that a number of structural features can cause antiviral activity. The most active sulfated fucan combined with acyclovir was particularly effective, so may be particularly suitable for further experimental testing in order to develop treatment protocols for AD patients, with the aim of slowing or stopping disease progression. PMID:25583021

  5. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  6. Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEREK R. LOVLEY; JOHN D. COATES; JOAN C. WOODWARD; ANDELIZABETH J. P. PHILLIPS

    1995-01-01

    (14C)benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2from ( 14 C)benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted,andbenzeneuptakeresumedwhensulfatewasaddedagain.Thestoichiometryofbenzeneuptakeand sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for

  7. Dextran sulfate blocks antibody binding to the principal neutralizing domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 without interfering with gp120-CD4 interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, L N; Phelan, M; Mallinson, M; Norcross, M A

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of the antiviral activity of sulfated polysaccharides on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was investigated by determining the effect of dextran sulfate on the binding of CD4 and several anti-gp120 monoclonal antibodies to both recombinant and cell surface gp120. Dextran sulfate did not interfere with the binding of sCD4 to rgp120 on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates or in solution and did not block sCD4 binding to HIV-1-infected cells expressing gp120 on the cell surface. Dextran sulfate had minimal effects on rgp120 binding to CD4+ cells at concentrations which effectively prevent HIV replication. In contrast, it potently inhibited the binding of both rgp120 and cell surface gp120 to several monoclonal antibodies directed against the principal neutralizing domain of gp120 (V3). In an ELISA format, dextran sulfate enhanced the binding of monoclonal antibodies against amino-terminal regions of gp120 and had no effect on antibodies directed to other regions of gp120, including the carboxy terminus. The inhibitory effects of polyanionic polysaccharides on viral binding, viral replication, and formation of syncytia therefore appear mediated by interactions with positively charged amino acids concentrated in the V3 region. This high local positive charge density, unique to the V3 loop, leads us to propose that this property is critical to the function of the V3 region in mediating envelope binding and subsequent fusion between viral and cell membranes. The specific interaction of dextran sulfate with this domain suggests that structurally related molecules on the cell surface, such as heparan sulfate, may be additional targets for HIV binding and infection. PMID:1995952

  8. Polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus inhibits migration and invasion in B16-F10 cells by suppressing MMP-2 and MMP-9 via downregulation of NF-?B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-05-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) are known to possess multiple pharmacological activities including antitumor activity. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of these activities are unknown. In the present study, we determined the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PIO in the highly metastatic B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line in vitro. We found that PIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of B16-F10 cells and decreased the expression levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In addition, PIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); PIO also decreased the expression level of cyclooxygenase (COX)?2 and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that PIO could suppress the invasion and migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells by reducing the expression levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through suppressing MAPK, COX-2 and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:24677090

  9. Astragalus polysaccharides enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses of hepatitis B surface antigen vaccination through inhibiting the expression of transforming growth factor ? and the frequency of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaogang; Chen, Xiaobing; Zhao, Bing; Lv, Yao; Zhang, Huaiyu; Liu, Hanmei; Chen, Zhiyu; Chen, Yanger; Zeng, Xianyin

    2011-11-01

    Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, have extensive pharmacological and strong immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the potential adjuvant effect of APS on humoral and cellular immune responses to hepatitis B subunit vaccine was investigated. Coadministration of APS with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen significantly increased antigen-specific antibody production, T-cell proliferation and CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) activity. Production of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 in CD4(+) T cells and of IFN-? in CD8(+) T cells were dramatically increased. Furthermore, expression of the genes PFP, GraB, Fas L and Fas were up-regulated; interestingly, expression of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) were down-regulated. Expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was significantly increased by administration of APS. Together, these results suggest that APS is a potent adjuvant for the hepatitis B subunit vaccine and can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses via activating the TLR4 signaling pathway and inhibit the expression of TGF-? and frequency of Treg cells. PMID:22077226

  10. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kateryna Bazaka; Russell J. Crawford; Evgeny L. Nazarenko; Elena P. Ivanova

    \\u000a Extracellular polysaccharides are as structurally and functionally diverse as the bacteria that synthesise them. They can\\u000a be present in many forms, including cell-bound capsular polysaccharides, unbound “slime”, and as O-antigen component of lipopolysaccharide,\\u000a with an equally wide range of biological functions. These include resistance to desiccation, protection against nonspecific\\u000a and specific host immunity, and adherence. Unsurprisingly then, much effort has

  11. 6-O-sulfated chitosan promoting the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kaiguo; Wang, Yanyun; Wang, Hongwei; Yuan, Lin; Tan, Min; Shi, Xiujuan; Lyu, Zhonglin; Liu, Yan; Chen, Hong

    2014-11-26

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be induced to differentiate into nerve cells, endowing them with potential applications in the treatment of neurological diseases and neural repair. In this work, we report for the first time that sulfated chitosan can promote the neural differentiation of ESCs. As a type of sulfated glycosaminoglycan analog, sulfated chitosan with well-defined sulfation sites and a controlled degree of sulfation (DS) were prepared through simple procedures and the influence of sulfated glycosaminoglycan on neural differentiation of ESCs was investigated. Compared with other sulfation sites, 6-O-sulfated chitosan showed the most optimal effects. By monitoring the expression level of neural differentiation markers using immunofluorescence staining and PCR, it was found that neural differentiation was better enhanced by increasing the DS of 6-O-sulfated chitosan. However, increasing the DS by introducing another sulfation site in addition to the 6-O site to chitosan did not promote neural differentiation as much as 6-O-sulfated chitosan, indicating that compared with DS, the sulfation site is more important. Additionally, the optimal concentration and incubation time of 6-O-sulfated chitosan were investigated. Together, our results indicate that the sulfate site and the molecular structure in a sulfated polysaccharide are very important for inducing the differentiation of ESCs. Our findings may help to highlight the role of sulfated polysaccharide in inducing the neural differentiation of ESCs. PMID:25300532

  12. Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study. PMID:19307459

  13. Species difference in the inhibitory potentials of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the hepatic sulfation and glucuronidation of bioactive flavonoids: differential observations among common inhibition parameters.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    1. This study elucidated the species differences between rats and humans in the inhibitory potential of drugs against sulfation and glucuronidation, and whether such differences depend on the inhibition parameter adopted. 2. With 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as model inhibitors and three flavanoids baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A as model substrates, three common inhibition parameters percentage of control, IC50 and Ki were determined in rat liver cytosols (RLCs), human liver cytosols (HLCs), rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). The closeness of the inhibition parameters from rat liver preparations to that from human liver preparations was analyzed by geometric mean fold error (GMFE) and statistical comparisons. 3. The percentage of control in RLC/RLM was not significantly different from that in HLC/HLM, with a GMFE of 0.85 (RLC-HLC) and 1.03 (RLM-HLM); whereas the IC50 and Ki in RLC/RLM were significantly different from that in HLC/HLM. The trend of difference was consistent between IC50 and Ki, where these parameters in RLC and RLM underestimated (GMFE <0.5) and overestimated (GMFE >2) that in HLC and HLM, respectively. 4. In conclusion, the inhibitory potentials of NSAIDs against sulfation and glucuronidation in rats and humans were different and depended on the adopted inhibition parameters. PMID:24168065

  14. A Chemical Model for the Cooperation of Sulfates and Carboxylates in Calcite Crystal Nucleation: Relevance to Biomineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Addadi; J. Moradian; E. Shay; N. G. Maroudas; S. Weiner

    1987-01-01

    Acidic matrix macromolecules involved in regulation of biological crystal growth often contain aspartic acid-rich domains and covalently bound sulfated polysaccharides. We propose that sulfates and beta -sheet structured carboxylates cooperate in oriented calcite crystal nucleation. The sulfates concentrate calcium, creating the supersaturation necessary for nucleation on the structured carboxylate domains. An artificial model, composed of sulfonated polystyrene surfaces and adsorbed

  15. A new procedure for the isolation of anti-HIV compounds (polysaccharides and polyphenols) from the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Béress, A; Wassermann, O; Tahhan, S; Bruhn, T; Béress, L; Kraiselburd, E N; Gonzalez, L V; de Motta, G E; Chavez, P I

    1993-04-01

    Anti-HIV-active polysaccharides and polyphenols were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus by hot H2O extraction of both the intact and the homogenized algae. This was followed by XAD2 chromatography and by sequential precipitation of the non-adsorbed compounds with glacial HOAc and thereafter with EtOH. The precipitate was solubilized, dialyzed against distilled H2O, and chromatographed on SP-Sephadex C25 and on QAE-Sephadex A25. This was followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G50 and Sephadex G100 and finally by hplc on a Shodex Ionpak S-804 column. For comparison, the commercial product fucoidan, a sulfated algal polysaccharide, was also further purified by the chromatographic techniques mentioned above. The isolated freeze-dried fractions obtained by these procedures were tested for inhibition of both HIV-induced syncytium formation and HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme activity. Some of these fractions inhibited both of these activities at concentrations that were not cytotoxic. PMID:7684438

  16. Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of ?-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 °C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The ?-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mg·mL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mg·mL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. PMID:24863354

  17. Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20?mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:22973406

  18. O-acetylation of low-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Mingxing; Qi, Huimin

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from green algae Enteromorpha linza (EP) is a sulfated polysaccharide, which possesses excellent antioxidant activities. In present study, the acetylated derivatives of low-molecular-weight polysaccharide (LEP) was prepared with the method of response surface quadratic model. And then the antioxidant activities of the derivatives were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The results of chemical analysis and FT-IR spectrum showed the acetylation was successful. And in addition, certain derivative with different degree of substitution (DS) exhibited different antioxidant activity. PMID:24854210

  19. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta using soybean residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta are active ingredients in a number of medicines that play important roles in immunity improvement and tumor growth inhibition. So far, the production of polysaccharides from M. esculenta mycelia has not been commercialized. The aims of this wor...

  20. Blocking adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cell types by S. agalactiae type-specific polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhide Miyake; Shin Yamamoto; Shinji Iijima

    1996-01-01

    By using immortalized and normal endothelial cells, we were able to detect inhibitory effects of type specific polysaccharides from Streptococcus agalactiae on adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells, which is an essential step of cancer metastasis. The inhibition was probably due to specific structures of the bacterial polysaccharides, since the structures of the saccharides are very similar to those

  1. Antitumor, genotoxicity and anticlastogenic activities of polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria.

    PubMed

    Kim, K I; Kim, J W; Hong, B S; Shin, D H; Cho, H Y; Kim, H K; Yang, H C

    2000-08-31

    The antitumor effect of the partially purified polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria was studied in mice transplanted with sarcoma 180 cells. The polysaccharide fraction, CZ-1-III, at dose of 6.25 mg/kg/d showed 50% inhibition in solid tumor growth. When mice were injected with fractions, CZ-1 and CZ-1-III, at the dose of 100.0 mg/kg, 91.6% and 97.1% of tumor growth were inhibited, respectively, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of polysaccharide on sarcoma 180 cells increases upon increasing the amount of polysaccharide administered. To assess the genotoxicity of CZ-1-III fraction, several classical toxicological tests were performed. In Ames test, CZ-1-III did not show any transformation of revertant with or without S-9 metabolic activating system, indicating the lack of mutagenic effect of the compound. To assess clastogenic effect, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays were performed using Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblast cells. However, up to 259.0 microg/ml concentration of CZ-1-III, neither micronucleus formation nor chromosomal aberration was induced regardless of the presence of S-9 metabolic activating system. Inhibition of CZ-1-III on micronucleus formation induced by mitomycin C was exhibited in a dose-dependent manner, maximally up to 52.0%. These results strongly suggest that CZ-1-III, the polysaccharide fraction from C. Zedoaria, decreases tumor size of mouse and prevents chromosomal mutation. PMID:10987135

  2. PhysicoChemical Characterization of Agar-Type Polysaccharides Used as Aqueous Gels in in vitro Micropropagation of Several Clones of Thuja plicata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pochet; V. Rouxhet; M. M. Mestdagh; J. François

    1993-01-01

    The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata was tested. The polysac charides were used as solidifying agents for culture media and differed in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95% W\\/W). Budding was reduced on the most highly sulfated polysaccharide, and the differences observed between clones in elonga tion were

  3. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, S. A.; Barker, W. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    1999-05-01

    Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH ? 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH ? 3, below the pK a of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

  4. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class

    PubMed Central

    Rzeski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896

  5. A synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharide library reveals the novel enzymatic action of D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3a.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Arungundram, Sailaja; Tran, Vy My; Raman, Karthik; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2012-02-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotranferases sulfate the C3-hydroxyl group of certain glucosamine residues on heparan sulfate. Six different 3-OST isoforms exist, each of which can sulfate very distinct glucosamine residues within the HS chain. Among these isoforms, 3-OST1 has been shown to play a role in generating ATIII-binding HS anticoagulants whereas 3-OST2, 3-OST3, 3-OST4 and 3OST-6 have been shown to play a vital role in generating gD-binding HS chains that permit the entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 into cells. 3-OST5 has been found to generate both ATIII- and gD-binding HS motifs. Previous studies have examined the substrate specificities of all the 3-OST isoforms using HS polysaccharides. However, very few studies have examined the contribution of the epimer configuration of neighboring uronic acid residues next to the target site to 3-OST action. In this study, we utilized a well-defined synthetic oligosaccharide library to examine the substrate specificity of 3-OST3a and compared it to 3-OST1. We found that both 3-OST1 and 3-OST3a preferentially sulfate the 6-O-sulfated, N-sulfoglucosamine when an adjacent iduronyl residue is located to its reducing side. On the other hand, 2-O-sulfation of this uronyl residue can inhibit the action of 3-OST3a on the target residue. The results reveal novel substrate sites for the enzyme actions of 3-OST3a. It is also evident that both these enzymes have promiscuous and overlapping actions that are differentially regulated by iduronyl 2-O-sulfation. PMID:22116385

  6. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1?2) and (1?3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  7. Chemically sulfated galactomannan from Dimorphandra gardneriana seed: characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, E; Sombra, V G; Richter, A R; Abreu, C M W S; Maciel, J S; Cunha, P L R; Ono, L; Sierakowski, M R; Feitosa, J P A; de Paula, R C M

    2014-01-30

    Dimorphandra gardneriana galactomannan (DG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the sulfation agent. The degree of substitution was 0.32, determined from the sulfur percentage. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by FTIR spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical SO stretching vibration at 1,259 cm(-1). NMR data showed that the sulfation occurred on primary hydroxyl groups. NMR and GPC data indicate degradation during reaction with elimination of galactose. At the maximum tested concentration of 1,000 ?g/mL, unmodified DG polysaccharide did not show a statistically significant cytotoxicity in Vero cells by the MTT method. Therefore, the CC50>1,000 ?g/mL obtained for the sulfated polysaccharides from D. gardneriana in Vero cells point to its lower cytotoxicity than the sulfated galactomannan from Mimosa scabrella. PMID:24299869

  8. Enzymatic placement of 6-O-sulfo groups in heparan sulfate*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renpeng; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is a highly sulfated polysaccharide that exhibits important physiological and pathological functions. The glucosamine residue of heparan sulfate can carry sulfo groups at the 2-N-, 3-O- and 6-O- positions, leading to diverse polysaccharide structures. 6-O-sulfation at the glucosamine residue contributes to a wide range of biological functions. Here, we report a method to control the positioning of 6-O-sulfo groups in oligosaccharides. This was achieved by synthesizing oligosaccharide backbones from a disaccharide building block utilizing glycosyltransferases followed by modifications using heparan sulfate N-sulfotransferase and 6-O-sulfotransferases. This method offers a viable approach preparing heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with precisely located 6-O-sulfo groups. PMID:21506605

  9. Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

  10. Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

    2012-06-20

    Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

  11. Polysaccharide production by Aureobasidium pullulans: factors affecting polysaccharide formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Badr-Eldin; O. M. El-Tayeb; H. G. El-Masry; F. H. A. Mohamad; O. A. Abd El-Rahman

    1994-01-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 6220 synthesized polysaccharide most actively in media containing sucrose, fructose or maltose with (NH4)2SO4 (0.6 g\\/l) or ammonium acetate giving greatest yields of the polysaccharide. With (NH4)2SO4 at =1.2 g\\/l, production of polysaccharide was decreased considerably. Polysaccharide production was highest with an initial pH of 6.5 while biomass formation was better below an initial pH of 5.5.

  12. Polysaccharides of Berberis vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Martynov; E. A. Stroev; D. D. Peskov

    1984-01-01

    The inflorescence were collected in the period of mass flowering (May 31), and fruit and leaves in the phase of technical ripening of the fruit (September 28) in the environs of Ryazan' in 1981. The polysaccharides (PSs) from the air-dry raw material (moisture content of the flowers and leaves 9.2-10.2%, and of the fruit 10.1-11.0%) that had been twice extracted

  13. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient ?-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-06-01

    Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2?kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion, are necessary to induce the transcription of sulfate assimilation genes during early cadmium stress. PMID:22283708

  14. Influenza virus neuraminidase contributes to the dextran sulfate-dependent suppressive replication of some influenza A virus strains.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Moriishi, Eiko; Haredy, Ahmad M; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi; Okamoto, Shigefumi

    2012-12-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS), a negatively charged, sulfated polysaccharide, suppresses the replication of an influenza A virus strain, and this suppression is associated with inhibition of the hemagglutinin (HA)-dependent fusion activity. However, it remains unknown whether the replication of all or just some influenza A virus strains is suppressed by DS, or whether HA is the only target for the replication suppression. In the present study, we found that DS inhibited the replication of some, but not all influenza A virus strains. The suppression in the DS-sensitive strains was dose-dependent and neutralized by diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DD), which has a positive charge. The suppression by DS was observed not only at the initial stage of viral infection, which includes viral attachment and entry, but also at the late stage, which includes virus assembly and release from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that the DS induced viral aggregation at the cell surface. The neuraminidase (NA) activity of the strains whose viral replication was inhibited at the late stage was also more suppressed by DS than that of the strains whose replication was not inhibited, and this inhibition of NA activity was also neutralized by adding positively charged DD. Furthermore, we found that replacing the NA gene of a strain in which viral replication was inhibited by DS at the late stage with the NA gene from a strain in which viral replication was not inhibited, eliminated the DS-dependent suppression. These results suggest that the influenza virus NA contributes to the DS-suppressible virus release from infected cells at the late stage, and the suppression may involve the inhibition of NA activity by DS's negative charge. PMID:23022352

  15. Regioselectively modified sulfated cellulose as prospective drug for treatment of malaria tropica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Schwartz-Albiez; Yvonne Adams; Claus-W. von der Lieth; Petra Mischnick; Katherine T. Andrews; Michael Kirschfink

    2007-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) to placental chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) has been linked to the severe disease outcome of pregnancy-associated\\u000a malaria. Consequently, sulfated polysaccharides with inhibitory capacity may be considered for therapeutic strategies as anti-adhesive\\u000a drugs. During in vitro screening a regioselectively modified cellulose sulfate (CS10) was selected as prime candidate for further investigations\\u000a because it was able to

  16. Stability studies of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Volpi, N; Mucci, A; Schenetti, L

    1999-02-28

    The stability of chondroitin sulfate (CS) was studied under acidic, neutral and basic conditions at 30 and 60 degrees C. CS is remarkably stable under neutral conditions at low temperature, while it degrades at 60 degrees C producing low-molecular-mass fragments and desulfated products. This decomposition process begins at ca. 500-600 h and is consistent with an acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages caused by a drop in pH resulting from acidic products. Under basic conditions, a breakdown of glycosidic linkages causes a decrease in molecular mass due to the beta-elimination reaction, confirmed by a strong increase of absorbance at 232 nm and 1H NMR. Virtually no loss of O-sulfate groups can be detected in the base-treated CS. Under acidic conditions, the molecular mass decreases probably through hydrolysis of polysaccharidic linkages resulting in an increased number of reducing end groups. Little or no beta-elimination occurs. A loss of O-sulfate groups was detected, producing desulfated derivatives. PMID:10399305

