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Sample records for sulfated polysaccharide inhibits

  1. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by modulating RANKL signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-?B, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-?B activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

  2. Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-κB, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-κB activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

  3. A sulfated polysaccharide of Ecklonia cava inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, WonWon; Kim, Kil-Nam; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kang, Nalae; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anticancer effects of the crude polysaccharides (CPs) isolated from Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts using AMG, Viscozyme, Protamex, and Alcalase enzyme against a colon cancer cell line, CT26 cells. Among them, the CP of Protamex extract (PCP) contained the highest fucose and sulfated group contents and showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT-26 cells. In addition, PCP dose-dependently increased the formation of apoptotic body and the percentage of Sub-G1 DNA contents. Also, PCP activated caspase 9 and PARP as regulating the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. Moreover, PPP2, a fraction purified from PCP showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT 26 cells with the increased fucose and sulfated group contents. The results demonstrate that the isolated SP containing plentiful fucose and sulfated group contents has the anticancer effect on colon cancer cells via regulation of Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway. PMID:26417363

  4. A sulfated polysaccharide of Ecklonia cava inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, WonWon; Kim, Kil-Nam; Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Heo, Soo-Jin; Kang, Nalae; Lee, Seung-Hong; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anticancer effects of the crude polysaccharides (CPs) isolated from Ecklonia cava enzymatic extracts using AMG, Viscozyme, Protamex, and Alcalase enzyme against a colon cancer cell line, CT26 cells. Among them, the CP of Protamex extract (PCP) contained the highest fucose and sulfated group contents and showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT-26 cells. In addition, PCP dose-dependently increased the formation of apoptotic body and the percentage of Sub-G1 DNA contents. Also, PCP activated caspase 9 and PARP as regulating the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. Moreover, PPP2, a fraction purified from PCP showed the highest growth inhibitory effect against CT 26 cells with the increased fucose and sulfated group contents. The results demonstrate that the isolated SP containing plentiful fucose and sulfated group contents has the anticancer effect on colon cancer cells via regulation of Bcl-2/Bax signal pathway. PMID:26417363

  5. Novel Sulfated Polysaccharides Disrupt Cathelicidins, Inhibit RAGE and Reduce Cutaneous Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxing; Xu, Xiaoyu; Rao, Narayanam V.; Argyle, Brian; McCoard, Lindsi; Rusho, William J.; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Krueger, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Background Rosacea is a common disfiguring skin disease of primarily Caucasians characterized by central erythema of the face, with telangiectatic blood vessels, papules and pustules, and can produce skin thickening, especially on the nose of men, creating rhinophyma. Rosacea can also produce dry, itchy eyes with irritation of the lids, keratitis and corneal scarring. The cause of rosacea has been proposed as over-production of the cationic cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested a new class of non-anticoagulant sulfated anionic polysaccharides, semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) on key elements of the pathogenic pathway leading to rosacea. SAGEs were anti-inflammatory at ng/ml, including inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) proteases, P-selectin, and interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with four representative ligands. SAGEs bound LL-37 and inhibited interleukin-8 production induced by LL-37 in cultured human keratinocytes. When mixed with LL-37 before injection, SAGEs prevented the erythema and PMN infiltration produced by direct intradermal injection of LL-37 into mouse skin. Topical application of a 1% (w/w) SAGE emollient to overlying injected skin also reduced erythema and PMN infiltration from intradermal LL-37. Conclusions Anionic polysaccharides, exemplified by SAGEs, offer potential as novel mechanism-based therapies for rosacea and by extension other LL-37-mediated and RAGE-ligand driven skin diseases. PMID:21347371

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and semaphorin3A

    PubMed Central

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization, which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and fucoidan, but not others, reduce endothelial cell-surface levels of NRP1, NRP2, and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and block the binding and in vitro function of semaphorin3A and VEGF165. Administration of fucoidan to mice reduces VEGF165-induced angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization in vivo. We find that dextran sulfate and fucoidan can bridge the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of the scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), and induce NRP1 and SREC-I coordinate internalization and trafficking to the lysosomes. Overexpression of SREC-I in SREC-Inegative cells specifically reduces cell-surface levels of NRP1, indicating that SREC-I mediates NRP1 internalization. These results demonstrate that engineered receptor internalization is an effective strategy for reducing levels and function of cell-surface receptors, and identify certain sulfated polysaccharides as internalization inducers. PMID:18272814

  7. Sulfated polysaccharides identified as inducers of neuropilin-1 internalization and functional inhibition of VEGF165 and semaphorin3A.

    PubMed

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta; Tosato, Giovanna

    2008-04-15

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2 are cell surface receptors shared by class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Ligand interaction with NRPs selects the specific signal transducer, plexins for semaphorins or VEGF receptors for VEGF, and promotes NRP internalization, which effectively shuts down receptor-mediated signaling by a second ligand. Here, we show that the sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and fucoidan, but not others, reduce endothelial cell-surface levels of NRP1, NRP2, and to a lesser extent VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, and block the binding and in vitro function of semaphorin3A and VEGF(165). Administration of fucoidan to mice reduces VEGF(165)-induced angiogenesis and tumor neovascularization in vivo. We find that dextran sulfate and fucoidan can bridge the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of the scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), and induce NRP1 and SREC-I coordinate internalization and trafficking to the lysosomes. Overexpression of SREC-I in SREC-I-negative cells specifically reduces cell-surface levels of NRP1, indicating that SREC-I mediates NRP1 internalization. These results demonstrate that engineered receptor internalization is an effective strategy for reducing levels and function of cell-surface receptors, and identify certain sulfated polysaccharides as "internalization inducers." PMID:18272814

  8. WSS25, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits RANKL-induced mouse osteoclast formation by blocking SMAD/ID1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Qin, Yi; Fang, Jian-ping; Ni, Xin-yan; Yao, Jian; Wang, Hai-ying; Ding, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: WSS25 is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata BI, which has been found to bind to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in hepatocellular cancer cells. Since BMP-2 may regulate both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, here we investigated the effects of WSS25 on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Methods: RAW264.7 cells or mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were treated with RANKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, which was assessed using TRAP staining, actin ring formation and pit formation assays, as well as bone resorption assay. Cell viability was detected with MTT assay. The mRNA levels of osteoclastogenesis-related genetic markers (TRAP, NFATc1, MMP-9 and cathepsin K) were detected using RT-PCR, while the protein levels of p-Smad1/5/8 and Id1 were measure with Western blotting. WSS25 was administered to ovariectomized mice (100 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 3 months. After the mice were euthanized, total bone mineral density and cortical bone density were measured. Results: In RAW264.7 cells and BMMs, WSS25 (2.5, 5, 10 μg/mL) did not affect the cell viability, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, WSS25 potently suppressed RANKL-induced expression of TRAP, NFATc1, MMP-9 and cathepsin K in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with RANKL increased BMP-2 expression, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id1 expression, which triggered osteoclast differentiation, whereas co-treatment with WSS25 or the endogenous BMP-2 antagonist noggin suppressed the BMP-2/Smad/Id1 signaling pathway. In RAW264.7 cells, knockdown of Id1 attenuated RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, which was partially rescued by Id1 overexpression. In conformity to the in vitro experiments, chronic administration of WSS25 significantly reduced the bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Conclusion: WSS25 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 cells and BMMs by blocking the BMP-2/Smad/Id1 signaling pathway. WSS25 administration reduces bone loss in ovariectomized mice, suggesting that it may be a promising therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. PMID:26299951

  9. Highly Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity in Cell Lines and Human Tracheal-Bronchial Histocultures

    PubMed Central

    Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Volante, Marco; Veccelli, Elena; Oreste, Pasqua; Rusnati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exploits cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The interaction between RSV and HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was used to generate a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure that mimics the heparin/heparan sulfate biosynthetic precursor. The screening of a series of N-sulfated (K5-NS), O-sulfated (K5-OS), and N,O-sulfated (K5-N,OS) derivatives with different degrees of sulfation revealed the highly sulfated K5 derivatives K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) to be inhibitors of RSV. Their 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 1.07 nM and 3.81 nM in two different cell lines, and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. Inhibition of RSV infection was maintained in binding and attachment assays but not in preattachment assays. Moreover, antiviral activity was also evident when the K5 derivatives were added postinfection, both in cell-to-cell spread and viral yield reduction assays. Finally, both K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) prevented RSV infection in human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. Together, these features put K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) forward as attractive candidates for further development as RSV inhibitors. PMID:24914125

  10. Fucoidans sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  11. Sulfated Polysaccharide Isolated from the Sea Cucumber Stichopus japonicus Against PC12 Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Inhibition of the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Cui, Ningshan; Wang, Peng; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2015-11-01

    In this report, the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus can protect PC12 from Na2S2O4-induced hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. SJP effectively improves cell viability and reduces extracellular LDH release in PC12 cells after H/R. Moreover, SJP significantly increases SOD activity but decreases MDA levels. Our experiments showed that SJP could significantly reduce cell apoptosis caused by H/R. Our current results demonstrate that SJP suppressed the activation of MAPKs, resulting in a significant decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3, p53 phosphorylation, and cytochrome c release in a concentration-dependent manner. MAPK is closely related to H/R injury. SJP inhibited JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation but did not affect the increased ERK1/2 expression. These results suggested that JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways could be involved in SJP-mediated attenuation of PC12 H/R injury. SJP prevented PC12 H/R injury in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that SJP may be developed as a candidate drug to prevent or treat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25952102

  12. Solomonseal Polysaccharide and Sulfated Codonopsis pilosula Polysaccharide Synergistically Resist Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Zhang, Cunshuai; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    Five combinations of three ratios (PS9-sPS1, PS7-sPS3 and PS6-sPS4) were prepared with polysaccharide (PS) and sulfated polysaccharide (sPS). The antiviral activities of these compounds were subsequently compared in vitro using the MTT assay, observation of the virus structure and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that SP9-sCP1, CP7-sCA3, EP7-sAP3, CA9-sEP1 and EP7-sCA3 presented higher activities, and SP9-sCP1 displayed the highest virus inhibition rate and clearly killed the virus and inhibited viral antigen expression. In an in vivo test, 28-day-old chickens were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and were administered the five drug combinations. On day 14 after the challenge, the morbidity, mortality and cure rate in each group were calculated. The results indicated that SP9-sCP1 presented the lowest morbidity and mortality and the highest cure rate. These results indicate that Solomonseal polysaccharide and sulfated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide synergistically resist NDV. Moreover, SP9-sCP1 had the highest efficacy and may be used as a new antiviral drug. PMID:25692886

  13. Structural characterization and bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharide from Monostroma oxyspermum.

    PubMed

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Sudharsan, Sadhasivam; Vasanthkumar, Shanmugam; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from Monostroma oxyspermum through hot water extraction, anion-exchange and gel permeation column chromatography. The sulfated polysaccharide contained 92% of carbohydrate, 0% of protein, 7.8% of uronic acid, 22% of ash and 33% of moisture respectively. The elemental composition was analyzed using CHNS/O analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide determined through PAGE was found to be as 55 kDa. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that sulfated polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and glucose. The structural features of sulfated polysaccharide were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Further the sulfated polysaccharide showed total antioxidant and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were as 66.29% at 250 μg/ml and 66.83% at 160 μg/ml respectively. The sulfated polysaccharide also showed ABTS scavenging ability and reducing power were as 83.88% at 125 μg/ml and 15.81% at 400 μg/ml respectively. The anticoagulant activity was determined for human plasma with respect to Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT) was 20.09 IU and 1.79 IU at 25 μg/ml respectively. These results indicated that the sulfated polysaccharide from M. oxyspermum had potent antioxidant and anticoagulant activities. PMID:25451755

  14. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

  15. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Characterization of chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xia; Wu, Fang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-11-20

    The biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides are related to the substitution positions of functional groups. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that SO(3-) group (S(6+), high binding energy of 168.7eV) was widely present in sulfated polysaccharides. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed that C-2 and C-3 substitution was occurred but not fully sulfation. Meanwhile, C-6 substituted signals near 65ppm were not observed. The degree of substitution varied from 0.44 to 0.63 in SRSASP which could be attributed to the low reactivity at secondary hydroxyl. Monosaccharide composition result showed a decrease in the ratio of mannose/glucose, indicating the change of chemical composition in sulfated polysaccharides. In size-exclusion chromatograph analysis, a decrease in molecular weight and broadening of molecular weight distribution of sulfated polysaccharides was also observed. It could be attributed to the hydrolysis of polysaccharide in the sulfated reaction. PMID:26344287

  16. Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Camila Lehnhardt; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Farias, Wladimir Ronald Lobo; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2013-01-01

    The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites. PMID:23519148

  17. In vitro antiviral activity of sulfated Auricularia auricula polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Luong; Chen, Jin; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Junmin; Abula, Saifuding; Zhang, Jing; Qin, Tao; Chen, Xingying; Chen, Xiaolan; Khakame, Shem Kakai; Dang, Bao Khanh

    2012-10-15

    Total Auricularia auricula polysaccharide (AAP(t)) was prepared by extracting and removing the proteins. Column chromatography was used to further graded it into AAP(1) and AAP(2). Three AAPs were modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain three sulfated AAPs (sAAPs), sAAP(t), sAAP(1) and sAAP(2), respectively. Three sAAPs and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivation system of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) in three manners, pre-, post- and simultaneous-adding polysaccharide with NDV respectively, taking three non-modified AAPs as control. Their anti-viral activities were compared by MTT method. The results showed that sAAPs and AAPs at a certain concentration could significantly inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV in three manners. The effects of sAAPs were better than that of AAPs. It indicated that sulfated modification could enhance the antiviral activity of AAP. sAAP(1) and sAAP(t) possessed stronger activity and would be as the component of a new-type antiviral drug. PMID:22939338

  18. [Neuroprotective effects of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed].

    PubMed

    Besednova, N N; Somova, L M; Guliaev, S A; Zaporozhets, T S

    2013-01-01

    Currently, neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) occupy a significant place in the structure of disease of the elderly, which dictates the need to find new and effective treatment and prevention of this pathology. At the heart of NDD development is a violation of the metabolism and the conformational change of cellular proteins with subsequent accumulation and aggregation of their in certain groups of neurons. The immediate cause of the death of the affected neurons in NDD is initiated by intracellular proteins apoptosis, during which a large number ofneurotransmitter glutamate is released. The consequence of an imbalance in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters are related the memory impairment, motor coordination and cognitive abilities of human. Based on the analysis of the extensive literature domestic and predominantly foreign authors of the last decade the modern data on the effect of sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) of algae in vivo and in vitro in degenerative processes of the nervous system. Found that due to its multi-point impact, SPS have on the body antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-toxic effects. Consequently, SPS can arrest a number of secondary pathological effects observed in neurodegenerative diseases (oxidative stress, inflammation, the phenomenon of increased neuronal apoptosis, toxic effects etc.). Varieties of pathogenic mechanisms underlying NDD makes possible the combined use of neuroprotective compounds acting sequentially in different stages of a pathological process. Accumulated a lot of experimental evidence to assume that the SPS may be the basis for the creation of next-generation drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24000668

  19. Extraction, characterization and antimicrobial activity of sulfated polysaccharides from fish skins.

    PubMed

    Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Sila, Assad; Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from gray triggerfish (GTSP) and smooth hound (SHSP) skins. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities of GTSP and SHSP against Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 43251), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enterica (ATCC 43972) and Enterobacter sp were evaluated by determining clear growth inhibition zone diameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and by essays in liquid media. GTSP and SHSP were fractionated by a Diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography. Fraction FGII, from GTSP, and fraction FSII, from SHSP, showed the most important inhibitory effects against the tested bacterial species. The sulfated polysaccharides from fish skins did not show hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Overall, the results suggested that those polysaccharides could offer promising sources of polysaccharides for future application as dietary ingredients in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:25647621

  20. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Ana I. S.; Nicolai, Marisa; Humanes, Madalena; Goncalves, Joao

    2011-01-01

    The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor). PMID:21339952

  1. Sulfation of extracellular polysaccharides of red microalgae: preparation, characterization and properties.

    PubMed

    Geresh, Shimona; Mamontov, Anna; Weinstein, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Polysaccharides are natural polymers with a variety of properties that may be translated into significant commercial applications. A program of chemical modifications of the extracellular polysaccharides of red microalgae, such as Porphyridium sp. and Rhodella reticulata, has been undertaken by our group in order to tailor new properties and hence to broaden the spectrum of potential applications. These algal biopolymers are anionic in nature due to the presence of uronic acids (about 10%) and sulfate half esters (about 7%). In the current study, the sulfate content of these biopolymers was increased to 35-40% by means of sulfation agents such as pyridine SO(3), DMF.SO(3) and ClSO(3)H. Reaction conditions were optimized in a model system based on potato starch as the model polysaccharide (type of reagent, temperature and time of reaction). After work-up procedures, the highest sulfate content was obtained by sulfation of the polysaccharide of Porphyridium sp. with a mixture of ClSO(3)H and pyridine at 70 degrees C for 1 h. The sulfated products were characterized by chemical and rheological analyses, IR spectroscopy, and GPC-HPLC chromatography. "Oversulfated" polymers (having sulfate contents exceeding 20%) with high molecular weights were found to inhibit mammalian cell growth when used at certain concentrations; for example, over 80% inhibition was obtained when oversulfated polymers at a concentration of 200 microg/ml were tested on T-cell lymphoma line 24-1. These preliminary results indicate that the modified polysaccharides do indeed exhibit potential therapeutic properties. PMID:11741706

  2. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients. PMID:25301697

  3. Sulfated polysaccharides from Cyclocarya paliurus reduce H2O2-induced oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Jian-Hua; Kan, Li-Jiao; Wang, Jun-Qiao; Shen, Ming-Yue; Li, Wen-Juan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-01

    In this study, two sulfated polysaccharides (S-CP1-4 and S-CP1-8) from Cyclocarya paliurus were produced by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to develop an oxidative stress model in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Effects of the two sulfated polysaccharides on H2O2-induced oxidative stress were investigated. The results showed that S-CP(1-8) improved the viability of the H2O2-induced stressed RAW264.7 cells, as well as inhibited the lipid oxidation as determined by the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Meanwhile, treatment with S-CP(1-4) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in these cells. The sulfated polysaccharides were found to have a better protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress as compared to the native polysaccharide. Scanning electron microscopy also showed a significant change in the surface morphology of sulfated polysaccharides, but the degradation of main chain of polysaccharides was unconspicuous according to the results of monosaccharide composition. In addition, the sulfated polysaccharides had noticeable DPPH radical scavenging activity. In summary, our results demonstrated that H2O2 was able to induce oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells, and sulfated group might play an important role in resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative damage. PMID:26111910

  4. Semi-synthetic polysaccharide sulfates as anticoagulant coatings for PET, 1--cellulose sulfate.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Martin; Dolika, Ale; Stana, Jan; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, blood-compatible PET surfaces were prepared by coating with anticoagulant cellulose sulfates that were synthesized homogeneously in ionic liquids. The adsorption behavior of polysaccharides on PET films was investigated using QCM-D. It was demonstrated that pre-coating with different amino-group-containing polysaccharides improves the affinity toward cellulose sulfate. Moreover, the effect of different degrees of sulfation on the adsorption process was evaluated. Based on these results, several layer-by-layer coated PET foils were prepared that showed significantly improved blood compatibility compared to the initial untreated material. PMID:21254402

  5. Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Multifunctional Materials in Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Ludmylla; Grenha, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the discovery of metabolites from marine resources showing biological activity has increased significantly. Among marine resources, seaweed is a valuable source of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. The cell walls of marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, including carrageenan in red algae, ulvan in green algae and fucoidan in brown algae. Sulfated polysaccharides have been increasingly studied over the years in the pharmaceutical field, given their potential usefulness in applications such as the design of drug delivery systems. The purpose of this review is to discuss potential applications of these polymers in drug delivery systems, with a focus on carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan. General information regarding structure, extraction process and physicochemical properties is presented, along with a brief reference to reported biological activities. For each material, specific applications under the scope of drug delivery are described, addressing in privileged manner particulate carriers, as well as hydrogels and beads. A final section approaches the application of sulfated polysaccharides in targeted drug delivery, focusing with particular interest the capacity for macrophage targeting. PMID:26927134

  6. Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 ?g/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively. PMID:21822410

  7. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2?8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  8. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  9. Structural characterization and biomedical properties of sulfated polysaccharide from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson, 1831).

    PubMed

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annian

    2016-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide was extracted from the internal shell (gladius) of Sepioteuthis lessoniana. The sulfated polysaccharide contained 61.3% of carbohydrate, 0.8% of protein, 28.2% of ash and 1.33% of moisture respectively. The elemental composition was analyzed using CHNS/O analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide determined through PAGE was found to be as 66kDa. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that sulfated polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose and glucose. The structural features of sulfated polysaccharide were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Further the sulfated polysaccharide was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against selected human clinical pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Streptococcus pyogenes using agar well diffusion method. The polysaccharide has showed good antibacterial activity and MIC and MBC have also been evaluated. The anticancer activity was tested against HeLa cell line by MTT assay. The Cytotoxic Concentration (CC50) was observed as 700μg/ml and the maximum anticancer activity of 62.89% was recorded at 200μg/ml; whereas, the lowest of 9.87% was observed at 25μg/ml. In conclusion, the sulfated polysaccharide is an alternate, non-toxic and cheap source of substance that showed good antibacterial and anticancer acitivity. PMID:26724686

  10. Synthetic and semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycomimetics.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2012-07-15

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated polysaccharide involved in a myriad of biological processes. Due to the variable sulfation pattern of CS polymer chains, the need to study in detail structure-activity relationships regarding CS biomedical features has provoked much interest in obtaining synthetic CS species. This paper reviews two decades of synthetic and semi-synthetic CS oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycomimetics obtained by chemical, chemoenzymatic, enzymatic, and microbiological-chemical strategies. PMID:22410317

  11. Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of λ and κ-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed λ-carrageenan and oversulfated κ-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

  12. Antioxidant activity of different sulfate content derivatives of polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huimin; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Hong; Niu, Xizhen; Li, Zhien

    2005-12-15

    Polysaccharide extracted from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) is a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharide; for simplicity, the sulfated polysaccharide is referred to as ulvan in this paper. In this study, different sulfate content ulvans were prepared with sulfur trioxide/N,N-dimethylformamide (SO3-DMF) in formamide, and their antioxidant activities were investigated including scavenging activity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power and metal chelating ability. As expected, we obtained several satisfying results, as follows: firstly, high sulfate content ulvans had more effective scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical than natural ulvan. Secondly, comparing with natural ulvan, high sulfate content ulvans exhibited stronger reducing power. Thirdly, HU4 (sulfate content, 30.8%) and HU5 (sulfate content, 32.8%) showed more pronounce chelating ability on ferrous ion at high concentration than other samples. PMID:16310843

  13. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    PubMed

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  14. Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Cloned Grateloupia filicina and Their Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Shengfeng; Wang, Jinxia; Song, Lin; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (GSP) were isolated from the cloned Grateloupia filicina which was cultured in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The yield of GSP was 15.75%. The total sugar and sulfate were 40.90 and 19.89%, respectively. And the average molecular weight was 11.7?KDa. The results of neutral sugar analysis showed that GSP was mainly sulfated polysaccharides of galactose. The experiments for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) anticoagulant assays in vitro indicated that GSP was a good potential anticoagulant. Therefore, this study supplied new thought for the cloned Grateloupia filicina exploitation of high-value products. PMID:25945340

  15. Characterization of fungal sulfated polysaccharides and their synergistic anticancer effects with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Chao, Chi-Hsein; Lu, Mei-Kuang

    2012-09-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SPSs) from two edible fungal species, including two strains of Antrodia cinnamomea and Poria cocos, were isolated. Fucose, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, and mannose were the major sugars in the SPSs, and these SPSs had a high sulfate content. The area percentage of low-molecular-weight SPSs (1-100 kDa) covered almost half of the SPS mixture of the A. cinnamomea strains. In contrast, high-molecular-weight SPSs (>1000 kDa) of P. cocos covered a large proportion of the area at 30.06%. SPSs from A. cinnamomea B86 showed stronger inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) tube formation in an in vitro assay of angiogenesis, than did A. cinnamomea 35396 or P. cocos. The degree of sulfation paralleled their antiangiogenic activity. When tumor cells were concurrently exposed to doxorubicin (DOX) and fungal SPSs, SPSs synergistically increased the cytotoxicity of DOX to different degree up to 50-fold. Fungal SPSs may offer new applications for combinational-therapy drugs. PMID:24751021

  16. Microwave assisted extraction of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from Ascophyllum nodosum and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan

    2015-09-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum were extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Different conditions of temperature (90-150°C), extraction time (5-30 min) were evaluated and optimal fucoidan yield was 16.08%, obtained from 120°C for 15 min's extraction. Compositional analysis, GPC, HPAEC and IR analysis were employed for characterization of extracted sulfated polysaccharides. Fucose was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 90°C while glucuronic acid was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 150°C. Both the molecular weight and sulfate content of extracted fucoidan increased with decreasing extraction temperature. All fucoidans exhibited antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH scavenging and reducing power, among which fucoidan extracted at 90°C was highest. This study shows that MAE is an efficient technology to extract sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed and Ascophyllum nodosum could potentially be a resource for natural antioxidants. PMID:26050894

  17. Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lgia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Ngila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?g/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

  18. Chemical Fucosylation of a Polysaccharide: A Semisynthetic Access to Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Laezza, Antonio; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Castro, Cristina De; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2015-07-13

    Chemical O-glycosylation of polysaccharides is an almost unexplored reaction. This is mainly due to the difficulties in derivatizing such complex biomacromolecules in a quantitative manner and with a fine control of the obtained structural parameters. In this work, chondroitin raw material from a microbial source was chemo- and regioselectively protected to give two polysaccharide intermediates, that acted in turn as glycosyl acceptors in fucosylation reactions. Further manipulations on the fucosylated polysaccharides, including multiple de-O-benzylation and sulfation, furnished for the first time nonanimal sourced fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs)-polysaccharides obtained so far exclusively from sea cucumbers (Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) and showing several very interesting biological activities. A semisynthetic fCS was characterized from a structural point of view by means of 2D-NMR techniques, and preliminarily assayed in an anticoagulant test. PMID:26083095

  19. Semi-synthesis of unusual chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides containing GlcA(3-O-sulfate) or GlcA(2,3-di-O-sulfate) units.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Emiliano; De Castro, Cristina; De Rosa, Mario; Di Nola, Annalida; Restaino, Odile F; Schiraldi, Chiara; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2012-02-13

    The extraction from natural sources of Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a polysaccharide used for management of osteoarthritis, leads to very complex mixtures. The synthesis of CS by chemical modification of other polysaccharides has seldom been reported due to the intrinsic complexity that arises from fine chemical modifications of the polysaccharide structure. In view of the growing interest in expanding the application of CS to pharmacological fields other than osteoarthritis treatment, we launched a program to find new sources of known or even unprecedented CS polysaccharides. As part of this program, we report herein on an investigation of the use of a cyclic orthoester group to selectively protect the 4,6-diol of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in chondroitin (obtained from a microbial source), thereby facilitating its transformation into CSs. In particular, three CS polysaccharides were obtained and demonstrated to possess rare or hitherto unprecedented sulfation patterns by 2D NMR spectroscopy characterization. Two of them contained disaccharide subunits characterized by glucuronic acid residues selectively sulfated at position 3 (GlcA(3S)), the biological functions of which are known but have yet to be fully investigated. This first semi-synthetic access to GlcA(3S)-containing CS could greatly expedite such studies, since it can easily furnish considerable amounts of these polysaccharides, which are usually isolated with difficulty and in very low quantity from natural sources. PMID:22231439

  20. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  1. Biological properties of ulvan, a new source of green seaweed sulfated polysaccharides, on cultured normal and cancerous colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kaeffer, B; Bnard, C; Lahaye, M; Blottire, H M; Cherbut, C

    1999-08-01

    Ulvans (from Ulva lactuca) constitute a dietary fiber structurally similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycans but with unexplored biological or cytotoxic activities. From native low-viscosity preparations containing 33.5 molar % and 18.4 molar % of sulfate residues and uronic acid residues, respectively, we derived desulfated, reduced and desulfated-reduced polysaccharides with respectively 5.2, 2.9, and 4.5-4.9 molar % of sulfate residues and uronic acid residues. The effects of these preparations were examined on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of normal or tumoral colonic epithelial cells cultured in conventional (0.3-0.8 x 10(6) cells/ml) or rotating bioreactor (3-8 x 10(6) cells/ml) culture conditions. In conventional culture conditions, ulvan modified the adhesion phase and the proliferation of normal colonic cells and undifferentiated HT-29 cells according to their molecular weights and to the relative molar proportion of sulfate residues. From the native polysaccharides, we have screened sulfated ulvans (MW < 5,000) which inhibited the Caco-2 cell proliferation/differentiation program by inducing a low cell reactivity to Ulex europeaus-1 lectins in defined (p < 0.001) or serum-supplemented media (p < 0.01) but were inactive on normal colonocytes. In conclusion, this dietary fiber could be a source of oligosaccharides with a bioactivity, a cytotoxicity or a cytostaticity targeted to normal or cancerous epithelial cells. PMID:10483372

  2. Evaluation of sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyopteris justii as antioxidant agents and as inhibitors of the formation of calcium oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Melo, Karoline Rachel Teodosio; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Vidal, Arthur Anthunes Jacome; Lima, Camila Renata Machado; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Oxalate crystals and other types of crystals are the cause of urolithiasis, and these are related to oxidative stress. The search for new compounds with antioxidant qualities and inhibitors of these crystal formations is therefore necessary. In this study, we extracted four sulfated polysaccharides, a fucoglucoxyloglucuronan (DJ-0.3v), a heterofucan (DJ-0.4v), and two glucans (DJ-0.5v and DJ-1.2v), from the marine alga Dictyopteris justii. The presence of sulfated polysaccharides was confirmed by chemical analysis and FT-IR. All the sulfated polysaccharides presented antioxidant activity under different conditions in some of the in vitro tests and inhibited the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Fucan DJ-0.4v was the polysaccharide that showed the best antioxidant activity and was one of the best inhibitors of the crystallization of calcium oxalate. Glucan DJ-0.5v was the second most potent inhibitor of the formation of oxalate crystals, as it stabilized dehydrated oxalate crystals (less aggressive form), preventing them from transforming into monohydrate crystals (more aggressive form). The obtained data lead us to propose that these sulfated polysaccharides are promising agents for use in the treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:24287990

  3. Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives: A novel class of candidate antiviral microbicides.

    PubMed

    Rusnati, Marco; Vicenzi, Elisa; Donalisio, Manuela; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2009-09-01

    Antiviral microbicides, topical agents that prevent sexually transmitted infections, mainly work by blocking the interaction between viral proteins and cell surface components. In many instances, virus-cell interaction is mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are exploited as attachment receptors by three sexually transmitted viruses: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Since these viruses can either infect or co-infect humans, virus/HSPGs interaction is a preferential target for the development of wide-spectrum antiviral microbicides. Several polyanionic compounds prevent HIV, HSV and HPV infections in cell culture models by acting as heparan sulfate (HS)-antagonists. However, three promising polyanionic compounds recently failed to pass phase III clinical trials designed to establish their efficacy in preventing HIV acquisition. In this scenario, new polyanionic compounds must be added to the pipeline of candidate microbicides and their development as effective drugs reconsidered. The capsular K5 polysaccharide from Escherichia coli has the same structure as the heparin/HS biosynthetic precursor. Chemical and enzymatic modifications have led to the synthesis of K5 derivatives with different degrees of sulfation and charge distribution and devoid of anticoagulant activity and cell toxicity. Recently attracting attention as candidate microbicides, they potently inhibit a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains and genital types of HPV and HSV-1 and 2 in vitro. With a focus on the K5 derivatives, this article reviews the literature on polyanions as antiviral microbicides and discusses the possible therapeutic implications of this novel class of compounds. PMID:19447134

  4. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    DOEpatents

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  5. Controlled sulfatation of natural anionic bacterial polysaccharides can yield agents with specific regenerating activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Petit, Emmanuel; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Muller, Guy; Courtois, Bernard; Caruelle, Jean-Pierre; Courtois, Josiane

    2004-01-01

    The regenerating activities of chemically modified anionic bacterial polysaccharides by O-sulfonation were investigated using a in vivo model of rat injured muscle regeneration. Glucuronan (GA), a linear homopolysaccharide of -->4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1--> residues partially acetylated at the C-3 and/or the C-2 position, and glucoglucuronan (GGA), a linear heteropolysaccharide of -->3)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1-->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1--> residues were sulfated. SO3-DMF sulfatation complex provided polysaccharides with different sulfur contents, however, a depolymerization occurred because we did not use large excess of pyridine to obtain pure modified polysaccharides. A regenerating activity on injured extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles on rats was obtained with these two sulfated anionic polymers. The position of sulfate groups on glucoglucuronan (primary or secondary alcohol) seems to have no influence on the biological activity by opposition to the degree of sulfatation both for the glucuronans and the glucoglucuronans. The yield of acetate groups in the glucuronan polymer modulated the specific activity. PMID:15003004

  6. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simes, C. M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm?1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1?6)-(1?3)-?-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1?3)-?-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1?3)-?-D-gluco-(1?2)-?-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 ?g/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 ?g/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 ?g/mL). PMID:23511057

  7. Antitumor activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from Enteromorpha intestinalis targeted against hepatoma through mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuxia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Jingjie; Liu, Zhenxiong; Zhao, Shuguang

    2014-02-01

    A sulfated polysaccharide (EI-SP), extracted from Enteromorpha intestinalis that is a kind of algae, is found to have anticancer activity. This study was designed to investigate the anti-tumor effect of EI-SP on human hepatoma HepG2 cell line and its possible mechanisms. An MTT assay showed that EI-SP could specifically inhibit the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis by flow cytometry indicated that the apoptosis of tumor cells increased after treatment with EI-SP in range of 100-400 ?g/ml. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that EI-SP treatment led to decreased protein expression of Bcl-2 and an increase in Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Moreover, it was found that EI-SP caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m) and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Collectively, our results showed that the EI-SP induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells involving a caspases-mediated mitochondrial signalling pathway. PMID:24197975

  8. Neuroprotective effect of sulfated polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus on 6-OHDA-induced death in SH-SY5Y through inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chao; Cui, Ningshan; Wang, Peng; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect and molecular mechanism of the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that SJP could protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell injury. We found that SJP effectively improves cell viability, decreases LDH leakage, and reverses morphological damage. Moreover, SJP significantly increases SOD activity but decreases MDA levels and ROS generation. Effect of SJP on 6-OHDA-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells is associated with an arrest in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle and inhibits the expression of Cyclin D3. 6-OHDA-induced intracellular generation of ROS and mitochondrial dysfunctions, release of cytochrome c, imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-9/caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio, and p-p53 activation were strikingly attenuated by SJP pretreatment. Meanwhile, SJP counteracted NF-κB activation, thereby preventing up-regulation of iNOS and intracellular NO release. The data provide the first evidence that SJP protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA toxicity possibly by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB and activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Thus, SJP is a candidate for further evaluation of its protective effects against neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:26773499

  9. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Solution conformation and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Tang, YinYing; Xu, Qing; Huang, Shengli; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-20

    Regioselective modification is an effective approach to synthesize polysaccharides with different structure features and improved properties. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. The decrease in fractal dimension (df) values (1.56-2.04) of SRSASP was observed in size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Compared to sample substituted at C-6, SRSASP showed a more expanded conformation of random coil, which was attributed to the breakup of hydrogen bonds and elastic contributions. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the conformational transition and stiffness of the chains after sulfation. SRSASP exhibited enhanced antioxidant activities in the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Sulfation at C-2 or C-3 was favorable for the chelation which might prevent the generation of hydroxyl radicals. It concluded that the degree of substitution and substitution position were the factors influencing biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides. PMID:26572384

  10. Chemical characteristics and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha linza (Chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiaohui; Mao, Wenjun; Chen, Yin; Chen, Yanli; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan

    2013-03-01

    Two sulfated polysaccharides, designated MP and SP, were extracted from the marine green alga Enteromorpha linza using hot water and then purified using ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The anticoagulant activities of MP and SP were examined by determination of their activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) using human plasma. Results showed that MP and SP were composed of abundant rhamnose with small amounts of xylose and glucuronic acid, whereas SP also contained a small amount of galactose. Approximate molecular weights of MP and SP were 535 and 502 kDa, respectively. As compared with SP, MP had higher contents of sulfate ester (19.0%) and uronic acid (14.9%). The MP mainly consisted of (1→4)-linked rhamnose residues with partially sulfated groups at the C-3 position, and small amounts of (1→3, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1→2, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1→4)-linked glucuronic acid and (1→4)-linked xylose residues. The SP contained abundant (1→4)-linked rhamnose with minor amounts of (1→3)-linked rhamnose, (1→3, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1→2, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1→4)-linked glucuronic acid, (1→4)-linked xylose, and (1→3)-linked galactose residues. The sulfate groups were mainly located at C-3 of (1→4)-linked rhamnose residues. Both MP and SP, in particular the former, effectively prolonged APTT and TT. This work demonstrates that MP and SP have unique structural characteristics distinct from those of other sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha. The MP is a potential source of anticoagulant, and the difference in anticoagulant activities of the two sulfated polysaccharides is directly linked to the discrepancy of their chemical features.

  11. Effect of Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides and its sulfated derivatives on immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinghong; Zhang, Yuetian; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Zhao, Xingfang; Lai, Xin; Wang, Guangxi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Shu, Gang; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2015-01-01

    One hundred mice were randomly divided into five groups. The mice in one group were injected with physiological saline as the normal control group. The mice in the other four groups were injected with physiological saline, sulfated Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharides (SCVP), Chuanminshen violaceum polysaccharide (CVP) and astragalus polysaccharide (AP) once daily for 7 d and then with cyclophosphamide (CY) in the last 3 d. The serum cytokine level, apoptosis protein expressions, spleen lymphocyte proliferation, changes in peripheral blood T-cell subsets, and immune organ index were then measured. Results showed that SCVP and CVP can overcome CY-induced immunosuppression by promoting spleen lymphocyte proliferation, raising serum IFN-? and IL-2 levels, enlarging immune organ indexes, and decreasing excessive apoptosis. Moreover, SCVP and CVP showed the potential to treat autoimmune diseases based on CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Results suggested that SCVP and CVP exhibited the potential to treat autoimmune and immunosuppression diseases. PMID:25785030

  12. Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. PMID:23507892

  13. Sulfated modification promotes the immunomodulatory bioactivities of Lyciumbarbarum polysaccharides in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmin; Ge, Beilei; Du, Chunyan; Xue, Jingli; Zhuang, Yuwei; Xue, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Three kinds of purified Lyciumbarbarum polysaccharides (LBPSs), LBPS30, LBPS70 and total LBPS (LBPSt), were modified using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method based on the previous experiment, forming three sulfated LBPS (sLBPS), sLBPSt, sLBPS30 and sLBPS70 respectively. They were characterized by ultrasonic-acidic barium chromate spectrophotometry, infrared (FT-IR) and high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). The immunomodulatory activity of each kind of LBPSs and sLBPSs was further examined to determine the relationship between the structure and bioactivity, and the sLBPS with the highest activity was selected. The results showed that sulfate contents were 390.67, 542.75 and 291.71 mg/g respectively, with different molecular masses. The appearance of two new characteristic absorption bands at near 1230 and 855, 853 or 808 cm-1 in FT-IR spectra revealed the success of sulfation. sLBPSt with high molecular weight and moderate sulfate content exhibited the best immunomodulatory activity by promoting lymphopoiesis and T lymphocyte differentiation as well as increasing IL-2, IL-6, IFN-? and TFN-? production in vitro compared with the inartificial polysaccharides. These results indicated that sulfated modification could be considered as an effective way to enhance immune activity of LBPSs. Furthermore, sLBPSt showed the best performances and would be expected as a new source of immunopotentiator. PMID:26884954

  14. A Direct Sulfation Process of a Marine Polysaccharide in Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Nathalie; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Zykwinska, Agata; Weiss, Pierre; Crantola, Stphane; Le Bideau, Jean; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    GY785 is an exopolysaccharide produced by a mesophilic bacterial strain Alteromonas infernus discovered in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. GY785 highly sulfated derivative (GY785 DRS) was previously demonstrated to be a promising molecule driving the efficient mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage repair. This glycosaminoglycan- (GAG-) like compound was modified in a classical solvent (N,N'-dimethylformamide). However, the use of classical solvents limits the polysaccharide solubility and causes the backbone degradation. In the present study, a one-step efficient sulfation process devoid of side effects (e.g., polysaccharide depolymerization and/or degradation) was developed to produce GAG-like derivatives. The sulfation of GY785 derivative (GY785 DR) was carried out using ionic liquid as a reaction medium. The successful sulfation of this anionic and highly branched heteropolysaccharide performed in ionic liquid would facilitate the production of new molecules of high specificity for biological targets such as tissue engineering or regenerative medicine. PMID:26090416

  15. Purification and Structural Characterization of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum and its Efficacy in Scavenging Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Badrinathan, S.; Shiju, T. M.; Sharon Christa, A. Suneeva; Arya, R.; Pragasam, V.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are one of the commercially beneficial compounds with a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. They are testified to be effective against free radicals and related health complications. This study aims to determine the antioxidant potential of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum, followed by its purification and structural characterization. Amount of extract obtained was 5% from 10 g of plant material. The carbohydrate and sulfate content were found to be 31 and 0.34 mg/10 g of plant material, respectively. Total sulfated polysaccharide extract showed a good radical scavenging activity at lower concentrations. The active principle from the total sulfated polysaccharide was fractionated in anion exchange and gel filtration columns followed by structural characterization using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fraction 12 closely matched with the Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of fucoidan. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum is identified as Fucoidan with potential radical scavenging activity compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene. PMID:23798781

  16. Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of a water-insoluble polysaccharides from Dictyophora indusiata.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Haitian; Chen, Jinghua; Xu, Xin

    2015-04-01

    The present study described the characterization and biological properties of water?soluble sulfated polysaccharides prepared from water?insoluble polysaccharide (DIP), which were extracted from Dictyophora indusiata. The sulfation of DIP was performed using the chlorosulfonic acid?pyridine method. The water solubilities of the sulfated derivatives were measured at room temperature according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and 1,1?diphenyl?2?picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as determined, together with the reduction ability of the sulfated polysaccharides. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of DIP and the sulfated derivatives on MCF?7 and B16 cells were then determined using an MTT assay. The substitution degrees of the sulfated polysaccharides were 0.584 (S1?DIP), 0.989 (S2?DIP) and 1.549 (S3?DIP) according to barium chloride?gelatin nephelometry. Infrared spectroscopy and 13C?nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the substitution of S?DIP occurred mainly at the C?6 position, followed by the C?4 and C?2 positions. A significant increase was noted in the antioxidant activity of the sulfated derivatives compared with that of DIP. In addition, the S?DIPs exhibited a more marked reducing capacity and clearing activity of hydroxyl radicals and DPPH. This indicated that the antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharides was significantly higher following sulfation. Furthermore, in in vitro cell investigations, DIP exhibited no inhibitory effects on the growth of the B16 or MCF?7 tumor cells. However, the sulfated derivatives exerted marked inhibitory effects on these cell lines. Sulfate modification may therefore contribute to an improvement in water solubility and in the antioxidant and antitumor activities of natural DIP. PMID:25484243

  17. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mouro, Paulo A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1) defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2) looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3) identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding) and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4) considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5) investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases. PMID:25955754

  18. Polysaccharides isolated from Digenea simplex inhibit inflammatory and nociceptive responses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Juliana G; Mesquita, Jacilane X; Arago, Karoline S; Franco, Alvaro X; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Brito, Tarcisio V; Dias, Jordana M; Silva, Renan O; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Abreu, Clara Myrla W S; de Paula, Regina Clia M; Barbosa, Andr Luiz R; Freitas, Ana Lcia P

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharides (PLS) have notably diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we investigated the previously unexplored anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the PLS fraction isolated from the marine red alga Digenea simplex. We found that the PLS fraction reduced carrageenan-induced edema in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited inflammation induced by dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The fraction also inhibited neutrophil migration into both mouse paw and peritoneal cavity. This effect was accompanied by decreases in IL1-? and TNF-? levels in the peritoneal fluid. Pre-treatment of mice with PLS (60 mg/kg) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. This same dose of PLS also reduced total licking time in both phases of a formalin test, and increased latency in a hot plate test. Therefore, we conclude that PLS extracted from D. simplex possess anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and can be useful as therapeutic agents against inflammatory diseases. PMID:24751242

  19. In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Abu, Ryogo; Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan from Ascophyllum nodosum was investigated in vitro by various assays, and compared with those of fucoidan. A chemiluminescence (CL) analysis using a luminol analog, L-012, showed that ascophyllan scavenges superoxide, and the activity is greater than fucoidan. However, in the presence of 10μg/ml of ascophyllan or 10μg/ml and 100μg/ml of fucoidan, slightly enhanced CL-responses were observed. Since EDTA-treatment resulted in disappearance of the enhancement effects, it was suggested that metal ions especially iron ions in the polysaccharides might be involved in this phenomenon. In fact, metal element analysis revealed that ascophyllan and fucoidan inherently contain iron and other metal elements. EDTA-treatment resulted in significant increase in Fe(2+)-chelating activities of these polysaccharides. In an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping analysis in which direct UV-radiation to hydrogen peroxide was used as a source of hydroxyl radical, ascophyllan and fucoidan showed potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with similar extent. Reducing power of ascophyllan was stronger than that of fucoidan. Our results indicate that ascophyllan can exhibit direct and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:23643974

  20. Biochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of crude and purified sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria fisheri.

    PubMed

    Imjongjairak, Siriluck; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Laohakunjit, Natta; Tachaapaikoon, Chakrit; Pason, Patthra; Waeonukul, Rattiya

    2016-03-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from Gracilaria fisheri of Thailand, which were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water showed the highest content of phenolic compounds compared with those extracted at high temperature (55 °C). Crude SP antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the DPPH free radical scavenging effect which is directly related to the level of phenolic compounds. The sulfate content, total sugar, and SPs yield were also directly related to the extraction temperature. All extracts contained galactose as a major monosaccharide. High antioxidant activity of crude SP, positively correlated with the phenolic compound contents (R(2) = 0.996) contributed by the existence of sulfate groups and phenolic compounds. In purified SP, F1 fraction exhibited strong radical scavenging ability, but it was not significantly different compared to crude SP extracted at 25 °C. This indicated that the appropriate density and distribution of sulfate groups in the SP extract showed the best antioxidant activity. PMID:26507584

  1. Structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero/galactofucan polysaccharides on dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Huaide; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero-polysaccharides (DF1) and sulfated galactofucan polysaccharides (DF2) on dopaminergic neuron in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with samples significantly ameliorated the depletion of both DA and TH-, Bcl-2- and Bax-positive neurons in MPTP-induced PD mice, DF1 showed the highest activity. The in vitro results found that DF1 and DF2 could reverse the decreased mitochondrial activity and the increased LDL release induced by MPP(+) (P<0.01 or P<0.001) which provides further evidence that DF1 and DF2 also exerts a direct protection against the neuronal injury caused by MPP(+). Furthermore, the administration of samples effectively decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the level/activities of GSH, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT in MPTP mice. Thus, the neuron protective effect may be mediated, in part, through antioxidant activity and the prevention of cell apoptosis. The chemical composition of DF1, DF2 and DF differed markedly, the DF1 fraction had the most complex chemical composition and showed the highest neuron protective activity. These results suggest that diverse monosaccharides and uronic acid might contribute to neuron protective activity. PMID:26484597

  2. The comparison of antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) and sulfated CP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-02-01

    Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) was extracted, purified and modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain a sulfated CP (sCP). Their antioxidative activities in vitro were compared through the free radical-scavenging test. The results demonstrated that the scavenging capabilities of sCP were significantly stronger than those of CP. In vivo test, the mice hepatic injury model was prepared by BCG/LPS method, then administrated respectively with sCP and CP at three dosages, the biochemical indexes in serum, antioxidative indexes in liver homogenate and histopathological change in liver of the mice were compared. The results showed that in high (200mg/kg) and middle (150mg/kg) dosages of sCP groups, the contents of ALT, AST and TNF-? in serum and MDA in liver homogenate were significantly lower than those in the model group and numerically lower than those in the CP groups, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver homogenate were significantly higher than those in the model group and numerically higher than those in the CP groups. In the model group there were obvious pathological changes in the liver, while in the sCP groups were near normal. These results indicate that sCP and CP possess antioxidative activity in vitro and in vivo, the activity of sCP is stronger than that of CP and sulfation modification can enhance the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide. PMID:25543057

  3. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharides from Ganoderma atrum and their antioxidant and immunomodulating activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanxing; Nie, Shaoping; Li, Chang; Xie, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    In this study, three chemically sulfated polysaccharides (S-PSG) with different degree of sulfate substitution (DS) were derived from Ganoderma atrum. FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectra indicated that the substitution was predominantly on C-6 position compared with the C-2 position. The antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of S-PSG were further examined to determine the relationship between its structure and bioactivity. The results showed that compared with the native polysaccharide, the S-PSG-2 with moderate DS and molecular weight exhibited the highest immunomodulatory activity by increasing the macrophage phagocytosis capacity and TNF-? production. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was also greatly enhanced by S-PSG in all the groups compared with PSG. However, the reducing power and the antioxidant activities in ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay were decreased. These results indicated that except for the DS, some other structural characteristics such as molecular weight, substitution position and chain conformation were also important factors affecting their bioactivities. And the S-PSG-2 we derived could be served as immunomodulator and free-radical inhibitors. PMID:25976815

  4. Separation, characterization and anticancer activities of a sulfated polysaccharide from Undaria pinnatifida.

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Wu, Jun; Liu, Tingting; Hu, Youdong; Zheng, Qiusheng; Wang, Binsheng; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Xia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate separation, characterization and anticancer activities of a sulfated polysaccharide (SPUP) from Undaria pinnatifida. Firstly, polysaccharide from U. pinnatifida was separated by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. As results, SPUP was obtained with the yield of 19.42%. Then, SPUP was characterized using chemical analysis, gas chromatography, size-exclusion HPLC chromatography, UV-vis spectra and FT-IR spectrum. The content of total sugar, uronic acid, protein and sulfate radical were 80.48%, 3.21%, 7.12% and 29.14%, respectively. SPUP was a heteropolysaccharide composed of fucose, glucose and galactose in a molar percentage of 27.15:19.34:53.51 with molecular weight of 97.9kDa. Finally, the strongly against breast cancer activity of SPUP was confirmed by DMBA-induced breast cancer rats model. AS results, SPUP can significantly restrain breast abnormal enlargement, prolong tumor latency and reduced tumor incidence. Immunomodulatory activity and regulating abnormal sex hormones level might contribute to its anticancer activities. PMID:26616455

  5. Occurrence of sulfated fucose branches in fucosylated chondroitin sulfate are essential for the polysaccharide effect preventing muscle damage induced by toxins and crude venom from Bothrops jararacussu snake.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Strauch, Marcelo A; Cons, Bruno L; Borges, Paula A; Patrão-Neto, Fernando C; Tavares-Henriques, Matheus S; Teixeira-Cruz, Jhonatha M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Cintra, Adélia C O; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Mourão, Paulo A S; Melo, Paulo A

    2015-05-01

    Snake envenoming is an important public health problem around the world, particularly in tropics. Beyond deaths, morbidity induced by snake venoms, such as myotoxicity, is of pivotal consequence to population. Bothrops jararacussu is the main venomous snake in southeast region of Brazil, and particularly presents strong myotoxic effect. The only available therapy, antibothropic antivenom, poorly affects venom-induced myotoxicity. The aim of this study is to assess the ability of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fucCS), a glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties, and its derivatives to inhibit toxic activities of B. jararacussu crude venom and its isolated toxins, named bothropstoxins (BthTX-I and BthTX-II). The in vitro myotoxic activities induced by crude venom, by BthTX-I alone and by toxins together were abolished by fucCS. Carboxyl reduction (fucCS-CR) kept this ability whereas defucosilation (defucCS) abrogates myoprotection. We observed the same pattern in the response of these polysaccharides in antagonizing the increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) levels, the reduction of skeletal muscle CK content and the rise of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity induced by crude venom and isolated toxins. FucCS inhibited edematogenic activity and partially prevented the reduction of total leukocytes in blood when pre-incubated with crude venom. Furthermore, the venom procoagulant effect was completely antagonized by increasing concentrations of fucCS, although this polyanion could stop neither the tail bleeding nor the skin hemorrhage induced by Bothrops jararaca venom. The B. jararacussu phospholipase, hyaluronidase, proteolytic and collagenase activities were inhibited in vitro. The results suggest that fucCS could be able to interact with both toxins, and it is able to inhibit BthTX-II phospholipase activity. Light microscopy of extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) muscle showed myoprotection by fucCS, once necrotic areas, edema and inflammatory cells were all decreased as compared to venom injection alone. Altogether, data show that fucCS was able to inhibit myotoxicity and inflammation induced by B. jararacussu venom and its phospholipase toxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Thus, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is a new polyanion with potential to be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of snakebites in the future. PMID:25702961

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Anti-Angiogenic Multitarget N,O-Sulfated E. Coli K5 Polysaccharide in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rezzola, Sara; Dal Monte, Massimo; Belleri, Mirella; Bugatti, Antonella; Chiodelli, Paola; Corsini, Michela; Cammalleri, Maurizio; Cancarini, Anna; Morbidelli, Lucia; Oreste, Pasqua; Bagnoli, Paola; Semeraro, Francesco; Presta, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockers have been developed for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), the leading cause of visual impairments in the working-age population in the Western world. However, limitations to anti-VEGF therapies may exist because of the local production of other proangiogenic factors that may cause resistance to anti-VEGF interventions. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches targeting additional pathways are required. Here, we identified a sulfated derivative of the Escherichia coli polysaccharide K5 [K5-N,OS(H)] as a multitarget molecule highly effective in inhibiting VEGF-driven angiogenic responses in different in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo assays, including a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Furthermore, K5-N,OS(H) binds a variety of heparin-binding angiogenic factors upregulated in PDR vitreous humor besides VEGF, thus inhibiting their biological activity. Finally, K5-N,OS(H) hampers the angiogenic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by human vitreous fluid samples collected from patients with PDR. Together, the data provide compelling experimental evidence that K5-N,OS(H) represents an antiangiogenic multitarget molecule with potential implications for the therapy of pathologic neovessel formation in the retina of patients with PDR. PMID:25695948

  7. Anti-metastatic effects of the sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum on B16 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Abu, Ryogo; Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Isaka, Shogo; Nakazono, Satoru; Okimura, Takasi; Cho, Kichul; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2015-03-20

    We previously found that ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, exhibited antitumor activity in sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice. In this study, we found that ascophyllan inhibited the migration and adhesion of B16 melanoma cells by reducing the expression of N-cadherin and enhancing the expression of E-cadherin in a concentration-dependent manner. Transwell invasion assay revealed that ascophyllan suppressed the invasion ability of B16 cells. It also inhibited the expression of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) mRNA and the secretion of MMP-9 protein in B16 cells, a process that may involve the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Furthermore, ascophyllan administered intraperitoneally at 25 mg/kg showed anti-metastatic activity in a mouse model of metastasis induced by intravenous injection of B16 cells, and the number of lung surface metastatic nodules in ascophyllan-treated mice was significantly reduced compared to that in the untreated control mice. Since splenic natural killer cell activity enhanced in the mice injected with ascophyllan intraperitoneally, we suggest that ascophyllan may exhibit in vivo anti-metastatic activity on B16 melanoma cells through activation of the host immune system in addition to a direct action on cancer cells. PMID:25623538

  8. Pharmacological profiles of animal- and nonanimal-derived sulfated polysaccharides--comparison of unfractionated heparin, the semisynthetic glucan sulfate PS3, and the sulfated polysaccharide fraction isolated from Delesseria sanguinea.