  17. The effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase: computational molecular dynamics integrating inhibition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Si, Yue-Xiu; Oh, Sangho; Yang, Jun-Mo; Yin, Shang-Jun; Park, Yong-Doo; Lee, Jinhyuk; Qian, Guo-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase via a combination of inhibition kinetics and computational simulations. Fucoidan reversibly inhibited tyrosinase in a mixed-type manner. Time-interval kinetics showed that the inhibition was processed as first order with biphasic processes. For further insight, we simulated dockings with various sizes of molecular models (monomer to decamer) of fucoidan and showed that the best binding energy change results were obtained from the pentamer (-1.89?kcal/mol) and the hexamer (-1.97?kcal/mol) models of AutoDock Vina. The molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the binding mechanisms between tyrosinase and fucoidan and suggested that fucoidan mostly interacts with several residues including copper ions located in the active site. Our study suggests that fucoidan might be a potential natural antipigment agent. PMID:22694253

  18. Niches of two polysaccharide-degrading Polaribacter isolates from the North Sea during a spring diatom bloom.

    PubMed

    Xing, Peng; Hahnke, Richard L; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Huang, Sixing; Barbeyron, Tristan; Harder, Jens; Becher, Dörte; Schweder, Thomas; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Amann, Rudolf I; Teeling, Hanno

    2014-12-01

    Members of the flavobacterial genus Polaribacter thrive in response to North Sea spring phytoplankton blooms. We analyzed two respective Polaribacter species by whole genome sequencing, comparative genomics, substrate tests and proteomics. Both can degrade algal polysaccharides but occupy distinct niches. The liquid culture isolate Polaribacter sp. strain Hel1_33_49 has a 3.0-Mbp genome with an overall peptidase:CAZyme ratio of 1.37, four putative polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) and features proteorhodopsin, whereas the agar plate isolate Polaribacter sp. strain Hel1_85 has a 3.9-Mbp genome with an even peptidase:CAZyme ratio, eight PULs, a mannitol dehydrogenase for decomposing algal mannitol-capped polysaccharides but no proteorhodopsin. Unlike other sequenced Polaribacter species, both isolates have larger sulfatase-rich PULs, supporting earlier assumptions that Polaribacter take part in the decomposition of sulfated polysaccharides. Both strains grow on algal laminarin and the sulfated polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate. For strain Hel1_33_49, we identified by proteomics (i) a laminarin-induced PUL, (ii) chondroitin sulfate-induced CAZymes and (iii) a chondroitin-induced operon that likely enables chondroitin sulfate recognition. These and other data suggest that strain Hel1_33_49 is a planktonic flavobacterium feeding on proteins and a small subset of algal polysaccharides, while the more versatile strain Hel1_85 can decompose a broader spectrum of polysaccharides and likely associates with algae.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 5 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.225. PMID:25478683

  19. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  20. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in Mikawa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Handa, Nobuhiko

    1985-05-01

    Isolation and chemical elucidation of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in seawater were conducted. The water samples were collected in Mikawa Bay, Japan during a red tide bloom of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum. Dissolved polysaccharides were concentrated from 5-101 of seawater with dialysis followed by separation by gel flitration, and isolation by ethanol precipitation. A heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose and a glucan were isolated from the polysaccharide component having a molecular weight more than 4,000 Dalton and were characterized by several chemical analyses. The heteropolysaccharide is a mucilaginous polysaccharide having a highly branched structure and a molecular weight of 10 4-5 × 10 6 Daltons and probably contains a sulfate half ester: the glucan is a polysaccharide with ?-1,3- and 1,6-linkages (chrysolaminaran type). Concentrations of these were respectively ca. 20 and 67 ?g l -1 at 1 m, and 2 and 26 ?g l -1 at 6 m. A similar heteropolysaccharide was found in the boiling water extract of the particulate matter, while ?-glucan was isolated in a much less purified form than the seawater ?-glucan. In addition, a large amount of ?-1,4 glucan was found in the strong alkali extract of the particulate matter, indicating that this glucan must be a cell wall polysaccharide derived from phytoplankton. These results strongly suggest that the heteropolysaccharide and chrysolaminaran type polysaccharide dissolved in seawater were derived from water soluble carbohydrates of phytoplankton through extracellular release or cell lysis.

  1. Involvement of heparan sulfate and related molecules in sequestration and growth promoting activity of fibroblast growth factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Israel Vlodavsky; Hua-Quan Miao; Benjamin Medalion; Pamela Danagher; Dina Ron

    1996-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues [1,2]. The basic HSPG structure consists of a protein core to which several linear heparan sulfate (HS) chains are covalently attached. The polysaccharide chains are typically composed of repeating hexuronic and D-glucosamine disaccharide

  2. Engineering of routes to heparin and related polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Sterner, Eric; Hickey, Anne Marie; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant heparin has been shown to possess important biological functions that vary according to its fine structure. Variability within heparin's structure occurs owing to its biosynthesis and animal tissue-based recovery, and adds another dimension to its complex polymeric structure. The structural variations in chain length and sulfation patterns mediate its interaction with many heparin-binding proteins, thereby, eliciting complex biological responses. The advent of novel chemical and enzymatic approaches for polysaccharide synthesis coupled with high throughput combinatorial approaches for drug discovery have facilitated an increased effort to understand heparin's structure-activity relationships. An improved understanding would offer potential for new therapeutic development through the engineering of polysaccharides. Such a bioengineering approach requires the amalgamation of several different disciplines including carbohydrate synthesis, applied enzymology, metabolic engineering, and process biochemistry. PMID:22048616

  3. Diacetamidinium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Jalový, Zden?k; R?ži?ka, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, 2C2H7N2 +·SO4 2?, which contains four cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit, the ions are inter­connected by an extensive hydrogen-bonding system whereby two of the O atoms of sulfate ion are hydrogen-bonded to the amidinium H atoms of two cations, leading to the formation of two eight-membered rings. The two remaining O atoms inter­connect two H atoms of acetamidinium cations, forming an infinite chain. The C?N separations within the H2N?C?NH2 moieties are similar, with an average value of 1.305?(2)?Å, which is in good agreement with a delocalization model. PMID:21589618

  4. Polysaccharides in some industrially important softwood species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Willför; A. Sundberg; J. Hemming; B. Holmbom

    2005-01-01

    The content and composition of carbohydrates comprising polysaccharides in sapwood and heartwood of 12 industrially important pulpwood species were analysed. The polysaccharide content was between 60% and 80% (w\\/w) for all species, with cellulose as the predominant polysaccharide type. The carbohydrate composition suggested that the main non-cellulose polysaccharides were galactoglucomannans, except in Larix heartwood, where arabinogalactans were predominant, while the

  5. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  6. Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed C-Terminal Domains of Plasmodium falciparum Variant Surface Antigen 2-Chondroitin Sulfate A (VAR2CSA) Inhibit Binding of CSA-Adherent Parasites to Placental Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V.; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J.; Fried, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains. PMID:23319559

  7. Antibodies to Escherichia coli-expressed C-terminal domains of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A (VAR2CSA) inhibit binding of CSA-adherent parasites to placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains. PMID:23319559

  8. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lim, Ji Ye; Min, Soo Jin; Shin, Jae-Ho; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis leaves exert anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, although it remains unclear whether these leaves can suppress inflammation-related intestinal diseases. This study hypothesized that Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) exerts a protective effect against inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Therefore, colon tissues of DSS-induced colitis mice that were treated with SQE were assayed for levels of proinflammatory markers, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and activation of nuclear factor ?B. For this purpose, mice were pretreated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for a 2-week period. Mice then received either SQE or sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg body weight) with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days twice daily and 7 days of tap water ad libitum between DSS treatment. Treatment with SQE was found to attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index scores, shrinkage of colon length, and histopathologic changes. SQE reduced DSS-induced proliferation in distal colon tissues. It also significantly suppressed levels of tumor necrosis factor-? in serum and colon tissues, nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and I?B? in colon tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SQE supplementation can exert an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental chronic colitis. PMID:25287291

  9. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and total gas production and sulfate-reducing bacteria in in vitro swine manure by tannins, with focus on condensed quebracho tannins.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Terence R; Spence, Cheryl; Cotta, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Odor and emissions produced during storage have increased the tension among rural neighbors and among urban and rural residents. Production of these compounds from stored manure is the result of microbial activity of the anaerobic bacteria populations during storage. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of condensed quebracho tannins on in vitro swine manure for reduction of microbial activity and reduced production of gaseous emissions, including the toxic odorant hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was examined. Swine manure was collected from a local swine facility, diluted in anaerobic buffer, and mixed with 1 %?w/v fresh feces. This slurry was combined with quebracho tannins, and total gas and hydrogen sulfide production was monitored over time. Aliquots were removed periodically for isolation of DNA to measure the SRB populations using quantitative PCR. Addition of tannins reduced overall gas, hydrogen sulfide, and methane production by greater than 90 % after 7 days of treatment and continued to at least 28 days. SRB population was also significantly decreased by tannin addition. qRT-PCR of 16S rDNA bacteria genes showed that the total bacterial population was also decreased in these incubations. These results indicate that the tannins elicited a collective effect on the bacterial population and also suggest a reduction in the population of methanogenic microorganisms as demonstrated by reduced methane production in these experiments. Such a generalized effect could be extrapolated to a reduction in other odor-associated emissions during manure storage. PMID:23149758

  10. Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles is considered. PMID:20807646

  11. ERK Activation by Fucoidan Leads to Inhibition of Melanogenesis in Mel-Ab Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu Seok; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed in the class Phaeophyceae, has been widely studied for its possible health benefits. However, the potential of fucoidan as a possible treatment for hyperpigmentation is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of fucoidan on melanogenesis and related signaling pathways using Mel-Ab cells. Fucoidan significantly decreased melanin content. While fucoidan treatment decreased tyrosinase activity, it did not do so directly. Western blot analysis indicated that fucoidan downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and reduced tyrosinase protein expression. Further investigation showed that fucoidan activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, suggesting a possible mechanism for the inhibition of melanin synthesis. Treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, resulted in the recovery of melanin production. Taken together, these findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits melanogenesis via ERK phosphorylation. PMID:25605994

  12. ERK Activation by Fucoidan Leads to Inhibition of Melanogenesis in Mel-Ab Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu Seok; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Myo-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed in the class Phaeophyceae, has been widely studied for its possible health benefits. However, the potential of fucoidan as a possible treatment for hyperpigmentation is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of fucoidan on melanogenesis and related signaling pathways using Mel-Ab cells. Fucoidan significantly decreased melanin content. While fucoidan treatment decreased tyrosinase activity, it did not do so directly. Western blot analysis indicated that fucoidan downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and reduced tyrosinase protein expression. Further investigation showed that fucoidan activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, suggesting a possible mechanism for the inhibition of melanin synthesis. Treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, resulted in the recovery of melanin production. Taken together, these findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits melanogenesis via ERK phosphorylation. PMID:25605994

  13. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  14. Interfering with UDP-GlcNAc metabolism and heparan sulfate expression using a sugar analog reduces angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Xander M.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A.; Dona, Margo; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; van de Westerlo, Els M.; Kusters, Lisanne J.; Khaled, Yasmine; Jokela, Tiina A.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Kremer, Hannie; Stringer, Sally E.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; van Wijk, Erwin; van Delft, Floris L.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS), a long linear polysaccharide, is implicated in various steps of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. We successfully interfered with HS biosynthesis using a peracetylated 4-deoxy analog of the HS constituent GlcNAc and studied the compound's metabolic fate and its effect on angiogenesis. The 4-deoxy analog was activated intracellularly into UDP-4-deoxy-GlcNAc and HS expression was inhibited up to ~96% (IC50 = 16 ?M). HS chain size was reduced, without detectable incorporation of the 4-deoxy analog, likely due to reduced levels of UDP-GlcNAc and/or inhibition of glycosyltransferase activity. Comprehensive gene expression analysis revealed reduced expression of genes regulated by HS binding growth factors as FGF-2 and VEGF. Cellular binding and signaling of these angiogenic factors was inhibited. Micro-injection in zebrafish embryos strongly reduced HS biosynthesis, and angiogenesis was inhibited in both zebrafish and chicken model systems. All these data identify 4-deoxy-GlcNAc as a potent inhibitor of HS synthesis which hampers pro-angiogenic signaling and neo-vessel formation. PMID:23972127

  15. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  16. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherif Hassan; Sanaa Abd El-Twab; Mona Hetta; Basant Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids,

  17. Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Lin; C. C. Wang; S. C. Chang; B. Stephen Inbaraj; B. H. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus was evaluated. Polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, protein hydrolysis, dialysis, and fractionation with a DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column. A total of 4 fractions, including 1 neutral polysaccharide (LBPN) and 3 acidic polysaccharides were obtained, and compared with crude polysaccharide (CP), crude extract of polysaccharide (CE),

  18. POLYSACCHARIDES: MOLECULES, CLUSTERS, NETWORKS AND INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the structural organization of polysaccharides with respect to molecules, clusters (aggregates), networks and interactions. As for proteins, different levels of structural organization exist for polysaccharides. The primary structure describes the covalent sequence of monosaccha...

  19. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of ? and ? glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  20. In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferation Activities of Polysaccharides from Various Extracts of Different Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lu; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from eight kinds of Chinese mushrooms using three solvents and were evaluated for their total carbohydrate, polyphenolic and protein contents, and antioxidant and anti-proliferation activities. The results suggested that all the polysaccharides had significant antioxidant capacities (EC50 ranged from 1.70 ± 0.42 to 65.98 ± 1.74 ?M TE/g crude polysaccharide inhibition of ABTS+, EC50 ranged from 5.06 ± 0.12 to 127.38 ± 1.58 mg VCE/g CP scavenging of OH· and EC50 ranged from 0.70 ± 0.04 to 33.54 ± 0.49 mg VCE/g CP inhibition of lipid peroxidation) (TE: trolox equivalent; VCE: VC equivalent; CP: crude polysaccharide). The acid extracts of Russula vinosa Lindblad had the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. Aqueous extracts of Dictyophora indusiata and Hohenbuehelia serotina possessed, respectively, the highest OH· scavenging capacity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Mushroom extracts also inhibited proliferation of HeLa and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the mushroom polysaccharides might be potential antioxidant resources. PMID:22754332

  1. The beneficial properties of marine polysaccharides in alleviation of allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Marine polysaccharides have been found as the principle component in cell wall structures of seaweeds or exoskeletons of crustaceans. Due to numerous pharmaceutical properties of marine polysaccharides such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antitumor, antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticoagulant, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, and antihepatopathy activities, they have been applied in many fields of biomaterials, food, cosmetic, and pharmacology. Recently, several marine polysaccharides such alginate, porphyran, fucoidan, and chitin and its derivatives have been evidenced as downregulators of allergic responses due to enhancement of innate immune system, alteration of Th1/Th2 balance forward to Th1 cells, inhibition of IgE production, and suppression of mast cell degranulation. This contribution, therefore, focuses on antiallergic properties of marine polysaccharides and emphasizes their potential application as bioactive food ingredients as well as nutraceuticals for prevention of allergic disorders. PMID:25379652

  2. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  3. Chondroitin / Dermatan Sulfate Modification Enzymes in Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Habicher, Judith; Haitina, Tatjana; Eriksson, Inger; Holmborn, Katarina; Dierker, Tabea; Ahlberg, Per E.; Ledin, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS). Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS. PMID:25793894

  4. Sulfated glycans in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated glycans such as glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans are key players in both molecular and cellular events of inflammation. They participate in leukocyte rolling along the endothelial surface of inflamed sites; chemokine regulation and its consequential functions in leukocyte guidance, migration and activation; leukocyte transendothelial migration; and structural assembly of the subendothelial basement membrane responsible to control tissue entry of cells. Due to these and other functions, exogenous sulfated glycans of various structures and origins can be used to interventionally down-regulate inflammation processes. In this review article, discussion is given primarily on the anti-inflammatory functions of mammalian heparins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and related compounds as well as the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and the brown algal fucoidans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action of these sulfated glycans in inflammation, helps research programs involved in developing new carbohydrate-based drugs aimed to combat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25576741

  5. Molecular signature of kappa-carrageenan mimics chondroitin-4-sulfate and dermatan sulfate and enables interaction with arylsulfatase B.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2012-09-01

    The common food additive kappa-carrageenan (?-CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide that resembles chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and dermatan sulfate (DS). All have a sulfate group on C4 of a glycoside (galactose for CGN and N-acetylgalactosamine for C4S), and the sulfate-bearing glycoside is linked in a ?-1,4-configuration to an unsulfated, six-carbon sugar (galactose for CGN, glucuronate for C4S and iduronate for DS). The enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfate) is the highly selective enzyme that removes the four-sulfate group from the nonreducing terminus of C4S and DS, thereby regulating subsequent degradation. In this report, ?-CGN is shown to be a substrate for recombinant human ARSB (rhARSB). Sulfate was generated from both C4S and ?-CGN following incubation with rhARSB. Exposure of human colonic epithelial cells to ?-CGN, but not to C4S, produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. The ROS production from ?-CGN was reduced by exposure to rhARSB, but increased by competition from C4S or DS, but not from chondroitin-6-sulfate. Prior treatment of either lambda- or iota-CGN with rhARSB had no impact on ROS, IL-8 or inorganic sulfate production, demonstrating a specific effect of the molecular configuration of ?-CGN. By mimicry of C4S and DS and by interaction with ARSB, ?-CGN can directly interfere with the normal cellular functions of C4S, DS and ARSB. Since C4S and DS are present in high concentration in tissues, the impact of ?-CGN exposure may be due to some extent to interference with the normal biological functions of ARSB, C4S and DS. PMID:22079206

  6. Structure of a sulfated xylogalactan from the calcareous red alga Corallina pilulifera P. et R. (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly I. Usov; Maria I. Bilan; Alexander S. Shashkov

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the calcareous red alga Corallina pilulifera was studied by methylation analysis before and after desulfation or Smith degradation, as well as by 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to consist of d-galactose, l-galactose, 2-O-methyl-l-galactose, -O-methyl-l-galactose, 6-O-methyl-d-galactose, d-xylose, and sulfate in a molar ratio of 29:20:5:2:1:20:23. Its

  7. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell differentiation and cell death. PMID:24344650

  8. Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

    1983-08-01

    The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

  9. Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Abakuks, S.; Deters, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

  10. Controls of Polysaccharide Chemistry on the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Calcium Carbonate Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffre, A. J.; Han, N.; Dove, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Polysaccharide fibrils control the orientation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biominerals. Good examples are found in the multilayered extracellular mucilaginous sheath of green algae and cyanobacteria and in specialized vesicles inside coccolithophorids. More complex organisms such as arthropods and mollusks form biomineralized exoskeletons and shells that consist of insoluble polysaccharides and soluble acid-rich proteins. In these structures, CaCO3 mineral orientation occurs along fibers of the polysaccharide chitin. This raises the question of whether polysaccharide chemistry has specific roles in directing biomineralization. The last three decades of research show that acidic proteins influence CaCO3 polymorph selection, crystallographic orientation, and nucleation and growth rates but little is known about the function of polysaccharides. In fact, polysaccharides are long considered an inert component of organic frameworks. In this experimental investigation, we test the hypothesis that polysaccharides have chemistry-specific influences on calcification by measuring the kinetics of calcite nucleation onto three types of polysaccharide films under controlled solution compositions. Characterized polysaccharides of simple repeating monomer sequences were chosen as model compounds to represent the major carbohydrates seen in microbial and calcifying environments: 1) alginic acid with carboxyl groups, 2) hyaluronic acid with alternating carboxyl and acetylamine groups, and 3) chitosan with amine and acetylamine groups. Biosubstrates were prepared by electrodeposition of these compounds as thin gel-like films onto gold-coated silicon wafers. Using a flow-through cell, heterogeneous nucleation rates of calcite were measured for a suite of supersaturation conditions. These rate data were compared to similar measurements for carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers. Calcite nucleation rates onto the three polysaccharides vary by a factor of 400x. Preliminary analyses of the data attribute these differences to changes in both kinetic and thermodynamic barriers to nucleation. These initial findings indicate that polysaccharide chemistry can have active roles in regulating the kinetics of calcite formation. It may be time to reconsider their presumed function as inert framework molecules for mineralized structures. Future work will investigate CaCO3 nucleation on substrates of polysaccharides with more complex functionalization and monomer sequences to decipher the origins of these effects in promoting or inhibiting mineralization.