    PubMed

    Groth, Inken; Grnewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

    2009-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) such as heparin are known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, e.g., anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastastic effects. However, since the anticoagulant activity of heparin is dominating, its therapeutic use for other medical indications is limited due to an associated risk of bleeding. Further disadvantages of heparin are its animal origin, the shortage of resources, and its complex and variable composition. However, SP without these limitations may represent a substance class with good prospects for applications other than anticoagulation. In this study, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of two nonanimal-derived SP were investigated in comparison with unfractionated heparin. One is the natural SP fraction from the red algae Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP). The other one is the chemically defined PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate with proven in vivo anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities. All three polysaccharides were examined in vitro for their inhibitory effects on the coagulation and complement system, polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase, hyaluronidase, matrix metalloproteinase-1, heparanase, and p-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Compared with heparin, the nonanimal-derived polysaccharides have a four times weaker anticoagulant activity, but mostly exhibit stronger (1.4-224 times) effects on test systems investigating targets of inflammation or metastasis. According to their different structures, PS3 and D.s.-SP differ in their pharmacological profile with PS3 being the strongest inhibitor of heparanase and cell adhesion and D.s.-SP being the strongest inhibitor of hyaluronidase and complement activation. Considering both pharmacological profile and pharmaceutical quality parameters, PS3 represents a candidate for further development as an anti-inflammatory or antimetastatic drug whereas D.s.-SP might have perspectives for cosmetic applications. PMID:19106233

  9. Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from green algae, activates plant immunity through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jaulneau, Valrie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerr-Tugay, Marie-Thrse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  10. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valrie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerr-Tugay, Marie-Thrse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  11. Microanalysis and preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of a sulfated polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column fluorescence derivatization has been developed to determine the amount of low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide (GFS) in vivo. The metabolism of GFS has been shown to fit a two component model following its administration by intravenous injection, and its pharmacokinetic parameters were determined to be as follows: half-time of distribution phase ( t 1/2α)=11.24±2.93 min, half-time of elimination phase ( t 1/2β)=98.20±25.78 min, maximum concentration ( C max)=110.53 μg/mL and peak time ( T max)=5 min. The pharmacokinetic behavior of GFS was also investigated following intragastric administration. However, the concentration of GFS found in serum was too low for detection, and GFS could only be detected for up to 2 h after intragastric administration (200 mg/kg body weight). Thus, the bioavailability of GFS was low following intragastric administration because of the metabolism of GFS. In conclusion, HPLC with postcolumn derivatization could be used for quantitative microanalysis and pharmacokinetic studies to determine the presence of polysaccharides in the serum following intravenous injection.

  12. Microanalysis and preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of a sulfated polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-06-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column fluorescence derivatization has been developed to determine the amount of lowmolecularweight sulfated polysaccharide (GFS) in vivo. The metabolism of GFS has been shown to fit a two component model following its administration by intravenous injection, and its pharmacokinetic parameters were determined to be as follows: half-time of distribution phase (t 1/2?)=11.242.93 min, half-time of elimination phase (t 1/2?)=98.2025.78 min, maximum concentration (C max)=110.53 g/mL and peak time (T max)=5 min. The pharmacokinetic behavior of GFS was also investigated following intragastric administration. However, the concentration of GFS found in serum was too low for detection, and GFS could only be detected for up to 2 h after intragastric administration (200 mg/kg body weight). Thus, the bioavailability of GFS was low following intragastric administration because of the metabolism of GFS. In conclusion, HPLC with postcolumn derivatization could be used for quantitative microanalysis and pharmacokinetic studies to determine the presence of polysaccharides in the serum following intravenous injection.

  13. Differential effects of polysulfated polysaccharide on experimental encephalomyelitis, proliferation of autoimmune T cells, and inhibition of heparanase activity.

    PubMed

    Hershkoviz, R; Mor, F; Miao, H Q; Vlodavsky, I; Lider, O

    1995-10-01

    The extravasation of activated T lymphocytes through blood vessel walls and their migration to inflammatory loci are associated with secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, such as heparanase, which degrades heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of the ECM. The HS-degrading activity of heparanase was found to be inhibited by HS and heparin. Since induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires extravasation and migration of autoimmune T cells, degradation of ECM by heparanase is expected to be involved in induction of the disease. Herein, we examined whether laminarin sulfate, a polysulfated polysaccharide (PSS) isolated from the cell walls of seaweeds and subjected to chemical sulfation, could inhibit ECM degradation by mammalian heparanase, and could prevent EAE. PSS was a more potent inhibitor of heparanase-mediated degradation of ECM than heparin. In-vivo, PSS, injected once a week, inhibited the severity of actively-induced EAE in rats. However, inhibition of EAE was not due to an overall suppression of autoimmune T cells, since PSS enhanced the proliferation of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific, encephalitogenic T cells. PSS-activated autoimmune T cells, but not MBP-activated cells, failed to induce EAE in recipient rats. Moreover, rats injected with PSS-activated T cells were resistant to induction of EAE by anti-MBP CD4+ T cells. Thus, PSS may have potential clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8579728

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis sulfated polysaccharides in experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, Neelakandan; Kanmani, Paulraj; Satishkumar, Ramraj; Paari, Alagesan; Pattukumar, Vellaiyan; Arul, Venkatesan

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (Sw-SP) and seagrass Halophila ovalis (Ho-SP) in nociceptive and inflammatory models. In the formalin test, Sw-SP and Ho-SP significantly reduced licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10 mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 10 mg/kg of Sw-SP and 5, 10 mg/kg of Ho-SP, suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism at the higher dose. Sw-SP and Ho-SP (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration by 53% and 52%, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, there was a significant increase in the rat paw volume and decrease in body weight, but in Sw-SP- and Ho-SP-treated groups (10 mg/kg), a significant reduction in paw volume and a normal gain in body weight were observed. The present results indicate that Sw-SP and Ho-SP possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and have potential usefulness for development as therapeutic agents. PMID:23957357

  15. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect. PMID:25439865

  16. Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-?B signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?-B?. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-?B, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. PMID:24626144

  17. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  18. Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Fubo; Hu, Linfeng; Yue, Yang; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Three marine macroalgae, i.e., Grateloupia filicina, Ulva pertusa and Sargassum qingdaoense, were selected as the deputies of Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Ochrophyta for comparative analysis of the molecular structures and biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides (SP). The ratio of water-soluble polysaccharides, the monosaccharide composition and the sulfated contents of three extracted SPs were determined, and their structures were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. In addition, biological activity analysis showed that all three SPs had immune-modulatory activity both in vitro and in vivo, and SPs from S. qingdaoense had the best effect. Further bioassays showed that three SPs could not only enhance the immunity level stimulated by inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) in vivo but also significantly inhibited the activity of activated AIV (H9N2 subtype) in vitro. G. filicina SP exhibited the strongest anti-AIV activity. These results revealed the variations in structural features and bioactivities among three SPs and indicated the potential adjuvants for immune-enhancement and anti-AIV. PMID:26729137

  19. Antihyperlipidemic effects of different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Pengzhan, Yu; Ning, Li; Xiguang, Liu; Gefei, Zhou; Quanbin, Zhang; Pengcheng, Li

    2003-12-01

    Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from Ulva pertusa, was degraded to yield two low molecular weight fractions U1 and U2. The molecular weights of ulvan and its fractions were determined and varied from 151.6 to 28.2 kDa. They were fed to rats on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate and compare the antihyperlipidemic actions. Ulvan-based diet significantly lowered the levels of serum total cholesterol (-45.2%, P<0.05) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol, -54.1%, P<0.05). While U1- and U2-based diets significantly elevated the levels of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, +22.0% for U1, not significant; +61.0% for U2; P<0.05) and reduced triglyceride (TG, -82.4% for U1, -77.7% for U2; P<0.05) in rats as compared to control diet. In addition, consumptions of various ulvans significantly increased fecal bile acid excrement. The results indicated that ulvans with different molecular weights exhibited diverse effects on lipid metabolism. The high molecular weight ulvan was effective in serum total and LDL-cholesterol, whereas low molecular weight fractions were in TG and HDL-cholesterol. The fractions were considered to be more beneficial to hyperlipidemia associated with diabetes over ulvan. PMID:14527817

  20. Antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of sulfated polysaccharide TLH-3 from Tricholoma lobayense.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehui; Lu, Yongming; Zhang, Wenna; Yuan, Shixiong; Zhou, Liyuan; Wang, Liming; Ding, Qiuying; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Weiwei; Cai, Zhengnan; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharide TLH-3 from the fruit body of Tricholoma lobayense Heim has shown outstanding antioxidant activity. In order to further explore it, TLH-3 was successfully modified to obtain a sulfated derivative (STLH-3). The chemical characteristics of STLH-3 and TLH-3 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the samples were investigated in vitro. The antioxidant activities of STLH-3 were significantly improved. In the four indicators of antioxidant activity, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion scavenging activities of STLH-3 have exceeded that of Vitamin C (Vc). The cytotoxicity against tumor cells including human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) of STLH-3 was obviously stronger than that of TLH-3. STLH-3 had no toxic on human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) cells. These results suggested that STLH-3 would be a promising bioactive macromolecule for potential applications in the field of health care and pharmaceutical. PMID:26449529

  1. Biosensors coated with sulfated polysaccharides for the detection of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in cell culture medium.

    PubMed

    Berger, Manuel; Welle, Alexander; Gottwald, Eric; Rapp, Michael; Lnge, Kerstin

    2010-12-15

    Process control methods for cell culture bioreactors include on-line monitoring of protein concentrations. Bioreactor samples typically contain high amounts of different proteins. The direct detection of a single protein in this complex medium is a challenging task within the development of biosensors with label-free detection. We introduce the development of a mass-sensitive biosensor based on surface acoustic waves (SAW) for the detection of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) in the serum containing medium of a miniaturized bioreactor for culturing hepatocytes. The specificity of the biosensor was obtained following two approaches. In the first approach, antibodies against HGF (anti-HGF) were immobilized covalently via an intermediate layer of dicarboxy polyethylene glycol on the biosensor surface. In the second approach, dextran sulfate and fucoidan were used as sensor coatings exploiting the fact that HGF binds specifically to those sulfated polysaccharides. Performing HGF assays, similar results were obtained using biosensors coated with dextran sulfate and biosensors coated with anti-HGF. Even higher sensor signals were obtained using biosensors coated with fucoidan, particularly at 37C. Therefore, biosensor coatings based on biospecific sulfated polysaccharides offer a simple and cost-saving alternative compared to the commonly used coating with antibodies. PMID:20719493

  2. Astragalus polysaccharides inhibits PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and blocking NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongxia; Gan, Fang; Zhang, Zheqian; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2015-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), as one kind of biological macromolecule extracted from Astragalus, has antiviral activities. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of APS on PCV2 replication in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that adding APS before PCV2 infection decreased significantly PCV2 DNA copies, the number of infected cells, MDA level, ROS level and NF-?B activation in PK15 cells and increased significantly GSH contents and SOD activity compared to control without APS. Oxidative stress induced by BSO could eliminate the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. LPS, as a NF-?B activator, could attenuate the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. BAY 11-7082, as a NF-?B inhibitor, could increase the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. In conclusion, APS inhibits PCV2 replication by decreasing oxidative stress and the activation of NF-?B signaling pathway, which suggests that APS might be employed for the prevention of PCV2 infection. PMID:26226456

  3. Novel sulfated polysaccharide derived from red-tide microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03 with immunostimulating activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yim, Joung Han; Son, Eunwha; Pyo, Suhkneung; Lee, Hong Kum

    2005-01-01

    The high-sulfate-containing exopolysaccharide p-KG03 is produced by the red-tide microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03. The immunostimulatory effects of this sulfated exopolysaccharide were investigated by isolating peritoneal macrophages from mice 10 or 20 days after they had received a single dose of p-KG03 (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight). The cytotoxicity of the isolated macrophages for B16 tumor cells was tested, as B16 tumor cells are sensitive to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide. The activities of natural killer cells from the p-KG03-treated mice against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cells were also tested. The nonspecific immune functions mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages were increased by treatment with p-KG03 in vivo. These results suggest that p-KG03 has immunostimulatory effects and enhances the tumoricidal activities of macrophages and NK cells in vivo. In addition, p-KG03 treatment increased the plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells, as well as the levels of IgM and IgG Exposure to p-KG03 also increased the production by macrophages of cytokines, such as interleukins -1beta and -6, and TNF-alpha. This is the first report of a marine microalgal sulfated polysaccharide having immunostimulatory activities. The p-KG03 polysaccharide may be useful for the development of biotechnological and pharmaceutical products that incorporate bioactive marine exopolysaccharides. PMID:15976942

  4. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  5. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Chu-Hsi; Tsai, Min-Lang; Chen, Rong-Huei; Drummen, Gregor P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS’ functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent. PMID:24071940

  6. Polysaccharides from Korean Citrus hallabong peels inhibit angiogenesis and breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Park, J Y; Shin, M S; Kim, S N; Kim, H Y; Kim, K H; Shin, K S; Kang, K S

    2016-04-01

    Although the peel of the hallabong (Citrus sphaerocarpa) fruit is rich in polysaccharides, which are valuable dietary ingredients for human health, it is normally wasted. The present study aimed to utilize the peel waste and identify properties it may have against breast cancer metastasis. Hallabong peel extract containing crude polysaccharides was fractionated by gel permeation chromatography to produce four different polysaccharide fractions (HBE-I, -II, -III, and -IV). The HBE polysaccharides significantly blocked tube formation of human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), at a concentration of 12.5 or 25μg/mL. Tube formation appeared to be more sensitive to HBE-II than to other HBE polysaccharides. HBE-II also inhibited breast cancer cell migration, through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of tube formation and MMP-9-mediated migration observed in HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively, are likely to be important therapeutic targets in triple-negative breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26778161

  7. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Cytoadhesion and Merozoite Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Marcele F.; Albrecht, Letusa; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Lopes, Stefanie C. P.; Blanco, Yara C.; Carlos, Bianca C.; Castieiras, Catarina; Vicente, Cristina P.; Werneck, Claudio C.; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Mouro, Paulo A. S.; Pavo, Mauro S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-iEs) in the microvasculature of vital organs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of life-threatening malaria complications, such as cerebral malaria and malaria in pregnancy. This phenomenon is marked by the cytoadhesion of Pf-iEs to host receptors on the surfaces of endothelial cells, on noninfected erythrocytes, and in the placental trophoblast; therefore, these sites are potential targets for antiadhesion therapies. In this context, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin, have shown the ability to inhibit Pf-iE cytoadherence and growth. Nevertheless, the use of heparin was discontinued due to serious side effects, such as bleeding. Other GAG-based therapies were hampered due to the potential risk of contamination with prions and viruses, as some GAGs are isolated from mammals. In this context, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a unique and highly sulfated GAG isolated from the sea cucumber, with respect to P. falciparum cytoadhesion and development. FucCS was effective in inhibiting the cytoadherence of Pf-iEs to human lung endothelial cells and placenta cryosections under static and flow conditions. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches of the FucCS structure virtually abolished the inhibitory effects of FucCS. Importantly, FucCS rapidly disrupted rosettes at high levels, and it was also able to block parasite development by interfering with merozoite invasion. Collectively, these findings highlight the potential of FucCS as a candidate for adjunct therapy against severe malaria. PMID:24395239

  8. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  9. Structural characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide from cultured Cordyceps militaris and its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yongshuai; Zhu, Jianhua; Liu, Ting; Bi, Sixue; Hu, Xianjing; Chen, Zhiyan; Song, Liyan; Lv, Wenjie; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-04-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CMPA90-1; compound 1) was isolated from the cultured fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. The chemical structure of compound 1 was elucidated by acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis, along with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and one-dimensional [(1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and two-dimensional NMR (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Sulfation of compound 1 by the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method led to synthesis of its sulfated analogue (CMPA90-M1; compound 2). The ultrastructures of both compounds 1 and 2 were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results of antioxidant assays showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited free-radical-scavenging effects, ferrous-ion-chelating ability, and reducing power. Also, in the cytotoxicity assay, compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 39.08 and 17.33 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:25785351

  10. The effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the crystallization of calcite superstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Ruth; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Calcite with unique morphology and uniform size has been successfully synthesized in the presence of classes of polysaccharides based on carrageenans. In the crystallization of calcite, the choice of different carrageenans, (iota, lambda and kappa), as additives concedes systematic study of the influence of different chemical structures and particularly molecular charge on the formation of CaCO 3 crystals. The uniform calcite superstructures are formed by assemblies and aggregation of calcite crystals. The mechanism for the formation of calcite superstructures was studied by a variety of techniques, SEM, TEM, XRD, time-resolved conductivity and light scattering measurements, focusing on the early stages of crystals' nucleation and aggregation.

  11. Rheology and characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ping; Qin, Minpu; Han, Longfei; Sun, Peilong

    2014-11-26

    The rheological characteristics of polysaccharides which were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were investigated in aqueous solutions under conditions of concentration, temperature, solution pH and salt concentrations. It was described by the power-law model with a consistency index (k) and a flow behavior index (n). The rheology results showed UFP exhibited as a shear-thickening fluid and a possible mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon that might be the collapse of UFP necklace-type structures. UFP characteristics were evaluated by determining the chemical analysis and zeta potential. The findings indicated UFP may consist of partially ulvan, as the results were in accordance with the ulvan structure. Additionally, a rod-climbing effect and cold-set gelation were observed in the UFP semidilute solution. Therefore, the cold-set gelling properties and unique shear-thickening fluid properties in this work could be valuable for the exploration of U. fasciata as a new source of water-soluble gelling polysaccharides. PMID:25256496

  12. Glycogen and related polysaccharides inhibit the laforin dual-specificity protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Roach, Peter J

    2004-12-17

    Lafora disease, a progressive myoclonus epilepsy, is an autosomal recessive disease caused in approximately 80% of cases by mutation of the EPM2A gene, which encodes a dual specificity protein phosphatase called laforin. In addition to its phosphatase domain, laforin contains an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding domain (CBD). Mouse laforin was expressed as an N-terminally polyHis tagged protein in Escherichia coli and purified close to homogeneity. The enzyme was active towards p-nitrophenylphosphate (50-80mmol/min/mg, K(m) 4.5mM) with maximal activity at pH 4.5. Laforin binds to glycogen, as previously shown, and caused potent inhibition, half maximally at approximately 1mug/ml. Less branched glucose polymers, amylopectin and amylose, were even more potent, with half maximal inhibition at 10 and 100ng/ml, respectively. With all polysaccharides, however, inhibition was incomplete and laforin retained 20-30% of its native activity at high polysaccharide concentrations. Glucose and short oligosaccharides did not affect activity. Substitution of Trp32 in the CBD by Gly, a mutation found in a patient, caused only a 30% decrease in laforin activity but abolished binding to and inhibition by glycogen, indicating that impaired glycogen binding is sufficient to cause Lafora disease. PMID:15541350

  13. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the degradation and inhibition cancer cell lines of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Cunshan; Yang, Hua; Huang, Xingyi; Ma, Haile; Qin, Xiaopei; Hu, Jiali

    2015-03-01

    The exposure of polysaccharides solutions to high-energy ultrasound produces a permanent reduction in viscosity and change in activity. However, the exact mechanism which occurs in the process is still not clear. In this work, degradation of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis (PP) was indirectly and directly judged by intrinsic viscosity and high performance gel permeation chromatography. The degradation process was established with dynamics and affirmed by theoretical derivation. Inhibition of cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, 95D) was also investigated by assays of tetrazolium colorimetric. The intrinsic viscosity of the degraded PP decreased exponentially with increase in ultrasonic time, and theoretical derivation was established and confirmed well. The distribution and new fraction of degraded polysaccharides was found. Ultrasound degraded preferentially large PP molecules and cleavage took place roughly at the centre of the molecules. During ultrasound degradation the molecular weight distribution was narrowed. The inhibition activities of SGC7901 with ultrasound degraded polysaccharides were increased. PMID:25498684

  14. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and virulence by an oxazole derivative.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lulu; Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Zou, Jing; Li, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, a biofilm-related oral disease, is a result of disruption of the microbial ecological balance in the oral environment. Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, produces glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). The EPSs, especially water-insoluble glucans, contribute to the formation of dental plaque, biofilm stability, and structural integrity, by allowing bacteria to adhere to tooth surfaces and supplying the bacteria with protection against noxious stimuli and other environmental attacks. The identification of novel alternatives that selectively inhibit cariogenic organisms without suppressing oral microbial residents is required. The goal of the current study is to investigate the influence of an oxazole derivative on S. mutans biofilm formation and the development of dental caries in rats, given that oxazole and its derivatives often exhibit extensive and pharmacologically important biological activities. Our data shows that one particular oxazole derivative, named 5H6, inhibited the formation of S. mutans biofilms and prevented synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides by antagonizing Gtfs in vitro, without affecting the growth of the bacteria. In addition, topical applications with the inhibitor resulted in diminished incidence and severity of both smooth and sulcal surface caries in vivo with a lower percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque compared to the control group (P?inhibit biofilm formation and cariogenicity of S. mutans. PMID:26526453

  15. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Eric; Mucher, Elodie; Jeansoule, Nicolas; Larcher, Thibaut; Guigand, Lydie; Herszberg, Brnice; Chaffaux, Stphane; Gurin, Grard; Mata, Xavier; Benech, Philippe; Canale, Marielle; Alibert, Olivier; Maltere, Pguy; Gidrol, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA) and 5 heterozygous (GA) PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p < 0.05). The following genes were up-regulated over 2 fold: IL18, CTSS, LUM, CD44, FN1, GST01. The most down-regulated genes were the following: mitochondrial tRNA, SLC2A2, PRKC?, VEGF?. Data mining analysis showed that protein synthesis, apoptosis, cellular movement, growth and proliferation were the main cellular functions significantly associated with the modulated genes (p < 0.05). Several up-regulated genes, especially IL18, revealed a severe muscular inflammation in PSSM muscles. The up-regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3?) under its active form could be responsible for glycogen synthase (GYS1) inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1?) destabilization. Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles. PMID:19664222

  16. Drug delivery and cell interaction of adhesive poly(ethyleneimine)/sulfated polysaccharide complex particle films.

    PubMed

    Mller, Martin; Torger, Bernhard; Wehrum, Diana; Vehlow, David; Urban, Birgit; Woltmann, Beatrice; Hempel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the authors report and review polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with zoledronate (ZOL) and simvastatin and their effects on bone cells. PEC NPs are intended for modification of bone substitute materials. For characterization, they can be solution casted on germanium (Ge) substrates serving as analytically accessible model substrate. PEC NPs were generated by mixing poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) either with linear cellulose sulfate (CS) or with branched dextransulfate (DS). Four important requirements for drug loaded PEC NPs and their films are addressed herein, which are the colloidal stability of PEC dispersions (1), interfacial stability (2), cytocompatibility (3), and retarded drug release (4). Dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) showed that both PEI/CS and PEI/DS PEC NP were obtained with hydrodynamic radii in the range of 35-170?nm and were colloidally stable up to several months. Transmission FTIR spectroscopy evidenced that films of both systems were stable in contact to the release medium up to several days. ZOL-loaded PEI/CS nanoparticles, which were immobilized on an osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix, reduced significantly the resorption and the metabolic activity of human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. FTIR spectroscopy at cast PEC/drug films at Ge substrates revealed retarded drug releases in comparison to the pure drug films. PMID:25708630

  17. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  18. Effect and mechanisms of curdlan sulfate on inhibiting HBV infection and acting as an HB vaccine adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingli; Tan, Haining; Xu, Dongqing; Yin, Fengxin; Cheng, Yanna; Zhang, Xinke; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Fengshan

    2014-09-22

    In this study, the effect and mechanisms of curdlan sulfate (CS3) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and promoting immune response of the mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) were investigated. The results showed that CS3 could inhibit HBV infection of HepG2 and HepaRG cells, especially the process of HBV particle binding to the cell surfaces. The surface plasmon response (SPR) technology indicated that CS3 could bind with recombinant HBsAg and the binding ability depended on the content of sulfate groups on the polysaccharide chains. Co-administration of CS3 to BALB/c mice immunized with HBsAg significantly enhanced the influx of macrophages and dendritic cells in spleen, increased antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers, and promoted splenocyte proliferation. The titer of HBsAg-specific antibodies was also augmented by use of CS3 as a vaccine adjuvant. The higher expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, lower expression of interleukin (IL)-4, and higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratio within the anti-HBsAg antibodies in mice immunized with HBsAg plus CS3 than those in mice receiving HBsAg alone indicated that CS3 induced a shift toward a Th1-biased immune response. These results presented that CS3 could be developed as an immunotherapy agent or vaccine adjuvant for HBV infection treatment or prevention. PMID:24906778

  19. Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by meningococcal capsular polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sarika; Vasudhev, Shreekant; DeOliveira, Rosane; Ram, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Almost all invasive Neisseria meningitidis isolates express capsular polysaccharide. Antibody (Ab) is required for complement-dependent killing of meningococci. While alternative pathway evasion has received considerable attention, little is known about classical pathway (CP) inhibition by meningococci and forms the basis of this study. We engineered capsulated and unencapsulated isogenic mutant strains of groups A, B, C, W and Y meningococci to express similar amounts of the same factor H-binding protein (fHbp; a key component of group B meningococcal vaccines) molecule. Despite similar anti-fHbp mAb binding, significantly less C4b was deposited on all five encapsulated mutants compared to their unencapsulated counterparts (P<0.01), when purified C1 and C4 were used to deposit C4b. Reduced C4b deposition was the result of capsule-mediated inhibition of C1q engagement by Ab. C4b deposition correlated linearly with C1q engagement by anti-fHbp. While B, C, W and Y capsules limited CP-mediated killing by anti-fHbp, the unencapsulated group A mutant paradoxically was more resistant than its encapsulated counterpart. Strains varied considerably in their susceptibility to anti-fHbp and complement despite similar Ab binding, which may have implications for the activity of fHbp-based vaccines. Capsule also limited C4b deposition by anti-porin A mAbs. Capsule expression decreased binding of an anti-LOS IgM mAb (~1.2 to 2-fold reduction in fluorescence). Akin to observations with IgG, capsule also decreased IgM-mediated C4b deposition when IgM binding to the mutant strain pairs was normalized. In conclusion, we show that capsular polysaccharide, a critical meningococcal virulence factor, inhibits the CP of complement. PMID:25015832

  20. Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

  1. Safflower polysaccharide inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of MCF-7 breast cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongbing; Zeng, Hongxie; Ye, Yongqiang; Liu, Lianbin; Li, Shaojin; Zhang, Junyi; Luo, Rongcheng

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer accounts for 22.9% of all types of cancer in females worldwide. Safflower polysaccharide (SPS) is an active fraction purified from safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L). The present study investigated the effects of safflower polysaccharide on the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Cell viability was analyzed using an MTT assay following treatment of the MCF?7 cells with increasing concentrations of SPS. The results demonstrated that the SPS compound significantly inhibited the proliferation of the MCF?7 human breast cancer cell line and these inhibitory effects increased in a dose? and time?dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of SPS on breast cancer cells, following treatment for 72h, was detected using an MTT assay and was calculated as 0.12mg/ml. The apoptotic rate was detected using flow cytometry in the MCF?7human breast cancer cell line and the results revealed that SPS induced cell apoptosis. The apoptotic rate of the MCF?7cells treated with SPS was significantly higher compared with that of the untreated cells and increased in a dose?dependent manner. The expression of B?cell lymphoma2 (Bcl?2)was downregulated and the expression of Bcl?2?associatedXprotein was upregulated in the MCF?7cells treated with SPS in a time?dependent manner. Additionally, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase?9 was significantly reduced and the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 was increased in the MCF?7human breast cancer cell treated with SPS. These results demonstrated that SPS inhibited the metastasis of MCF?7breast cancer cells and understanding the underlying mechanisms may provide novel strategies in breast cancer therapy. PMID:25673029

  2. Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae Growth and Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis by Fructus mume

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tien-Huang; Huang, Su-Hua; Wu, Chien-Chen; Liu, Hsin-Ho; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ching-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscess of diabetic patients in Asian countries. With the spread of multiple-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae, there is an increasing need for the development of alternative bactericides and approaches to block the production of bacterial virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), especially from the K1 and K2 serotypes, is considered the major determinant for K. pneumoniae virulence. We found that extracts of the traditional Chinese medicine Fructus mume inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae strains of both serotypes. Furthermore, Fructus mume decreased the mucoviscosity, and the CPS produced in a dose-dependent manner, thus reducing bacterial resistance to serum killing. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that Fructus mume downregulated the mRNA levels of cps biosynthesis genes in both serotypes, possibly by increasing the intracellular iron concentration in K. pneumoniae. Moreover, citric acid, a major organic acid in Fructus mume extracts, was found to have an inhibitory effect on growth and CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae. Taken together, our results indicate that Fructus mume not only possesses antibacterial activity against highly virulent K. pneumoniae strains but also inhibits bacterial CPS biosynthesis, thereby facilitating pathogen clearance by the host immune system. PMID:24062785

  3. Antibiofilm polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rendueles, Olaya; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides have been shown to mediate many of the cell-to cell and cell-to-surface interactions that are required for the formation, cohesion and stabilization of bacterial biofilms. However, recent studies have identified several bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit biofilm formation by a wide-spectrum of bacteria and fungi both in vitro and in vivo. This review discusses the composition, modes of action, and potential biological roles of antibiofilm polysaccharides recently identified in bacteria and eukaria. Some of these molecules may have technological applications as antibiofilm agents in industry and medicine. PMID:22730907

  4. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jrn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweedsor marine macroalgaenotably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1?3)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1?6)-?-d-galacto- and/or (1?2)-?-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups. PMID:22073012

  5. Protective effect of polysaccharides on simulated microgravity-induced functional inhibition of human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Yang, Hui; Jin, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Ye, Lin-Jie; Li, Ji; Huang, Qing-Sheng; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2014-01-30

    Polysaccharides are believed to be strong immunostimulants that can promote the proliferation and activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of five polysaccharides (Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (GFP), lentinan (LNT), G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and yeast glucan (YG)) on primary human NK cells under normal or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. Our results demonstrated that polysaccharides markedly promoted the cytotoxicity of NK cells by enhancing IFN-? and perforin secretion and increasing the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 under normal conditions. Meanwhile polysaccharides can enhance NK cell function under SMG conditions by restoring the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and reducing the early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, the antibody neutralization test showed that CR3 may be the critical receptor involved in polysaccharides induced NK cells activation. These findings indicated that polysaccharides may be used as immune regulators to promote the health of the public and astronauts during space missions. PMID:24299844

  6. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  7. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  8. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), TNF-? receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-?, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFR? is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. PMID:25857968

  9. Magnesium sulfate inhibits sufentanil-induced cough during anesthetic induction

    PubMed Central

    An, Li-Jun; Gui, Bo; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sufentanil-induced cough is a common phenomenon during the induction of anesthesia. This double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of prophylactic magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the incidence and severity of sufentanil-induced cough. A total of 165 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were allocated into three groups (I, II, and III; n = 55 each) that were injected with either 50 ml of normal saline, 30 or 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 (diluted with normal saline into 50 ml). One minute following the injection, all patients were injected with 1.0 ?g/kg of sufentanil within 5 s. The incidence and severity of cough were recorded 30 s after the sufentanil injection. The hemodynamic parameters and plasma magnesium concentration of the patients were also noted. Three patients dropped out the study due to an obvious burning sensation during the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4. Although the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium level, the increase remained within the therapeutic range (2-4 mmol/L). The incidence of cough was much higher in group I than in groups II and III (47.1% vs. 16.4% and 7.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Compared with group I, group III had the lowest incidence of mild cough and both groups II and III had lower incidence of moderate and severe cough (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the hemodynamic data at three timepoints among the three groups. In conclusion, sufentanil-induced cough may be suppressed effectively and safely by prophylactic use of 30 mg/kg of MgSO4 during anesthetic induction. PMID:26550339

  10. Inhibition of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities of anaerobic sewer biofilms by ferric iron dosing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lishan; Keller, Jrg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-09-01

    Ferric iron is commonly used for sulfide precipitation in sewers, thus achieving corrosion and odour control. Its impact on the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic sewer biofilms is investigated in this study. Two lab-scale rising main sewer systems fed with real sewage were operated for 8 months. One received Fe(3+) dosage (experimental system) and the other was used as a control. In addition to precipitating sulfide from bulk water, Fe(3+) dosage was found to significantly inhibit sulfate reduction and methane production by sewer biofilms. The experimental reactor discharged an effluent containing a higher concentration of sulfate and a lower concentration of methane in comparison with the reference reactor. Batch experiments showed that the addition of ferric ions reduced the sulfate reduction and methane production rates of the sewer biofilms by 60% and 80%, respectively. The batch experiments further showed that Fe(3+) dosage changed the final products of sulfate reduction with sulfide accounting for only 54% of the sulfate reduced. The other products could not be confirmed, but were not dissolved inorganic sulfur species such as sulfite or thiosulfate. The results suggest the addition of Fe(3+) at upstream locations would minimize the ferric salts required for achieving the same level of sulfide removal. Fe(3+) dosing could also substantially reduce the formation of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in sewers. PMID:19576610

  11. Inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria in aquifer sediment by iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Omoregie, Enoma O; Rose, Jerome; Masion, Armand; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Diels, Ludo; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-03-15

    Batch microcosms were setup to determine the impact of different sized zero valent iron (Fe(0)) particles on microbial sulfate reduction during the in situ bio-precipitation of metals. The microcosms were constructed with aquifer sediment and groundwater from a low pH (3.1), heavy-metal contaminated aquifer. Nano (nFe(0)), micro (mFe(0)) and granular (gFe(0)) sized Fe(0) particles were added to separate microcosms. Additionally, selected microcosms were also amended with glycerol as a C-source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition to metal removal, Fe(0) in microcosms also raised the pH from 3.1 to 6.5, and decreased the oxidation redox potential from initial values of 249 to -226mV, providing more favorable conditions for microbial sulfate reduction. mFe(0) and gFe(0) in combination with glycerol were found to enhance microbial sulfate reduction. However, no sulfate reduction occurred in the controls without Fe(0) or in the microcosm amended with nFe(0). A separate dose test confirmed the inhibition for sulfate reduction in presence of nFe(0). Hydrogen produced by Fe(0) was not capable of supporting microbial sulfate reduction as a lone electron donor in this study. Microbial analysis revealed that the addition of Fe(0) and glycerol shifted the microbial community towards Desulfosporosinus sp. from a population initially dominated by low pH and metal-resisting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. PMID:24388832

  12. Monitoring and Modeling Microbial Sulfate Reduction and Inhibition in a Mesoscale Tank Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Wu, Y.; Li, L.; Piceno, Y. M.; Cheng, Y.; Bill, M.; Coates, J. D.; Andersen, G. L.; Conrad, M. E.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Subsurface biogeochemical cycling at the field-scale is controlled by a complex interplay between hydrological, geochemical and biological parameters. Mesoscale tank experiments can help to bridge the gap in complexity and understanding between well constrained batch and column experiments, and the interpretation of field data. In this contribution we present the results of a tank experiment investigating microbial sulfate reduction and inhibition in a porous media (20-30 mesh Ottawa sand). Microbial sulfate reduction is a process of wide biogeochemical significance, including in the context of oil reservoirs where the generation of sulfide can result in corrosion of steel infrastructure and additional downstream processing. Inhibition of sulfate reduction is therefore a high priority for this industry. Tracer experiments were conducted at the start and end of the experiment to constrain flow pathways and heterogeneities. The tank was inoculated with a San Francisco Bay mud/water enrichment utilizing acetate as the electron donor and continuous flow was initiated using bay-water with 10 mM acetate. Samples were taken from an array of 12 steel boreholes and showed spatiotemporal heterogeneities in the development of sulfidogenesis, reaching a peak of ~5 mM dissolved sulfide 71 days after inoculation. 10 mM perchlorate was then added to the influent to inhibit sulfidogenesis and dissolved sulfide decreased to ~0.03 mM by day 95. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved sulfate showed an increase in ?34S by ~10 compared with influent values but ?34S did not return to influent values by day 95, which may be indicative of the mixing between new and residual sulfate in the tank. Ongoing microbial community analyses are being used to help constrain microbial metabolisms. Finally, all the data is being integrated into a reactive transport model to better constrain the observed interplay between hydrology, geochemistry and biology.

  13. A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID:24789779

  14. Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2013-12-13

    Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100?mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500?mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67??0.38) and (5.42??0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30?m and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60?m and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p?polysaccharide against d-Gal-induced elevation of LPO and infiltration of inflammatory cells into liver tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Although our previous studies have reported on the protective role of ULP against liver toxicity, our present findings show that ULP improved the hepatic antioxidant defense system against d-Gal-induced DNA damage and necrosis in rats. PMID:24329421

  15. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Poh, Zhong Wei; Gan, Chin Heng; Lee, Eric J; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W; Lam, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the "sulfation code" is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. PMID:26400608

  16. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  17. Inhibition effects of inorganic multivalent cations on iron corrosion in aerated sodium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Aramaki, K.

    1999-02-01

    Inhibition effects of inorganic multivalent cations on corrosion of Fe in an aerated 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}So{sub 4}) solution were investigated using polarization measurements. The cations formed deposit layers of their hydroxides on the Fe surface by reactions with hydroxide ions (OH{sup {minus}}) afforded through the cathodic process of Fe corrosion. Some layers on the surface were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Since the cations suppressed the cathodic process but stimulated the anodic one, their inhibition efficiencies were not markedly high. Inhibition effects of the cations on the cathodic process were related closely to the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle because the effect increased with the hardness of a cation as an acid.

  18. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

    1984-07-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  19. Dextran sulfate sodium inhibits amyloid-β oligomer binding to cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Aimi, Takahiro; Suzuki, Koichiro; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), especially its oligomeric form, is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To this end, the binding of Aβ oligomer to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) plays an important role in synaptic dysfunction in a mouse model of AD. Here, we have screened for compounds that inhibit Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) from medicines already used clinically (Mizushima Approved Medicine Library 1), and identified dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a candidate. In a cell-free assay, DSS inhibited Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) but not to ephrin receptor B2, another endogenous receptor for Aβ oligomers, suggesting that the drug's action is specific to the binding of Aβ oligomer to PrP(C) . Dextran on the other hand did not affect this binding. DSS also suppressed Aβ oligomer binding to cells expressing PrP(C) but not to control cells. Furthermore, while incubation of mouse hippocampal slices with Aβ oligomers inhibited the induction of long-term potentiation, simultaneous treatment with DSS restored the long-term potentiation. As DSS has already been approved for use in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, and its safety in humans has been confirmed, we propose further analysis of this drug as a candidate for AD treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomer-binding to cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ) is important in synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found here that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) inhibits Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) . Simultaneous treatment of hippocampal slices with DSS restored long-term potentiation (LTP) in the presence of Aβ oligomers. Since DSS has already been approved for clinical use, we propose this drug is a candidate drug for AD treatment. PMID:25963375

  20. Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) Inhibits the Expression of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: Implications for Membrane Microfiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Yanina, Svetlana; Gassman, Paul L.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2008-02-15

    A 2:1 molar ratio preparation of bismuth with a lipophilic dithiol (3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total polysaccharides and proteins secreted by B. diminuta decreased by approximately 95% over a 5-day period when exposed to the bismuth-BAL chelate (BisBAL) at near MIC (12 ?M). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that a possible mechanism of biofilm disruption by BisBAL is the inhibition of carbohydrate Oacetylation. FTIR also revealed extensive homology between EPS samples with and without BisBAL treatment, with proteins, polysaccharides, and peptides varying predominantly only in the amount expressed. EPS secretion decreased following BisBAL treatment as verified by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes.

  1. A novel sulfate-reducing bacteria detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Wan, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been extensively studied in corrosion and environmental science. However, fast enumeration of SRB population is still a difficult task. This work presents a novel specific SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity. The hydrolytic activity of cysteine protease was inhibited by taking advantage of sulfide, the characteristic metabolic product of SRB, to attack active cysteine thiol group in cysteine protease catalytic sites. The active thiol S-sulfhydration process could be used for SRB detection, since the amount of sulfide accumulated in culture medium was highly related with initial bacterial concentration. The working conditions of cysteine protease have been optimized to obtain better detection capability, and the SRB detection performances have been evaluated in this work. The proposed SRB detection method based on inhibition of cysteine protease activity avoided the use of biological recognition elements. In addition, compared with the widely used most probable number (MPN) method which would take up to at least 15days to accomplish whole detection process, the method based on inhibition of papain activity could detect SRB in 2 days, with a detection limit of 5.21×10(2) cfu mL(-1). The detection time for SRB population quantitative analysis was greatly shortened. PMID:25127594

  2. Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of SIP-S: A sulfated polysaccharide with anti-metastatic effect.

    PubMed

    Zong, Aizhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Yan; Song, Xinlei; Shi, Yikang; Cao, Hongzhi; Liu, Chunhui; Cheng, Yanna; Jiang, Wenjie; Du, Fangling; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-09-20

    Our previous studies demonstrated that SIP-S had anti-metastatic activity and inhibited the growth of metastatic foci. Here we report the anti-tumor and immunoregulatory potential of SIP-S. SIP-S could significantly inhibit tumor growth in S180-bearing mice, and the inhibition rates was 43.7% at 30 mg/kg d. Besides, SIP-S could improve the thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice and the mice treated with CTX. The combination of SIP-S (15 mg/kg d) with CTX (12.5 mg/kg d) showed higher anti-tumor potency than CTX (25 mg/kg d) alone. These results indicated that SIP-S had immunoenhancing and anticancer activity, and the immunoenhancing activity might be one mechanism for its anti-tumor activity. Flow cytometry results showed that SIP-S could induce tumor cells apoptosis. Western blot analysis indicated that SIP-S could upregulate the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, -8, -9 and Bax, and downregulate the expression of anti-apoptotic protein PARP-1 in tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, SIP-S has anti-tumor activity, which may be associated with its immunostimulating and pro-apoptotic activity. PMID:26050887

  3. Cholesterol Sulfate and Cholesterol Sulfotransferase Inhibit Gluconeogenesis by Targeting Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4?

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiongjie; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xu, Leyuan; Yan, Jiong; Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Xu, Meishu; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Sipula, Ian; O'Doherty, Robert Martin; Ren, Shunlin

    2014-01-01

    Sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated sulfation represents a critical mechanism in regulating the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1b catalyzes the sulfoconjugation of cholesterol to synthesize cholesterol sulfate (CS). In this study, we showed that the expression of SULT2B1b in the liver was induced in obese mice and during the transition from the fasted to the fed state, suggesting that the regulation of SULT2B1b is physiologically relevant. CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by targeting the gluconeogenic factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) in both cell cultures and transgenic mice. Treatment of mice with CS or transgenic overexpression of the CS-generating enzyme SULT2B1b in the liver inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and alleviated metabolic abnormalities both in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. Mechanistically, CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by suppressing the expression of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acss), leading to decreased acetylation and nuclear exclusion of HNF4?. Our results also suggested that leptin is a potential effector of SULT2B1b in improving metabolic function. We conclude that SULT2B1b and its enzymatic by-product CS are important metabolic regulators that control glucose metabolism, suggesting CS as a potential therapeutic agent and SULT2B1b as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. PMID:24277929

  4. Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

    2013-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin, TGF-?1, TGF-?1 receptor (T?R)-I, T?R-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression. PMID:23918878

  5. Efficacy of Zhuling polyporus polysaccharide with BCG to inhibit bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Qin, Gui-Fang; Han, Bo; Li, Cai-Xia; Yang, Hong-Gai; Nie, Pi-Hu; Zeng, Xing

    2015-03-15

    There is growing interest in reducing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) side effects while keeping intact its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of Sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus FRIES (Zhuling) and its main ingredient Polyporus Polysaccharide (PPS) to attenuate side effects of BCG therapy in vivo. The results show that bladder cancer development in model rats exhibited significantly reduced cancer invasiveness with Zhuling PPS combined with BCG. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis showed expression of costimulatory molecules CD86, CD40, and TLR4/CD14 significantly increased with Zhuling PPS in combination with BCG. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed stronger CD86 and CD40 staining. Our findings show Zhuling PPS strongly reduced side effects and displayed synergistic effects during BCG instillation in rat bladder cancer models. The findings also suggest that the attenuation effect may result from direct activation of dendritic cell (DC) TLR4. PMID:25542103

  6. Critical Differences between Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays with and without 22F Inhibition at Low Antibody Concentrations in Pediatric Sera

    PubMed Central

    Henckaerts, Isabelle; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Poolman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted between two laboratories in order to evaluate the differences between two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques for the detection of pneumococcal anti-capsular polysaccharide antibodies. One laboratory used an assay including heterologous 22F polysaccharide inhibition, and the other laboratory employed a non-22F reference assay. After conjugate immunization, 30 pediatric post-primary immunization sera with antipolysaccharide concentrations ranging from <0.05 to 15 ?g/ml were analyzed. Aggregate reverse cumulative distribution curves combining concentrations of antibodies against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F revealed similar results for both methods at antibody levels of >1 ?g/ml. However, at antibody levels of <1 ?g/ml, the distribution curve measured with the 22F inhibition ELISA shifted toward lower levels. This observation suggests that the 22F inhibition assay is more specific at low antibody concentrations, which was confirmed by heterologous polysaccharide inhibition experiments. Translation of low antibody levels suggested that the proposed threshold concentration of 0.35 ?g/ml determined with the non-22F ELISA corresponded to a concentration of 0.20 ?g/ml with the 22F inhibition ELISA. Pneumococcal antipolysaccharide ELISA including 22F inhibition can be recommended as a reference method. PMID:16522777

  7. Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bryony N; Wigley, Paul; Simpson, Hannah L; Williams, Jonathan M; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J M; Fry, Stephen C; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  8. Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Hannah L.; Williams, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Fry, Stephen C.; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L.; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Åsa V.; Söderholm, Johan D.; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1–99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5–10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64–81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75–90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

  9. Sulfated Galactan from Palisada flagellifera Inhibits Toxic Effects of Lachesis muta Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Cláudia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Luciana Garcia; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Rabello; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Sanchez, Eladio Flores; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, snakebites are a public health problem and accidents caused by Lachesis muta have the highest mortality index. Envenomation by L. muta is characterized by systemic (hypotension, bleeding and renal failure) and local effects (necrosis, pain and edema). The treatment to reverse the evolution of all the toxic effects is performed by injection of antivenom. However, such therapy does not effectively neutralize tissue damage or any other local effect, since in most cases victims delay seeking appropriate medical care. In this way, alternative therapies are in demand, and molecules from natural sources have been exhaustively tested. In this paper, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of a sulfated galactan obtained from the red seaweed Palisada flagellifera against some toxic activities of L. muta venom. Incubation of sulfated galactan with venom resulted in inhibition of hemolysis, coagulation, proteolysis, edema and hemorrhage. Neutralization of hemorrhage was also observed when the galactan was administered after or before the venom injection; thus mimicking a real in vivo situation. Moreover, the galactan blocked the edema caused by a phospholipase A2 isolated from the same venom. Therefore, the galactan from P. flagellifera may represent a promising tool to treat envenomation by L. muta as a coadjuvant for the conventional antivenom. PMID:26110897

  10. Inhibition of a U(VI)- and sulfate-reducing consortia by U(VI).

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jennifer L; Wu, Hsin-I; Gentile, Margaret E; Kitanidis, Peter K; Criddle, Craig S

    2007-09-15

    The stimulation of microbial U(VI) reduction is currently being investigated as a means to reduce uranium's mobility in groundwater, but little is known about the concentration at which U(VI) might inhibit microbial activity, or the effect of U(VI) on bacterial community structure. We investigated these questions with an ethanol-fed U(VI)- and sulfate-reducing enrichment developed from sediment from the site of an ongoing field biostimulation experiment at Area 3 of the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC). Sets of triplicate enrichments were spiked with increasing concentrations of U(VI) (from 49 microm to 9.2 mM). As the U(VI) concentration increased to 224 microM, the culture's production of acetate from ethanol slowed, and at or above 1.6 mM U(VI) little acetate was produced over the time frame of the experiment. An uncoupling inhibition model was applied to the data, and the inhibition coefficient for U(VI), Ku, was found to be approximately 100 microM U(VI), or 24 mg/L, indicating the inhibitory effect is relevant at highly contaminated sites. Microbial community structure at the conclusion of the experiment was analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. T-RFs associated with Desulfovibrio-like organisms decreased in relative abundance with increasing U(VI) concentration, whereas Clostridia-like T-RFs increased. PMID:17948804

  11. Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria biofilm in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fu-shao; An, Mao-zhong; Duan, Dong-xia

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel due to a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm in seawater was studied. By atomic force microscopy, a layer of fish-scale-like biofilm was found to form as stainless steel coupons were exposed to the culture media with SRB, and this biofilm grew more and more compact. As a result, coupons' surface under the biofilm turned irregular less slowly than that exposed to the sterilized culture media. Then, physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the coverage of the biofilm as well as the relative irregularity of coupons' surface was also recorded by EIS spectra. Finally, anodic cyclic polarization results further demonstrated the protective property of the biofilm. Therefore, in estimation of SRB-implicated corrosion of stainless steel, not only the detrimental SRB metabolites but also the protective SRB biofilm as well should be taken into account.

  12. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 μM regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

  13. Specific sulfation and glycosylationa structural combination for the anticoagulation of marine carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.; Mouro, Paulo A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on considered achievements of the last 25 years, specific combinations of sulfation patterns and glycosylation types have been proved to be key structural players for the anticoagulant activity of certain marine glycans. These conclusions were obtained from comparative and systematic analyses on the structure-anticoagulation relationships of chemically well-defined sulfated polysaccharides of marine invertebrates and red algae. These sulfated polysaccharides are known as sulfated fucans (SFs), sulfated galactans (SGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The structural combinations necessary for the anticoagulant activities are the 2-sulfation in ?-L-SGs, the 2,4-di-sulfation in ?-L-fucopyranosyl units found as composing units of certain sea-urchin and sea-cucumber linear SFs, or as branching units of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, a unique GAG from sea-cucumbers. Another unique GAG type from marine organisms is the dermatan sulfate isolated from ascidians. The high levels of 4-sulfation at the galactosamine units combined with certain levels of 2-sulfation at the iduronic acid units is the anticoagulant structural requirements of these GAGs. When the backbones of red algal SGs are homogeneous, the anticoagulation is proportionally dependent of their sulfation content. Finally, 4-sulfation was observed to be the structural motif required to enhance the inhibition of thrombin via heparin cofactor-II by invertebrate SFs. PMID:24639954

  14. Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms on steel with antimicrobial peptides generated in situ.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, A; Hallock, P J; Carson, R M; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-08-01

    In batch and continuous fermentations, the reduction in corrosion of SAE 1018 mild steel and 304 stainless steel caused by inhibition of the reference sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris by a protective, antimicrobial-producing Bacillus brevis biofilm was investigated. The presence of D. vulgaris produced a thick black precipitate on mild steel and a higher corrosion rate in batch cultures than that seen in a mono-culture of non-antimicrobial-producing Pseudomonas fragi K upon the addition of SRB to the aerobic P. fragi K biofilm. In continuous reactors, the polarization resistance RP decreased for stainless stell and increased for mild steel upon the addition of SRB to a P. fragi K biofilm. Addition of either 200 micrograms/ml ampicillin, chloramphenicol, or ammonium molybdate to batch and continuous reactors after SRB had colonized the metal was ineffective in killing SRB, as inferred from the lack of change in both Rp and the impedance spectra. However, when ampicillin was added prior to SRB colonization, the growth of SRB was completely inhibited on stainless steel in continuous reactors. Prior addition of ampicillin was only able to delay the growth of SRB on mild steel in continuous reactors. External addition of the purified peptide antimicrobial agent gramicidin S prior to the addition of SRB also inhibited the growth of SRB on stainless steel in continuous reactors, and the SRB were also inhibited on stainless steel in both batch and continuous reactors by producing gramicidin S in situ in a protective biofilm when the gramicidin-S-overproducing strain Bacillus brevis 18 was used. PMID:10499267

  15. Pu-erh tea polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yea-Tyz; Lin-Shiau, Shoei-Yn; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2015-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is mainly induced by environmental factors such as being overweight, decreased physical activity and inbalanced energy metabolism, such as pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. Acarbose, a microbial carbohydrate and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, is currently a useful agent for attenuating type 2 diabetes. However, it is usually accompanied by many side effects, such as abdominal distention, flatulence, diarrhea and meteorism. These side effects may be caused by its strong inhibition of alpha-amylase, leading to the accumulation of several undigested carbohydrates. The bacteria residing in the colon can further ferment the undigested carbohydrate to release gas. Finding a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with a low inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase is highly anticipated. In this report we describe a group of carbohydrates found in pu-erh tea polysaccharide (PTPS) that can inhibit alpha-glucosidase but have less of an inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase. The preliminary experiments on mice indicate that PTPS might be better than acarbose at suppressing blood glucose after oral administration of a carbohydrate diet; it is recommended that further clinical trials are required in type 2 diabetes in future studies. PMID:25820466

  16. A polysaccharide from Trametes robiniophila inhibits human osteosarcoma xenograft tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingkai; Ma, Shuo; Liu, Ning; Liu, Jiakun; Wang, Wenbo

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, we isolated and purified one polysaccharide (TRP) from Trametes robiniophila, which had a backbone of 1,3,6- and 1,4-linked glucpyranosyl moieties, with 1-linked arabinofuranosyl and galactopyranosyl terminal at the O-3 position of 1,3,6-linked glucpyranosyl residues. TRP was further evaluated for its antitumor activity against xenografted U-2 OS osteosarcoma in BALB/c nude mice together with the possible mechanism of action. We found that oral administration of TRP significantly suppressed U-2 OS tumor growth in mice via the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of TUNEL-positive cells in tumor tissues. Moreover, TRP administration increased the levels of the proapoptotic Bax protein and decreased the level of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, thus resulting in a rise of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved PARP became evident in tumor tissues from mice following TRP treatment, but caspase-8 keep unchanged. Besides, overexpression of metadherin (MTDH) was attenuated in tumor tissues of TRP-fed mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TRP-induced apoptosis of tumor tissues is through a mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:25839806

  17. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of modified xylofucan sulfate from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Gerbst, Alexey G; Ushakova, Natalia A; Tsvetkova, Eugenia A; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Usov, Anatolii I; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-01-20

    Selectively and totally sulfated (1?3)-linked linear homofucans bearing ?20 monosaccharide residues on average have been prepared from the branched xylofucan sulfate isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of the parent biopolymer and its derivatives were assessed in vitro. Highly sulfated linear fucan derivatives were shown to inhibit clot formation in APTT assay and ristocetin induced platelets aggregation, while the partially sulfated analogs were inactive. In the experiments with purified proteins, fucan derivatives with degree of sulfation of ?2.0 were found to enhance thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin III. The effect of sulfated fucans on thrombin inhibition, which was similar to those of heparinoid Clexane() (enoxaparin) and of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina latissima studied previously, can be explained by the multicenter interaction and formation of a ternary complex thrombin-antithrombin III-polysaccharide. The possibility of such complexation was confirmed by computer docking study. PMID:26572418