  11. Regulation of sulfate transport and synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuki Saito

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that several sulfate transporters — exhibiting different tissue specificities and modes of expression — may play distinct roles in sulfate uptake within specific tissues and in long-distance sulfate translocation. The transcription levels of particular genes and feedback inhibition of serine acetyltransferase play major roles in regulating sulfur assimilation and cysteine synthesis. O-acetylserine and glutathione presumably act within

  12. Mass spectrometric methods for the analysis of heparin and heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lech, Miroslaw; Capila, Ishan; Kaundinya, Ganesh V

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans like heparin and heparan sulfate exhibit a high degree of structural heterogeneity. This structural heterogeneity results from the biosynthetic process that produces these linear polysaccharides in cells and tissues. Heparin and heparan sulfate play critical roles in normal physiology and pathophysiology; hence it is important to understand how their structural features may influence overall activity. Therefore, high-resolution techniques like mass spectrometry represent a key part of the suite of methodologies available to probe the fine structural details of heparin and heparan sulfate. This chapter outlines the application of techniques like LC-MS and LC-MS/MS to study the composition of these polysaccharides, and techniques like GPC-MS that allow for an analysis of oligosaccharide fragments in these mixtures. PMID:25325949

  13. Review: Prospects for the Use of Extracts and Polysaccharides from Marine Algae to Prevent and Treat the Diseases Caused by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Besednova, Natalya N; Zaporozhets, Tatyana S; Somova, Larisa M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H. pylori. In recent years, fucoidans have been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes the data on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H. pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H. pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H. pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H. pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of H. pylori infection. PMID:25660579

  14. Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  15. Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

  16. Retinal structure and function preservation by polysaccharides of wolfberry in a mouse model of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xiao, Jia; Peng, Bo; Xing, Feiyue; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L; Lin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in a variety of genes that are mostly expressed by rod cells, which results in initial death of rod photoreceptors followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. RP is currently untreatable and usually leads to partial or complete blindness. Here, we explored the potential neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides of wolfberry, which are long known to possess primary beneficial properties in the eyes, on photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd10 mouse model of RP. We found that these polysaccharides provided long-term morphological and functional preservation of photoreceptors and improved visual behaviors in rd10 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that polysaccharides exerted neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified that polysaccharides modulated inflammation and apoptosis partly through inhibition of NF-?B and HIF-1? expressions, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated the synergistic protective effects of polysaccharides in preserving photoreceptors against degeneration in rd10 mice. Our study provides rationale and scientific support on using polysaccharides of wolfberry as one supplementary treatment of RP patients in the future. PMID:25535040

  17. Retinal structure and function preservation by polysaccharides of wolfberry in a mouse model of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Xiao, Jia; Peng, Bo; Xing, Feiyue; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L.; Lin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in a variety of genes that are mostly expressed by rod cells, which results in initial death of rod photoreceptors followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. RP is currently untreatable and usually leads to partial or complete blindness. Here, we explored the potential neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides of wolfberry, which are long known to possess primary beneficial properties in the eyes, on photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd10 mouse model of RP. We found that these polysaccharides provided long-term morphological and functional preservation of photoreceptors and improved visual behaviors in rd10 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that polysaccharides exerted neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified that polysaccharides modulated inflammation and apoptosis partly through inhibition of NF-?B and HIF-1? expressions, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated the synergistic protective effects of polysaccharides in preserving photoreceptors against degeneration in rd10 mice. Our study provides rationale and scientific support on using polysaccharides of wolfberry as one supplementary treatment of RP patients in the future. PMID:25535040

  18. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  19. Quantification of free polysaccharide in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q P; Shannon, A G; Heller, R K; Lamb, D H

    2000-01-01

    A precipitation method using deoxycholate/HCI has been applied successfully to separate unconjugated free polysaccharide from carrier protein-bound material in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines. The method effectively separated free and bound polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotypes A, C, W135 and Y. Free polysaccharide remained in the supernatant after deoxycholate treatment while protein-bound polysaccharide was fully precipitated. Testing by both colorimetric assay and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) has confirmed the selective loss of protein-bound polysaccharide in samples of conjugate vaccine or conjugate vaccine mixed with known amounts of free polysaccharide. This rapid separation method requires minimum sample handling and is specific, reproducible, and allows assessment of free polysaccharide levels in vaccines at final container concentration. PMID:11214246

  20. Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Häggblom, M M; Young, L Y

    1990-01-01

    We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 mumol liter-1 day-1. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol greater than 3-chlorophenol greater than 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol. PMID:2094244

  1. Polysaccharides influence the aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum cells and bind to developmentally regulated cell surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Eitle, E; Keller, T; Parish, C R; Parish, R W

    1993-04-01

    Six of ten anionic polysaccharides studied were found to significantly reduce the adhesion of growth-phase Dictyostelium discoideum cells. However, only hyaluronic acid, chondroitin-4-sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate interfered with the adhesion of aggregation-competent cells. Neither EDTA-stable nor EDTA-sensitive adhesion of postaggregation cells were affected by the polyanions. The two chondroitin sulfates influenced the aggregation of cells in submerged cultures, long and broad aggregation streams being formed and the broad sheets of cells eventually building multilayered aggregates. Radioiodination of cell surface proteins followed by cellulose fiber affinity chromatography identified the same nine proteins bound by hyaluronic acid and the chondroitin sulfates, six of which were regulated during development. Protease-resistant anionic material isolated from cells bound the same surface proteins as the three glycosaminoglycans. Discoidin I bound to the uncoupled cellulose fibers, suggesting a structural role for the lectin in the extracellular slime sheath. Anionic polysaccharides and cell surface lectins that bind them may be involved in the cell recognition, cell aggregation, and the cell sorting that occurs during pattern formation. PMID:8482342

  2. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

  3. Marine Polysaccharides in Pharmaceutical Applications: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Laurienzo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The enormous variety of polysaccharides that can be extracted from marine plants and animal organisms or produced by marine bacteria means that the field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of micro-organisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. Following an overview of the current knowledge on marine polysaccharides, with special attention to potential pharmaceutical applications and to more recent progress on the discovering of new polysaccharides with biological appealing characteristics, this review will focus on possible strategies for chemical or physical modification aimed to tailor the final properties of interest. PMID:20948899

  4. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  5. Polysaccharide-based nanocomposites and their applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingying; Monty, Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-03-20

    Polysaccharide nanocomposites have become increasingly important materials over the past decade. Polysaccharides offer a green alternative to synthetic polymers in the preparation of soft nanomaterials. They have also been used in composites with hard nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanomaterials. This mini review describes methods for polysaccharide nanocomposite preparation and reviews the various types and diverse applications for these novel materials. PMID:25498200

  6. Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau

    2008-01-01

    Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia

  7. Capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans modulate production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juliana D. B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Morrot, Alexandre; Heise, Norton; Nunes, Marise P.; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; DosReis, George A.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the in vitro modulation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps) induced in human neutrophils by the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, evaluating the participation of capsular polysaccharides glucuronoxylomanan (GXM) and glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal) in this phenomenon. The mutant acapsular strain CAP67 and the capsular polysaccharide GXMGal induced NET production. In contrast, the wild-type strain and the major polysaccharide GXM did not induce NET release. In addition, C. neoformans and the capsular polysaccharide GXM inhibited PMA-induced NET release. Additionally, we observed that the NET-enriched supernatants induced through CAP67 yeasts showed fungicidal activity on the capsular strain, and neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, collagenase and histones were the key components for the induction of NET fungicidal activity. The signaling pathways associated with NET induction through the CAP67 strain were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD-4). Neither polysaccharide induced ROS production however both molecules blocked the production of ROS through PMA-activated neutrophils. Taken together, the results demonstrate that C. neoformans and the capsular component GXM inhibit the production of NETs in human neutrophils. This mechanism indicates a potentially new and important modulation factor for this fungal pathogen. PMID:25620354

  8. Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) drug candidate, targeting CD4 in lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benchun Miao; Meiyu Geng; Jing Li; Fuchuan Li; Haixia Chen; Huashi Guan; Jian Ding

    2004-01-01

    Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG), a marine sulfated polysaccharide, has entered the Phase II clinical trial in China as the first anti-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) drug candidate obtained from marine organisms. To determine the binding site(s) (receptors) of SPMG in lymphocytes mediating its anti-AIDS activities, fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled SPMG was used to investigate SPMG binding to lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence

  9. BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticle modified biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenming; Wang, Kefeng; Lu, Xiong; Li, Minqi; Liu, Hongrui; Xie, Chaoming; Meng, Fanzhi; Jiang, Ou; Li, Chen; Zhi, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated chitosan/chondrotin sulfate nanoparticles (CHI/CS NPs) are developed to enhance ectopic bone formation on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. BMP-2 contained CHI/CS NPs were prepared by a simple and mild polyelectrolyte complexation process. It does not involve harsh organic solvents and high temperature, and therefore retain growth factors activity. These NPs were immobilized on BCP scaffolds, and realize the sustained release of growth factors from the scaffolds. The bare BCP scaffolds, NP loaded scaffolds (BCP-NP), and NP loaded and polydopamine coated scaffolds (BCP-Dop-NP) were seeded with bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. BMSC culture results indicate that all scaffolds favor cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation. Afterwards, the bare BCP, BCP-NP, and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds were implanted into rabbits intramuscularly to evaluate the ectopic bone formation of scaffolds. In vivo results indicate that the BCP-NP and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds enhance more ectopic bone formation than the bare BCP scaffolds. Both the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide NPs are effective to improve the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. In addition, BCP-NP scaffolds induce more bone formation than BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds. This is because BCP-NP scaffolds harness the intrinsic osteoinductivity BCP and BMP-2, whereas BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds have polydopamine coatings that inhibit the surfaces biological features of BCP scaffolds, and therefore weaken the bone formation ability of scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1520-1532, 2015. PMID:25100662

  10. O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides – the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

  11. Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, John James

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

  12. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  13. Allergy to protamine sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Porsche; Zara R. Brenner

    1999-01-01

    Adverse responses to protamine sulfate have been identified for many years. The antigen-antibody response to protamine sulfate results in a type I anaphylactic reaction. Manifestations of allergic reactions include hypotension, bronchospasm, and skin and mucous membrane reactions. The severity of the adverse responses may vary from mild to causing death. Several potential risk factors for adverse reactions to protamine have

  14. Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin; Department of Zoology REV)

    2001-09-25

    Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

  15. Improvement of the Digestibility of Sulfated Hyaluronans by Bovine Testicular Hyaluronidase: A UV Spectroscopic and Mass Spectrometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Becher, Jana; Möller, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are important, natural polysaccharides which occur in biological (connective) tissues and have various biotechnological and medical applications. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that chemically (over)sulfated GAGs possess promising properties and are useful as implant coatings. Unfortunately, a detailed characterization of these GAGs is challenging: although mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most powerful tools to elucidate the structures of (poly)saccharides, MS is not applicable to high mass polysaccharides, but characteristic oligosaccharides are needed. These oligosaccharides are normally generated by enzymatic digestion. However, chemically modified (particularly sulfated) GAGs are extremely refractive to enzymatic digestion. This study focuses on the investigation of the digestibility of GAGs with different degrees of sulfation by bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH). It will be shown by using an adapted spectrophotometric assay that all investigated GAGs can be basically digested if the reaction conditions are carefully adjusted. However, the oligosaccharide yield correlates reciprocally with the number of sulfate residues per polymer repeating unit. Finally, matrix-laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) MS will be used to study the released oligosaccharides and their sulfation patterns. PMID:24971366

  16. Antiinflammatory activity of the pectic polysaccharide from Comarum palustre.

    PubMed

    Popov, S V; Popova, G Yu; Ovodova, R G; Ovodov, Yu S

    2005-06-01

    A pectic polysaccharide named comaruman (CP) was extracted from the aerial part of Comarum palustre with 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate and subsequent precipitation with ethanol. Oral administration of comaruman (5-100 mg/kg) was found to reduce a paw edema observed 24 h after injection of 2% formalin in mice. A fraction of comaruman (CP-H9) exhibited a similar antiinflammatory activity. Comaruman, CP deprived of lipid, CP purified by proteins and CP fractions obtained with acidic hydrolysis inhibit spontaneous and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro. PMID:15885926

  17. Papillomavirus Microbicidal Activities of High-Molecular-Weight Cellulose Sulfate, Dextran Sulfate, and Polystyrene Sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Neil D.; Reed, Cynthia A.; Culp, Tim D.; Hermonat, Paul L.; Howett, Mary K.; Anderson, Robert A.; Zaneveld, Lourens J. D.

    2001-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight sulfated or sulfonated polysaccharides or polymers cellulose sulfate, dextran sulfate, and polystyrene sulfonate were tested for microbicidal activity against bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) and human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) and type 40 (HPV-40). In vitro assays included the BPV-1-induced focus-forming assay and transient infection of human A431 cells with HPVs. The compounds were tested for microbicidal activity directly by preincubation with virus prior to addition to cell cultures and indirectly by addition of virus to compound-treated cells and to virus-coated cells to test inactivation of the virus after virus-cell binding. The data indicated that all three compounds showed direct microbicidal activity with 50% effective concentrations between 10 to 100 ?g/ml. These concentrations were nontoxic to cell cultures for both assays. When a clone of C127 cells was tested for microbicidal activity, approximately 10-fold-less compound was required to achieve a 50% reduction in BPV-1-induced foci than for the uncloned parental C127 cells. Pretreatment of cells with compound prior to addition of virus also demonstrated strong microbicidal activity with dextran sulfate and polystyrene sulfonate, but cellulose sulfate required several orders of magnitude more compound for virus inactivation. Polystyrene sulfonate prevented subsequent infection of HPV-11 after virus-cell binding, and this inactivation was observed up to 4 h after addition of virus. These data indicate that the polysulfated and polysulfonated compounds may be useful nontoxic microbicidal compounds that are active against a variety of sexually transmitted disease agents including papillomaviruses. PMID:11709319

  18. Verrucomicrobia Are Candidates for Polysaccharide-Degrading Bacterioplankton in an Arctic Fjord of Svalbard

    PubMed Central

    Cardman, Z.; Arnosti, C.; Durbin, A.; Ziervogel, K.; Cox, C.; Steen, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    In Arctic marine bacterial communities, members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are consistently detected, although not typically abundant, in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrotag surveys of the marine water column and in sediments. In an Arctic fjord (Smeerenburgfjord) of Svalbard, members of the Verrucomicrobia, together with Flavobacteria and smaller proportions of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, constituted the most frequently detected bacterioplankton community members in 16S rRNA gene-based clone library analyses of the water column. Parallel measurements in the water column of the activities of six endo-acting polysaccharide hydrolases showed that chondroitin sulfate, laminarin, and xylan hydrolysis accounted for most of the activity. Several Verrucomicrobia water column phylotypes were affiliated with previously sequenced, glycoside hydrolase-rich genomes of individual Verrucomicrobia cells that bound fluorescently labeled laminarin and xylan and therefore constituted candidates for laminarin and xylan hydrolysis. In sediments, the bacterial community was dominated by different lineages of Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria but also included members of multiple phylum-level lineages not observed in the water column. This community hydrolyzed laminarin, xylan, chondroitin sulfate, and three additional polysaccharide substrates at high rates. Comparisons with data from the same fjord in the previous summer showed that the bacterial community in Smeerenburgfjord changed in composition, most conspicuously in the changing detection frequency of Verrucomicrobia in the water column. Nonetheless, in both years the community hydrolyzed the same polysaccharide substrates. PMID:24727271

  19. Antifungal effects of iron sulfate on grapevine fungal pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierrette Fleurat-Lessard; Fabienne Dédaldéchamp; Florence Thibault; Emile Béré; Gabriel Roblin

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the most efficient experimental conditions of iron sulfate use leading to optimal inhibition in the development of fungal pathogens. Assays have been focused on fungal species inducing severe grapevine diseases. FeSO4 directly inhibited the in vitro mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Diplodia seriata, and Neofusicoccum parvum with variable

  20. Impact of sulfation pattern on the conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides as revealed by NMR and MD.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ismael Nl; Wang, Xiaocong; Glushka, John N; Santos, Gustavo Rc; Valente, Ana P; Prestegard, James H; Woods, Robert J; Mourão, Paulo As; Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-05-01

    Sulfated fucans from sea urchin egg jelly express well-defined chemical structures that vary with species. This species specificity regulates the sperm acrosome reaction, a critical step to assure intra-specific fertilization. In addition, these polysaccharides are involved in other biological activities such as anticoagulation. Although sulfation patterns are relevant to the levels of response in both activities, conformation and dynamics of these glycans are also contributing factors. However, data about these features of sulfated fucans are very rare. To address this, we have employed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments combined with molecular dynamics on structurally defined oligosaccharides derived from two sulfated fucans. The results have indicated that the oligosaccharides are flexible in solution. Ring conformation of their composing units displays just the (1)C4 chair configuration. In a particular octasaccharide, composed of two tetrasaccharide sequences, inter-residual hydrogen bonds play a role to decrease dynamics in these repeating units. Conversely, the linking disaccharide [-3)-?-l-Fucp-2([Formula: see text])-(1-3)-?-l-Fucp-4([Formula: see text])-(1-] located right between the two tetrasaccharide units has amplified motions suggested to be promoted by electrostatic repulsion of sulfates on opposite sides of the central glycosidic bond. This conjunction of information about conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides provides new insights to explain how these glycans behave free in solution and influenced by sulfation patterns. It may also serve for future studies concerning structure-function relationship of sulfated fucans, especially those involving sea urchin fertilization and anticoagulation. PMID:25527427

  1. Discoidin-binding polysaccharide from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D N; Lee, S C; Barondes, S H

    1983-07-25

    Extracts of Dictyostelium discoideum grown axenically in a chemically defined medium were evaluated for binding to discoidin I and discoidin II, endogenous lectins of this slime mold. Binding activity was measured by competitive inhibition of 125I-lactosyl-bovine serum albumin binding to the immobilized lectins. With the solubilization procedure used extracts of vegetative cells and of early aggregates had no significant inhibitory activity, but an abundant discoidin-binding substance was detected in late aggregates and fruiting bodies. This material was purified by ethanol and acid precipitation followed by precipitation with discoidin. It is a polysaccharide composed of 77% galactose, 15% N-acetylgalactosamine, 5% glucose, and 3% N-acetylglucosamine and may be a biologically functional ligand for the slime mold lectins, in particular discoidin II. Use of axenic cells was critical in these experiments, since extracts of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes, commonly used as food for D. discoideum, were found to contain substances that react with discoidin. This would complicate isolation of endogenous discoidin ligands from cells raised on bacteria. PMID:6345545

  2. Activation of phospholipase C pathways by a synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E tetrasaccharide promotes neurite outgrowth of

    E-print Network

    Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

    /protein tyrosine phosphatase f and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase B receptor pathways, followedActivation of phospholipase C pathways by a synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E tetrasaccharide polysaccharides to promote the neurite outgrowth of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and the signaling pathways

  3. Solution NMR spectroscopy of food polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many polysaccharides are allowed for direct food use, where they serve a number of useful functions. In addition to possibly being a source of calories, a food polysaccharide may be a dietary fiber, bulking agent, crystallization inhibitor, thickener, encapsulant, gelling agent, foam and emulsion s...

  4. Solution NMR Spectroscopy of Food Polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Cheng; Thomas G. Neiss

    2012-01-01

    Many polysaccharides are allowed for direct food use, where they serve a number of useful functions including dietary fiber, bulking agent, thickener, encapsulant, gelling agent, foam and emulsion stabilizer, protective colloid, emulsifier and suspending agent, adhesive and binder, flocculant, swelling agent, film\\/coat former, or syneresis inhibitor. Many of these polysaccharides have complex structures or are mixtures with different components. Over

  5. Purification, characterization and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii residue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gaoxing; Yang, Wenjian; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Fang, Yong; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-19

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii residue was isolated and further purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography to yield PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3. Molecular weights were determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3 were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Sulfate and uronic acid content, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum were also evaluated. The antitumor activities of the polysaccharides against HepG-2 cells were studied in vitro. Results showed that the three polysaccharides could suppress the proliferation and enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of HepG-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect increased in the order of PEPE-1polysaccharides extracted from P. eryngii residue might be suitable for functional foods and natural antitumor drugs development. PMID:25263894

  6. Allergy to protamine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Porsche, R; Brenner, Z R

    1999-01-01

    Adverse responses to protamine sulfate have been identified for many years. The antigen-antibody response to protamine sulfate results in a type I anaphylactic reaction. Manifestations of allergic reactions include hypotension, bronchospasm, and skin and mucous membrane reactions. The severity of the adverse responses may vary from mild to causing death. Several potential risk factors for adverse reactions to protamine have been identified, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, vasectomy, allergy to fish, prior exposure to protamine sulfate, and the rate of infusion. A case study is presented, and strategies for improving patient outcomes are discussed. PMID:10580216

  7. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  8. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

  9. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide. PMID:25843860

  10. Polysaccharides from Medicinal Herbs As Potential Therapeutics for Aging and Age-Related Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifeng; Ma, Fangli; Hu, Minghua; Xiao, Lingyun; Zhang, Ju; Xiang, Yanxia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have uncovered important aging clues, including free radicals, inflammation, telomeres, and life span pathways. Strategies to regulate aging-associated signaling pathways are expected to be effective in the delay and prevention of age-related disorders. For example, herbal polysaccharides with considerable anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation capacities have been shown to be beneficial in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Polysaccharides capable of reducing cellular senescence and modulating life span via telomere and insulin pathways have also been found to have the potential to inhibit protein aggregation and aggregation-associated neurodegeneration. Here we present the current status of polysaccharides in anti-aging and anti-neurodegenerative studies. PMID:24125569

  11. Isolation and characterization of type IV group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, M R; Benedí, W J; Jennings, H J; Michon, F; DiFabio, J L; Kasper, D L

    1989-01-01

    An antigenically distinct serotype, type IV, has recently been added to the recognized serotypes of group B streptococci (GBS). We isolated and purified the capsular polysaccharide antigen from a prototype type IV GBS strain. The type IV capsular polysaccharide formed a precipitin line with rabbit antiserum to type IV GBS organisms but not with antiserum to organisms of GBS serotype Ia, Ib, II, or III. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition experiments showed no cross-reaction between type IV antiserum and other GBS serotypes. Capsular polysaccharide released from the bacterial cells with mutanolysin and that isolated from the culture supernatant had similar elution profiles on Sepharose CL-6B, with a Kav of 0.30 and an estimated Mr of 200,000. The purified type IV polysaccharide was found to contain galactose, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) as exclusive sugars. The polysaccharide contained 23% (by weight) sialic acid and galactose, glucose, and N-acetylglucosamine in a relative ratio of (1):1.10:0.55. These results are compatible with a repeating structure of six monosaccharide residues containing galactose, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and sialic acid in a molar ratio of 2:2:1:1. Unlike type Ia, II, and III GBS polysaccharides, desialylation of the type IV polysaccharide produced an antigen which formed a line of identity with the native type IV antigen in double diffusion in agar against homologous antiserum. This result suggests that sialic acid is not as critical to the immunodeterminant structure of the type IV antigen as it is for other GBS capsular types. Images PMID:2494110

  12. ROS, Hsp27, and IKK? Mediate Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) Activation of I?Ba, NF?B, and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a sulfated polysaccharide that has been very widely used to induce inflammation in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in which the effects of pharmacologic and biologic therapies are tested. However, the precise mechanisms by which DSS induces inflammation have not been elucidated. Methods DSS-induced increases in phospho-I?B?, nuclear NF?B (p65), and IL-8 secretion in human colonic epithelial cells in tissue culture are attributable to a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pathway of inflammation, and do not require TLR4, MyD88, or Bcl10, which are associated with the innate immune pathway of NF?B-IL-8 activation. Results DSS-induced increases were inhibited by the ROS scavengers Tempol and Tiron, were associated with decreased phosphorylation of MAPK12 (p38?), MAPK 13 (p38?), and Hsp27, and required the I?B kinase (IKK) signalosome component IKK?. In ex vivo colonic tissue from TLR4-deficient mice, or following knockdown of MyD88 or Bcl10 or exposure to an IRAK 1/4 inhibitor, DSS effects were not suppressed. Data demonstrated that DSS activates I?B?, NF?B, and IL-8 through an ROS-Hsp27-IKK?-mediated pathway, and not through an innate immune cascade. Conclusions These results suggest that DSS models of inflammation may not be optimal for evaluation of interventions that involve mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:19085995

  13. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  14. Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

  15. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. PMID:25659711

  16. SULFATE REQUIREMENT FOR IRON OXIDATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS.

    PubMed

    Lazaroff, N

    1963-01-01

    Lazaroff, Norman (British Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, B.C., Canada). Sulfate requirement for iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 85:78-83. 1963.-The growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is initially inhibited in media containing ferrous chloride in place of ferrous sulfate. This inhibition of growth is due to the requirement of a high relative proportion of sulfate ions to chloride (or other anions) for iron oxidation. Adaptation takes place, producing strains which are able to oxidize iron in media containing an initially unfavorable anionic composition. Adaptation is possibly due to the selection of spontaneous mutants capable of oxidizing iron in high chloride, low sulfate media. Such cells are found at a frequency of 10(-5) of the population of unadapted cultures. PMID:16561990

  17. SULFATE REQUIREMENT FOR IRON OXIDATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS

    PubMed Central

    Lazaroff, Norman

    1963-01-01

    Lazaroff, Norman (British Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, B.C., Canada). Sulfate requirement for iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 85:78–83. 1963.—The growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is initially inhibited in media containing ferrous chloride in place of ferrous sulfate. This inhibition of growth is due to the requirement of a high relative proportion of sulfate ions to chloride (or other anions) for iron oxidation. Adaptation takes place, producing strains which are able to oxidize iron in media containing an initially unfavorable anionic composition. Adaptation is possibly due to the selection of spontaneous mutants capable of oxidizing iron in high chloride, low sulfate media. Such cells are found at a frequency of 10?5 of the population of unadapted cultures. PMID:16561990

  18. The aggregation of a?42 induced by nano copper and the antagonistic action of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guoguang; Zou, Jinmei

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effect of A?42 induced by copper nanoparticle (Cu NPs) was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence technique. Five hundred nanometers of copper nanoparticle capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used to evaluate the aggregation and fibrils of A?42. The morphologies of A?42 incubated in the presence of Cu NPs changed gradually. The aggregation and fibrils were observed in AFM images. However, in the presence of polysaccharides, the Cu NPs-induced fibrillation of A?42 was inhibited. Interestingly, the formed Cu NPs-polysaccharides complexes can even remodel the preformed A?42 fibrils into the low neurotoxic amorphous aggregates, which were maybe ascribed to the higher affinity of polysaccharides for A?42 than Cu NPs. Besides, it was found that the binding constant of Cu NPs to A?42 is smaller than that of polysaccharides. The relationship among polysaccharides, copper nanoparticle, and A?42 morphologies and its neurotoxicity were discussed, and the binding force was analyzed. PMID:25410807

  19. Stabilization of mitochondrial and microsomal function by polysaccharide of Ulva lactuca on D-Galactosamine induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Devaki, Thiruvengadam; Sathivel, Arumugam; BalajiRaghavendran, Hanumantha Rao

    2009-01-27

    In this study we used liver mitochondrial and microsomal fraction from rats pretreated with seaweed Ulva lactuca polysaccharide extract (ULP - 200mg/kg body weight, daily for 21 days, oral gavage) on D-Galactosamine (500mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) challenge. Effectiveness of ULP was determined based on functional status of trichloro acetic acid (TCA), urea cycle, and microsomal enzymes. The composition of sulfate polysaccharide content such as total sugars, sulfate and uronic acid were examined. In addition the fine ultra structural changes were examined using electron microscopy (EM). We observed significant (p<0.001) mitochondrial and microsomal abnormalities during liver damage by D-Galactosamine, consequently altering enzymes of energy metabolism. Electron microscopy of D-Galactosamine intoxicated rat liver tissue revealed the swelling and loss of mitochondrial cristae. Conversely the rats pretreated with ULP against D-Galactosamine challenge prevented (p<0.05) the significant abnormality of TCA, microsomal enzymes and severity of mitochondria as observed in EM study in rats injected with D-Galactosamine alone. However no effective prevention was observed in urea cycle enzymes among D-Galactosamine and treatment group rats. These results showed the effectiveness of ULP in stabilizing the functional status of mitochondrial and microsomal membrane which might be due to the presence of sulfated polysaccharide that could prevented the oxidative stress induced by D-Galactosamine intoxication. PMID:19000663

  20. Ulvan Lyases Isolated from the Flavobacteria Persicivirga ulvanivorans Are the First Members of a New Polysaccharide Lyase Family*

    PubMed Central

    Nyvall Collén, Pi; Sassi, Jean-François; Rogniaux, Hélène; Marfaing, Hélène; Helbert, William

    2011-01-01

    Ulvans are complex sulfated polysaccharides found in the cell walls of green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. These polysaccharides are composed of disaccharide repetition moieties made up of sulfated rhamnose linked to either glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, or xylose. Two ulvan lyases of 30 and 46 kDa were purified from the culture supernatant of Persicivirga ulvanivorans. Based on peptide sequencing, the gene encoding the 46-kDa ulvan lyase was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the protein is modular and possesses a catalytic module similar to that of the 30-kDa ulvan lyase along with a module of unknown function. The ulvan-degrading function of the gene was confirmed by expression of the catalytic module in a heterologous system. The gene encoding the catalytic module has no sequence homolog in sequence databases and is likely to be the first member of a novel polysaccharide lyase family. Analysis of degradation products showed that both the 30- and 46-kDa ulvan lyases are endolytic and cleave the glycosidic bond between the sulfated rhamnose and a glucuronic or iduronic acid. PMID:22009751

  1. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Holleman, James W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  2. Separation and purification of Aloe polysaccharides by a combination of membrane ultrafiltration and aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jian-min; Li, Fen-fang

    2009-07-01

    A two-step process was developed for the purification of polysaccharides from the pulp of Aloe varavia using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extraction and a novel copolymer ultrafiltration membrane. The first step was ATPS under optimal separations conditions using a total composition of 18% PEG2000, 25% ammonium sulfate, pH 3.0, and 0.3 M NaCl. To form the copolymer membrane, poly(acrylonitrile-acrylamide-styrene) was prepared by solution polycondensation using azoisobutyronitrile as initiator. Then, membranes were formed from the dissolved copolymer by the phase inversion method. Copolymer structure was investigated by infrared spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The copolymer membrane surface and cross section were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The water flux of this membrane was 26.33 mL/(cm(2) h), and retention was 96% for bovine serum albumin and 34% for dextran T40000. The separation and purification of aloe polysaccharide were carried using this copolymer membrane following ATPS. The TGA of aloe polysaccharide demonstrated a high purity of the polysaccharide. By gas chromatographic analysis, it was shown that mannose is the main monosaccharide in the aloe polysaccharide, and only a few glucose residues are present. PMID:19415529

  3. Uncoupling of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis by brefeldin A

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Brefeldin A has dramatic, well-documented, effects on the structural and functional organization of the Golgi complex. We have examined the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on the Golgi-localized synthesis and addition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate side chains. BFA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan elongation and sulfation onto the core proteins of the melanoma-associated proteoglycan and the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated invariant chain. In the presence of BFA, the melanoma proteoglycan core protein was retained in the ER but still acquired complex, sialylated, N-linked oligosaccharides, as measured by digestion with endoglycosidase H and neuraminidase. The initiation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis was not affected by BFA, as shown by the incorporation of [6-3H]galactose into a protein-carbohydrate linkage region that was sensitive to beta-elimination. The ability of cells to use an exogenous acceptor, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xyloside, to elongate and sulfate core protein-free glycosaminoglycans, was completely inhibited by BFA. The effects of BFA were completely reversible in the absence of new protein synthesis. These experiments indicate that BFA effectively uncouples chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis by segregating initiation reactions from elongation and sulfation events. Our findings support the proposal that glycosaminoglycan elongation and sulfation reactions are associated with the trans-Golgi network, a BFA-resistant, Golgi subcompartment. PMID:1955486

  4. Endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate disrupts zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Kerri A.; Curtis, Lawrence R.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Fish in agricultural and remote areas may be exposed to endosulfan and its degradation products as a result of direct runoff, atmospheric transport and deposition. The following study used the zebrafish developmental model to investigate the responses to endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate, the major degradation product of endosulfan I and II. Embryos were dechorionated and waterborne exposed to the endosulfan I or endosulfan sulfate from 6 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Endosulfan I exposure concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 10 ?g/L and endosulfan sulfate from 1 to 100 ?g/L. Water solutions were renewed every 24 hours and fish were scored for overt developmental and behavioral abnormalities. Chemical analysis was performed on water, whole embryo, and larvae samples to determine waterborne exposure concentrations and tissue concentrations throughout the 5-day period. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint for both endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate was an abnormal response of the embryo/larvae to touch, suggesting that endosulfan I and sulfate are developmentally neurotoxic. The waterborne exposure EC50s for inhibition of touch response for endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate were 2.2 ?g/L and 23 ?g/L, respectively. The endosulfans were highly concentrated by the organisms, and the inhibition of touch response tissue EC50, determined from the measured tissue concentrations, was 367 ng/g for endosulfan I and 4552 ng/g for endosulfan sulfate. PMID:19883949

  5. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. PMID:25081076

  6. Synthesis of a chondroitin sulfate disaccharide library and a GAG-binding protein interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Masahiro; Obata, Rumi; Miyachi, Kento; Kaitsubata, Yuhei; Kondo, Takao; Sakami, Chiho; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS), which belongs to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) superfamily, is a linear sulfated polysaccharide involved in various biological processes. CS structure is very heterogeneous and contains various sulfation patterns owing to the multiple and random enzymatic modifications that occur during its biosynthesis. The resultant microdomain structure in the CS chain interacts with specific biomolecules to regulate biological functions. Therefore, an analysis of the structure-activity relationship of CS at the molecular level is necessary to clarify their biofunctions. In this study, we designed the common intermediate possessing an orthogonally removable protective group and systematically synthesized all 16 types of CS disaccharide structure generated by sulfation. In addition, we demonstrated the on-time analysis of the binding properties of GAG-binding proteins using 'Sugar Chip' immobilized CS disaccharide structures by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging, indicating that our chip technology is effective for the evaluation of binding properties. PMID:25765912

  7. Polysaccharide Based Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gemma Leone; Rolando Barbucci

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Polysaccharide based hydrogels for their physico-chemical and biological properties can be used as scaffolds for soft tissue\\u000a regneration and as vehicles for drug controlled release. For both these applications, Hyaluronan shows optimal characteristics\\u000a even though its quick enzymatic degradability makes this natural polysaccharide unsuitable for applications which require\\u000a prolonged presence in the human organism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a For this reason, new semisynthetic polysaccharides

  8. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin?

    PubMed Central

    Maccarana, Marco; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Kongsgaard, Mads; Magnusson, S. Peter; Oldberg, Åke; Malmström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile strength of DS-epi1-null skin. PMID:19687302

  9. Cytotoxic effects against HeLa cells of polysaccharides from seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Stevan, F R; Oliveira, M B; Bucchi, D F; Noseda; Iacomini, M; Duarte, M E

    2001-10-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from several red and brown seaweeds growing along the South American coasts were evaluated regarding their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cells. Sulfated galactans were isolated and purified from the red algae Bostrychia montagnei (BHW and B4 fractions, 17 and 22% SO3Na, respectively) and Porphyra columbina (PC75 fraction, 15.6% SO3Na). At maximum concentration of 80 microg/mL, these fractions promoted atypical mitoses in HeLa cells, presence of atypical nuclei and blebs. Alginic acid (160.0 microg/mL) isolated from the brown seaweed Laminaria brasiliensis (molar ratio M/G 1.2) and its M and G blocks (40.0 microg/mL; DP = 20), promoted similar morphologic alterations besides the presence of acidophilic material in the cellular cytoplasm and occurrence of multinuclear cells present in the monolayer. The polysaccharide fraction SF isolated from the brown seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum containing mainly fucose and presenting molar ratio of sulfate/sugar 1.9, promoted very accentuated morphologic modifications in HeLa cells at low concentrations. SF (2.5 microg/mL) caused significant alterations in the cellular morphology and reduction of the growth, such effects being dose dependent. At 40.0 microg/mL, accentuated decrease of the number of mitosis illustrations accompanied by an increase in the number of condensed cells, atypical nuclei, number of clusters and blebs. These results demonstrated that among the anionic polysaccharides tested, the sulfated fucans were those which caused greater cytotoxic effects in HeLa cells. PMID:11989782

  10. Serogroup quantitation of multivalent polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate meningococcal vaccines from China.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew C; Gibeault, Sabrina; Filippenko, Vasilisa; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Junzhi; Kunkel, Jeremy P

    2013-07-01

    The active components of most meningococcal vaccines are four antigenic serogroup capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). The vaccines, monovalent or multivalent mixtures of either free polysaccharides or polysaccharides conjugated to antigenic carrier proteins, may be in liquid or lyophilised formulations, with or without excipients. Acid hydrolysis and chromatographic methods for serogroup quantitation, which were previously optimised and qualified using polysaccharide-based standards and a narrow range of real vaccines, are here challenged with multiple lots of a broad assortment of additional multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccine products. Centrifugal filtration successfully removed all interfering lactose excipient without loss of polysaccharides to allow for the determination of Y and W135 serogroups. Replicate operations by three different analysts indicated high method reproducibility. Results indicated some lot-to-lot and product-to-product variations. However, all vaccines were within general specifications for each serogroup polysaccharide, with the exception of all lots of one polysaccharide vaccine - which by these methods were found to be deficient in the serogroup A component only. These robust techniques are very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and consistency of manufacture. The deformulation, hydrolysis and chromatographic methods may be adaptable for the evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines. PMID:23665303

  11. Ortho-Tolidine and Sodium Hypochlorite for the Determination of Carrageenan and Other Ester Sulfates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horace D. Graham

    1972-01-01

    Carrageenan and other sulfated poly- saecharides react with o-tolidine and sodium hypochlorite in a buffered me- dium to produce a purple or purplish- green color with maximum absorption at 545 to 550 nm, pH 1.4; 550 urn, pH 2.0; 565 to 570 urn, pI-I 2.5; and 590 to 595 nm, pH 3.0. Proteins, carboxylie, phos- phorylated and neutral polysaccharides do