  18. Extracellular polysaccharides do not inhibit the reaction between Streptococcus mutans and its specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) or penetration of the IgG through S. mutans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Takenaka, S; Sato, M; Hoshino, E

    2001-02-01

    The present study investigated whether extracellular polysaccharides inhibit reaction between Streptococcus mutans and its specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and penetration of the IgG through S. mutans biofilm. The planktonic organisms with or without extracellular polysaccharides were prepared, incubated with rabbit IgG against whole cell of S. mutans and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat affinity purified antibody to rabbit IgG. Biofilms with or without extracellular polysaccharides were formed on cover glasses and incubated with rabbit IgG against S. mutans and FITC-conjugated goat antibody to rabbit IgG. Then, biofilms were stained with propidium iodide. The amount of specific IgG binding on S. mutans was determined by FITC intensity with a fluorescence microplate reader. The penetration of IgG through biofilms was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of FITC in planktonic organisms with extracellular polysaccharides was similar to that in planktonic organisms without extracellular polysaccharides, indicating that extracellular polysaccharides did not inhibit the reaction between S. mutans and its specific IgG. Although biofilms of S. mutans with extracellular polysaccharides were much thicker and denser than those without extracellular polysaccharides, the speed with which IgG penetrated through both of the biofilms did not differ significantly, suggesting that penetration of IgG through S. mutans biofilm was not affected by extracellular polysaccharides. PMID:11169140

  19. Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

  20. Streptococcus suis Capsular Polysaccharide Inhibits Phagocytosis through Destabilization of Lipid Microdomains and Prevents Lactosylceramide-Dependent Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Mathieu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Fleur; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis type 2 is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent, causing meningitis in both swine and humans. S. suis infects the host through the respiratory route, reaches the bloodstream, and persists until breaching into the central nervous system. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis type 2 is considered a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Though CPS allows S. suis to adhere to the membrane of cells of the immune system, it provides protection against phagocytosis. In fact, nonencapsulated mutants are easily internalized and killed by macrophages and dendritic cells. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms by which the CPS of S. suis prevents phagocytosis. By using latex beads covalently linked with purified CPS, it was shown that CPS itself was sufficient to inhibit entry of both latex beads and bystander fluorescent beads into macrophages. Upon contact with macrophages, encapsulated S. suis was shown to destabilize lipid microdomains at the cell surface, to block nitric oxide (NO) production during infection, and to prevent lactosylceramide accumulation at the phagocytic cup during infection. In contrast, the nonencapsulated mutant was easily internalized via lipid rafts, in a filipin-sensitive manner, leading to lactosylceramide recruitment and strong NO production. This is the first report to identify a role for CPS in lipid microdomain stability and to recognize an interaction between S. suis and lactosylceramide in phagocytes. PMID:22124659

  1. Raspberry pulp polysaccharides inhibit tumor growth via immunopotentiation and enhance docetaxel chemotherapy against malignant melanoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jing; Xu, Han-Mei; Suo, You-Rui

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported previously that the systemic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents is substantially restricted for some cancer types, including malignant melanoma. Therefore, the development of more effective treatment modalities remains a critical, albeit elusive, goal in anticancer therapy. The study presented here evaluates the antitumor activity of raspberry pulp polysaccharides (RPPs) against malignant melanoma using a murine tumor-bearing model. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of this antitumor activity has also been investigated. The results show that while RPP exhibits no direct cytotoxic effect on HT-29, MGC-803, HeLa, Bel-7402, L02 and B16F10 cells in vitro, it does demonstrate a dose-dependent growth inhibition of melanoma in vivo with an inhibition ratio of 59.95% at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1). Besides this, the body weight and spleen index in tumor-bearing mice have also been improved in RPP-treated groups. RPP is also found to induce splenocyte proliferation and is able to upregulate the activity of immune-related enzymes, including acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interferon ? (IFN-?) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the serum of tumor-bearing mice show to be effectively increased upon RPP treatment. Histopathological analyses show that RPP induces tumor tissue necrosis by increasing inflammatory cell infiltration and causes no lesions to liver and kidney tissues. Remarkably, RPP further enhances the antitumor effect of the chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel and alleviates docetaxel-induced liver and kidney lesions in tumor-bearing mice. These findings indicate that RPP exhibits antitumor activity in vivo against malignant melanoma, partly by enhancing the cellular immune response of the host organism. In summary, RPP features critical properties to potentially find use as an immunopotentiating agent or as a chemotherapy adjuvant agent for the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:26200777

  2. Identification and characterization of sulfonyltransferases catalyzing ethyl sulfate formation and their inhibition by polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Nicole; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl sulfate (EtS) is a minor metabolite of ethanol, usually being present along with ethyl glucuronide in both blood and urine. At present, there have been few studies on sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyzing EtS formation. Moreover, inhibition by nutritional components on EtS formation, e.g., polyphenols that are extensively sulfonated, has not been addressed at all. Firstly, the incubation procedure was optimized with regard to buffer, substrate concentration, and incubation time. Recombinant SULT enzymes including SULT1A1, 1A3, 1B1, 1E1, and 2A1 were screened for their activity towards ethanol; subsequently, respective kinetics was investigated. The inhibitory potential of resveratrol, quercetin, and kaempferol being abundant in beer and wine was studied thereafter. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using deuterated EtS as the internal standard. All enzymes are involved in the sulfonation of ethanol; respective kinetics followed the Michaelis-Menten model. Among the five SULTs under investigation, SULT1A1 displayed the highest activity towards ethanol followed by SULT2A1. Polyphenols significantly reduced the formation of EtS. Results revealed multiple SULT isoforms being capable of catalyzing the transfer of a sulfo group to ethanol; nevertheless, the relevance of SULTs' polymorphism on the sulfonation of ethanol needs further appraisal. Nutritional components such as polyphenols effectively inhibit formation of EtS; this observation may partly serve as an explanation of the highly inter-individual variability of EtS findings in both blood and urine. PMID:25680553

  3. Dendritic Polyglycerol Sulfate Inhibits Microglial Activation and Reduces Hippocampal CA1 Dendritic Spine Morphology Deficits.

    PubMed

    Maysinger, Dusica; Grger, Dominic; Lake, Andrew; Licha, Kai; Weinhart, Marie; Chang, Philip K-Y; Mulvey, Rose; Haag, Rainer; McKinney, R Anne

    2015-09-14

    Hyperactivity of microglia and loss of functional circuitry is a common feature of many neurological disorders including those induced or exacerbated by inflammation. Herein, we investigate the response of microglia and changes in hippocampal dendritic postsynaptic spines by dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) treatment. Mouse microglia and organotypic hippocampal slices were exposed to dPGS and an inflammogen (lipopolysaccharides). Measurements of intracellular fluorescence and confocal microscopic analyses revealed that dPGS is avidly internalized by microglia but not CA1 pyramidal neurons. Concentration and time-dependent response studies consistently showed no obvious toxicity of dPGS. The adverse effects induced by proinflammogen LPS exposure were reduced and dendritic spine morphology was normalized with the addition of dPGS. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in nitrite and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) from hyperactive microglia suggesting normalized circuitry function with dPGS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that dPGS acts anti-inflammatory, inhibits inflammation-induced degenerative changes in microglia phenotype and rescues dendritic spine morphology. PMID:26218295

  4. Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels. PMID:22408412

  5. Inhibition of catalytic activities of botulinum neurotoxin light chains of serotypes A, B and E by acetate, sulfate and calcium

    PubMed Central

    Mizanur, Rahman M; Gorbet, John; Swaminathan, S; Ahmed, S Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic domain, known as light chain (Lc), of the most poisonous botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), possesses endoprotease activity that triggers the ultimate poisonous effect to animals and humans. X-ray crystallographic structure of Lc of several BoNT serotypes has identified at least four small ligands at or near the respective active sites. They are sulfate ions in LcA, LcB, and LcE; an acetate ion in LcA; a calcium ion in LcB; and a potassium ion in LcD. Roles of these ligands on the structure and function of the proteins are not known. We have investigated the roles of sulfate, acetate, and calcium on the catalytic activities of LcA, LcB, and LcE using 17-35-residue synthetic peptide substrates. All three ligands inhibited all Lc activities. For LcA and LcB, the order of inhibition effectiveness was calcium>sulfate>acetate. The inhibition effectiveness expressed as IC50, did not correlate with the occurrence or proximity of the ions to the active site. Moreover, addition of acetate or sulfate to LcA did not affect the near-UV circular dichroism spectra, tryptophan, and tyrosine fluorescence spectra, and mid points of thermal denaturation of LcA. Our results suggest that acetate, sulfate, and calcium nonspecifically interact with BoNT Lc, and their occurrence in the crystal structures could have been due to opportunistic binding to complementary pockets. PMID:23097747

  6. Decorin and chondroitin-6 sulfate inhibit B16V melanoma cell migration and invasion by cellular acidification.

    PubMed

    Stock, Christian; Jungmann, Oliver; Seidler, Daniela G

    2011-10-01

    In vivo, cells are embedded in an environment generated and maintained by multiple cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. While transiting the dermis metastasizing melanoma cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblasts. To study the roles of ECM components and fibroblasts in melanoma (B16V) cell migration and invasion, we established a co-culture system consisting of fibroblasts, their collagen-rich matrix and B16V cells. The crosstalk between B16V cells and fibroblasts was indicated by a clear increase in release and activity of matrix-metallo-protease-2. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that in B16V cells exposed to either decorin or chondroitin sulfates migration and invasion decreased by more than 50%. Decorin led to a reversible, chondroitin-6-sulfate to an irreversible, cytosolic acidification of B16V cells. Interestingly, decorin lowered NHE1 activity whereas chondroitin-6-sulfate did not. Furthermore, decorin and chondroitin-6-sulfate also acidified the pH at the cell surface which might prevent migration due to strong adhesion. In conclusion, the present co-culture system is an appropriate tool to analyze migration, invasion, and MMP release depending on cell-matrix interactions and the crosstalk between the invasive cells and those surrounded by their self-made matrix. We show a so far unknown function of decorin and chondroitin-6-sulfate: their ability to inhibit B16V cell migration by intracellular acidification. PMID:21792923

  7. Recognition of bacterial capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides by the macrophage mannose receptor.

    PubMed

    Zamze, Susanne; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Jones, Hannah; Taylor, Philip R; Stillion, Richard J; Gordon, Siamon; Wong, Simon Y C

    2002-11-01

    The in vitro binding of the macrophage mannose receptor to a range of different bacterial polysaccharides was investigated. The receptor was shown to bind to purified capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae and to the lipopolysaccharides, but not capsular polysaccharides, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Binding was Ca(2+)-dependent and inhibitable with d-mannose. A fusion protein of the mannose receptor containing carbohydrate recognition domains 4-7 and a full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor containing all domains external to the transmembrane region both displayed very similar binding specificities toward bacterial polysaccharides, suggesting that domains 4-7 are sufficient for recognition of these structures. Surprisingly, no direct correlation could be made between polysaccharide structure and binding to the mannose receptor, suggesting that polysaccharide conformation may play an important role in recognition. The full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor was able to bind simultaneously both polysaccharide via the carbohydrate recognition domains and sulfated oligosaccharide via the cysteine-rich domain. The possible involvement of the mannose receptor, either cell surface or soluble, in the innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial polysaccharides is discussed. PMID:12196537

  8. Concurrent infection with influenza virus and mumps virus or pneumonia virus of mice as bearing on the inhibition of virus multiplication by bacterial polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    GINSBERG, H S; HORSFALL, F L

    1949-01-01

    Preexisting infection with PVM or mumps virus does not prevent multiplication of the virus of influenza A or B in the same tissue. Similarly, pre-existing infection with one or another of the influenza viruses does not prevent multiplication of either PVM or mumps virus in the same tissue. The failure of these two groups of viruses to interfere with the multiplication of each other is discussed in relation to the mechanism of inhibition of multiplication of mumps virus and PVM by the capsular polysaccharides of Friedlnder bacilli, and the ability of influenza A and influenza B viruses to multiply in the presence of large quantities of these carbohydrates. It is suggested that differences in the requirements of the two groups of viruses for host cell metabolic systems may serve to explain both the lack of interference between them and the differing effect of polysaccharides upon their multiplication. PMID:18099164

  9. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  10. Vincristine sulfate-induced cell transformation, mitotic inhibition and aneuploidy in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, T.; Suzuki, N.; Maizumi, H.; Barrett, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Vincristine, a naturally occurring Vinca alkaloid and widely used anti-neoplastic agent, was examined for its ability to induce cell transformation, inhibition of growth and mitosis, and genetic effects in Syrian hamster embryo cells in culture. Treatment of the cells with doses of less than or equal to 1 ng/ml vincristine sulfate (VCR) had no effect on cell growth, while exposure to greater than or equal to 3 ng/ml reduced the growth rate and treatment with 30 ng/ml resulted in no detectable increase in cell number. At this latter dose the mitotic index of the cells increased significantly suggesting that VCR delayed completion of mitosis. Exposure of the cells to VCR at doses of 1-10 ng/ml for 48 h resulted in morphological transformation of the cells in a doserelated fashion. The vincristine-treated transformed colonies were morphologically indistinguishable from colonies transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or other chemical carcinogens. Morphological transformation was induced by VCR at non-toxic and slightly toxic doses as measured by a reduction in colony-forming ability of the treated cells. Over the dose range which resulted in cell transformation, VCR failed to induce either detectable gene mutations at two genetic loci, unscheduled DNA synthesis, or chromosome aberrations in the Syrian hamster embryo cells. However, a significant dose-dependent increase in aneuploid cells with a near-diploid chromosome number was induced by VCR. Both chromosome losses and gains were induced which is consistent with a non-disjunctional mechanism. These results further support our hypothesis that aneuploidy is one possible mechanism for induction of this early step in the neoplastic transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. Furthermore, these findings indicate that VCR may have some carcinogenic potential if exposure to rapidly dividing cells occurs.

  11. Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  12. Mechanisms of direct inhibition of the respiratory sulfate-reduction pathway by (per)chlorate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Hans K; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Hazra, Amrita B; Justice, Nicholas B; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Iavarone, Anthony T; Engelbrektson, Anna; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

    2015-06-01

    We investigated perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) and chlorate (ClO(3)(-)) (collectively (per)chlorate) in comparison with nitrate as potential inhibitors of sulfide (H(2)S) production by mesophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs). We demonstrate the specificity and potency of (per)chlorate as direct SRM inhibitors in both pure cultures and undefined sulfidogenic communities. We demonstrate that (per)chlorate and nitrate are antagonistic inhibitors and resistance is cross-inducible implying that these compounds share at least one common mechanism of resistance. Using tagged-transposon pools we identified genes responsible for sensitivity and resistance in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We found that mutants in Dde_2702 (Rex), a repressor of the central sulfate-reduction pathway were resistant to both (per)chlorate and nitrate. In general, Rex derepresses its regulon in response to increasing intracellular NADH:NAD(+) ratios. In cells in which respiratory sulfate reduction is inhibited, NADH:NAD(+) ratios should increase leading to derepression of the sulfate-reduction pathway. In support of this, in (per)chlorate or nitrate-stressed wild-type G20 we observed higher NADH:NAD(+) ratios, increased transcripts and increased peptide counts for genes in the core Rex regulon. We conclude that one mode of (per)chlorate and nitrate toxicity is as direct inhibitors of the central sulfate-reduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that (per)chlorate are more potent inhibitors than nitrate in both pure cultures and communities, implying that they represent an attractive alternative for controlling sulfidogenesis in industrial ecosystems. Of these, perchlorate offers better application logistics because of its inhibitory potency, solubility, relative chemical stability, low affinity for mineral cations and high mobility in environmental systems. PMID:25405978

  13. Inhibition of barium sulfate deposition by polycarboxylates of various molecular structures

    SciTech Connect

    van der Leeden, M.C.; van Rosmalen, G.M. )

    1990-02-01

    To establish a relationship between the molecular structure of polycarboxylates and their growth-retarding influence on barium sulfate, seeded-suspension-growth experiments were performed at various inhibitor concentrations and pH values. Two types of polycarboxylates with a molecular structure based on their polyacrylic or maleic acid were studied. The molecular structure of these compounds were varied by particle substitution with monomers containing hydroxyl, amide, and sulfonic acid, as well as hydrophobic groups. Hydrophobic groups are detrimental to good inhibitor performance, whereas the introduction of OH, NH {sub 2}, or SO {sub 3} H groups presents opportunities to enhance the inhibitor effectiveness. The sequence in performance of the compounds on barium sulfate was compared with the sequence formerly obtained for calcium sulfate dihydrate.

  14. [Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

  15. Effect of Hormones on the Turnover of Polysaccharides in Connective Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1964-01-01

    A number of hormones somehow modify the turnover of the polysaccharides in a variety of connective tissues. In hypophysectomized animals the turnover of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid is decreased; when such animals are given growth hormone the turnover of chondroitin sulfate is enhanced but that of hyaluronic acid is unaltered. The effect of parathyroid extracts may be of a dual nature: in some connective tissues there may be an increase in the rate at which chondroitin sulfate is catabolized, in other tissues its synthesis may be stimulated. Thyroxine effectively restores toward normal the depressed synthesis and breakdown of polysaccharides in hypothyroid animals. Estradiol, in addition to inhibiting the resorption of the metaphyses in rats, inhibits the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage and aorta. Cortisone too inhibits the synthesis of chondroitin sulfates and hyaluronic acid; its effect on their catabolism is not as striking. ImagesFigure 1Figure 9Figure 5Figure 6Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:14104083

  16. INHIBITION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION BY SULFATE REDUCTION IN MICROCOSMS (ABSTRACT ONLY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High sulfate (>1,000 mg/L) concentrations are potentially problematic for field implementation of in situ bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes because its reduction competes for electron donor with reductive dechlorination. As a result of this competition, reductive dechl...

  17. The anticancer activity of lytic peptides is inhibited by heparan sulfate on the surface of the tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with antitumor activity constitute a promising group of novel anticancer agents. These peptides induce lysis of cancer cells through interactions with the plasma membrane. It is not known which cancer cell membrane components influence their susceptibility to CAPs. We have previously shown that CAPs interact with the two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), which are present on the surface of most cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the two GAGs in the cytotoxic activity of CAPs. Methods Various cell lines, expressing different levels of cell surface GAGs, were exposed to bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) and the designer peptide, KW5. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides was investigated by use of the colorimetric MTT viability assay. The cytotoxic effect on wild type CHO cells, expressing normal amounts of GAGs on the cell surface, and the mutant pgsA-745, that has no expression of GAGs on the cell surface, was also investigated. Results We show that cells not expressing HS were more susceptible to CAPs than cells expressing HS at the cell surface. Further, exogenously added heparin inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Chondroitin sulfate had no effect on the cytotoxic activity of KW5 and only minor effects on LfcinB cytotoxicity. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that negatively charged molecules at the surface of cancer cells inhibit the cytotoxic activity of CAPs. Our results indicate that HS at the surface of cancer cells sequesters CAPs away from the phospholipid bilayer and thereby impede their ability to induce cytolysis. PMID:19527490

  18. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

    2004-11-01

    A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

  19. Momordica charantia polysaccharides could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gong, Juanjuan; Sun, Fumou; Li, Yihang; Zhou, Xiaoling; Duan, Zhenzhen; Duan, Fugang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hansen; Qi, Suhua; Shen, Jiangang

    2015-04-01

    Momordica charantia (MC) is a medicinal plant for stroke treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but its active compounds and molecular targets are unknown yet. M. charantia polysaccharide (MCP) is one of the important bioactive components in MC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through scavenging superoxide (O2(-)), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3) signaling cascades. We conducted experiments with in vivo global and focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat models and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) neural cells. The effects of MCP on apoptotic cell death and infarction volume, the bioactivities of scavenging O2(-), NO and ONOO(-), inhibiting lipid peroxidation and modulating JNK3 signaling pathway were investigated. Major results are summarized as below: (1) MCP dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death in neural cells under OGD condition in vitro and reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains in vivo; (2) MCP had directing scavenging effects on NO, O2(-) and ONOO(-) and inhibited lipid peroxidation; (3) MCP inhibited the activations of JNK3/c-Jun/Fas-L and JNK3/cytochrome C/caspases-3 signaling cascades in ischemic brains in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that MCP could be a promising neuroprotective ingredient of M. charantia and its mechanisms could be at least in part attributed to its antioxidant activities and inhibiting JNK3 signaling cascades during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25510970

  20. [NO3-/NO2- inhibits sulfate-reducing activity of the enrichment culture of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes from an off-shore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ying-Yue; Yu, Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Tan, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Long-term injection of sulfate-rich water into oil reservoirs stimulates the proliferation of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) therein and results in production of a great amount of H2S, leading to souring in oil reservoirs and related environmental problems. In this study, we first, using modified API RP 38 medium, enriched SRP present in production water from a producing well at Bohai Bay, China, and then examined the inhibitory effects of nitrate or nitrite on sulfate reduction activity of the SRP. Results showed that the enriched SRP culture exhibited a high sulfate reduction activity as indicated by a sulfate-reducing rate of 10.4 mmol SO4(2-) x d(-1) x g(-1) dry cell. In presence of 0.4, 0.8, 1.8, and 4.2 mmol x L(-1) nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited for 5, 9, 20, and over 35 days, respectively. With the addition of 0.6, 0.9, 1.4, 2.6 and 4.6 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite, the inhibitory period lasted 3, 12, 22, and over 39 days, respectively. The SRP enrichment culture could dissimilatorily reduce nitrate to ammonium. When sulfate, nitrate and nitrite coexisted, nitrate or nitrite was preferentially used over sulfate as electron acceptor by the enriched SRP. This competitive use of electron acceptor and the strong inhibitory effect of nitrite possibly accounted for the suppression of nitrate and nitrite on the sulfate-reducing activity of the enriched SRP cultures from offshore oil reservoir at Bohai Bay. PMID:25509091

  1. Biological activities of fucose-containing polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Nakayasu, Seiichirou; Soegima, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-04-23

    A fucose-containing, sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Composition analysis demonstrated that ascophyllan mainly contains uronic acid, xylose, fucose, and sulfate half ester in approximately equimolecular proportions, which are evidently distinct from those of alginate and fucoidan. Ascophyllan inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and DNA-fragmentation and typical apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed in the ascophyllan-treated cells. Furthermore, ascophyllan induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. PMID:19352011

  2. A RG-II type polysaccharide purified from Aconitum coreanum alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by inhibiting the NF-?B signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S W Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-01-01

    Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lvl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [?6) -?-D-Galp (1?3)-?-L-Rhap-(1?4)-?-D-GalpA-(1?3)-?-D-Galp-(1?] with the side chain ?5)-?-D-Arap (1?3, 5)-?-D-Arap (1? attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1?3,4)-L-Rhap. T-?-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1?3,6)-?-D-Galp residues and T-?-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 g/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-?B-p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-I?B-? expression as well as the degradation of I?B-? and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-?B signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-?B DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200 g/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

  3. A RG-II Type Polysaccharide Purified from Aconitum coreanum Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Inhibiting the NF-κB Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-01-01

    Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [→6) -β-D-Galp (1→3)-β-L-Rhap-(1→4)-β-D-GalpA-(1→3)-β-D-Galp-(1→] with the side chain →5)-β-D-Arap (1→3, 5)-β-D-Arap (1→ attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1→3,4)-L-Rhap. T-β-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1→3,6)-β-D-Galp residues and T-β-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-κB–p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-IκB-α expression as well as the degradation of IκB-α and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-κB signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-κB DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

  4. Inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a flow-through column system by (per)chlorate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Tom, Lauren M.; Boussina, Aaron; Jin, Yong T.; Wong, Hayden; Piceno, Yvette M.; Carlson, Hans K.; Conrad, Mark E.; Anderson, Gary; Coates, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a primary cause of oil reservoir souring. Here we show that amendment with chlorate or perchlorate [collectively (per)chlorate] potentially resolves this issue. Triplicate packed columns inoculated with marine sediment were flushed with coastal water amended with yeast extract and one of nitrate, chlorate, or perchlorate. Results showed that although sulfide production was dramatically reduced by all treatments, effluent sulfide was observed in the nitrate (10 mM) treatment after an initial inhibition period. In contrast, no effluent sulfide was observed with (per)chlorate (10 mM). Microbial community analyses indicated temporal community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Nitrate addition stimulated Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae growth, supporting their role in nitrate metabolism. (Per)chlorate showed distinct effects on microbial community structure compared with nitrate and resulted in a general suppression of the community relative to the untreated control combined with a significant decrease in sulfate reducing species abundance indicating specific toxicity. Furthermore, chlorate stimulated Pseudomonadaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, members of which are known chlorate respirers, suggesting that chlorate may also control sulfidogenesis by biocompetitive exclusion of sulfate-reduction. Perchlorate addition stimulated Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfomonadaceae, which contain sulfide oxidizing and elemental sulfur-reducing species respectively, suggesting that effluent sulfide concentrations may be controlled through sulfur redox cycling in addition to toxicity and biocompetitive exclusion. Sulfur isotope analyses further support sulfur cycling in the columns, even when sulfide is not detected. This study indicates that (per)chlorate show great promise as inhibitors of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms and respiratory processes are involved. PMID:25071731

  5. Inhibition of microbial sulfate reduction in a flow-through column system by (per)chlorate treatment.

    PubMed

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Hubbard, Christopher G; Tom, Lauren M; Boussina, Aaron; Jin, Yong T; Wong, Hayden; Piceno, Yvette M; Carlson, Hans K; Conrad, Mark E; Anderson, Gary; Coates, John D

    2014-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a primary cause of oil reservoir souring. Here we show that amendment with chlorate or perchlorate [collectively (per)chlorate] potentially resolves this issue. Triplicate packed columns inoculated with marine sediment were flushed with coastal water amended with yeast extract and one of nitrate, chlorate, or perchlorate. Results showed that although sulfide production was dramatically reduced by all treatments, effluent sulfide was observed in the nitrate (10 mM) treatment after an initial inhibition period. In contrast, no effluent sulfide was observed with (per)chlorate (10 mM). Microbial community analyses indicated temporal community shifts and phylogenetic clustering by treatment. Nitrate addition stimulated Xanthomonadaceae and Rhizobiaceae growth, supporting their role in nitrate metabolism. (Per)chlorate showed distinct effects on microbial community structure compared with nitrate and resulted in a general suppression of the community relative to the untreated control combined with a significant decrease in sulfate reducing species abundance indicating specific toxicity. Furthermore, chlorate stimulated Pseudomonadaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae, members of which are known chlorate respirers, suggesting that chlorate may also control sulfidogenesis by biocompetitive exclusion of sulfate-reduction. Perchlorate addition stimulated Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfomonadaceae, which contain sulfide oxidizing and elemental sulfur-reducing species respectively, suggesting that effluent sulfide concentrations may be controlled through sulfur redox cycling in addition to toxicity and biocompetitive exclusion. Sulfur isotope analyses further support sulfur cycling in the columns, even when sulfide is not detected. This study indicates that (per)chlorate show great promise as inhibitors of sulfidogenesis in natural communities and provides insight into which organisms and respiratory processes are involved. PMID:25071731

  6. Sustained inhibition of intimal thickening. In vitro and in vivo effects of polymeric beta-cyclodextrin sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Bachinsky, W B; Barnathan, E S; Liu, H; Okada, S S; Kuo, A; Raghunath, P N; Muttreja, M; Caron, R J; Tomaszewski, J E; Golden, M A

    1995-01-01

    Intimal thickening after vascular injury may be modulated in part by heparin binding growth factors. We hypothesized that placement of a therapeutic polymer in the periadventitial space capable of tightly binding growth factors might alter the vascular response to injury. We first demonstrated that incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with an insoluble, sulfated polymer of beta-cyclodextrin (P-CDS) was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation induced by fetal calf serum, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor BB, or epidermal growth factor. Preincubation studies of P-CDS with FGF-2 revealed a very rapid removal of mitogenic activity. Using radiolabeled FGF-2 (0.25 microg/ml), we observed a very rapid association rate (0.34 +/- 0.07 min-1, n=4) and a very slow dissociation rate (3.3 +/- 0.2 X 10(-7) min-1) at 37 degrees C, suggesting a high affinity interaction. Using both Transwell and linear under-agarose assays, we demonstrated a significant inhibition of random migration (chemokinesis) by P-CDS. Unsulfated polymeric beta-cyclodextrin (P-CD) had little if any of these effects, suggesting that the high negative charge density of P-CDS was important for the effects. Finally, rats undergoing carotid artery balloon injury were randomized to treatment with periadventitial P-CDS or no treatment, and were killed at 4 (n=20), 14 (n=59), and 88 d (n=14). Morphometric analysis demonstrated significant and sustained inhibition of intimal thickening in P-CDS-treated rats at 14 (P < 0.01) and 88 d (P < 0.05) using absolute intimal area or intima/media area ratios. No inhibition was seen in a group of rats treated with P-CD. In P-CDS-treated rats, bromodeoxyuridine labeling studies revealed fewer labeled smooth muscle cells in the intima at 14 d (P=0.01), while staining with Evans blue revealed enhanced late endothelial cell regrowth. Thus, periadventitially applied sulfated beta-cyclodextrin polymer, which can tightly bind heparin binding growth factors, inhibits intimal thickening in vivo in a sustained fashion without using an additional delivery system. These studies suggest that cellular processes mediated by heparin binding growth factors may be modulated by P-CDS. Images PMID:8675622

  7. Purified polysaccharides of Geoffroea spinosa barks have anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities devoid of hemorrhagic risks.