  12. Isolation and Culture of a Marine Bacterium Degrading the Sulfated Fucans from Marine Brown Algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Descamps; Sébastien Colin; Marc Lahaye; Murielle Jam; Christophe Richard; Philippe Potin; Tristan Barbeyron; Jean-Claude Yvin; Bernard Kloareg

    2006-01-01

    Fucoidans are matrix polysaccharides from marine brown algae, consisting of an ?-l-fucose backbone substituted by sulfate-ester groups and masked with ramifications containing other monosaccharide residues.\\u000a In spite of their interest as biologically active compounds in a number of homologous and heterologous systems, no convenient\\u000a sources with fucanase activity are available yet for the degradation of the fucalean algae. We here

  13. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis determination of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate as a contaminant in heparin preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Volpi; Francesca Maccari; Robert J. Linhardt

    2009-01-01

    A simple, accurate, and robust quantitative capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) as a contaminant in heparin (Hep) preparations is described. After degradation of the polysaccharides by acidic hydrolysis, the hexosamines produced (i.e., GlcN from Hep and GalN from OSCS) were derivatized with anthranilic acid (AA) and separated by means of CE in approximately

  14. Nucleolin: acharan sulfate-binding protein on the surface of cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Ji Joo; G. B. ten Dam; A. H. M. S. M. van Kuppevelt; Toshihiko Toida; Robert J. Linhardt; Yeong Shik Kim

    2005-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides that participate in the regulation of physiological processes through the interactions with a wide variety of proteins. Acharan sulfate (AS), isolated from the giant African snail Achatina fulica, primarily consists of the repeating disaccharide structure alpha-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl (1-->4) 2-sulfoiduronic acid. Exogenous AS was injected subcutaneously near the tumor tissue in C57BL\\/6 mice that had been implanted

  15. Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

    2014-09-01

    Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 ?g/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

  16. Role of chondroitin sulfate C in the action of anthrax toxin.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyun Chan; Kim, Na Young; Hur, Gyeung Haeng; Yang, Jai Myung; Shin, Sungho

    2012-07-16

    Anthrax toxin is produced by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, and is responsible for the majority of disease symptoms. The toxin consists of 3 proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), which combine to form lethal and edema toxin. Glycosaminoglycans, which are present on the surface of cells, were investigated with regard to their role in toxicity resulting from anthrax toxin exposure. Lethal toxin-induced cytotoxicity of the RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by the addition of chondroitin sulfate C as determined by the MTT assay. By contrast, several other glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate did not show significant levels of inhibition. Studies utilizing fluorescence-labeled PA demonstrated decreased PA binding to RAW 264.7 cells with the addition of chondroitin sulfate C. Formation of PA oligomers at the surface of cells after binding was also inhibited by chondroitin sulfate C. Interestingly, enzymatic degradation of endogenous chondroitin sulfate C from the cell surface with chondroitinase ABC was accompanied by increased sensitivity to the toxin. These findings were further confirmed by pretreating cells with sodium chlorate to reduce the degree of cell surface glycosaminoglycans sulfation. In addition, chondroitin sulfate C effectively inhibits edema toxin-induced cAMP accumulation in cells. Our results indicate that chondroitin sulfate C may play an important role in the toxicity of anthrax toxin. PMID:22503668

  17. Extraction, isolation and analysis of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takuo; Betti, Mirko; Pietrasik, Zeb

    2010-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) copolymers are anionic straight chain polysaccharides. They are galactosamine containing GAGs (galactosaminoglycans) having wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. This article reviews techniques to isolate and characterize these galactosaminoglycans from animal and poultry tissues. Patent based information is also discussed. Cartilaginous tissues are the major source of CS consisting entirely of D-glucuronosyl-N-acetylgalactosamine repeating disaccharide units, in which the galactosamine is sulfated at C4 or C6. In contrast, most galactosaminoglycans in non-cartilaginous connective tissues (e.g. skin and tendon) are CS/DS copolymers comprised of varying proportions of D-glucuronosyl-N-acetylgalactosamine and L-iduronosyl-N-acetylgalactosamine. Tissues are digested with proteinase (e.g. papain) to liberate GAGs, which are fractionated to isolate and purify galactosaminoglycans. Common techniques used for fractionation of GAGs include: precipitation with different concentrations of ethanol; solubilization of GAG precipitated as GAG-quarternary ammonium compound complexes with different concentrations of NaCl; anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Purified galactosaminoglycans are examined by various methods including chondroitinase digestion, high performance liquid chromatography and electrophoresis. Histological methods are used to localize galactosaminoglycans in tissues. The patent information on the CS hydrolase and ultraviolet irradiation may be useful for the preparation of CS oligosaccharide. PMID:20653551

  18. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Kerryn; Meikle, Peter; Hopwood, John; Fuller, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA), which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues. PMID:25513953

  19. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Mei Shao; Hui Dai; Wen Xu; Zhi-Bin Lin; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB\\/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H\\/HeJ

  20. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  1. Conformational Analysis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Side Chains of Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C–H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc–GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  2. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  3. Glucosamine sulfate--environmental antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2009-10-01

    We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk (every media of 20 ml) left opened for 1 week with and without Arthryl supplements 1,500 mg, the content of one package of the medication. A similar volume (20 ml) is ingested in taking the medication. Experiments with three repeatable results were taken for consideration. Arthryl inhibited environmental bacterial colonies' growth in every media but fungi growth was not impaired. Milk stayed liquid for the whole week with supplement of the Arthryl compared with sour milk transformation without Arthryl. Sample B showed inhibitory properties of the bacterial colonies on the fungi growth. The sample with Arthryl showed progressive growth of fungi without bacterial growth after 10 days of follow up compared with bacterial growth on media without Arthryl. Glucosamine sulfate as a new trademark Arthryl has environmental antibacterial properties but does not inhibit growth of fungal colonies. PMID:19495827

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  5. Antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Soniamol; Sabulal, Baby; George, Varughese; Antony, Kuttikkadan Rony; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

    2011-09-01

    In this study, polysaccharides were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Polyporaceae) and their antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using in vivo models. Potential antitumor activity was shown by G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) against solid tumor induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells. GLP at 100 mg kg(-1) body mass showed 80.8 and 77.6% reduction in tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively, when administered 24 h after tumour implantation. Again, GLP at the same dose but when administered prior to tumour inoculation, showed 79.5 and 81.2% inhibition of tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively. GLP showed significant dose-dependent activity in carrageenean-induced (acute) and formalin-induced (chronic) inflammation assays. At 100 mg kg(-1), GLP exhibited 57.6 and 58.2% inhibition in carrageenean-induced and formalin-induced assays, respectively. PMID:21945912

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of oral crude tea flower polysaccharides on alloxan modeling Sprague–Dawley rats and the possible mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlin Wei; Xuan Cai; Shuangli Xiong; Yuanfeng Wang

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly focused on the hypoglycemic effects of green tea flower polysaccharides (TFPS) and their possible mechanisms about regulating concentration of blood glucose. An alloxan-induced Sprague–Dawley (SD) rat model was used to observe the change in blood glucose. Inhibition rate of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, and antioxidant ability of TFPS were also tested to explain the possible mechanism. The results

  7. Effect of fatty acids on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum in shake flask cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan-Chiang Yang; Yn-Fuu Ke; Shanq-Shin Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Fatty acids were added into the media to investigate their effects on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum. The experiments were carried out in freely suspended cultures or immobilized cultures using shake flasks. The results indicate that the extent of stimulation or inhibition were associated with the types and levels of fatty acids. Oleic acid at the

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  12. Fucoidan from Laminaria cichorioides inhibits AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Yeon; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Kusaykin, Michail I; Shevchenko, Natalya M; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N; Choi, Hong Seok

    2008-08-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, has anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Unlike heparine, fucoidan is known to exhibit anticarcinogenic activities. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the chemopreventive activities of fucoidan are not understood. Here we report that fucoidan from Laminaria cichorioides inhibited the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced neoplastic cell transformation, but had less cytotoxic effects on JB6 mouse epidermal cells. The EGF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and c-Jun was inhibited by fucoidan, resulting from the inhibition of phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Fucoidan dose-dependently attenuated the c-fos or c-jun transcriptional activity, and thereby inhibited the associated activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation activity. In vitro binding assay revealed that fucoidan directly interacted with EGF, suggested that antitumor promoting effect of fucoidan might be due to preventing the binding of EGF to its cell surface receptor (EGFR). These findings are the first to reveal a molecular basis for the anticarcinogenic action of fucoidan and may partially account for the reported chemopreventive effects of brown seaweeds. PMID:18302141

  13. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zengtao; Chen, Xiuping; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Chen, Lidian; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), a basidiomycete white rot fungus, has long been prescribed to prevent and treat various human diseases, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from G. lucidum, such as triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, sterols, and alkaloids, among others. This paper examines the potential role of G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) in tumor therapy and the possible mechanisms involved. Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the anti-tumor activities of GLPS are mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic effects. GLPS affects immune cells and immune-related cells including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In addition, recent data also suggest that GLPS suppresses tumorigenesis or inhibits tumor growth through direct cytotoxic effect and anti-angiogenic actions. However, many questions still need to be answered before both G. lucidum and GLPS can be widely accepted and used as anti-tumor agents. PMID:21213395

  14. PIMLUCK KIJJANAPANICH SULFATE REDUCTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Metals from Acid Mine Drainage 37 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Material and Methods 39 3.2.1 Acid mine drainage (AMD) 39 3.2.2 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculums 40 3.2.3 Organic substrates 40 3 Reduction in Gypsiferous Mine Soils from Nakhon Si Tham

  15. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  16. Discrepancies in composition and biological effects of different formulations of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Farran, Aina; Montell, Eulàlia; Vergés, Josep; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common, progressive joint disease, and treatments generally aim for symptomatic improvement. However, SYmptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs in Osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) not only reduce joint pain, but slow structural disease progression. One such agent is chondroitin sulfate-a complex, heterogeneous polysaccharide. It is extracted from various animal cartilages, thus has a wide range of molecular weights and different amounts and patterns of sulfation. Chondroitin sulfate has an excellent safety profile, and although various meta-analyses have concluded that it has a beneficial effect on symptoms and structure, others have concluded little or no benefit. This may be due, at least partly, to variations in the quality of the chondroitin sulfate used for a particular study. Chondroitin sulfate is available as pharmaceutical- and nutraceutical-grade products, and the latter have great variations in preparation, composition, purity and effects. Moreover, some products contain a negligible amount of chondroitin sulfate and among samples with reasonable amounts, in vitro testing showed widely varying effects. Of importance, although some showed anti-inflammatory effects, others demonstrated weak effects, and some instances were even pro-inflammatory. This could be related to contaminants, which depend on the origin, production and purification process. It is therefore vitally important that only pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate be used for treating osteoarthritis patients. PMID:25756648

  17. Glycosaminoglycans in Human and Bovine Serum: Detection of Twenty-Four Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Motifs Including a Novel Sialic Acid-modified Chondroitin Sulfate Linkage Hexasaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; McDowell, Lynda M.; Studelska, Daniel R.; Zhang, Lijuan

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides are important components of blood circulation. Changes in GAG quantity and structure in blood have been indicated in cancers and other human diseases. However, GAG quantities and structures have not been fully characterized due to lack of robust and sensitive analytical tools. To develop such tools, we isolated GAGs from serum and plasma. We employed liquid chromatography (LC) for GAG quantification and LC/mass spectrometry (MS) for GAG structural analysis. Twenty-four heparan and chondroitin sulfate motifs were identified, including linkage hexasaccharides, repeating disaccharide compositions, reducing, and non-reducing end mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide structures. Disaccharides were detectable at picomolar level without radiolabeling or derivitization, so only a few ml of human and fetal bovine serum was required for this study. The detection of different reducing end structures distinct from GAG linkage hexasaccharides revealed that free GAG chains generated by GAG degradation enzymes co-existed with proteoglycans in serum. In addition, a novel sialic acid-modified linkage hexasaccharide was found conjugated to bikunin, the most abundant serum proteoglycan. PMID:20657722

  18. 4, 29492971, 2004 Ammonium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2949­2971, 2004 Ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid aerosols C. F. Braban and J. P. D. Abbatt and Physics Discussions A study of the phase transition behavior of mixed ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid Ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid aerosols C. F. Braban and J. P. D. Abbatt Title Page Abstract Introduction

  19. Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Kluger, Bernhard; Sarkanj, Bojan; Lemmens, Marc; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96 h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061 mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059 mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44× less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range. PMID:25492089

  20. Lectin Site Interaction with Capsular Polysaccharide Mediates Nonimmune Phagocytosis of Type III Group B Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Albanyan, Esam A.; Edwards, Morven S.

    2000-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes substantial morbidity but most individuals exposed to the organism remain healthy. These experiments tested the hypothesis that engagement of the complement receptor 3 (CR3) lectin site would effectively trigger neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of complement-opsonized type III GBS by nonimmune human sera. Using an opsonophagocytosis assay, saccharides identified as interacting with the CR3 lectin site effectively inhibited neutrophil-mediated killing of type III, strain COH1. Fructose, which does not interact with the lectin site, promoted significantly less inhibition of opsonophagocytosis. Saccharide-mediated inhibition was reversed in a dose-related fashion by addition of type III, GBS capsular polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G. When capsule-deficient or asialo mutant type III strains were employed, the lectin site was not required. Structurally defined GBS serotypes with a side chain at least two sugars in length engaged the lectin site, and N-acetyl d-glucosamine was not a required component monosaccharide. Intact type III capsular polysaccharide interacted significantly more efficiently with the lectin site than did oligosaccharides representing approximately 5 or 20 repeating units, respectively. Taken together, these experiments indicate that interaction of type III GBS capsular polysaccharide with the lectin site of CR3 effects phagocytosis of these organisms by nonimmune serum. Use of this mechanism of innate immunity provides a potential explanation for the infrequency with which susceptible individuals exposed to type III GBS develop invasive infection. PMID:10992487

  1. Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan and Heparin Enhance the Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Tube Formation of Endothelial Cells through Heparan Sulfate-Dependent  6 Overexpression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DELPHINE CHABUT; ANNE-MARIE FISCHER; SYLVIA COLLIEC-JOUAULT; INGRID LAURENDEAU; SABINE MATOU; BERNARD LE BONNIEC; DOMINIQUE HELLEY

    2003-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) activates its high-affinity receptors (FGFRs) but also acts through interaction with hepa- ran sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Exogenous polysaccharides also modulate the angiogenic activity of FGF-2. We investi- gated the effect and mechanism of action of a low molecular weight fucoidan derivative (LMWF) on tube formation by human endothelial cells. LMWF has a better arterial antithrombotic

  2. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor ?, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  3. Inhibition of sulfotransferases by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Quan; James, Margaret O

    2006-01-01

    The sulfotransferase (SULT) family comprises important phase II conjugation enzymes for the detoxification of xenobiotics and modulation of the activity of physiologically important endobiotics such as thyroid hormones, steroids, and neurotransmitters. SULT enzymes catalyze the transfer of a sulfuryl group, donated by 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), to an acceptor substrate that may be a hydroxy group or an amine group in a process originally called sulfation, but more correctly referred to as sulfonation or sulfurylation. SULT activity may be inhibited when humans are exposed to certain xenobiotics including drugs (mefenamic acid, salicylic acid, clomiphene, danazol etc.), dietary chemicals (catechins, food colorants, flavonoids and phytoestrogens etc.), and environmental chemicals (hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls, hydroxylated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, triclosan and bisphenol A, etc.). Inhibition of individual SULT isoforms may cause adverse effects on human health. For example, hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls have been shown to interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones, inhibit estradiol sulfonation, and inhibit thyroid hormone sulfonation, thereby potentially disrupting the thyroid hormone system. Formation of sulfate conjugates of toxic xenobiotics usually decreases their toxicity, so inhibition of this pathway may lead to prolonged exposure to the compounds. Conversely, some sulfate conjugates are chemically reactive, inhibition of their formation may protect from toxicity. This manuscript will review the literature concerning the inhibition of SULTs by xenobiotics including isoform-selective effects, inhibition kinetics and health effects resulting from the inhibition. PMID:16454694

  4. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, David S. (Stone Mountain, GA); Gudlavalleti, Seshu K. (Kensington, MD); Tzeng, Yih-Ling (Atlanta, GA); Datta, Anup K. (San Diego, CA); Carlson, Russell W. (Athens, GA)

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  5. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nagae, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions. PMID:24595239

  6. Structure of a fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber. Evidence for the presence of 3-O-sulfo-beta-D-glucuronosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R P; Mulloy, B; Mourão, P A

    1991-07-25

    The structure of a unique focose-branched chondroitin sulfate isolated from the body wall of a sea cucumber was examined in detail. This glycosaminoglycan contains side chain disaccharide units of sulfated fucopyranosyl units linked to approximately one-half of the glucuronic acid moieties through the O-3 position of the acid. The intact polysaccharide is totally resistant to chondroitinase degradation, whereas, after defucosylation, it is partially degraded by the enzyme. However, only after an additional step of desulfation, the chondroitin from sea cucumber is almost totally degraded by chondroitinase AC or ABC. This result, together with the methylation and NMR studies of the native and chemically modified polysaccharide, suggest that besides the fucose branches, the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate contains sulfate esters at position O-3 of the beta-D-glucuronic acid units. Furthermore, the proteoglycan from the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate is recognized by anti-Leu-7 monoclonal antibody, which specifically recognizes 3-sulfoglucuronic acid residues. In analogy with the fucose branched units, the 3-O-sulfo-beta-D-glucuronosyl residues are resistant to chondroitinase degradation. Regarding the position of the glycosidic linkage and site of sulfation in the fucose branches, our results suggest high heterogeneity. Tentatively, it is possible to suggest the preponderance of disaccharide units formed by 3,4-di-O-sulfo-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl units glycosidically linked through position 1----2 to 4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-fucopyranose. Finally, the presence of unusual 4/6-disulfated disaccharide units, together with the common 6-sulfated and non-sulfated units, was detected in the chondroitin sulfate core of this polysaccharide. PMID:1906878

  7. Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Fomitskaya, Polina A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl ?-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 ?-l-fucosyl or ?-l-fucosyl-(1?3)-?-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific ?-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-?-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the ?-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  8. Synthesis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Branching Sites of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Fomitskaya, Polina A.; Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl ?-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 ?-l-fucosyl or ?-l-fucosyl-(1?3)-?-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific ?-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-?-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the ?-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  9. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  10. Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

  11. Chemical characterization, antiproliferative and antiadhesive properties of polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus pulmonarius mycelium and fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Iris; Levinson, Dana; Peri, Irena; Tekoah, Yoram; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

    2010-02-01

    Mushroom polysaccharides are potent substances that exhibit antitumor and immunomodulatory properties. Studies comparing the chemical composition and antitumor-related activities of polysaccharides released by fungal strains under different growth conditions are not available. Thus, the present study compared polysaccharides extracts produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius from mycelium grown in liquid culture (ME) or fruiting bodies (FBE). Polysaccharides of both ME and FBE had a relatively high molecular mass. NMR spectroscopy indicated that ME glucan is an alpha-glucan whereas FBE glucan is a mixture of both alpha- and beta-glucans. Glucose and galactose where the most prominent monosaccharide in both glucans. Treatment of several colon cancer cell lines expressing varying amounts of galectin-3 with the two fungal glucans inhibited their viability and significantly reduced their ability to adhere to the key component of the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, and to a human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayer, in a time- and dose-dependent manner mainly in those cell lines expressing high amounts of galectin-3. We conclude that ME and FBE glucans may exert a direct antiproliferative effect on cancer cells expressing high galectin-3 concentrations and concomitantly downregulate tumor cell adherence, the latter being directly related to cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:19830415

  12. In vitro antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of polysaccharides extracted from Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenfei; Liu, Min; Fang, Zhexiang; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-06-01