    PubMed

    Souza, Racquel O S; Assreuy, Ana M S; Madeira, Juliana C; Chagas, Francisco D S; Parreiras, Luane A; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pereira, Maria G

    2015-06-25

    Polysaccharides were extracted from the barks of Geoffroea spinosa, purified using anion exchange chromatography and characterized by chemical and methylation analysis, complemented by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. These polysaccharides were tested for their anticoagulant, antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities and also for their effects on bleeding. Unfractionated polysaccharide contains low levels of protein and high levels of carbohydrate (including hexuronic acid). The purified polysaccharides (fractions FII and FIII) are composed of arabinose (Ara), rhamnose (Rha), hexuronic acid, small amounts of galactose, but no sulfate ester. They have highly complex structure, which was partially characterized. NMR and methylation analysis indicate that the polysaccharides have a core of α-Rhap and branches of 5-linked α-Araf. Residues of 4-linked α-GalpA are also found in the structure. The unfractionated (TPL) and fraction FIII, but not fractions FI and FII, prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). TPL, FII and FIII inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. More significantly, both unfractionated and purified fractions exhibited potent antithrombotic effect (31-60%) and the fractions did not modify the bleeding tendency. These plant polysaccharides could be alternative source of new anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antithrombotic compounds devoid of the undesirable risk of hemorrhage. PMID:25839813

  8. Dextran Sulfate Suppression of Viruses in the HIV Family: Inhibition of Virion Binding to CD4+ Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Looney, David J.; Kuno, Sachiko; Ueno, Ryuji; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Broder, Samuel

    1988-04-01

    The first step in the infection of human T lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is attachment to the target cell receptor, the CD4 antigen. This step may be vulnerable to attack by antibodies, chemicals, or small peptides. Dextran sulfate (molecular weight approximately 8000), which has been given to patients as an anticoagulant or antilipemic agent for more than two decades, was found to block the binding of virions to various target T lymphocytes, inhibit syncytia formation, and exert a potent inhibitory effect against HIV-1 in vitro at concentrations that may be clinically attainable in human beings. This drug also suppressed the replication of HIV-2 in vitro. These observations could have theoretical and clinical implications in the strategy to develop drugs against HIV types 1 and 2.

  9. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  10. Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent. PMID:25248662

  11. A Heparan Sulfate-Binding Cell Penetrating Peptide for Tumor Targeting and Migration Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Pei-Lin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    As heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as co-receptors to interact with numerous growth factors and then modulate downstream biological activities, overexpression of HS/HSPG on cell surface acts as an increasingly reliable prognostic factor in tumor progression. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short-chain peptides developed as functionalized vectors for delivery approaches of impermeable agents. On cell surface negatively charged HS provides the initial attachment of basic CPPs by electrostatic interaction, leading to multiple cellular effects. Here a functional peptide (CPPecp) has been identified from critical HS binding region in hRNase3, a unique RNase family member with in vitro antitumor activity. In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPPecp. In addition to cellular binding and internalization, CPPecp demonstrated multiple functions including strong binding activity to tumor cell surface with higher HS expression, significant inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, different from conventional highly basic CPPs, CPPecp facilitated magnetic nanoparticle to selectively target tumor site in vivo. Therefore, CPPecp could engage its capacity to be developed as biomaterials for diagnostic imaging agent, therapeutic supplement, or functionalized vector for drug delivery. PMID:26064887

  12. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  13. Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

  14. Inhibition of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity by a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Landolfo, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) interacts with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) to initiate infection. The interaction of RSV with HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In the present study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was screened with the aim of identifying peptides able to bind HSPGs and thus block RSV attachment and infectivity. Of the compounds identified, the dendrimer SB105-A10 was the most potent inhibitor of RSV infectivity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0.35 ?M and 0.25 ?M measured in Hep-2 and A549 cells, respectively. SB105-A10 was found to bind to both cell types via HSPGs, suggesting that its antiviral activity is indeed exerted by competing with RSV for binding to cell surface HSPGs. SB105-A10 prevented RSV infection when added before the viral inoculum, in line with its proposed HSPG-binding mechanism of action; moreover, antiviral activity was also exhibited when SB105-A10 was added postinfection, as it was able to reduce the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. The antiviral potential of SB105-A10 was further assessed using human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. SB105-A10 strongly reduced RSV infectivity in this model and exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or proinflammatory effects. Together, these features render SB105-A10 an attractive candidate for further development as a RSV inhibitor to be administered by aerosol delivery. PMID:22850525

  15. Inhibition of in vitro adhesion and virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis by aqueous extract and polysaccharides from Rhododendron ferrugineum L. A new way for prophylaxis of periodontitis?

    PubMed

    Löhr, G; Beikler, T; Hensel, A

    2015-12-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract from the leaves of Rhododendron ferrugineum (RF) was investigated for its capacity of inhibiting the adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells to epithelial buccal KB cells. RF was characterized by HPLC (12.1% taxifolin-3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside, 1.6% hyperoside, 0.9% isoquercitrin, 1.6% chlorogenic acid and a tannin content of 8.7%). Additionally raw polysaccharides (RPS) were obtained from the leaves of R. ferrugineum by aqueous extraction. RF and RPS interacted in a dose-dependent manner (max. 25% reduction at 1mg/ml each) with the adhesion of P. gingivalis by influencing bacterial outer membrane proteins. On protein level a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of Arg-gingipain activity by RF was observed, while the Lys-gingipain activity remained unaltered. In addition, RF and RPS inhibited the bacterial hemagglutinin. RF affected the P. gingivalis adhesion also by interacting with KB cells in pre-incubation assays of the eukaryotic host cells, leading to reduced bacterial adhesion of about 75%. Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR indicated significant downregulation for arginine-specific gingipain rgpA by RF, while lysin-specific gingipain kgp and fimbrillinA fimA were strongly upregulated. Moreover, pre-incubation with RF abolished the P. gingivalis induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα in KB cells. Results of this study indicate that an aqueous extract from R. ferrugineum combines cytoprotective and antimicrobial effects by both downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibiting the adhesion of P. gingivalis. Thus RF may be potential candidate for the development of an adjunctive antimicrobial approach in the prevention of periodontal diseases. PMID:26522852

  16. Scutellaria barbata D. Don polysaccharides inhibit the growth of Calu-3 xenograft tumors via suppression of the HER2 pathway and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    YANG, JUNFENG; YANG, GUANGYU; HOU, GUANGJIE; LIU, QINGFENG; HU, WEICAI; ZHAO, PU; HE, YI

    2015-01-01

    Scutellaria barbata D. Don, a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae, is widely distributed throughout China and the Republic of Korea, and has been traditionally used in folk medicine as an antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. Polysaccharides isolated from Scutellaria barbata D. Don (PSB), have been reported to possess antitumor effects. However, the detailed antitumor mechanisms behind the effects of PSB remain unclear. In the present study, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line harboring the HER2 gene mutation Calu-3, the Calu-3 cell line, was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the antitumor effects of PSB. The results revealed that PSB potently inhibited cell proliferation and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 phosphorylation in vitro, and also downregulated the expression of the downstream signaling molecules, including phosphorylated (phospho-)Akt and phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase. In vivo, PSB demonstrated efficacy at well-tolerated doses, including significant antitumor activity in a Calu-3 subcutaneous xenograft model. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed a PSB dose-dependent reduction of microvessel density, demonstrated by cluster of differentiation 31 staining. The present findings suggest that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via suppression of the HER2 pathway may be one of the mechanisms by which PSB can be effective in the treatment of cancers. PMID:26137135

  17. A polysaccharide from Glycyrrhiza inflata Licorice inhibits proliferation of human oral cancer cells by inducing apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huan; Zeng, Guang; Sun, Bin; Cai, Xingwei; Bi, Lixia; Tang, Guo; Yang, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we isolated and characterized a water-soluble polysaccharide (GIP1) from the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect of GIP1 on the human oral cancer SCC-25 cell line and to explore the possible mechanism. Our experimental result showed that GIP1 (50, 100, and 200 ?g/mL) specifically decreased cell viability of SCC-25 cells in a concentration-dependent manner via the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that exposure of SCC-25 cells to GIP1 led to down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, thus causing a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol. Moreover, we observed activation of the initiator caspaes-9, and the effector caspases-3, but not caspase-8. Concomitantly, GIP1-induced apoptosis can be blocked by caspase-3- or caspase-9-specific inhibitor, but not caspase-8 inhibitor. As well, the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, as a caspae-3 substrate, occurred in SCC-25 cells following GIP1 treatment at three concentrations. Collectively, our results showed that the GIP1 induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells involving a caspase-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway. PMID:25663459

  18. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.6220.91 mm(3) vs. 22.4211.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (31.18 vs. 20.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%24.9% vs. 20.2%16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

  19. The predominant molecular state of bound enzyme determines the strength and type of product inhibition in the hydrolysis of recalcitrant polysaccharides by processive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kuusk, Silja; Sørlie, Morten; Väljamäe, Priit

    2015-05-01

    Processive enzymes are major components of the efficient enzyme systems that are responsible for the degradation of the recalcitrant polysaccharides cellulose and chitin. Despite intensive research, there is no consensus on which step is rate-limiting for these enzymes. Here, we performed a comparative study of two well characterized enzymes, the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina and the chitinase ChiA from Serratia marcescens. Both enzymes were inhibited by their disaccharide product, namely chitobiose for ChiA and cellobiose for Cel7A. The products behaved as noncompetitive inhibitors according to studies using the (14)C-labeled crystalline polymeric substrates (14)C chitin nanowhiskers and (14)C-labeled bacterial microcrystalline cellulose for ChiA and Cel7A, respectively. The resulting observed Ki (obs) values were 0.45 ± 0.08 mm for ChiA and 0.17 ± 0.02 mm for Cel7A. However, in contrast to ChiA, the Ki (obs) of Cel7A was an order of magnitude higher than the true Ki value governed by the thermodynamic stability of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Theoretical analysis of product inhibition suggested that the inhibition strength and pattern can be accounted for by assuming different rate-limiting steps for ChiA and Cel7A. Measuring the population of enzymes whose active site was occupied by a polymer chain revealed that Cel7A was bound predominantly via its active site. Conversely, the active-site-mediated binding of ChiA was slow, and most ChiA exhibited a free active site, even when the substrate concentration was saturating for the activity. Collectively, our data suggest that complexation with the polymer chain is rate-limiting for ChiA, whereas Cel7A is limited by dissociation. PMID:25767120

  20. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K.; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  1. Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vu, John P; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2014-01-01

    VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP(-/-) and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP(-/-) and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n?=?22), PG 97-269 (n?=?9), or vehicle (n?=?31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP(-/-) mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97-269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP(-/-) and VIPHyb or PG 97-269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

  2. Peptide 19-2.5 inhibits heparan sulfate-triggered inflammation in murine cardiomyocytes stimulated with human sepsis serum.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lukas; Schmitz, Susanne; De Santis, Rebecca; Doemming, Sabine; Haase, Hajo; Hoeger, Janine; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis has been linked to inflammation caused by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as by host danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These include soluble heparan sulfate (HS), which triggers the devastating consequences of the pro-inflammatory cascades in severe sepsis and septic shock. Thus, there is increasing interest in the development of anti-infective agents, with effectiveness against both PAMPs and DAMPs. We hypothesized that a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (peptide 19-2.5) inhibits inflammatory response in murine cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cells) stimulated with PAMPs, DAMPs or serum from patients with septic shock by reduction and/or neutralization of soluble HS. In the current study, our data indicate that the treatment with peptide 19-2.5 decreases the inflammatory response in HL-1 cells stimulated with either PAMPs or DAMPs. Furthermore, our work shows that soluble HS in serum from patients with Gram-negative or Gram-positive septic shock induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in HL-1 cells, which can be effectively blocked by peptide 19-2.5. Based on these findings, peptide 19-2.5 is a novel anti-inflammatory agent interacting with both PAMPs and DAMPs, suggesting peptide 19-2.5 may have the potential for further development as a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agent in sepsis-induced myocardial inflammation and dysfunction. PMID:26024383

  3. Peptide 19-2.5 Inhibits Heparan Sulfate-Triggered Inflammation in Murine Cardiomyocytes Stimulated with Human Sepsis Serum

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; Schmitz, Susanne; De Santis, Rebecca; Doemming, Sabine; Haase, Hajo; Hoeger, Janine; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis has been linked to inflammation caused by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as by host danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These include soluble heparan sulfate (HS), which triggers the devastating consequences of the pro-inflammatory cascades in severe sepsis and septic shock. Thus, there is increasing interest in the development of anti-infective agents, with effectiveness against both PAMPs and DAMPs. We hypothesized that a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (peptide 19-2.5) inhibits inflammatory response in murine cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cells) stimulated with PAMPs, DAMPs or serum from patients with septic shock by reduction and/or neutralization of soluble HS. In the current study, our data indicate that the treatment with peptide 19-2.5 decreases the inflammatory response in HL-1 cells stimulated with either PAMPs or DAMPs. Furthermore, our work shows that soluble HS in serum from patients with Gram-negative or Gram-positive septic shock induces a strong pro-inflammatory response in HL-1 cells, which can be effectively blocked by peptide 19-2.5. Based on these findings, peptide 19-2.5 is a novel anti-inflammatory agent interacting with both PAMPs and DAMPs, suggesting peptide 19-2.5 may have the potential for further development as a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory agent in sepsis-induced myocardial inflammation and dysfunction. PMID:26024383

  4. Strawberry phytochemicals inhibit azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-03-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg-1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  5. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huheihel, Mahmoud; Ishanu, Vladimir; Tal, Jacov; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not show any cytotoxic effects on vero cells even when a concentration as high as 250 microg/ml was used. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the polysaccharide and HSV and a weak interaction with the cell surface. When tested in vivo, Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide conferred significant and efficient protection against HSV-1 infection: at a concentration as low as 100 microg/ml, it prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of HSV-1 infection in rats and rabbits. The polysaccharide did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in vivo. PMID:11741707

  6. Sulphated polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus seaweeds both inhibit viral attachment/entry and cell-cell fusion, in NDV infection.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Briseo, Jos Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-Franois; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodrguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura Mara

    2015-02-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

  7. Doxorubicin-loaded polysaccharide nanoparticles suppress the growth of murine colorectal carcinoma and inhibit the metastasis of murine mammary carcinoma in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqiang; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Hai; Liu, Huaiyu; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-05-01

    As a synergistic drug combination, doxorubicin-loaded cisplatin crosslinked polysaccharide-based nanoparticles (Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP) have demonstrated enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity via optimized biodistribution, controlled drug release, prolonged blood circulation, and improved tolerability, compared to the non-crosslinked nanoparticles or free doxorubicin. Herein, we apply the Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP nanoparticles as an efficient antitumor agent to treat colorectal and breast tumors in three different in vivo models, i.e. subcutaneously implanted colorectal carcinoma, dimethylhydrazine-induced autochthonous colorectal carcinoma, and metastatic mammary carcinoma, which more closely simulate the natural milieu of the original tumor with intact pathological and immunological responses. Based on the properties of this combination in higher tumor accumulation and penetrating efficiency, the Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP nanoparticles significantly decreased the tumor sizes in CT26 cell line xenograft tumors compared to control. In addition, the affected animals' lifespan was significantly extended after the Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP treatment, in the autochthonous colon cancer model. Moreover, with the aid of iRGD, Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP could effectively block primary tumor growth and prevent the metastasis of 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma. In conclusion, Dex-SA-DOX-CDDP nanoparticles remarkably inhibit growth of colorectal carcinoma and metastasis of mammary carcinoma in vivo, which provides potential application as a safe and efficient antitumor agent in treatment of these cancers. PMID:25771007

  8. Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

    2015-01-01

    Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

  9. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.-C.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Lee, K.-M.

    2008-03-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

  10. Avidity of the Immunoglobulin G Response to a Neisseria meningitidis Group C Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine as Measured by Inhibition and Chaotropic Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays▿

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shannon L.; Tsao, How; Ashton, Lindsey; Goldblatt, David; Fernsten, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Antibody avidity, the strength of the multivalent interaction between antibodies and their antigens, is an important characteristic of protective immune responses. We have developed an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody avidity for the capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Neisseria meningitidis group C (MnC) and determined the avidity constants (KDs) for 100 sera from children immunized with an MnC PS conjugate vaccine. The avidity constants were compared to the avidity indices (AI) obtained for the same sera using a chaotropic ELISA protocol. After the primary immunization series, the geometric mean (GM) KD was 674 nM and did not change in the months following immunization. However, the GM avidity did increase after the booster dose (GM KD, 414 nM 1 month after booster immunization). In contrast, the GM AI increased from an initial value of 118 after the primary immunization series to 147 6 months after the completion of the primary immunization series and then further increased to 178 after booster immunization. At the individual subject level, the avidity constant and AI correlated after the primary immunization series and after booster immunization but not prior to boosting. This work suggests that the AI, as measured by the chaotropic ELISA, in contrast to the KD, reflects changes that render antibody populations less susceptible to disruption by chaotropic agents without directly affecting the strength of the binding interactions. PMID:17287312

  11. Chemical structure and anticoagulant activity of highly pyruvylated sulfated galactans from tropical green seaweeds of the order Bryopsidales.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Canelón, Dilsia J; Vera, Beatriz E; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-05-20

    Sulfated and pyruvylated galactans were isolated from three tropical species of the Bryopsidales, Penicillus capitatus, Udotea flabellum, and Halimeda opuntia. They represent the only important sulfated polysaccharides present in the cell walls of these highly calcified seaweeds of the suborder Halimedineae. Their structural features were studied by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy. Their backbone comprises 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linkages, constituted by major amounts of 3-linked 4,6-O-(1'-carboxy)ethylidene-d-galactopyranose units in part sulfated on C-2. Sulfation on C-2 was not found in galactans from other seaweeds of this order. In addition, a complex sulfation pattern, comprising also 4-, 6-, and 4,6-disulfated galactose units was found. A fraction from P. capitatus, F1, showed a moderate anticoagulant activity, evaluated by general coagulation tests and also kinetics of fibrin formation was assayed. Besides, preliminary results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms involved is direct thrombin inhibition. PMID:25817682

  12. The Microbial Capsular Polysaccharide Galactoxylomannan Inhibits IL-17A Production in Circulating T Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Alunno, Alessia; Gabrielli, Elena; Bartoloni, Elena; Cenci, Elio; Chow, Siu-Kei; Bistoni, Giovanni; Casadevall, Arturo; Gerli, Roberto; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of activated T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium may be attributable to increased homing, increased retention or a possible imbalance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Induction of apoptosis may represent a potential therapeutic approach. Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) from the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can interact with T cells and induce T-cell apoptosis through the inhibition of CD45 phosphatase activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of GalXM on circulating T cells from patients with RA and the underlying mechanisms. GalXM immunomodulating effect on apoptosis and signal transduction pathway involved in IL-17A production was evaluated on T cells. RA T-cell apoptosis, higher than that of control T cells, was further increased by GalXM through induction of caspase-3 activation. Activated T cells expressing the CD45RO molecule and producing IL-17A were the main target of GalXM-induced apoptosis. GalXM induced consistent impairment of IL-17A production and inhibition of STAT3, which was hyperactivated in RA. In conclusion, GalXM triggered apoptosis of activated memory T cells and interfered with IL-17A production in RA. These data suggest therapeutic targeting of deleterious Th17 cells in RA and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:23308194

  13. Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

  14. Polysaccharide Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

    An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

  15. ?-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR? Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Mara; Pereira Leite, Daniela Ferraz; Calixto, Joo B.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21356367

  16. The potent activity of sulfated polysaccharide, ascophyllan, isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum to induce nitric oxide and cytokine production from mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells: Comparison between ascophyllan and fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2011-11-30

    Ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is a fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide, which has similar but distinct characteristic monosaccharide composition and entire chemical structure to fucoidan. In this study, we examined the effects of ascophyllan, fucoidan isolated from A. nodosum (A-fucoidan), and fucoidan from Sigma (S-fucoidan) as a representative fucoidan derived from other source (Fucus vesiculosus) on mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. No significant cytotoxic effects of ascophyllan and A-fucoidan on RAW264.7 cells were observed up to 1000μg/ml, while S-fucoidan showed cytotoxic effect in a concentration-dependent manner. Ascophyllan induced extremely higher level of nitric oxide (NO) production from RAW264.7 cells than those induced by fucoidans over the concentration range tested (0-200μg/ml). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis revealed that expression level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in ascophyllan-treated RAW264.7 cells was much higher than the levels detected in the cells treated with fucoidans. Furthermore, the activities of ascophyllan to induce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) from RAW264.7 cells were also greater than those induced by fucoidans especially at lower concentration range (3.1-50μg/ml). The activities of ascophyllan to induce NO and cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages were also stronger than those of fucoidans. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using infrared dye labeled nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and AP-1 consensus sequences suggested that ascophyllan can strongly activate these transcription factors. Marked increase in the nuclear translocation of p65, and the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α were also observed in ascophyllan-treated RAW264.7 cells. Analysis using mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors and western blot analysis suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase are mainly involved in ascophyllan-induced NO production. PMID:22024029

  17. A polysaccharide isolated from Ecklonia cava fermented by Lactobacillus brevis inhibits the inflammatory response by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor-?B in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Woo; Ahn, Ginnae; Arachchillage, Janaka Priyalal Wijesinghe; Kim, Young Mog; Kim, Se-Kwon; Lee, Bae-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin

    2011-12-01

    We previously reported that the increment of carbohydrate content in the Viscozyme() L (Novozyme Corp., Oklahoma City, OK, USA) extract of Lactobacillus brevis-fermented Ecklonia cava affected the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production and that it might be related to the polysaccharide compound. However, there is no report of anti-inflammatory effects of the polysaccharide or its biological mechanism. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the polysaccharide and its biological mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The polysaccharide isolated from the Viscozyme extract of L. brevis-fermented E. cava (VLFEP) dose-dependently decreased LPS-stimulated NO production without cytotoxicity. Also, VLFEP significantly decreased the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) at the 100 ?g/mL concentration. In addition, VLFEP dose-dependently decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible NO synthase, whereas it slightly decreased those of cyclooxygenase 2 and only at the 100 ?g/mL concentration. Moreover, VLEFP dose-dependently decreased the productions and/or mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, compared with those of LPS only-stimulated cells. In further experiments, VLFEP considerably reduced the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory ?B as well as the translocation of nuclear transcription factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 into the nucleus, and its DNA binding was markedly induced by LPS stimulation. This study suggests that VLFEP exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating the production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via inhibiting the NF-?B pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:22145773

  18. Structure and biological activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Bilan, Maria I; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Shashkov, Alexander S; Kusaykin, Mikhail I; Stonik, Valentin A; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2016-05-01

    A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) was isolated from the body wall of Pacific sea cucumberCucumaria japonicaby extraction in the presence of papain followed by Cetavlon precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. FCS was shown to containd-GalNAc,d-GlcA,l-Fuc and sulfate in molar proportions of about 1:1:1:4.5. Structure of FCS was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and methylation analysis of the native polysaccharide and products of its desulfation and carboxyl reduction. The polysaccharide was shown to contain a typical chondroitin core →3)-β-d-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→. Sulfate groups in this core occupy O-4 and the majority of O-6 of GalNAc. Fucosyl branches are represented by 3,4- and 2,4-disulfated units in a ratio of 4:1 and are linked to O-3 of GlcA. In addition, ∼33% of GlcA are 3-O-sulfated, and hence, the presence of short fucooligosaccharide chains side by side with monofucosyl branches cannot be excluded. FCS was shown to inhibit platelets aggregation in vitro mediated by collagen and ristocetin, but not adenosine diphosphate, and demonstrated significant anticoagulant activity, which is connected with its ability to enhance inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa by antithrombin III, as well as to influence von Willebrand factor activity. The latest property significantly distinguished FCS from low-molecular-weight heparin. PMID:26681734

  19. Oleanolic acid ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by restoring the balance of Th17/Treg cells and inhibiting NF-?B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geum-Dan; Lim, Sumin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    In a preliminary experiment, it was found that oleanolic acid (OA), which is widely distributed in food and medicinal plants, inhibited interleukin (IL)-6/tumor growth factor beta-induced differentiation of splenic T cells into Th17 cells. Moreover, OA induced the differentiation of splenic T cells into Treg cells. Therefore, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of OA in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of OA significantly inhibited DSS-induced colon shortening, macroscopic score, and myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with OA inhibited DSS-induced differentiation to Th17 cells and downregulated the expression of ROR?t and IL-17 in the lamina propria of colon and Treg cell differentiation and Foxp3 and IL-10 expression were increased. OA treatment increased the DSS-suppressed expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 in the colon. Moreover, OA treatment inhibited DSS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-17, the activation of NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and increased IL-10 expression. OA also inhibited the activation of NF-?B and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest that OA may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and increasing Treg cell differentiation. PMID:26514300

  20. Production of immunoregulatory polysaccharides from Crassostrea hongkongensis and their positive effects as a nutrition factor in modulating the effectiveness and toxicity of 5-FU chemotherapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Wan, Peng; Sun, Huili; Pan, Jianyu

    2016-01-20

    Chemotherapy is generally accompanied by undesirable side effects, such as immunosuppression and malnutrition, which reduce tolerance to cancer therapies. Prior studies have shown that immunonutrition improves the clinical outcomes of cancer patients. In this study, immunoregulatory polysaccharides from Crassostrea hongkongensis were included in a nutrition formula that was administered to S180 tumor-bearing mice in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. The C30-60% fraction of the polysaccharides was characterized as a branched polysaccharide, with a high amount of d-glucose (96.76% of the total) and the highest uronic acid and sulfate groups' content among all of the polysaccharide fractions. The C30-60% polysaccharide fraction showed a maximal proliferative effect on RAW264.7 cells and T lymphocytes at a concentration of 0.0391 mg mL(-1) and 0.0781 mg mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the combination treatment of the C30-60% polysaccharide-based nutrition formula (OPNF) with the administration of 5-FU effectively inhibited the growth of tumors and notably increased the leucocyte and lymphocyte counts in S180 tumor-bearing mice. In addition, a slight increase in the erythrocyte and hemoglobin values was observed in the mice treated with the combination of OPNF and 5-FU. These results suggest that supplementation with a C30-60%-based enteral formula would be beneficial for patients undergoing chemotherapy with 5-FU. PMID:26507007