    A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (WPS) was obtained from Laminaria japonica by hot water extraction. Three major polysaccharide fractions (WPS-1, WPS-2 and WPS-3) were purified from WPS by anion-exchange chromatography. Monosaccharide components analysis indicated that galactose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS and WPS-3, accounting for 56.25% and 54.11%, respectively. And fucose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS-1 and WPS-2, accounting for 46.91% and 45.1%, respectively. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that WPS-2 showed significant function of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and WPS-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical. Cytotoxicity of all polysaccharide fractions was evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Results showed that WPS-1 and WPS-2 significantly inhibited the growth of A375 cells and low anti-proliferative effects of WPS-2 on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were observed. These results suggested that the polysaccharide fraction of WPS-2 might be explored as a potential safe antioxidant and antitumor agent. PMID:22521618

  13. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor A. Schepetkin; Gang Xie; Liliya N. Kirpotina; Robyn A. Klein; Mark A. Jutila; Mark T. Quinn

    2008-01-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through

  14. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nosá?ová, Gabriela; Prisenž?áková, Lubica; Koš?álová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. PMID:21062638

  15. Cryptococcal polysaccharides bind to CD18 on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Z M; Murphy, J W

    1997-01-01

    CD18, the beta chain of the beta 2 integrin family of adhesion molecules, is associated with three different alpha chains (CD11a, -b, and -c) and is expressed on the surface of all types of leukocytes. CD18-containing molecules are up-regulated on the surface of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMN]) in response to chemotactic agents and are implicated in mediating adhesion to an inflamed endothelium, which is a prerequisite to migration of PMN into infected tissues. In a previous study, we found that a cryptococcal culture filtrate (CneF), when injected into the bloodstream of mice to simulate the antigenemia in cryptococcosis, inhibits PMN accumulation at the site of an inflammatory stimulus. In the present study, we assessed the ability of CneF and its individual components, i.e., glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), and mannoprotein (MP), to interact with CD18 on human PMN. CneF labeled with 14C was shown to bind to human PMN in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of PMN with anti-CD18, but not an isotype-matched control monoclonal antibody (MAb) or anti-CD11a MAb, blocked the binding of 14C-labeled CneF to PMN. In addition, CneF, GXM, and GalXM but not MP significantly blocked the binding of the anti-CD18 MAb to CD18 on the surface of unactivated and formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine-activated PMN as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometric analysis. In the same experiments, the cryptococcal polysaccharides did not affect the binding of an anti-CD11a or anti-L-selectin MAb to the surface of PMN at 4 degrees C. The results suggest that CneF and its components GXM and GalXM bind to CD18 on human PMN. Based on our findings, we propose that CD18 is a possible molecular target of cryptococcal polysaccharides and that binding of the polysaccharides to CD18 has the potential to inhibit leukocyte infiltration into inflammatory sites. PMID:9009313

  16. Maintaining quality of litchi fruit with acidified calcium sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acidified calcium sulfate (ACS) on quality of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv ‘Brewster’) fruit after harvest was evaluated. ACS at 1.25% or higher concentrations significantly inhibited the activities of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in pericarp during storage at both 5 and 10 ºC...

  17. Remodeling bacterial polysaccharides by metabolic pathway engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wen; Liu, Xianwei; Li, Yanhong; Li, Jianjun; Xia, Chengfeng; Zhou, Guangyan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Peng George

    2009-01-01

    Introducing structural modifications into biomolecules represents a powerful approach to dissect their functions and roles in biological processes. Bacterial polysaccharides, despite their rich structural information and essential roles in bacterium-host interactions and bacterial virulence, have largely been unexplored for in vivo structural modifications. In this study, we demonstrate the incorporation of a panel of monosaccharide analogs into bacterial polysaccharides in a highly homogenous manner via metabolic engineering of a promiscuous sugar nucleotide biosynthetic pathway. In addition, the bioorthorgonal functional groups metabolically incorporated were exploited for cell surface labeling using in vitro selective chemical ligation reactions. In summary, our study presents a general, facile and effective approach for in vivo generation of novel tailor-made bacterial polysaccharides. PMID:19251666

  18. Rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract by spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minxia; Shen, Jie; Yang, Kai; Qian, Songxiang; Feng, Sujuan

    2010-01-01

    A simple approach for the rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract using spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The mixed standard solution composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, galactose and D-xylose in different proportions (1.00: 1.01: 0.12: 0.05) was prepared according to the monosaccharide composition analysis of the polysaccharides by GC-MS. The determination of polysaccharides by UV-Vis spectrophotometer was performed after 35-min color reaction, in which 1 ml 5% phenol and 4 ml sulfate was used. The assay of the method validation has shown that the method was stable, reliable and feasible. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied in the preparation procedure of BianTi Soft Extract, selecting out optimal decoction conditions and suitable decoction container. It suggests that the convenient method could be useful for the quality control of BianTi Soft Extract. Meanwhile, it may be an alternative for polysaccharides determination of other formulations. PMID:20668575

  19. Role of Heparan Sulfate in Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Paul J; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitous and structurally diverse cell surface polysaccharide and extracellular matrix component, is a factor common to several major eye pathologies. Its multitude of functions and variable distribution among the different ocular tissues makes it an important contributor to a variety of disease states. Although HS facilitates the pathogenesis of many disorders, its role in each varies. Unique functions of HS have been particularly noted in viral and bacterial keratitis and age-related macular degeneration. Combined, these pathologies comprise a large portion of conditions leading to visual impairment worldwide. Given this prevalence of diseases facilitated by HS, it is prudent to take an in-depth look at this compound in the context of these pathologic states. While the initial part of the review will discuss the pathogenic aspects of HS, it is also important to consider the wider implications of such roles for HS. The remainder of the article will specifically address one such implication, the possibility for future use of novel HS-based therapeutics to combat these eye pathologies. PMID:23410824

  20. Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Miguel A.; Vargas, Miguel A.; Regueiro, Verónica; Llompart, Catalina M.; Albertí, Sebastián; Bengoechea, José A.

    2004-01-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the defense of areas exposed to microorganisms. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APs) are one of the most important weapons of this system and that they make up the protective front for the respiratory tract. On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). Klebsiella pneumoniae CPS mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to human neutrophil defensin 1, ?-defensin 1, lactoferrin, protamine sulfate, and polymyxin B. K. pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O antigen did not play an important role in AP resistance, and CPS was the only factor conferring protection against polymyxin B in strains lacking O antigen. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the amount of CPS expressed by a given strain and the resistance to polymyxin B. We also showed that K. pneumoniae CPS mutant bound more polymyxin B than the wild-type strain with a concomitant increased in the self-promoted pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that CPS protects bacteria by limiting the interaction of APs with the surface. Finally, we report that K. pneumoniae increased the amount of CPS and upregulated cps transcription when grown in the presence of polymyxin B and lactoferrin. PMID:15557634

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

  2. Heparan Sulfate Differences in Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Healthy Sera

    PubMed Central

    López-Hoyos, Marcos; Seo, Youjin; Andaya, Armann; Leary, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex and highly variable polysaccharide, expressed ubiquitously on the cell surface as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and found in the extracellular matrix as free HS fragments. Its heterogeneity due to various acetylation and sulfation patterns endows a multitude of functions. In animal tissues, HS interacts with a wide range of proteins to mediate numerous biological activities; given its multiple roles in inflammation processes, characterization of HS in human serum has significant potential for elucidating disease mechanisms. Historically, investigation of HS was limited by its low concentration in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix. In this study, we used a modified mass spectrometry method to examine HS disaccharide profiles in the serum of 50 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared our results to 51 sera from healthy women. Using various purification methods and online LC-MS/MS, we discovered statistically significant differences in the sulfation and acetylation patterns between populations. Since early diagnosis of RA is considered important in decelerating the disease's progression, identification of specific biomolecule characterizations may provide crucial information towards developing new therapies for suppressing the disease in its early stages. This is the first report of potential glycosaminoglycan biomarkers for RA found in human sera, while acknowledging the obvious fact that a larger population set, and more stringent collection parameters, will need to be investigated in the future. PMID:25217862

  3. The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Park, Hyeon-soo; Xia, Yong-mei; Kim, Gon-sup; Cui, Steve W

    2014-03-15

    Medicinal mushroom polysaccharides such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) have been commonly hypothesized to suppress tumor cells proliferation through immune effects. To verify this hypothesis through investigating comprehensive miRNA expression in polysaccharide treated cancer cells, an anticancer mycelia GLP was employed to disclose miRNA differential expression of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), by using a miRNA microarray assay based on Sanger miR-Base Release 16. The experiment and the analysis result indicates that among the 61 differential expressed miRNAs (p ? 0.01), 17 of them were regulated significantly. GLP can inhibit HepG2 cells directly through regulation of hepatocarcinoma genes. A newly found miR-3131 exhibited the strongest upregulation (92-folds, Log2 = 6.53, p = 0.000016). The miRNAs responded synergistically in both hepatocarcinoma and immune-related aspects. PMID:24528735

  4. Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane. PMID:24052236

  5. Structure of a homofructosan from Saussurea costus and anti-complementary activity of its sulfated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Fei; Bligh, S W Annie; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-05-25

    A homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharide APS-W1, (2?1)-?-d-fructofuranosan, with an average molecular weight of 3.9kDa, was isolated and characterized from the roots of Saussurea costus. Five sulfated derivatives of APS-W1 with different degrees of sulfation were prepared and they showed strong inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classical pathway (CP50: 2.2-18.9?g/mL; 8.3?g/mL for heparin) and alternative pathway (AP50: 11.4-115.8?g/mL; 89.2?g/mL for heparin). Mechanism studies by using complement-depleted sera indicated that sulfated derivatives with different positions of sulfation targeted to different complement proteins. Meanwhile the sulfated derivatives have limited anticoagulant effect based on re-calcification time and thrombin time. These results suggested that the sulfated derivatives prepared from APS-W1 could be promising potential complement inhibitors for the treatment of diseases caused by an over-activated complement system. PMID:24708964

  6. Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bathe, Mark; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS intrinsic stiffness, and steric interactions on CS osmotic pressure are investigated. At physiological ionic strength (0.15 M NaCl), the sulfation type and pattern, as measured by a standard statistical description of copolymerization, are found to have a negligible influence on CS osmotic pressure, which depends principally on the mean volumetric fixed charge density. The intrinsic backbone stiffness characteristic of polysaccharides such as CS, however, is demonstrated to contribute significantly to its osmotic pressure behavior, which is similar to that of a solution of charged rods for the 20-disaccharide chains considered. Steric excluded volume is found to play a negligible role in determining CS osmotic pressure at physiological ionic strength due to the dominance of repulsive intermolecular electrostatic interactions that maintain chains maximally spaced in that regime, whereas at high ionic-strength steric interactions become dominant due to electrostatic screening. Osmotic pressure predictions are compared to experimental data and to well-established theoretical models including the Donnan theory and the Poisson-Boltzmann cylindrical cell model. PMID:16055525

  7. Observation of an Organic-Inorganic Lattice Match during Biomimetic Growth of (001)-Oriented Calcite Crystals under Floating Sulfate Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kewalramani, S.; Kim, K; Stripe, B; Evmenenko, G; Dommett, G; Dutta, P

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular layers rich in amino acids and with some sulfated polysaccharides appear to control oriented calcite growth in living organisms. Calcite crystals nucleating under floating acid monolayers have been found to be unoriented on average. We have now observed directly, using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, that there is a 1:1 match between the monolayer unit cell and the unit cell of the (001) plane of calcite. Thus, sulfate head groups appear to act as templates for the growth of (001)-oriented calcite crystals, which is the orientation commonly found in biominerals.

  8. Anticorrosive Microbial Polysaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble microbial polysaccharides are often implicated in biofilm formation and are believed to mediate cell-cell aggregation and adhesion to surfaces. Generally, biofilm formation is considered harmful or undesirable, as it leads to increased drag, plugging of pores, dimished heat transfer, ...

  9. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    E-print Network

    Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from

  10. Controlled functionalization of the polysaccharide chitin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Kurita

    2001-01-01

    In view of rapidly growing interest in the amino polysaccharide chitin as a functional biopolymer, a recent progress of basic and application studies in chitin chemistry is reviewed as well as some basic aspects of this specialty biomass resource. A special emphasis is placed on the controlled modification reactions to prepare chitin derivatives with well-defined structures and thereby to construct

  11. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  12. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  13. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Pascale B.; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

  14. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

  15. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  16. Biosynthesis of poly(?-glutamic acid) from l -glutamic acid, citric acid, and ammonium sulfate in Bacillus subtilis IFO3335

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Kunioka; Atsuo Goto

    1994-01-01

    Poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) production in Bacillus subtilis IFO3335 was studied. When l-glutamic acid, citric acid, and ammonium sulfate were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, a large amount of PGA without a by-product such as a polysaccharide was produced. The time courses of cell growth, PGA, glutamic acid, and citric acid concentrations during cultivation were investigated. It was found that

  17. Organics, soot, and ambient sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.

    1982-09-01

    Evidence is presented for significant local sulfate formation, the existence of a chemical link between ambient sulfate and organic particulate material is postulated, and a new SO/sub 2/ oxidation process by a reaction between organic products of incomplete combustion and SO/sub 2/ is described. Specifically, results of field studies on the relationship among sulfate, SO/sub 2/, and carbonaceous particles, speciation of sulfate and nitrogenous species, and laboratory results on certain aspects of SO/sub 2/ oxidation are presented. It is concluded that in highly polluted atmospheres, large concentrations of ambient sulfate can be produced by conversion of locally emitted SO/sub 2/ by a process that is largely independent of SO/sub 2/ but proportional to soot concentration. Ambient sulfate from many locations is found as anomalous ammonium sulfate where charged organic nitrogen complexes substitute for ammonium ions. Such sulfate is found when the aerosol is rich in organic constituents. The reaction between pyrolysis products of hydrocarbon fuels and SO/sub 2/ is an efficient mechanism for sulfate ion formation. This reaction is strongly dependent on combustion conditions.

  18. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts and polysaccharide fractions from mycelium and fruit bodies of higher fungi].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kosogova, T A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Shcherbakova, N S; Gorbunova, I A; Mikha?lovskaia, I N; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2010-01-01

    Sixty preparations of basidiomycetes (Ganoderma, Lentinus, Pleurotus, Laetiporus, Polyporus, Inonotus, Flammulina, Grifola, Trametes) were investigated with respect to their toxicity for Vero cells and antiviral activity. The antiviral activity was estimated with the use of the West Nile virus and type 2 Herpes simplex. It was shown that 11 preparations of Ganoderma, Lentinus and Pleurotus completely inhibited the infective activity in doses not lower than 1000 TCD50 (the West Nile virus) and 100 PPU (type 2 Herpes simplex). The antiviral activity of the preparations was likely due to the content of polysaccharides or their derivatives in the composition. It increased with increasing of the quantity of the total polysaccharide fraction or its concentration. PMID:21400748

  19. Structural features and antitumor activity of a purified polysaccharide extracted from Sargassum horneri.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Liu, Jia; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Zhongxiang; Sun, Peilong

    2015-02-01

    A polysaccharide fraction (SHPSA) was obtained from Sargassum horneri by hot-water extraction and sequential purification of anion-exchange chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. SHPSA was found to be a neutral polysaccharide fraction with an average molecular weight of 5.78×10(5) Da and composed of T-D-Glcp, 1,3-D-Glcp, 1,6-D-Glcp and 1,3,6-D-Glcp in a molar percentage of 1.00:4.17:1.17:0.89, respectively. Based on the results from chemical analysis, NMR, and SHPSA was determined to be a glucan with ?-(1?6) side chains linked to a ?-(1?3) backbone with relatively few branch points. Moreover, SHPSA could inhibit the growth of human colon cancer DLD cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing the apoptosis of DLD cells. So, SHPSA was promising for future use as a natural antitumor agent. PMID:25450044

  20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a mechanosensor on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Florian, Jeffry A; Kosky, Jason R; Ainslie, Kristy; Pang, Zhengyu; Dull, Randal O; Tarbell, John M

    2003-11-14

    The objective of this study was to test whether a glycosaminoglycan component of the surface glycocalyx layer is a fluid shear stress sensor on endothelial cells (ECs). Because enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production in response to fluid shear stress is a characteristic and physiologically important response of ECs, we evaluated NOx (NO2- and NO3-) production in response to fluid shear stress after enzymatic removal of heparan sulfate, the dominant glycosaminoglycan of the EC glycocalyx, from cultured ECs. The significant NOx production induced by steady shear stress (20 dyne/cm2) was inhibited completely by pretreatment with 15 mU/mL heparinase III (E.C.4.2.2.8) for 2 hours. Oscillatory shear stress (10+/-15 dyne/cm2) induced an even greater NOx production than steady shear stress that was completely inhibited by pretreatment with heparinase III. Addition of bradykinin (BK) induced significant NOx production that was not inhibited by heparinase pretreatment, demonstrating that the cells were still able to produce abundant NO after heparinase treatment. Fluorescent imaging with a heparan sulfate antibody revealed that heparinase III treatments removed a substantial fraction of the heparan sulfate bound to the surfaces of ECs. In summary, these experiments demonstrate that a heparan sulfate component of the EC glycocalyx participates in mechanosensing that mediates NO production in response to shear stress. The full text of this article is available online at http://www.circresaha.org. PMID:14563712

  1. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    Evidence is presented for the possible formation and existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost on Mars. Acidic groundwater, derived from atmospheric oxidation of volcanogenic H2S to H2SO4 aerosols, promoted chemical weathering of fayalitic olivines, iron-rich pyroxenes, plagioclase feldspar, and pyrrhotite-pentlandite mineral assemblages in crustal ultramafic and basic igneous rocks. The acidic groundwater entered into electrochemical reactions with the iron sulfides, yielding dissolved FeSO4+, Fe(SO4)2-, and FeOH2+ complex ions, and the precipitation of basic ferric sulfate minerals such as those belonging to the roemerite, copiapite, botryogen, and jarosite-alunite groups. These phases are stabilized at low temperatures and pH in Martian permafrost. The occurrence of jarosites in terrestrial arid regions suggests that they could also survive on the surface of Mars. Melting of the permafrost and raising of the pH may have initiated the hydrolysis of dissolved ferric sulfato complex ions and led to the precipitation of FeOOH, which reacted with precipitated silica to form phyllosilicates. Alternatively, degradation of the hydrolysate FeOOH to Fe2O3 during sublimation of permafrost exposed on Mars' surface may account for the presence of eolian maghemite suspected to be the magnetic mineral observed on the Viking Landers.

  2. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-09-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible formation and existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost on Mars. Acidic ground water, derived from atmospheric oxidation of volcanogenic H2S to H2SO4 aerosols, promoted chemical weathering of fyalitic olivines, iron-rich pyroxenes, plagioclase feldspar, and pyrrhotite-pentlandite mineral assemblages in crustal ultramafic and basic igneous rocks. The acidic groundwater entered into electrochemical reactions with the iron sulfides, yielding dissolved FeSO4+, Fe(SO4)2-, and FeOH2+ complex ions, and the precipitation of basic ferric sulfate minerals such as those belonging to the roemerite, copiapite, botryogen, and jarosite-alunite groups. These phases are stabilized at low temperatures and pH in Martian permafrost. The occurrence of jarosites in terrestrial arid regions suggests that they could also survive on the surface of mars. Melting of the permafrost and raising of the pH may have initiated the hydrolysis of dissolved ferric sulfato complex ions and led to the precipitation of FeOOH, which reacted with precipitated silica to form phyllosilicates. Alternatively, degradation of the hydrolysate FeOOH to Fe2O3 during sublimation of permafrost exposed on Mars' surface may account for the presence of eolian maghemite suspected to be the magnetic mineral observed on the Viking Landers.

  3. Sulfation of melatonin: Enzymatic characterization, differences of organs, species and genders, and bioactivity variation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangge; Huo, Xiaokui; Dong, Peipei; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Chao; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaochi

    2015-04-15

    Exogenous melatonin (Mel) is widely used in clinic for multiple therapeutic purposes. In metabolism pathways of Mel, 6-hydroxymelatonin-sulfate (S-O-Mel) and N-acetylserotonin sulfate (S-NAS) are the most abundant metabolites account for over 90% of total Mel metabolites in humans, indicating that sulfation plays an important role in reflecting the functions and clearance of Mel in vivo. In the present study, we characterized Mel sulfation using various human organ cytosols (liver, lung, kidney, small intestine and brain), liver cytosols from five different animal species, and cDNA-expressed human sulfotransferase (SULT) for the first time. Our results demonstrated that liver, lung, kidney and small intestine of humans had high catalytic efficiency for Mel sulfation, however, brain contained a very low reaction rate. Interestingly, organ cytosols prepared from females exhibited higher sulfation activity than those of males. SULT isoforms 1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1 and 1E1 exhibited metabolic activities toward Mel. According to kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), chemical inhibition, correlation analysis, molecular docking and sulfation assays with recombinant human SULTs isoforms, SULT1A1 was determined as the major enzyme responsible for Mel sulfation. Furthermore, considerable species differences in Mel sulfation were observed, and the total intrinsic clearance rate of Mel sulfation was as follows: monkey>rat>dog>human>pig>mouse. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects of Mel and its sulfated metabolites were evaluated by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, and S-O-Mel as a bioactive form, exhibited potent bioactivity. Our investigation provided a global view of the enzyme-dependent sulfation of Mel that can guide biomedical research on Mel. PMID:25738837

  4. Plagioclase dissolution during CO?-SO? cosequestration: effects of sulfate.

    PubMed

    Min, Yujia; Kubicki, James D; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-02-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising methods to mitigate the adverse impacts of global climate change. The performance of GCS can be affected by mineral dissolution and precipitation induced by injected CO2. Cosequestration with acidic gas such as SO2 can reduce the high cost of GCS, but it will increase the sulfate's concentration in GCS sites, where sulfate can potentially affect plagioclase dissolution/precipitation. This work investigated the effects of 0.05 M sulfate on plagioclase (anorthite) dissolution and subsequent mineral precipitation at 90 °C, 100 atm CO2, and 1 M NaCl, conditions relevant to GCS sites. The adsorption of sulfate on anorthite, a Ca-rich plagioclase, was examined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and then simulated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the dissolution rate of anorthite was enhanced by a factor of 1.36 by the formation of inner-sphere monodentate complexes between sulfate and the aluminum sites on anorthite surfaces. However, this effect was almost completely suppressed in the presence of 0.01 M oxalate, an organic ligand that can exist in GCS sites. Interestingly, sulfate also inhibited the formation of secondary mineral precipitation through the formation of aluminum-sulfate complexes in the aqueous phase. This work, for the first time, reports the surface complexation between sulfate and plagioclase that can occur in GCS sites. The results provide new insights for obtaining scientific guidelines for the proper amount of SO2 coinjection and finally for evaluating the economic efficiency and environmental safety of GCS operations. PMID:25549263

  5. Structural requirements for species-specific induction of the sperm acrosome reaction by sea urchin egg sulfated fucan.

    PubMed

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Vacquier, Victor D

    2002-11-01

    The sulfated fucan (SF) of egg jelly induces the acrosome reaction (AR) of sea urchin sperm. Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Sf) SF is sulfated only at the 2-position. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp) has two SF isotypes, each one being female specific. One is rich in sulfate at both the 2- and 4-positionS (SF-1), and the other is rich in sulfate at the 4-position, but not the 2-position (SF-2). Sf SF is poor at inducing the AR of Sp sperm, presumably due to lack of 4-sulfation. Sp SF-1 is better at inducing the AR of Sf sperm than Sp SF-2, hypothetically due to increased 2-sulfation. Chemical oversulfation of Sf SF increases the percentage of AR of Sp sperm, showing that 4-sulfation is important for recognition of SF by Sp sperm. Chemically oversulfated Sp SF-2 is better at inducing the Sf sperm AR, presumably because of increased 2-sulfation. The species, Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis (Sd), has an SF-2 that is exclusively 2-sulfated (like Sf), except the glycosidic linkage in Sd is alpha(1-->4), whereas in Sf it is alpha(1-->3). Sd SF-2 does not induce the AR of Sf sperm, showing the strict requirement for the alpha(1-->3) linkage in recognition between Sf sperm and SF. Egg jelly from Echinometra lucunter (El) contains sulfated galactan (SG) which differs from Sf SF only in that the monosaccharide is L-galactose, not L-fucose. This SG and Sf SF are equally potent in inducing the AR of Sf sperm, showing that modification at C6 of L-fucose is not important for proper recognition between SF and Sf sperm receptors. This system permits study of the structural basis for recognition between sulfated polysaccharide and receptors controlling signal transduction pathways in animal cells. PMID:12413955

  6. Antitumor activity of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide fractions on Ehrlich tumor and Sarcoma 180.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Jean Mary; Alves, Endi Pricila; Aguilera, Charlise; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Silveira, Marcia Luciane Lange; Wisbeck, Elisabeth; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida

    2014-07-01

    The medicinal properties of fungi of the genus Pleurotus have attracted great interest due to their therapeutic properties. Polysaccharides synthesized by Pleurotus, including the ?-glucans are considered the main responsible for its therapeutic properties. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of polysaccharidic fractions extracted from mycelial biomass of Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 in inhibiting the development of Ehrlich Tumor (ET) and Sarcoma 180 (S-180). FC, FI and FII fractions provided 60.6, 76.5 and 73.6% of ET inhibition, respectively (mean value of about 70%) while FS, FIII-1 and FIII-2 showed no inhibition against ET. FII and FIII-2 resulted in 85.6 and 93.6% (mean value of about 90%) while FIII-1, FC and FS resulted in 54.1 and 0%, respectively, of S-180 inhibition. The yields of the fractions FS, FI, FII, FIII-1 and FIII-2 obtained from P. ostreatus mycelial biomass were 11.6, 1.3, 0.4, 0.65 and 0.35%, respectively. FII fraction (30mg/kg) apparently had no toxic effect on healthy animals, since no difference between the body weights of animals in substance control (SC) and negative control (NC) groups was observed. PMID:24768967

  7. Preparation of free-standing films of natural polysaccharides using hot press technique and their surface functionalization with biomimetic apatite.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Mineo; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Ohashi, Masafumi

    2011-11-01

    This study demonstrated that gel-like polyion complexes obtained by mixing of aqueous solution of chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and hyaluronic acid with that of chitosan were able to form their free-standing films using hot press treatments. These films, having thicknesses ca. 50 and 100 ?m, depending on the spacer thickness, were homogeneous and non-porous at the microscopic level, and were not water-soluble. The present fabrication process required neither cross-coupling agents nor introduction of other functional groups to the polysaccharides. Hydroxyapatite deposition on the film surfaces under body fluid conditions was also achieved. PMID:21839621

  8. Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Seneff, Stephanie

    mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 through sta0n inhibi0on." *Do healthy people with highCholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots

  9. Integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUIDO DAVID

    1993-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is a regulatory polysac- charide. It modulates specific growth factor-receptor in- teractions, accelerates the formation of specific proteinase- proteinase inhibitor complexes, and mediates interactions of the cell surface with several enzymes and structural proteins. It abounds on the surfaces of embryonic cells, respecting or outlining morphogenetic rather than histo- logical boundaries. This cell surface-associated heparan sulfate is implanted

  10. ?-Amylase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Wu, Di; Ning, Xin; Yang, Guang; Lin, Ziheng; Tian, Meihong; Zhou, Yifa

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ?-amylase-assisted extraction was used to isolate the polysaccharide that remained in hot water-extracted ginseng. The yield of the polysaccharide was 9.0%, almost equal to that of the hot water-extracted polysaccharide. Using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography, the polysaccharide was fractionated into a neutral polysaccharide fraction and six pectic fractions. The neutral fraction accounted for 76% of the polysaccharide and contained both amylopectin and amylose. The pectic polysaccharide fractions were identified to be arabinogalactan, type-I rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan-type pectin by high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Structural and lymphocyte proliferation activity results showed that these polysaccharides were different from those extracted by hot water, indicating that ginseng contains complex polysaccharides with diverse structures, which results in its diverse pharmacological activities. The ?-amylase-assisted extraction is a novel method for preparing ginseng polysaccharides and could be applied toward the further study and exploration of ginseng. These findings provide technical and theoretical support for ginseng pharmacology. PMID:25616118

  11. Molecular Structure of Sulfate ion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-11

    Sulfate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in minerals and rocks, and in soil it is one of the most predominant anions. This substance results from the oxidation of elemental sulfur, sulfides, or organic sulfur. While sulfate is one of the least toxic anions, it is monitored under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The anion is used in mining, pulping, metal and plating industries, water and sewage treatment, leather processing and in the manufacture of numerous chemicals, dyes, glass, soaps, textiles, fungicides, insecticides, astringents, and emetics. Various sulfate salts are used in foods, the estimated daily intake of sulfate from the consumption of food is approximately 453 milligrams (mg). Sulfate can have a cathartic effect on humans which results in the purgation of the alimentary canal, when 1000-2000 mg is ingested.

  12. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-12-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

  13. Tunable Heparan Sulfate Mimetics for Modulating Chemokine Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans participate in critical biological processes by modulating the activity of a diverse set of protein binding partners. Such proteins include all known members of the chemokine superfamily, which are thought to guide the migration of immune cells through their interactions with HS. Here, we describe an expedient, divergent synthesis to prepare defined HS glycomimetics that recapitulate the overall structure and activity of HS glycosaminoglycans. Our approach uses a core disaccharide precursor to produce a variety of differentially sulfated glycopolymers. We demonstrate that a specific trisulfated mimetic antagonizes the chemotactic activity of the proinflammatory chemokine RANTES with potency similar to that of heparin, without inhibiting serine proteases in the blood coagulation cascade. Our work provides a general strategy for modulating chemokine activity and dissecting the pleiotropic functions of HS/heparin through the presentation of defined sulfation motifs within polymeric scaffolds. PMID:23879859

  14. Renal localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, D. J.; Oegema, T. R.; Eisenstein, R.; Furcht, L.; Michael, A. F.; Brown, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Glomerular localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS-proteoglycan) has been studied immunohistochemically with a highly purified antiserum to bovine aorta HS-proteoglycan core protein. The specificity of the antiserum was enhanced by consecutive fibronectin and chondroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (CS-DS proteoglycan) affinity chromatography. The affinity-purified HS-proteoglycan antibody lacked cross-reactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with CS-DS proteoglycan, fibronectin, laminin, and Type IV collagen. Reactivity of the antiserum with HS-proteoglycan antigen by ELISA was inhibited by HS core protein derived from CsCl density gradient centrifugation after heparinase treatment of the HS-proteoglycan. Immunofluorescent reactivity of the HS-proteoglycan antiserum was observed with bovine glomerular basement membrane, renal interstitium, Bowman's capsule, renal arterioles, and bovine aorta. No staining was seen with rat, mouse, or human glomeruli. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6222657

  15. Sequential degradation of chondroitin sulfate in molluscs. Desulfation of chondroitin sulfate without prior depolymerization by a novel sulfatase from Anomalocardia brasiliana.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Júnior, J F; Nader, H B; Dietrich, C P

    1990-11-25

    A sulfatase acting upon chondroitin sulfate polymers, free of beta-glucuronidase and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidases, was isolated from extracts of the mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana. The enzyme totally desulfates both chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates without concomitant depolymerization of the compounds. It has no activity upon heparan sulfate, heparin, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate disaccharides. It shows a pH of 5.0 and a temperature of 37 degrees C for optimum activity with a Km of 4 x 10(-5) M. The sulfatase is inhibited by sulfate and phosphate ions and HgCl2. The latter inhibition is reverted by sodium tetrathionate. Contrary to the sulfatases described so far the enzyme is activated by the lactone of D-saccharic acid when in the presence of beta-glucuronidase and beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Several experiments indicate that the sulfatase is the first enzyme in the sequential degradation of chondroitin sulfate in the mollusc. This differs from the pathway of degradation of this compound in vertebrates and bacteria. PMID:2122969

  16. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  17. Liberation of sulfate from sulfate esters by soils.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, C; Rose, R A

    1976-01-01

    When incubated with acid, alkaline, and neutral soils, a variety of synthetic sulfate esters representing the various classes of these compounds was hydrolyzed by enzymes, probably of microbial origin. The appearance of sulfate in the soil water occurred immediately after introduction into the soils with some esters, whereas with others it occurred only after lag periods. Heat treatment destroyed the hydrolytic acitivity in the soils. The ester sulfate groups present in humic acid extracted from the soil appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of sulfohydrolases extracted from bacteria and other organisms. Images PMID:938044

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis of Bacterial (Lipo)Polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Volpi; Francesca Maccari

    \\u000a Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are major components of the outer ­membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and, along with some acidic\\u000a polysaccharides, are important macromolecules belonging to bacteria. The recent emergence of modern ­analytical tools for\\u000a their study has produced a virtual explosion in the field of glycomics. Capillary electrophoresis (CE), due to its high resolving\\u000a power and sensitivity, has been useful in the

  19. Preparation and Chiral Recognition of Polysaccharide-Based Selectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikai, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yoshio

    Among more than one hundred commercially available CSPs, those based on the phenylcarbamates of polysaccharides including cellulose and amylose have been recognized as the most powerful for the resolution of a wide range of racemates, and nearly 90% of chiral compounds can be resolved at the analytical level using the polysaccharide-based CSPs. Although the qualitative understanding of the chiral recognition mechanism of polysaccharide-based CSPs is rather difficult in contrast to the small molecule-based CSPs, several attempts have made for comprehension of the chromatographic behavior on the polysaccharide-based CSPs. In this chapter, after describing the development of the polysaccharide-based CSPs with high recognition ability, special emphasis is placed on the mechanistic study of the polysaccharide-based CSPs on the basis of spectroscopic and computational methods.

  20. Polysaccharide Nanosystems for Future Progress in Cardiovascular Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Amanda Karine Andriola; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides have received a lot of attention in the biomedical field. Indeed, sources of polysaccharides, extracted or produced from plants, bacteria, fungi or algae, are diverse and renewable. Moreover, recent progresses in polysaccharide chemistry and nanotechnologies allow elaborating new dedicated nanosystems. Polysaccharide-based nanosystems may be designed for interacting in several biological processes. In particular, the atherothrombotic pathology is highly concerned by polysaccharide-mediated recognition. Atherothrombotic diseases, regardless of the anatomical localization, remain the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. This review intends to provide an overview on polysaccharide-based nanosystems as drug delivery systems and targeted contrast agents for molecular imaging with an emphasis on the treatment and imaging of cardiovascular pathologies. PMID:24723980

  1. Polysaccharide purification from Haemophilus influenzae type b through tangential microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Albani, Silvia Maria Ferreira; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Fratelli, Fernando; Junior, Celso Preto Cardoso; Iourtov, Dmitri; Cintra, Felipe de Oliveira; Takagi, Mickie; Cabrera-Crespo, Joaquin

    2015-02-13

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a human pathogen that causes meningitis in infants worldwide. Capsular polysaccharide linked to a protein has been used as an efficient vaccine, and this approach has reduced the incidence of Hib disease since its inclusion in national immunisation campaigns. The traditional polysaccharide downstream process is based on several ethanol precipitations, treatment with detergents and centrifugation. The aim of this study was to introduce tangential microfiltration (TMF) in the place of centrifugation to simplify handling and to scale up the process. The purity of the polysaccharide was RPNA=1747.2 and RPPrt=196.1 for nucleic acid and protein, respectively, meeting the quality requirements for this polysaccharide. Moreover, the polysaccharide was recognised by at specific antibody, and the ribose and phosphate contents were within the expected limits. Thus, we established a process for the purification of capsular polysaccharide produced by H. influenzae type b that is effective, robust and feasible to be scaling up. PMID:25458274

  2. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  3. Rheological studies of polysaccharides for skin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nalinda; Mueller, Anja; Hirschi, Stanley; Rakesh, Leela

    2014-05-01

    Polysaccharide hydrogels are good candidates for skin scaffolds because of their inherent biocompatibility and water transport properties. In the current study, hydrogels were made from a mixture of four polysaccharides: xanthan gum, konjac gum, iota-carrageenan, and kappa-carrageenan. Gel formation, strength, and structure of these polysaccharides were studied using rheological and thermal techniques. All gel samples studied were strong gels at all times because of the gradual water loss. However, after 12 h of storage, elastic (G') and loss (G'') moduli of hydrogel mixture containing all the ingredients is of one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of mixtures not containing either xanthan gum or iota-carrageenan, which confirmed the varied levels of gel strength. This is mainly due to the rate of water loss in each of these mixtures, resulting in gels of varying structures and dynamic moduli over a period of time. Iota-carrageenan and xanthan gum differ in their effect on gel strength and stability in combination with konjac gum and kappa-carrageenan. PMID:23703897

  4. Molecular mechanism of substrate specificity for heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhui; Sheng, Juzheng; Krahn, Juno M; Perera, Lalith; Xu, Yongmei; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Dou, Wenfang; Liu, Jian; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an abundant polysaccharide in the animal kingdom with essential physiological functions. HS is composed of sulfated saccharides that are biosynthesized through a complex pathway involving multiple enzymes. In vivo regulation of this process remains unclear. HS 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST) is a key enzyme in this pathway. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ternary complex of 2OST, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate, and a heptasaccharide substrate. Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis and specific oligosaccharide substrate sequences, we probed the molecular basis of specificity and 2OST position in the ordered HS biosynthesis pathway. These studies revealed that Arg-80, Lys-350, and Arg-190 of 2OST interact with the N-sulfo groups near the modification site, consistent with the dependence of 2OST on N-sulfation. In contrast, 6-O-sulfo groups on HS are likely excluded by steric and electrostatic repulsion within the active site supporting the hypothesis that 2-O-sulfation occurs prior to 6-O-sulfation. Our results provide the structural evidence for understanding the sequence of enzymatic events in this pathway. PMID:24652287

  5. Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsules.

    PubMed

    Calix, Juan J; Nahm, Moon H; Zartler, Edward R

    2011-10-01

    Despite the emerging impact of serogroup 11 serotypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae epidemiology, the structures of serogroup 11 capsule types have not been fully elucidated, particularly the locations of O-acetyl substitutions. Here, we report the complete structures of the serotype 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharides and a revision to the serotype 11A capsular polysaccharide using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). All structures shared a linear, tetrasaccharide backbone with a pendant phosphopolyalcohol. Three of four saccharides are conserved in all serotypes. The individual serotype capsules differed in the identity of one saccharide, the pendant phosphopolyalcohol, and the O-acetylation pattern. Though the assigned locations of O-acetate substitutions in this study differed from those of previous reports, our findings were corroborated with strong correlations to serology and genetics. We examined the binding of serotyping sera to serogroup 11 polysaccharides by using flow cytometry and an inhibition-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and found that de-O-acetylation of capsular polysaccharides by mild hydrolysis decreases its immunoreactivity, supporting the crucial role of O-acetylation in the antigenicity of these polysaccharides. Due to strong correlations between polysaccharide structures and capsule biosynthesis genes, we were able to assign target substrates for the O-acetyltransferases encoded by wcwC, wcwR, wcwT, and wcjE. We identified antigenic determinants for serogroup 11 serotyping sera and highlight the idea that conventional serotyping methods are not capable of recognizing all putative variants of S. pneumoniae serogroup 11. PMID:21803987

  6. Antitumor properties of nonstarch polysaccharides: Fucoidans and chitosans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. S. Khotimchenko

    2010-01-01

    This review deals with the pharmacology of nonstarch polysaccharides, namely fucoidans and chitosans, isolated from marine\\u000a organisms. The work summarizes information from the international literature on the antitumor activities of native polysaccharides\\u000a and their derivatives. The structures and physicochemical properties of these polysaccharides are described and the molecular\\u000a mechanisms of their antitumor and antimetastatic effects are discussed.