  1. The marked inhibition of the bitter taste of Polymyxin B sulfate and trimethoprim x sulfamethoxazole by flavored BMI-60 in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Hoshi, M; Igarashi, A; Ogata, H; Edo, K

    1999-09-01

    Taste acceptability of ground Polymyxin B sulfate and Bactramin C tablets was examined when flavored BMI-60, a food additive, was added. Both adult and child volunteers found the bitter taste of the two drugs markedly inhibited, making it clinically useful. Noncompliance, due to this bitterness, was improved using flavored BMI-60. The most striking characteristic of flavored BMI-60 is the ease of preparation compared with the manufacture of other hospital pharmaceuticals such as jelly, gummi and candy done to mask bitterness. PMID:10513631

  2. A procoagulant chemically sulfated mannan.

    PubMed

    Gracher, Ana Helena P; Santana, Aline G; Cipriani, Thales R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Disorders of hemostasis can produce innumerous problems. Polysaccharides have been studied both as anticoagulant and as procoagulant agents. A mannan with a main chain of ?-(1?6)-linked-Manp units, branched at O-2 mainly by side-chains of 2-O-linked-?-Manp units was chemically sulfated, structurally characterized by NMR and GC-MS (methylation, desulfation and methylation with trideuterated iodomethane), and tested in vitro and in vivo on blood coagulation models. Chemical analyses indicate a high degree of substitution on the sulfated polysaccharide. This polymer acted as a procoagulant agent, increasing blood coagulation in normal and hemophilic plasma, activated platelet aggregation and also decreased ex vivo aPTT. Polymers such as the sulfated mannan could be a helpful source of hemostatic agents to prevent hemorrhagic states. PMID:26572344

  3. The Ability of Insulin To Inhibit the Formation of Amyloid by Pro-Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Processing Intermediates Is Significantly Reduced in the Presence of Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is responsible for amyloid deposition in type 2 diabetes and plays an important role in the loss of ?-cell mass associated with the disease and in the failure of islet transplants, but the mechanism of islet amyloid formation is not understood. The incorrect processing of proIAPP to produce partially processed forms of the peptide has been proposed to play a role in the initiation of islet amyloid in vivo by promoting interactions with proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Insulin is a potent inhibitor of the formation of amyloid by IAPP in vitro in a homogeneous solution; however, its ability to inhibit IAPP in the presence of proteoglycans has not been tested, nor has its effect on the formation of amyloid by proIAPP processing intermediates been examined. Here we show that insulin is a much less effective amyloid inhibitor of both IAPP and proIAPP processing intermediates in vitro in the presence of model glycosaminoglycans, but does inhibit the formation of amyloid by proIAPP processing intermediates in a homogeneous solution. This highlights another mechanism by which sulfated proteoglycans could enhance islet amyloid formation in vivo. Interactions with sulfated proteoglycans can directly promote amyloid formation and can also significantly reduce the effectiveness of natural inhibitors. PMID:24654599

  4. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans May Promote or Inhibit Cancer Progression by Interacting with Integrins and Affecting Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mariana A.; Teixeira, Felipe C. O. B.; Fontes, Miguel; Arêas, Ana Lúcia; Leal, Marcelo G.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.; Stelling, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    The metastatic disease is one of the main consequences of tumor progression, being responsible for most cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review intends to present and discuss data on the relationship between integrins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans in health and cancer progression. Integrins are a family of cell surface transmembrane receptors, responsible for cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. Integrins' main functions include cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are cell surface molecules that play important roles as cell receptors, cofactors, and overall direct or indirect contributors to cell organization. Both molecules can act in conjunction to modulate cell behavior and affect malignancy. In this review, we will discuss the different contexts in which various integrins, such as α5, αV, β1, and β3, interact with HSPGs species, such as syndecans and perlecans, affecting tissue homeostasis. PMID:26558271

  5. The efficacy of a sulphated polysaccharide fraction from Hypnea musciformis against diarrhea in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nayara A; Barros, Francisco Clark N; Araújo, Thiago S L; Costa, Douglas S; Souza, Luan Kelves M; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Leódido, Ana Carolina M; Pacífico, Dvison M; Araújo, Simone de; Bezerra, Francisco F; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2016-05-01

    Seaweeds are sources of diverse bioactive compounds, such as sulphated polysaccharides. This study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and anti-diarrheal activity of a fraction of sulphated polysaccharide (PLS) obtained from the red seaweed Hypnea musciformis in different animal models, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PLS was obtained by aqueous extraction, with a yield of 31.8% of the seaweed dry weight. The total carbohydrate content accounted for 99% of the sample. The sulfate content of the polysaccharide was 5.08% and the percentage of carbon was 25.98%. Pretreatment with all doses of PLS inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhea, with reduction of the total amount of stool, diarrheal stools, and the severity of diarrhea. PLS (90mg/Kg) decreased castor oil- and PGE2-induced enteropooling. In addition, PLS (90mg/Kg) increased the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the small intestine and reduced gastrointestinal transit, possibly via activation of cholinergic receptors. Interestingly, the cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion and Cl(-) ion levels decreased in the intestinal contents of the animals pretreated with PLS (90mg/kg), probably via reduction of toxin-GM1 receptor binding. In conclusion, PLS exerts anti-diarrheal activity by increasing Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, inhibiting gastrointestinal motility, and blocking the toxin-GM1 receptor binding. PMID:26879913

  6. Human Monoclonal Antibody Targeting the Heparan Sulfate Chains of Glypican-3 Inhibits HGF-Mediated Migration and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Kim, Heungnam; Ho, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) participate in many processes related to tumor development, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. HSPGs contain one or more heparan sulfate (HS) chains that are covalently linked to a core protein. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell surface-associated HSPG that is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). GPC3 is involved in Wnt3a-dependent HCC cell proliferation. Our previous study reported that HS20, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HS chains on GPC3, inhibited Wnt3a/?-catenin activation. In the current study, we showed that the HS chains of GPC3 could mediate HCC cells migration and motility. Knocking down GPC3 or targeting the HS chains by HS20 inhibited HCC cell migration and motility. However, HS20 had no effect on GPC3 knockdown cells or GPC3 negative cells. In addition, an antibody that recognizes the core protein of GPC3 did not change the rate of cell motility. HCC cell migration and motility did not respond to either canonical or non-canonical Wnt induction, but did increase under hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment. HS20-treated HCC cells exhibited less ability for HGF-mediated migration and motility. Furthermore, HS20 inhibited in vitro HCC spheroid formation and liver tumor growth in mice. GPC3 interacted with HGF; however, a mutant GPC3 lacking the HS chain showed less interaction with HGF. Blocking the HS chains on GPC3 with HS20 reduced c-Met activation in HGF-treated HCC cells and 3D-cultured spheroids. Taken together, our study suggests that GPC3 is involved in HCC cell migration and motility through HS chain-mediated cooperation with the HGF/Met pathway, showing how HS targeting has potential therapeutic implications for liver cancer. PMID:26332121

  7. Structural elucidation of polysaccharide fractions from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii and in vitro investigation of their anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Imbs, Tatiana I; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Malyarenko Vishchuk, Olesya S; Isakov, Vladimir V; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N

    2016-01-01

    Laminaran, fucoidan, and alginate were isolated from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii collected in the Japan Sea. The structural characteristics of polysaccharides were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The laminaran was determined as ?-d-glucan, which consisted of 80% of 1,3- and 20% of 1,6-linked residues and was terminated with mannitol. The alginate was a guluronic acid-rich polysaccharide (M/G=0.85). Fucoidan, sulfated ?-l-fucan, contained a linear backbone of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)- linked ?-l-fucopyranose residues with sulfate at C2 and C4 of (1?3)-?-l-fucopyranose residues. Anticancer activity of this fucoidan was investigated in comparison with activity of fucoidan having similar linear backbone from the brown alga Fucus evanescens. The fucoidan from C. langsdorfii significantly inhibited colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells (the percentage of inhibition was 28 and 76, respectively) and weakly inhibited colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 (the percentage of inhibition was about 5). Similar results were obtained for fucoidan from F. evanescens; the percentage of inhibition of colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 54 and 56, respectively. The inhibition of colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 was weak. We suppose that other sulfated and partially acetylated fucoidans consisting of (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranose residues may suppress progression of melanoma cell colony formation similar to fucoidans of C. langsdorfii and F. evanescens. PMID:26453864

  8. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...

  9. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  10. Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1→3)-β-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M.; Ciancia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A highly sulfated 3-linked β-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

  11. Enzymatic Modifications of Polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polysaccharides are often modified chemically in order to improve its properties or to impart specific characteristics. Indeed quite a few commercial products are based on modified polysaccharides. In this talk, I shall describe a new set of modified polysaccharides based on enzymatic reactions. ...

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-O-endosulfatase from a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshuang; Han, Wenjun; Cai, Xingya; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2015-03-20

    Sulfatases are potentially useful tools for structure-function studies of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To date, various GAG exosulfatases have been identified in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, endosulfatases that act on GAGs have rarely been reported. Recently, a novel HA and CS lyase (HCLase) was identified for the first time from a marine bacterium (Han, W., Wang, W., Zhao, M., Sugahara, K., and Li, F. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 27886-27898). In this study, a putative sulfatase gene, closely linked to the hclase gene in the genome, was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. The recombinant protein showed a specific N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfatase activity that removes 4-O-sulfate from both disaccharides and polysaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting that this sulfatase represents a novel endosulfatase. The novel endosulfatase exhibited maximal reaction rate in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 30 C and effectively removed 17-65% of 4-O-sulfates from various CS and DS and thus significantly inhibited the interactions of CS and DS with a positively supercharged fluorescent protein. Moreover, this endosulfatase significantly promoted the digestion of CS by HCLase, suggesting that it enhances the digestion of CS/DS by the bacterium. Therefore, this endosulfatase is a potential tool for use in CS/DS-related studies and applications. PMID:25648894

  13. Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.

    PubMed

    Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    2004-04-01

    Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

  14. Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, Soňa; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health. PMID:22909979

  15. The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structureactivity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

  16. Prevention of acid drainage from stored coal. [Inhibition of bacterial action by treatment with a solution of sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.; Bell, T.L.; Longaker, J.J.

    1983-06-01

    A method has been identified for controlling acid production and subsequent dissolution of toxic pollutants in drainage from coal storage piles. Results of laboratory and field experiments indicate that it may be possible to prevent, rather than treat, acid drainage by periodically applying an environmentally safe detergent formulation to the coal. These experiments showed that a mild solution of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) effectively blocks the activity of the bacteria that promote acid formation and chemical leaching. Drainage from coal treated once with 50 mg/L of SLS remained neutral for 60 days, about three times longer than the untreated control sample. An extrapolation of results to an industrial-scale application revealed that the cost of the SLS needed for a single application would likely be no more than $200 per acre of coal storage area ($500 per hectare ) or, expressed per unit weight of coal, $4,000 per million metric tons.

  17. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of Mn=19.2 10(4)-0.2 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of Mn=1.0 10(4)-0.4 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 ?g/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 ?g/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups. PMID:23544648

  18. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. PMID:26555370

  19. Bacillus pumilus polysaccharide cross-reactive with meningococcal group A polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Vann, W F; Liu, T Y; Robbins, J B

    1976-06-01

    A polysaccharide, antigenically and structurally related to meningococcal group A polysaccharide, was isolated from Bacillus pumilus Sh-17. This enteric bacterium has been implicated as a source of natural meningococcal group A immunity (Myerowitz et al., 1973). The B. pumilus polysaccharide was composed of a homopolymer of (1-6)-N-acetyl-manosamine-1-phosphate, glycerol phosphate teichoic acid-containing N-acetylglucosamine and alkali-labile alanine esters, and a mucopeptide. The cross-reaction was due to the poly-(1-6)-N-acetyl-mannosamine-1-phosphate in the B. pumilus and the meningococcal group A polysaccharides, based on the following evidence. Both polysaccharides contained N-acetyl-mannosamine phosphate. Periodate oxidized the mannosamine phosphate residues of the polysaccharide and destroyed their precipitating activity with meningococcal group A antiserum. Mild acid treatment released phosphomonoesters and destroyed the meningococcal group A precipitating activity of both polysaccharides. N-acetyl-mannosamine-6-phosphate inhibited the precipitation reaction between strain Sh-17 and meningococcal group A antisera. Only mannosamine phosphate was detected in trichloroacetic acid extracts of Sh-17 polysaccharide and meningococcal group A antigen-antibody precipitates. PMID:184043

  20. Zinc specifically stimulates the selective binding of a peptide analog of bindin to sulfated fucans.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, P L; Glabe, C G

    1990-01-01

    A synthetic nonapeptide (Leu-Arg-His-Leu-Arg-His-His-Ser-Asn) derived from the sequence of the sea urchin sperm adhesive protein, bindin, has been shown to bind sulfated fucans in high ionic strength (seawater) conditions. The binding is enhanced by approximately 100-fold in the presence of zinc ions, and no other transition metal tested demonstrates any enhancement. Bindin isolated from sperm contains zinc ion at roughly equimolar concentrations. In the presence of Zn++, the synthetic nonapeptide binds to eggs and inhibits fertilization with a half-maximal effective concentration of 300 microM. The polysaccharide binding selectivity of the peptide/Zn++ complex is similar to bindin but less stringent. Although the order of effectiveness of the inhibitory polysaccharides is the same for bindin and the synthetic peptide, polysaccharides that are only weak inhibitors of fucan binding to bindin show greater effectiveness against the peptide. The effect of chemical modification, pH, and amino acid substitution on the binding properties of the peptide suggest that arginine guanido moieties interact with the sulfated fucans, while histidine groups chelate zinc ions. Although the mechanism of zinc-specific stimulation of fucan binding is not yet clear, one potential explanation is that zinc may stabilize a peptide secondary structure that has a high affinity for fucans. PMID:2134050

  1. Oroxyloside prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Ding, Youxiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-04-15

    Oroxyloside, as a metabolite of oroxylin A, may harbor various beneficial bioactivities which have rarely been reported in the previous studies. Here we established the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of oroxyloside in vivo. As a result, oroxyloside attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, oroxyloside inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities as well. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by oroxyloside. We unraveled the underlying mechanisms that oroxyloside inhibited NF-κB pathway by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of oroxyloside in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Oroxyloside decreased several LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264.7 and BMDM. We also found that oroxyloside inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway via activating PPARγ in RAW 264.7 and BMDM. Docking study showed that oroxyloside could bind with PPARγ. GW9662, the inhibitor of PPARγ, and PPARγ siRNA transfection blocked the effect of oroxyloside on PPARγ activation. Our study suggested that oroxyloside prevented DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation. Therefore, oroxyloside may be a promising and effective agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:26947454

  2. Wogonoside protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-?B and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Yao, Jing; Zhao, Li; Wu, Zhaoqiu; Wang, Yu; Pan, Di; Miao, Hanchi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-03-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that wogonoside, the glucuronide metabolite of wogonin, has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anticancer effects. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of wogonoside has not been fully elucidated. Recently, NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to be correlated with inflammatory bowel disease for its ability to induce IL-1? release. Nevertheless, there are few drug candidates targeting NLRP3 inflammasome for this disease. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of wogonoside in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis and further revealed the underlying mechanisms by targeting NF-?B and NLRP3 inflammasome. Wogonoside treatment dose-dependently attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and colon length shortening. Moreover, wogonoside prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage, remarkably inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. The production of pro-inflammatory mediators in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by wogonoside. The underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of wogonoside in DSS-induced colitis may be attributed to its inhibition on NF-?B and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in colons. Furthermore, wogonoside markedly decreased production of IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-6 and suppressed mRNA expression of pro-IL-1? and NLRP3 in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells via inhibiting the activation of NF-?B and NLRP3 inflammasome. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that wogonoside may exert its anti-inflammatory effect via dual inhibition of NF-?B and NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that wogonoside might be a potential effective drug for inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25677765

  3. Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-?B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

  4. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... If you have asthma, use chondroitin sulfate cautiously. Blood clotting disorders: In theory, administering chondroitin sulfate might increase the risk of bleeding in people with blood clotting disorders. Prostate cancer: Early research suggests that chondroitin ...

  5. Identification of a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide That Inhibits Infectivity of Genital Types of Human Papillomaviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-01-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  6. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. PMID:26868152

  7. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  8. The Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis Through Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) against oxidative stress in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: Mice were treated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage in advance two weeks before inflammation was induced. Then, the mice were administered with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days and normal drinking water for 7 days between two DSS treatment. Disease activity index values, gut motility, and severity of the resulting oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of SQE was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma samples. Catalase activity and expressions levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), SOD1, and SOD2 were also detected in colon tissues. Results: Administration of SQE significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis compared to the control (Ctrl) group. Levels of 8-oxo-dG, an oxidative DNA damage marker, were significantly lower in the SQE group compared to the untreated DSS Ctrl group. In the SQE (300 mg/kg) group, MDA levels were significantly lower, while SOD and catalase activity levels in the plasma samples were significantly higher compared with the DSS Ctrl group. The expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and Gpx1, were significantly higher, while the levels of SOD 1 expression were lower, in the colon tissues of the DSS Ctrl group compared with those of the Ctrl group. In contrast, administration of SQE significantly down-regulated SOD2 and Gpx1 expressions and up-regulated SOD1 expression. Conclusions: These results indicate that SQE efficiently suppresses oxidative stress in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and its action is associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26151047

  9. Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Cumpstey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives. PMID:24151557

  10. Modular automated solid phase synthesis of dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Jeyakumar; Schuhmacher, Frank; Hahm, Heung Sik; Klein, James C; Seeberger, Peter H

    2014-02-21

    Dermatan sulfates are glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides that serve a multitude of biological roles as part of the extracellular matrix. Orthogonally protected D-galactosamine and L-iduronic acid building blocks and a photo-cleavable linker are instrumental for the automated synthesis of dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides. Conjugation-ready oligosaccharides were obtained in good yield. PMID:24402061

  11. Anticoagulant activity of native and partially degraded glycoglucuronomannan after chemical sulfation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Barddal, Helyn Priscila; Gracher, Ana Helena Pereira; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    Heparin has great clinical importance as anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent. However, because of its risks of causing bleeding and contamination by animal pathogens, several studies aim to obtain alternatives to heparin. In the search for anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents from a non-animal source, a glycoglucuronomannan from the gum exudate of the plant Vochysia thyrsoidea was partially hydrolyzed, and both native and partially degraded polysaccharides were chemically sulfated, yielding VThS and Ph-VThS respectively. Methylation analysis indicated that sulfation occurred preferentially at the O-5 position of arabinose units in the VThS and at the O-6 position of mannose units in Ph-VThS. In vitro aPTT assay showed that VThS and Ph-VThS have anticoagulant activity, which could be controlled by protamine, and ex vivo aPTT assay demonstrated that Ph-VThS is absorbed by subcutaneous route. Like heparin, they were able to inhibit ?-thrombin and factor Xa by a serpin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, VThS and Ph-VThS reduced thrombus formation by approximately 50% at a dose of 40 IU/kg, similarly to heparin. The results demonstrated that the chemically sulfated polysaccharides are promising anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. PMID:26136143

  12. Antiangiogenic activities of polysaccharides isolated from medicinal fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih Chung; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Wang, Danny Ling

    2005-08-15

    Extracted polysaccharides from medicinal fungi, including Antrodia cinnamomea, Antrodia malicola, Antrodia xantha, Antrodiella liebmannii, Agaricus murrill, and Rigidoporus ulmarius, were investigated for their effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs). Chemical analysis revealed that myo-inositol, sorbitol, fucose, galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose, glucose, and mannose were the neutral sugars in these polysaccharides. These fungal polysaccharides showed no toxicity to ECs. For the inhibition of endothelial tube formation, extracted polysaccharides from A. xantha and R. ulmarius were shown to produce greater inhibition compared to those from other fungi. Fucose, glucose and mannose were the predominant monosaccharides from these two fungi. These results suggest that monosaccharides may play a role in the inhibitory effect of these fungi on endothelial tube formation. In contrast to the inhibition on tube formation from polysaccharides of A. cinnamomea and A. malicola, polysaccharides from A. xantha and R. ulmarius, with molecular weight between 2693-2876 and 304-325 kDa, were critical for this inhibitory activity. Our results show that polysaccharides isolated from A. xantha and R. ulmarius provide greater antiangiogenesis than those from commercialized A. murrill (Brazilian mushroom) and A. cinnamomea. These studies provide a basis for the potential development of these polysaccharides for antiangiogenesis usage. PMID:16046081

  13. Ulvans induce resistance against plant pathogenic fungi independently of their sulfation degree.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mateus B; Ferreira, Luciana G; Hawerroth, Caroline; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Noseda, Miguel D; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-11-20

    The present work aimed to evaluate the defense responses induced by chemically sulfated ulvans in Arabidopsis thaliana plants against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Colletotrichum higginsianum. Derivatives with growing sulfate content (from 20.9 to 36.6%) were prepared with SO3-pyridine complex in formamide. NMR and FTIR spectroscopic analyses confirmed the increase of sulfate groups after the chemical sulfation process. The native sulfated polysaccharide (18.9% of sulfate) and its chemically sulfated derivatives similarly reduced the severity of both pathogenic fungi infections. Collectively, our results suggest that ulvans induce resistance against both fungal pathogens independently of its sulfation degree. PMID:26344294

  14. Effect of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide on malignant cell transformation by Moloney murine sarcoma virus.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, M; Arad, S

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide produced by the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was highly inhibitory for cell transformation of mouse fibroblast cells by an MSV-124 virus stock. This inhibition was most effective if the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. Addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection. These findings support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration. PMID:11497300

  15. Renal heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in experimental chronic transplant dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Katta, Kirankumar; Boersema, Miriam; Adepu, Saritha; Rienstra, Heleen; Celie, Johanna W A M; Mencke, Rik; Molema, Grietje; van Goor, Harry; Berden, Jo H M; Navis, Gerjan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van den Born, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    Depending on the glycan structure, proteoglycans can act as coreceptors for growth factors. We hypothesized that proteoglycans and their growth factor ligands orchestrate tissue remodeling in chronic transplant dysfunction. We have previously shown perlecan to be selectively up-regulated in the glomeruli and arteries in a rat renal transplantation model. Using the same model, here we present quantitative RT-PCR profiling data on proteoglycans and growth factors from laser-microdissected glomeruli, arterial tunicae mediae, and neointimae at 12 weeks after transplantation. In glomeruli and neointimae of allografts, selective induction of the matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was observed, along with massive accumulation of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Profiling the heparan sulfate polysaccharide side chains revealed conversion from a non-FGF2-binding heparan sulfate phenotype in control and isografted kidneys toward a FGF2-binding phenotype in allografts. In vitro experiments with perlecan-positive rat mesangial cells showed that FGF2-induced proliferation is dependent on sulfation and can be inhibited by exogenously added heparan sulfate. These findings indicate that matrix proteoglycans such as perlecan serve as functional docking platforms for FGF2 in chronic transplant dysfunction. We speculate that heparin-like glycomimetics could be a promising intervention to retard development of glomerulosclerosis and neointima formation in chronic transplant dysfunction. PMID:24035513

  16. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)?B, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

  17. PS3, a semisynthetic beta-1,3-glucan sulfate, diminishes contact hypersensitivity responses through inhibition of L- and P-selectin functions.

    PubMed

    Alban, Susanne; Ludwig, Ralf J; Bendas, Gerd; Schn, Michael P; Oostingh, Gertie J; Radeke, Heinfried H; Fritzsche, Juliane; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Kaufmann, Roland; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2009-05-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is initiated by an interaction of selectin adhesion molecules and appropriate carbohydrate ligands. Targeting those interactions seems a promising approach to treat chronic inflammation. We developed a beta-1, 3-glucan sulfate (PS3) with inhibitory activity toward L and P-selectins under static conditions. Here, detailed investigation showed inhibition of P- and L-selectins, but not E-selectin under flow conditions (relative reduction of interaction with appropriate ligands to 34.4+/-16.6, 8.5+/-3.6, or 99.5+/-9.9%, respectively, by PS3 for P-, L- or E-selectin). Intravital microscopy revealed reduction of leukocyte rolling in skin microvasculature from 22.7+/-5.0 to 12.6+/-4.0% after injection of PS3. In the next experiments, mice were sensitized with 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), and lymphocytes were transferred into syngeneic recipients, which were challenged by DNFB. Inflammatory responses were reduced when immunity was generated in mice treated with PS3 or in L-selectin-deficient mice. No effect was observed when L-selectin-deficient donor mice were treated with PS3, further suggesting that PS3 acted primarily through inhibition of L-selectin. Elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity response was reduced in P-selectin-deficient and in PS3-treated mice. Again, PS3 had no effect in P-selectin-deficient mice. PS3 is a potent P- and L-selectin inhibitor that may add to the therapy of inflammatory diseases. PMID:19052560

  18. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrn, Duan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  19. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  20. Structural Analysis and Anti-Complement Activity of Polysaccharides from Kjellmaniella crsaaifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Luyu; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    Two polysaccharides, named KCA and KCW, were extracted from Kjellmaniella crassifolia using dilute hydrochloric acid and water, respectively. Composition analysis showed that these polysaccharides predominantly consisted of fucose, with galactose, mannose and glucuronic acid as minor components. After degradation and partial desulfation, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed, which showed that the polysaccharides consisted of sulfated fucooligosaccharides, sulfated galactofucooligosaccharides and methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated/multi-sulfated fucooligosaccharides. The structures of the oligomeric fragments were further characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and ESI-CID-MS3). Moreover, the activity of KCA and KCW against the hemolytic activity of both the classical and alternative complement pathways was determined. The activity of KCA was found to be similar to KCW, suggesting that the method of extraction did not influence the activity. In addition, the degraded polysaccharides (DKCA and DKCW) displayed lower activity levels than the crude polysaccharides (KCA and KCW), indicating that molecular weight had an effect on activity. Moreover, the desulfated fractions (ds-DKCA and ds-DKCW) showed less or no activity, which confirmed that sulfate was important for activity. In conclusion, polysaccharides from K. crassifolia may be good candidates for the treatment of diseases involving the complement pathway. PMID:25786064

  1. Polysaccharides from the green seaweed Codium decorticatum. Structure and cell wall distribution.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Paula Virginia; Raffo, María Paula; Alberghina, Josefina; Ciancia, Marina

    2015-03-01

    The cell wall polysaccharides from Codium decorticatum and their assembly were studied and these results were compared with those obtained previously for this genus. The water soluble polysaccharides are: (i) Pyruvylated and sulfated 3- and 6-linked β-D-galactans with sulfate mainly on C-4 and also on C-6. Pyruvate ketals are linked to O-3 and O-4 of terminal β-D-galactose or O-4 and O-6 of 3-linked β-D-galactose. (ii) Sulfated 3-linked β-L-arabinans substituted on C-2 or C-2 and C-4 predominantly with sulfate, but also with single stubs of arabinose, and (iii) 4-linked β-D-mannans with a low degree of sulfation on C-2. The whole polysaccharide system comprises 6.9% of sulfated polysaccharides and 32.9% of fibrillar polysaccharides, mostly insoluble mannans. By in situ localization it was possible to detect two similar fibrillar layers separated by a zone rich in charged polymers. Besides, arabinogalactan proteins co-localized with the fibrillar components. PMID:25498707

  2. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum. PMID:25954912

  3. Polysaccharide isolated from Agardhiella ramosissima: chemical structure and anti-inflammation activity.

    PubMed

    Batista, Jalles A; Dias, Eulina G N; Brito, Tarcisio V; Prudncio, Rafael S; Silva, Renan O; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Souza, Marcellus Henrique L P; de Paula, Regina C M; Feitosa, Judith P A; Chaves, Luciano S; Melo, Mrcia R S; Freitas, Ana L P; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Barbosa, Andr L R

    2014-01-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide (PLS) fraction of Agardhiella ramosissima was characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, NMR and gas-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. The main constituent of PLS was the ? carrageenan. The monosaccharide composition of the PLS showed galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose and 6-O-methylgalactose. The PLS (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced the paw oedema induced by carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin and also was able to significantly inhibit leucocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity and decrease the concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw tissue. In the antinociceptive tests, the pre-treatment with PLS reduced the number of writhes, the licking time but did not increase the latency time of response. This study demonstrates for the first time the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of PLS from A. ramosissima. Thus, we concluded that PLS could be a new natural tool in pain and acute inflammatory conditions. PMID:24274479

  4. A kinetic study on bacterial sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Bernardez, L A; de Andrade Lima, L R P; de Jesus, E B; Ramos, C L S; Almeida, P F

    2013-12-01

    The activity of anaerobic sulfate reduction was studied using sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the water produced from a Brazilian oil reservoir. The effects of the initial sulfate concentration on the anaerobic sulfate reduction and sulfide generation kinetics were investigated. The redox potential, the biomass solution content, and the sulfate and the sulfide solution content were measured. The results indicate that the sulfate conversion and the sulfide generation are both first-order processes for the initial sulfate concentration of 823, 1,282, and 1,790 mg/L. The results for the kinetic constants for the sulfate conversion indicate an inhibition with the enhancement of the initial sulfate solution content. The kinetic constants for the sulfide generation indicate that this reaction is almost independent of the initial sulfate solution content due to the presence of at least two in-series processes that are faster than the microbial conversion of the sulfate. The kinetic test using the water from an onshore oil field, with an initial sulfide content of 228 mg/L and sulfate content of 947 mg/L, shows a sulfate conversion of 50 % in 528 h. The kinetic modeling for the net content of sulfate and sulfide indicates that the sulfate conversion is slower for this water than for the deionized water tests; however, the sulfide formation has almost the same conversion velocity. The reactions are first order in both cases. PMID:23636473

  5. Anti-HSV1 activity of brown algal polysaccharides and possible relevance to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Matthew; Bell, Tracey; Dnes, dm; Falshaw, Ruth; Itzhaki, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) induces the formation of the characteristic abnormal molecules of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, beta-amyloid, and abnormally phosphorylated, AD-like tau (P-tau). Formation of these molecules is inhibited by treatment with the antiviral agent acyclovir (ACV), which prevents viral DNA replication. A totally different mechanism of antiviral action against herpes simplex viruses is shown by sulfated fucans. The antiviral activity of sulfated fucans from five brown algae (Scytothamnus australis, Marginariella boryana, Papenfussiella lutea, Splachnidium rugosum and Undaria pinnatifida) was investigated in relation to the HSV1-induced formation of beta-amyloid, and AD-like tau. Antiviral activity was also related to specific structural features of these polysaccharides. Four sulfated fucan extracts each prevented the accumulation of HSV1-induced beta-amyloid and AD-like tau in HSV1-infected Vero cells. The structures of these extracts had some similarities but also key differences, indicating that a number of structural features can cause antiviral activity. The most active sulfated fucan combined with acyclovir was particularly effective, so may be particularly suitable for further experimental testing in order to develop treatment protocols for AD patients, with the aim of slowing or stopping disease progression. PMID:25583021

  6. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well as the over-the-counter pain reliever acetaminophen (Tylenol). It also seems to reduce pain about as ... Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others)There is some concern that taking glucosamine sulfate and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) together might ...