  7. Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

    1997-01-01

    The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

  8. Extraction, structure and bioactivities of the polysaccharides from Fructus corni.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanfang; Wang, Xinsheng; Shen, Biao; Kang, Lei; Fan, Enguo

    2013-04-01

    Plant-derived bioactive polysaccharides have a long history of application in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The polysaccharides of Fructus Corni, secondary metabolites from Cornus officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc, possess various pharmacological activities, including immune regulation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-aging effects. The present review is trying to summarize the extraction process of polysaccharides of Fructus Corni, structural features and related patents. PMID:23013412

  9. Phase equilibria in water-protein-polysaccharide systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Antonov; N. V. Losinskaya; V. Ya. Grinberg; V. T. Dianova; V. B. Tolstoguzow

    1979-01-01

    Summary Phase equilibria in the ternary water-soy bean globulins-polysaccharides systems, containing various acidic and neutral polysaccharides (pectin, sodium alginate, carboxymethylcellulose, arabic gum, dextransulphate, and dextran) were studied. Phase diagrams of the systems were obtained. Effects of pH, concentration of a neutral salt and urea on the compatibility of soy bean globulins with polysaccharides in water media were studied. It has

  10. Fractionation and characterization of polysaccharides from abaca fibre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RunCang Sun; J. M. Fang; A. Goodwin; J. M. Lawther; A. J. Bolton

    1998-01-01

    Abaca fibre polysaccharides were fractionated into water soluble, pectic, 1% NaOH soluble, hemicellulosic and cellulose fractions by extraction with hot water, dilute hydrochloric acid (pH 1.6), aqueous 1% NaOH and 17.5% NaOH, respectively. Cellulose (60.4–63.6%) and hemicelluloses (20.8%) were the major polysaccharides in abaca fibres. The hot water soluble polysaccharides contained noticeable amounts of pectic substances and a large proportion

  11. Glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide biosynthesis and production: today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Paul L

    2012-04-01

    Glycosaminoglycans [GAGs] are essential heteropolysaccharides in vertebrate tissues that are also, in certain cases, employed as virulence factors by microbes. Hyaluronan [HA], heparin, and chondroitin sulfate [CS] are GAGs currently used in various medical applications and together are multi-billion dollar products thus targets for production by animal-free manufacture. By using bacteria as the source of GAGs, the pathogen's sword may be converted into a plowshare to help avoid potential liabilities springing from the use of animal-derived GAGs including adventitious agents (e.g., prions, pathogens), antigenicity, degradation of the environment, and depletion of endangered species. HA from microbes, which have a chemical structure identical to human HA, has already been commercialized and sold at the ton-scale. Substantial progress towards microbial heparin and CS has been made, but these vertebrate polymers are more complicated structurally than the unsulfated bacterial polysaccharide precursors thus require additional processing steps. This review provides an overview of GAG structure, medical applications, microbial biosynthesis, and the state of bacterial GAG production systems. Representatives of all glycosyltransferase enzymes that polymerize the sugar chains of the three main GAGs have been identified and serve as the core technology to harness, but the proteins involved in sugar precursor formation and chain export steps of biosynthesis are also essential to the GAG production process. In addition, this review discusses future directions and potential important issues. Overall, this area is poised to make great headway to produce safer (both increased purity and more secure supply chains) non-animal GAG-based therapeutics. PMID:22391966

  12. Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression.

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression of Dentistry; 2 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, IU School of Medicine Streptococcus mutans

  13. Comparative antioxidative characteristics of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangqun Xu; Yongde Wu; Hui Chen

    2011-01-01

    The potential antioxidant property of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from the natural fungal sclerotia and the cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus was evaluated using three antioxidant assays. The extracts from both the natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia including extra- and intra-cellular extracts were effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The content and

  14. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  15. Polysaccharides from Angelica and Astragalus exert hepatoprotective effects against carbon-tetrachloride-induced intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiuying; Fan, Wenbo; Yu, Shuang; Li, Yan; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Weijie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of polysaccharide from Angelica and Astragalus (AAP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in mice. A total of 120 Kunming mice were randomly distributed among 6 groups comprising (i) the normal control mice, (ii) the CCl4 treatment group, (iii) the bifendate treatment group, (iv) the AAP treatment group, (v) the Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) treatment group, and (vi) the Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AMP) treatment group. AAP, ASP and AMP were administered to mice treated with CCl4. The activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissues were quantified, as well as the liver index. Hepatic histological changes were observed by staining liver sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results show that bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP significantly decreased the activities of MDA, AST, and ALT, and enhanced the activity of SOD in CCl4-treated mice. Bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP consistently ameliorated the liver injuries induced with CCl4. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of AAP was stronger than that of bifendate, ASP, or AMP. In addition, AAP alleviated liver inflammation and decreased the liver indexes of mice induced with CCl4. These effects were at least partly due to the antioxidant properties of AAP in scavenging free radicals to ameliorate oxidative stress and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:25415237

  16. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3?M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4?h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1?mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  17. A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

  18. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    PubMed

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6°C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25643994

  19. Chemical analysis of Hericium erinaceum polysaccharides and effect of the polysaccharides on derma antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Wu, Pin-ru; Shen, Zheng-yu; Chen, Xiang-dong

    2010-07-01

    Hericium erinaceum was a traditional edible mushroom in Asia. In this study, we extracted polysaccharides from H. erinaceum. HPLC analysis indicated that H. erinaceum polysaccharides were mainly composed of glucose and galactose. The FT-IR spectra of H. erinaceum polysaccharides showed characteristic absorption bands of polysaccharides. The pharmacological properties of H. erinaceum polysaccharides were investigated in aged rats. Results showed that H. erinaceum polysaccharides significantly enhanced skin antioxidant enzymes, MMP-1, TIMP-1 activities and collagen protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that H. erinaceum polysaccharides possess anti-skin-aging activities. PMID:20380848

  20. Polysaccharide microarrays for high-throughput screening of transglycosylase activities in plant extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ond?ej Kosík; Richard P. Auburn; Steven Russell; Eva Stratilová; So?a Garajová; Maria Hrmova; Vladimír Farkaš

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharide transglycosylases catalyze disproportionation of polysaccharide molecules by cleaving glycosidic linkages in\\u000a polysaccharide chains and transferring their cleaved portions to hydroxyl groups at the non-reducing ends of other polysaccharide\\u000a or oligosaccharide molecules. In plant cell walls, transglycosylases have a potential to catalyze both cross-linking of polysaccharide\\u000a molecules and grafting of newly arriving polysaccharide molecules into the cell wall structure during

  1. Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Ook Kim; Sang Bae Han; Hong Woen Lee; Hyo Jung Ahn; Yeo Dae Yoon; Joon Ki Jung; Hwan Mook Kim; Chul Soo Shin

    2005-01-01

    Inonotus obliquusBELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquusBELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily

  2. Induction of anti-pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide antibodies by type 4 pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Peeters; Anne-Marie Tenbergen-Meekes; Jan Poolmann; Ben Zegers; Ger Rijkers

    1992-01-01

    We have prepared polysaccharide-protein conjugates consisting of type 4 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS4) coupled to tetanus toxoid. The PS4 preparation used contained 2.5% pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CPs). During the conjugation process, in addition to PS4-protein conjugates, CPs-protein conjugates were also formed. After immunization with PS4-protein conjugates, CPs-protein conjugates that are present as a contaminant induce IgG anti-CPs antibodies in

  3. Implications of heparan sulfate and heparanase in neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Bo; Li, Jin-Ping

    2014-04-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), expressed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix of most animal tissues, have essential functions in development and homeostasis, and have been implicated in several pathological conditions. The functions of HSPGs are mainly mediated through interactions of the heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharide side chains with different protein ligands. The molecular structure of HS is highly diverse, expressed in a cell-type specific manner. The flexible yet controlled structure of HS is primarily generated through a strictly regulated biosynthesis process and is further modified post-synthetically, such as desulfation by endosulfatases and fragmentation by heparanase. Heparanase is an endo-glucuronidase expressed in all tissues. The enzyme has been found up-regulated in a number of pathological conditions, implying a role in diseases mainly through degradation of HS. Emerging evidence demonstrates important roles of HS and heparanase in inflammatory reactions, particularly in the regulation of leukocyte activation and extravasation. Neuroinflammation is a common feature of various central nervous system disorders, thus it is a great interest to understand the implications of HS and heparanase in neuroinflammation. PMID:24398134

  4. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. PMID:25498681

  5. Cytoprotective effects of fucoidan, an algae-derived polysaccharide on 5-fluorouracil-treated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bo-Eun; Ko, Eun-Ju; Joo, Hong-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Although chemotherapeutic anticancer agents are effective, they also attack normal immune cells due to a lack of selectivity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a representative anticancer agent that induces immunosuppression in cancer patients as a side effect. Fucoidan is an algae-derived sulfated polysaccharide that has recently been recognized as a hematopoietic mobilizer and immunomodulator. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of fucoidan on dendritic cells (DCs) against 5-FU-induced cellular damage. Several kinds of assays including flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the cytoprotective efficacy of fucoidan. In addition, fucoidan increased the expression of immune-related surface markers on and the alloproliferative capacity of DCs exposed to 5-FU. For investigating action mechanism, the expression levels of apoptosis-related molecules were measured. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide, has cytoprotective effects on DCs, the most potent antigen-presenting cell type, against 5-FU-induced cellular damage. These results provide valuable information to use fucoidan as an immunostimulatory agent for the chemotherapy of cancer patients. PMID:22326809

  6. Separation, preliminary characterization, and moisture-preserving activity of polysaccharides from Ulva fasciata.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Shao, Jiamei; Han, Longfei; Lv, Ruiling; Sun, Peilong

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide (UFP(31)) extracted from the marine algae Ulva fasciata (UFP) was a heteropolysaccharide, and consisted of rhamnose, xylose, and glucose in a ratio of 1:0.46:0.27 with a (1 ? 4)-linked glycosyl backbone. The rheology of UFP(31) solution has been investigated by steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory experiments. The effects of concentration, temperature, and time were systematically investigated. Steady-shear rheological measurement in a range of shear rate (1-1000 s(-1)) exhibited that UFP(31) has a Newtonian behavior in diluted solutions (1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%, w/v), dilatant flow behavior at higher concentrations (7.0% and 9.0%, w/v). Speci?cally, UFP(31) solution (7%, w/v) exhibited antithixotropic behavior. In small amplitude oscillatory experiments, both the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G") of UFP(31) solution (7%, w/v) increased with frequency swept but G' increased more quickly. As a consequence, G' tends to overcome G" at 2.7 Hz. The capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention of the polysaccharide was also respectively examined gravimetrically in comparison with those of glycerol. It revealed that UFP(31) exhibited a higher ability both in the moisture-absorption and moisture-retention test throughout the entire experiment. These results clearly establish the possibility that UFP(31) could be employed as a new material of nature moisturizer. PMID:25451747

  7. Isolation of a Previously Unidentified Polysaccharide (MAR10) from Hyssop officinalis That Exhibits Strong Activity Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gollapudi; H. A. Sharma; S. Aggarwal; L. D. Byers; H. E. Ensley; S. Gupta

    1995-01-01

    A polysaccharide (MAR-10) was isolated from the aqueous extract of the plant Hyssop officinalis and examined for its activity against HIV-1 (SF strain) in HUT78 T cell line and primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MAR-10, in a concentration-dependent manner,inhibited HIV-1 replication as demonstrated by the inhibition of HIV-1 p24 antigen and syncytia formation. Furthermore, MAR-10 had no significant

  8. Structural basis for selective recognition of endogenous and microbial polysaccharides by macrophage receptor SIGN-R1.

    PubMed

    Silva-Martín, Noella; Bartual, Sergio G; Ramírez-Aportela, Erney; Chacón, Pablo; Park, Chae Gyu; Hermoso, Juan A

    2014-11-01

    SIGN-R1 is a principal receptor for microbial polysaccharides uptake and is responsible for C3 fixation via an unusual complement activation pathway on splenic marginal zone macrophages. In these macrophages, SIGN-R1 is also involved in anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulin by direct interaction with sialylated Fcs. The high-resolution crystal structures of SIGN-R1 carbohydrate recognition domain and its complexes with dextran sulfate or sialic acid, and of the sialylated Fc antibody provide insights into SIGN-R1’s selective recognition of a-2,6-sialylated glycoproteins. Unexpectedly, an additional binding site has been found in the SIGNR1 carbohydrate recognition domain, structurally separate from the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding site. This secondary binding site could bind repetitive molecular patterns, as observed in microbial polysaccharides, in a calcium-independent manner. These two binding sites may allow SIGNR1 to simultaneously bind both immune glycoproteins and microbial polysaccharide components, accommodating SIGN-R1’s ability to relate the recognition of microbes to the activation of the classical complement pathway. PMID:25450767

  9. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Zayed, Abla [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)]. E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  10. Characterization and Biological Activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen Polysaccharide In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shifa; Wei, Kai; Jia, Fengjuan; Zhao, Xue; Cui, Guolin; Guo, Fanxia; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3) were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 ?g/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B) through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator. PMID:25782009

  11. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  12. Characterization and Biological Activity of Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen Polysaccharide In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shifa; Wei, Kai; Jia, Fengjuan; Zhao, Xue; Cui, Guolin; Guo, Fanxia; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) improves cellular and humoral immune responses of animals and is a novel potential immunomodulator. However, the components of TPPPS have not been recognized. To investigate the composition of TPPPS, crude polysaccharide was obtained from Taishan P. massoniana pollen through water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (TPPPS1, TPPPS2, and TPPPS3) were purified from TPPPS by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The average molecular weights of the three polysaccharides were 56, 25, and 128 kDa, respectively. Results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that TPPPS comprised mannose, ribose, xylose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The biological activity assays showed that TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 significantly promoted spleen lymphocyte proliferation, and that TPPPS3 showed better effect than TPPPS2. TPPPS3 enhanced the secretion of cytokine IL-2 and TNF, whereas TPPPS2 mainly elevated IL-2 secretion. By contrast, TPPPS1 exhibited other effects, and it induced the highest amount of NO production, thereby indicating that TPPPS1 had the best antioxidant activity. TPPPS3 at 50 ?g/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of subgroup B Avian Leukosis virus (ALV-B) through virus adsorption interference in vitro. Results indicated that TPPPS comprised three main components, among which, TPPPS1 mainly showed antioxidant effects, whereas TPPPS2 and TPPPS3 played key roles in immunomodulation, especially TPPPS3. Further studies on the use of a reasonable proportion of TPPPS1-3 may facilitate the development of an effective immunomodulator. PMID:25782009

  13. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4 ·5H2...

  14. A critical role for lymphatic endothelial heparan sulfate in lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis constitutes a key event in tumor progression. The molecular control of this process is poorly understood. Heparan sulfate is a linear polysaccharide consisting of unique sulfate-modified disaccharide repeats that allow the glycan to bind a variety of proteins, including chemokines. While some chemokines may drive lymphatic trafficking of tumor cells, the functional and genetic importance of heparan sulfate as a possible mediator of chemokine actions in lymphatic metastasis has not been reported. Results We applied a loss-of-function genetic approach employing lymphatic endothelial conditional mutations in heparan sulfate biosynthesis to study the effects on tumor-lymphatic trafficking and lymph node metastasis. Lymphatic endothelial deficiency in N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1), a key enzyme involved in sulfating nascent heparan sulfate chains, resulted in altered lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing gene targeted mice. This occurred in mice harboring either a pan-endothelial Ndst1 mutation or an inducible lymphatic-endothelial specific mutation in Ndst1. In addition to a marked reduction in tumor metastases to the regional lymph nodes in mutant mice, specific immuno-localization of CCL21, a heparin-binding chemokine known to regulate leukocyte and possibly tumor-cell traffic, showed a marked reduction in its ability to associate with tumor cells in mutant lymph nodes. In vitro modified chemotaxis studies targeting heparan sulfate biosynthesis in lymphatic endothelial cells revealed that heparan sulfate secreted by lymphatic endothelium is required for CCL21-dependent directional migration of murine as well as human lung carcinoma cells toward the targeted lymphatic endothelium. Lymphatic heparan sulfate was also required for binding of CCL21 to its receptor CCR7 on tumor cells as well as the activation of migration signaling pathways in tumor cells exposed to lymphatic conditioned medium. Finally, lymphatic cell-surface heparan sulfate facilitated receptor-dependent binding and concentration of CCL21 on the lymphatic endothelium, thereby serving as a mechanism to generate lymphatic chemokine gradients. Conclusions This work demonstrates the genetic importance of host lymphatic heparan sulfate in mediating chemokine dependent tumor-cell traffic in the lymphatic microenvironment. The impact on chemokine dependent lymphatic metastasis may guide novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21172016

  15. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds. PMID:21087484

  16. Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Deveci, N.; Delaloglu, C.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

    1995-04-01

    Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial feasibility of utilizing a biological system capable of converting hydrous calcium sulfate (gypsum) to elemental sulfur. Gypsum, which was used in this study, is a byproduct of the fertilizer industry. The biological system is referred to as a bacterial mutualism, and involves Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for sulfate conversion and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum for hydrogen sulfide conversion. Bacterial mutualism and utilization of sulfate were investigated by means of a two-stage anaerobic system. In the first stage, a gas purge system was used for sulfate conversion to sulfide, and it was found that maximum conversion is 34%. In the second stage, a static culture system was used for sulfide conversion to sulfur with a conversion of 92%. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Involvement of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate in the metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuchuan; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Yamada, Shuhei; Hashiguchi, Taishi; Mizumoto, Shuji; Oguri, Kayoko; Okayama, Minoru; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The altered expression of cell surface chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) in cancer cells has been demonstrated to play a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. However, the functional highly sulfated structures in CS/DS chains and their involvement in the process have not been well documented. In the present study, a structural analysis of CS/DS from two mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL)-derived cell lines with different metastatic potentials revealed a higher proportion of Delta(4,5)HexUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) generated from E-units (GlcUA-GalNAc(4, 6-O-disulfate)) in highly metastatic LM66-H11 cells than in low metastatic P29 cells, although much less CS/DS is expressed by LM66-H11 than P29 cells. This key finding prompted us to study the role of CS-E-like structures in experimental lung metastasis. The metastasis of LM66-H11 cells to lungs was effectively inhibited by enzymatic removal of tumor cell surface CS or by preadministration of CS-E rich in E-units in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis showed that LM66-H11 rather than P29 cells expressed more strongly the CS-E epitope, which was specifically recognized by the phage display antibody GD3G7. More importantly, this antibody and a CS-E decasaccharide fraction, the minimal structure recognized by GD3G7, strongly inhibited the metastasis of LM66-H11 cells probably by modifying the proliferative and invading behavior of the metastatic tumor cells. These results suggest that the E-unit-containing epitopes are involved in the metastatic process and a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:18930920

  18. Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cements exposed to varying concentrations of sodium sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. U. Al-Dulaijan; M. Maslehuddin; M. M. Al-Zahrani; A. M. Sharif; M. Shameem; M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    Concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack is the second major durability problem, after reinforcement corrosion. This type of deterioration is noted in the structures exposed to sulfate-bearing soils and groundwater. Though concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack is reported from many countries, the mechanisms of sulfate attack have not been thoroughly investigated, particularly the effect of sulfate concentration and the

  19. The cough suppressive activity of sulfated glucuronoxylan from Fagus sylvatica L.