  7. Niches of two polysaccharide-degrading Polaribacter isolates from the North Sea during a spring diatom bloom.

    PubMed

    Xing, Peng; Hahnke, Richard L; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Huang, Sixing; Barbeyron, Tristan; Harder, Jens; Becher, Drte; Schweder, Thomas; Glckner, Frank Oliver; Amann, Rudolf I; Teeling, Hanno

    2015-06-01

    Members of the flavobacterial genus Polaribacter thrive in response to North Sea spring phytoplankton blooms. We analyzed two respective Polaribacter species by whole genome sequencing, comparative genomics, substrate tests and proteomics. Both can degrade algal polysaccharides but occupy distinct niches. The liquid culture isolate Polaribacter sp. strain Hel1_33_49 has a 3.0-Mbp genome with an overall peptidase:CAZyme ratio of 1.37, four putative polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) and features proteorhodopsin, whereas the agar plate isolate Polaribacter sp. strain Hel1_85 has a 3.9-Mbp genome with an even peptidase:CAZyme ratio, eight PULs, a mannitol dehydrogenase for decomposing algal mannitol-capped polysaccharides but no proteorhodopsin. Unlike other sequenced Polaribacter species, both isolates have larger sulfatase-rich PULs, supporting earlier assumptions that Polaribacter take part in the decomposition of sulfated polysaccharides. Both strains grow on algal laminarin and the sulfated polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate. For strain Hel1_33_49, we identified by proteomics (i) a laminarin-induced PUL, (ii) chondroitin sulfate-induced CAZymes and (iii) a chondroitin-induced operon that likely enables chondroitin sulfate recognition. These and other data suggest that strain Hel1_33_49 is a planktonic flavobacterium feeding on proteins and a small subset of algal polysaccharides, while the more versatile strain Hel1_85 can decompose a broader spectrum of polysaccharides and likely associates with algae. PMID:25478683

  8. Polysaccharides and food processing.

    PubMed

    Pilnik, W; Rombouts, F M

    1985-10-01

    The rle of polysaccharides during processing and for the quality of foods is discussed. Starch is the most important energy source for man. Most other polysaccharides are not metabolized for energy, but play an important rle as dietary fibres. Pectins, alginates, carrageenans, and galactomannans are discussed as functional food additives in relation to their structure and their rheological behaviour, stability and interactions. Endogenous polysaccharides of fruits and vegetables and in products derived from them are responsible for such phenomena as texture (changes), press yields, ease of filtration and clarification, cloud stability, and mouth feel. To achieve desirable properties, the action of endogenous enzymes on polysaccharides must be inactivated and/or exogenous enzymes added as processing aids. This is also true for overcoming haze phenomena in clear juices or to break down undesirable microbial polysaccharides. Dough properties for bread baking can be improved by enzymic breakdown of a restrictive pentoglycan network. Network formation may come about by oxidative coupling of phenol rings of ferulic acid bound to hemicelluloses by ester links. Gels may be made by inducing oxidative coupling in natural or synthetic systems. Stagnation in development of new polysaccharide food additives is ascribed to difficulties in obtaining government approval for food use. PMID:3000594

  9. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs. PMID:26194418

  10. Fine chemical structure analysis of oligosaccharides produced by an ulvan-lyase degradation of the water-soluble cell-wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp, (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Lahaye, M; Brunel, M; Bonnin, E

    1997-11-28

    A marine bacterium degrading the water-soluble cell wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp. (ulvan) has been isolated. The good correlation between ulvan degradation monitored by reducing-power, UV absorbance and viscosimetry, indicated that the crude enzymatic extract contains essentially an endo-ulvan lyase activity. This activity was rapidly inhibited by the reaction products which consisted of a series of ulvanobiouronic acid A 3-sulfate [-->4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rhap 3-sulfate-(1-->]n with 4-deoxy-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronic acid at the non-reducing end. Other deviant repeating structures with beta-D-Xylp or alpha-IdopA replacing beta-D-GlcpA in the repeating ulvanobiouronic acid disaccharide and the presence of two consecutive (1-->4) linked beta-D-Glc pA demonstrated the great variability and complexity of ulvan chemical structure. PMID:9468631

  11. Inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis by the sinR orthologue PGN_0088 is indirectly associated with the penetration of Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms by macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Reiko; Noiri, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Mikiyo; Asahi, Yoko; Maezono, Hazuki; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

    2015-02-01

    Microbes commonly adhere to surfaces, aggregate in self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and live in biofilms. Periodontitis is a serious oral infection that is initiated by the formation of biofilms by Porphyromonas gingivalis. EPS act as a barrier that protects biofilm-forming cells against sources of stress, including those induced by host immune cells and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, drugs intended to kill such micro-organisms cannot be used for the treatment of biofilm infections. Our previous studies revealed that subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of two macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, AZM and erythromycin, ERY) reduced P. gingivalis biofilms. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Bacillus subtilis sinR orthologue (PGN_0088) inhibits the synthesis of carbohydrates that are components of EPS in P. gingivalis biofilms. Here, we constructed a novel sinR mutant from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and reveal that the increased abundance of carbohydrate in EPS of the mutant led to a reduced infiltration rate of AZM and ERY through EPS, and consequently elevated biofilm resistance to these macrolides. Detailed elucidation of the interaction between the product of the sinR gene and EPS will assist in the development of novel approaches that target EPS to prevent and inhibit the formation of biofilms. PMID:25500494

  12. Species difference in the inhibitory potentials of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the hepatic sulfation and glucuronidation of bioactive flavonoids: differential observations among common inhibition parameters.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    1. This study elucidated the species differences between rats and humans in the inhibitory potential of drugs against sulfation and glucuronidation, and whether such differences depend on the inhibition parameter adopted. 2. With 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as model inhibitors and three flavanoids baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A as model substrates, three common inhibition parameters percentage of control, IC50 and Ki were determined in rat liver cytosols (RLCs), human liver cytosols (HLCs), rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). The closeness of the inhibition parameters from rat liver preparations to that from human liver preparations was analyzed by geometric mean fold error (GMFE) and statistical comparisons. 3. The percentage of control in RLC/RLM was not significantly different from that in HLC/HLM, with a GMFE of 0.85 (RLC-HLC) and 1.03 (RLM-HLM); whereas the IC50 and Ki in RLC/RLM were significantly different from that in HLC/HLM. The trend of difference was consistent between IC50 and Ki, where these parameters in RLC and RLM underestimated (GMFE <0.5) and overestimated (GMFE >2) that in HLC and HLM, respectively. 4. In conclusion, the inhibitory potentials of NSAIDs against sulfation and glucuronidation in rats and humans were different and depended on the adopted inhibition parameters. PMID:24168065

  13. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali: conformation, selectin binding, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Charalampos G; Thomson, Derek S; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D; Uhrn, Duan

    2014-10-10

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ? 3)GalNAc?4,6S(1 ? 4) [Fuc?X(1 ? 3)]GlcA?(1 ?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Le(x) blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu(2+)-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  14. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. Trans locus inhibitors limit concomitant polysaccharide synthesis in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Weinacht, Katja G; Comstock, Laurie E

    2010-06-29

    Bacteroides is an abundant genus of bacteria of the human intestinal microbiota. Bacteroides species synthesize a large number of capsular polysaccharides (PS), a biological property not shared with closely related oral species, suggesting importance for intestinal survival. Bacteroides fragilis, for example, synthesizes eight capsular polysaccharides per strain, each of which phase varies via inversion of the promoters located upstream of seven of the eight polysaccharide biosynthesis operons. In a single cell, many of these polysaccharide loci promoters can be simultaneously oriented on for transcription of the downstream biosynthesis operons. Here, we demonstrate that despite the promoter orientations, concomitant transcription of multiple polysaccharide loci within a cell is inhibited. The proteins encoded by the second gene of each of these eight loci, collectively designated the UpxZ proteins, inhibit the synthesis of heterologous polysaccharides. These unique proteins interfere with the ability of UpxY proteins encoded by other polysaccharide loci to function in transcriptional antitermination of their respective operon. The eight UpxZs have different inhibitory spectra, thus establishing a hierarchical regulatory network for polysaccharide synthesis. Limitation of concurrent polysaccharide synthesis strongly suggests that these bacteria evolved this property as an evasion-type mechanism to avoid killing by polysaccharide-targeting factors in the ecosystem. PMID:20547868

  17. Trans locus inhibitors limit concomitant polysaccharide synthesis in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteroides is an abundant genus of bacteria of the human intestinal microbiota. Bacteroides species synthesize a large number of capsular polysaccharides (PS), a biological property not shared with closely related oral species, suggesting importance for intestinal survival. Bacteroides fragilis, for example, synthesizes eight capsular polysaccharides per strain, each of which phase varies via inversion of the promoters located upstream of seven of the eight polysaccharide biosynthesis operons. In a single cell, many of these polysaccharide loci promoters can be simultaneously oriented on for transcription of the downstream biosynthesis operons. Here, we demonstrate that despite the promoter orientations, concomitant transcription of multiple polysaccharide loci within a cell is inhibited. The proteins encoded by the second gene of each of these eight loci, collectively designated the UpxZ proteins, inhibit the synthesis of heterologous polysaccharides. These unique proteins interfere with the ability of UpxY proteins encoded by other polysaccharide loci to function in transcriptional antitermination of their respective operon. The eight UpxZs have different inhibitory spectra, thus establishing a hierarchical regulatory network for polysaccharide synthesis. Limitation of concurrent polysaccharide synthesis strongly suggests that these bacteria evolved this property as an evasion-type mechanism to avoid killing by polysaccharide-targeting factors in the ecosystem. PMID:20547868

  18. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-01

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. PMID:25129780

  19. Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of ?-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The ?-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mgmL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mgmL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. PMID:24863354

  20. Polysaccharide lyases: recent developments as biotechnological tools.

    PubMed

    Michaud, P; Da Costa, A; Courtois, B; Courtois, J

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharide lyases, which are polysaccharide cleavage enzymes, act mainly on anionic polysaccharides. Produced by prokaryote and eukaryote organisms, these enzymes degrade (1,4) glycosidic bond by a beta elimination mechanism and have unsaturated oligosaccharides as major products. New polysaccharides are cleaved only by their specific polysaccharide lyases. From anionic polysaccharides controlled degradations, various biotechnological applications were investigated. This review catalogues the degradation of bacterial, plant and animal polysaccharides (neutral and anionic) by this family of carbohydrate acting enzymes. PMID:15224891

  1. Using an Enzymatic Combinatorial Approach to Identify Novel Anticoagulant Heparan Sulfate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinghua; Jones, Courtney L.; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) represents a major class of glycans that perform central physiological functions. Emerging HS and glycosaminoglycan microarray techniques are used to interrogate the structure and function relationship to develop novel therapeutic agents. Availability of HS with specific sulfation patterns has been a limiting factor, and impedes the accuracy of HS glycomics studies. Although organic synthesis provides oligosaccharides, these may not fully represent the biological functions of polysaccharides. Here, we present a study for developing an enzyme-based approach to synthesize a polysaccharide library with different sulfation patterns. Using different combinations of biosynthetic enzymes, we synthesized eight unique polysaccharides. We discovered that polysaccharides without iduronic acid residue displayed strong binding affinity to antithrombin and high anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities. The enzyme-based synthetic approach could become a general method for discovering new HS structures with unique biological functions. PMID:17884631

  2. Structure and affinity for antithrombin of heparan sulfate chains derived from basement membrane proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Pejler, G.; Baeckstroem, G.Li.; Lindahl, U.; Paulsson, M.; Dziadek, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Timpl, R.

    1987-04-15

    Metabolically /sup 35/S- or /sup 3/H-labeled heparan sulfate was isolated from murine Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic basement membrane produced by parietal endoderm cells, and from the basement membrane-producing Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse tumor. The polysaccharides were subjected to structural analysis involving identification of products formed on deamination of the polysaccharides with nitrous acid. The polysaccharide from Reichert's membrane contained N- and O-sulfate groups in approximately equal proportions. It bound almost quantitatively and with high affinity to antithrombin. A high proportion of antithrombin-binding sequence was also indicated by the finding that 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues accounted for about 10% of the total O-sulfate groups. In contrast, at least 80% of the sulfate residues in the heparan sulfate isolated from the mouse tumor were N-substituents. Only a minor proportion of this polysaccharide bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and no 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues were detected. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functional role of heparan sulfate in basement membranes.

  3. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta using soybean residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mycelial polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta are active ingredients in a number of medicines that play important roles in immunity improvement and tumor growth inhibition. So far, the production of polysaccharides from M. esculenta mycelia has not been commercialized. The aims of this wor...

  4. Phosphorylcholine determinants in six pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides detected by monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Srensen, U B; Agger, R; Bennedsen, J; Henrichsen, J

    1984-01-01

    The presence of phosphorylcholine in pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides was examined by using monoclonal antiphosphorylcholine antibody. Of the 83 known capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 types, viz., 24A, 27, 28F, 28A, 32F, and 32A, gave a positive capsular reaction (quellung) which could be inhibited by phosphorylcholine. The capsular polysaccharides of these six types, therefore, contain phosphorylcholine. Images PMID:6199306

  5. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, S.A.; Barker, W.W.; Banfield, J.F.

    1999-05-01

    Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 3, below the pK{sub a} of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

  6. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, S. A.; Barker, W. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    1999-05-01

    Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH ? 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH ? 3, below the pK a of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

  7. Glycoprotein isolated from Styrax japonica Siebold etal. Zuccarini inhibits oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses in HCT116 colonic epithelial cells and dextran sulfate sodium-treated ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lee, Jin; Song, Sooyeon; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory potentials of a 38kDa glycoprotein isolated from Styrax japonica Siebold etal Zuccarini (SJSZ glycoprotein). We found that SJSZ glycoprotein has concentration-dependent scavenging activity against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in the cell-free systems. In colonic epithelial cells (HCT116 cells), the results showed that SJSZ glycoprotein inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Experimental mouse colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water at a concentration of 4%(w/v) for 7 days. We figured out that administration of SJSZ glycoprotein (10mg/kg) lowers the levels of disease activity index, myeloperoxidase activity, and histological inflammation in DSS-treated mice. In addition, SJSZ glycoprotein inhibited plasmic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, accompanying the inhibition of colonic inflammatory signal proteins (NF-?B, iNOS, and COX-2) and inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?). These results indicate that SJSZ glycoprotein inhibits oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses in mouse colitis. PMID:26631293

  8. Structural composition and differential anticoagulant activities of dermatan sulfates from the skin of four species of rays, Dasyatis americana, Dasyatis gutatta, Aetobatus narinari and Potamotrygon motoro.

    PubMed

    Dellias, Joo M M; Onofre, Glaucia R; Werneck, Cludio C; Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Melo, Fabio R; Farias, Wladimir R L; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

    2004-01-01

    We compared the disaccharide composition of dermatan sulfate (DS) purified from the ventral skin of three species of rays from the Brazilian seacoast, Dasyatis americana, Dasyatis gutatta, Aetobatus narinari and of Potamotrygon motoro, a fresh water species that habits the Amazon River. DS obtained from the four species were composed of non-sulfated, mono-sulfated disaccharides bearing esterified sulfate groups at positions C-4 or C-6 of N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), and disulfated disaccharides bearing esterified sulfate groups at positions C-2 of the uronic acid and at position C-4 or C-6 of GalNAc. However, DS from the skin of P. motoro presented a very low content of the disulfated disaccharides. The anticoagulant actions of ray skin DS, measured by both APTT clotting and HCII-mediated inhibition of thrombin assays, were compared to that of mammalian DS. DS from D. americana had both high APTT and HCII activities, whereas DS from D. gutatta showed activity profiles similar to those of mammalian DS. In contrast, DS from both A. narinari and P. motoro had no measurable activity in the APTT assay. Thus, the anticoagulant activity of ray skin DS is not merely a consequence of their charge density. We speculate that the differences among the anticoagulant activities of these three DS may be related to both different composition and arrangements of the disulfated disaccharide units within their polysaccharide chains. PMID:15556278

  9. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class

    PubMed Central

    Rzeski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896

  10. Sulfated polysaccharide heparin used as carrier to load hydrophobic lappaconitine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenxiu; Saldaa, Marleny D A; Fan, Liyan; Zhao, Yujia; Dong, Tungalag; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Ji

    2016-03-01

    One-step self-assembly was used to prepare pH-sensitive lappaconitine-loaded low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH-LA) and to demonstrate that the sulfur group promotes dissolution and has synergistic effect on the analgesic property of lappaconitine (LA). The LMWH-LA was characterized in terms of releasing behavior, pH-sensitivity, analgesic activity and anticoagulation property. The drug loading level of LA in low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reached 24.3% (w/w). The LA, self-assembled in LMWH, released faster in an acidic environment than that in neutral or alkaline environments. Analgesic experiments showed that the LMWH-LA had earlier onset time and longer duration than the LA. Compared with LMWH, the LMWH-LA can reduce clotting time more effectively. These results suggest that the LMWH is a good template and has great potential to achieve synergistic effect of LA. In addition, similar macromolecular structure can be used as a new natural polymeric carrier for loading hydrophobic alkaloids. PMID:26706841

  11. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-04-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1?2) and (1?3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  12. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GCMS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1?2) and (1?3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  13. Hesperetin and its sulfate and glucuronide metabolites inhibit TNF-? induced human aortic endothelial cell migration and decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    PubMed

    Gimnez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Gonzlez-Sarras, Antonio; Vallejo, Fernando; Espn, Juan Carlos; Toms-Barbern, Francisco A

    2016-01-20

    Epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies have reported the protection offered by citrus consumption, mainly orange, against cardiovascular diseases, which is primarily mediated by the antiatherogenic and vasculoprotective effects of the flavanone hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside (hesperidin). However, flavanone aglycones or glycosides are not present in the bloodstream but their derived phase-II metabolites could be the actual bioactive molecules. To date, only a few studies have explored the effects of circulating hesperetin-derived metabolites (glucuronides and sulfates) on endothelial cells. Herein, we describe for the first time the effects of hesperetin 3'-O-glucuronide, hesperetin 7-O-glucuronide, hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate, hesperetin 7-O-sulfate and hesperetin on human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) migration upon pro-inflammatory stimuli as an essential step to angiogenesis. Hesperetin and its derived metabolites, at physiologically relevant concentrations (1-10 ?M), significantly attenuated cell migration in the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? (50 ng mL(-1)), which was accompanied and perhaps mediated by a significant decrease in the levels of the thrombogenic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). However, hesperetin metabolites did not counteract the TNF-?-induced production of pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8. We also study here for the first time, the metabolism of hesperetin and its derived metabolites by HAEC with and without a pro-inflammatory stimulus. All these results reinforce the concept according to which circulating phase-II hesperetin metabolites are critical molecules contributing to the cardioprotective effects upon consumption of citrus fruits such as orange. PMID:26456097

  14. Sulfate and thiosulfate inhibit oxalate transport via a dPrestin (Slc26a6)-dependent mechanism in an insect model of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Landry, Greg M; Hirata, Taku; Anderson, Jacob B; Cabrero, Pablo; Gallo, Christopher J R; Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2016-01-15

    Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract disorders, with the majority of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx). Given its prevalence (US occurrence 10%), it is still poorly understood, lacking progress in identifying new therapies because of its complex etiology. Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) is a recently developed model of CaOx nephrolithiasis. Effects of sulfate and thiosulfate on crystal formation were investigated using the Drosophila model, as well as electrophysiological effects on both Drosophila (Slc26a5/6; dPrestin) and mouse (mSlc26a6) oxalate transporters utilizing the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system. Results indicate that both transport thiosulfate with a much higher affinity than sulfate Additionally, both compounds were effective at decreasing CaOx crystallization when added to the diet. However, these results were not observed when compounds were applied to Malpighian tubules ex vivo. Neither compound affected CaOx crystallization in dPrestin knockdown animals, indicating a role for principal cell-specific dPrestin in luminal oxalate transport. Furthermore, thiosulfate has a higher affinity for dPrestin and mSlc26a6 compared with oxalate These data indicate that thiosulfate's ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of oxalate via dPrestin, can explain the decrease in CaOx crystallization seen in the presence of thiosulfate, but not sulfate. Overall, our findings predict that thiosulfate or oxalate-mimics may be effective as therapeutic competitive inhibitors of CaOx crystallization. PMID:26538444

  15. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

  16. Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin

    PubMed Central

    JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN; MENG, DE-YOU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity. PMID:24223655

  17. Influenza virus neuraminidase contributes to the dextran sulfate-dependent suppressive replication of some influenza A virus strains.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Moriishi, Eiko; Haredy, Ahmad M; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Mori, Yasuko; Yamanishi, Koichi; Okamoto, Shigefumi

    2012-12-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS), a negatively charged, sulfated polysaccharide, suppresses the replication of an influenza A virus strain, and this suppression is associated with inhibition of the hemagglutinin (HA)-dependent fusion activity. However, it remains unknown whether the replication of all or just some influenza A virus strains is suppressed by DS, or whether HA is the only target for the replication suppression. In the present study, we found that DS inhibited the replication of some, but not all influenza A virus strains. The suppression in the DS-sensitive strains was dose-dependent and neutralized by diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DD), which has a positive charge. The suppression by DS was observed not only at the initial stage of viral infection, which includes viral attachment and entry, but also at the late stage, which includes virus assembly and release from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that the DS induced viral aggregation at the cell surface. The neuraminidase (NA) activity of the strains whose viral replication was inhibited at the late stage was also more suppressed by DS than that of the strains whose replication was not inhibited, and this inhibition of NA activity was also neutralized by adding positively charged DD. Furthermore, we found that replacing the NA gene of a strain in which viral replication was inhibited by DS at the late stage with the NA gene from a strain in which viral replication was not inhibited, eliminated the DS-dependent suppression. These results suggest that the influenza virus NA contributes to the DS-suppressible virus release from infected cells at the late stage, and the suppression may involve the inhibition of NA activity by DS's negative charge. PMID:23022352

  18. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  19. Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, H.S.

    1991-11-01

    Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  1. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different ?-D-mannoses and three different ?-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different ?-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  2. Engineering of routes to heparin and related polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ujjwal; Sterner, Eric; Hickey, Anne Marie; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulant heparin has been shown to possess important biological functions that vary according to its fine structure. Variability within heparin's structure occurs owing to its biosynthesis and animal tissue-based recovery, and adds another dimension to its complex polymeric structure. The structural variations in chain length and sulfation patterns mediate its interaction with many heparin-binding proteins, thereby, eliciting complex biological responses. The advent of novel chemical and enzymatic approaches for polysaccharide synthesis coupled with high throughput combinatorial approaches for drug discovery have facilitated an increased effort to understand heparin's structure-activity relationships. An improved understanding would offer potential for new therapeutic development through the engineering of polysaccharides. Such a bioengineering approach requires the amalgamation of several different disciplines including carbohydrate synthesis, applied enzymology, metabolic engineering, and process biochemistry. PMID:22048616

  3. Study for anti-angiogenic activities of polysaccharides isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Huang, Nai-Kuei; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Wang, Danny Ling; Lu, Mei-Kuang

    2005-05-13

    The main purposes of this study were to investigate the regulation of polysaccharides isolated from A. cinnamomea on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cyclin D1 expression and down stream signaling pathway that may correlate with their anti-angiogenc effects in endothelial cells (ECs). Crude and fractionated polysaccharides (Fra-1 to Fra-4) of A. cinnamomea showed slightly toxicity to ECs as compared with their inhibition concentration on angiogenic-related gene expression. The crude extract and fractionated fractions, except for Fra-2, of A. cinnamomea polysaccharides significantly decreased VEGFR2 phosphorylation on tyrosine 1054/1059, cyclin D1 promotor activity, and protein expression induced by VEGF. Crude extract of A. cinnamomea polysaccharides inhibited the binding of VEGF to KDR/flk-1 in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that inhibition of VEGF interaction with VEGF receptor 2 is the mechanism serves A. cinnamomea as a protective mechanism composing the anti-angiogenesis function. Furthermore, A. cinnamomea polysaccharides also blocked VEGF-induced migration and capillary-like tube formation of ECs on Matrigel. Taken together, these results indicate that A. cinnamomea polysaccharides inhibit cyclin D1 expression through inhibition of VEGF receptor signaling, leading to the suppression of angiogenesis. PMID:15850596

  4. Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase-2/Chondroitin Polymerizing Factor Has Two Variants with Distinct Function*

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Shionyu, Masafumi; Sugiura, Nobuo; Hatano, Sonoko; Nagai, Naoko; Kubota, Yukihiko; Nishiwaki, Kiyoji; Sato, Takashi; Gotoh, Masanori; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Watanabe, Hideto

    2010-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and d-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. To date six glycosyltransferases for chondroitin synthesis have been identified, and the complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 (ChSy-1) and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is assumed to play a major role in CS biosynthesis. We found an alternative splice variant of mouse CSS2 in a data base that lacks the N-terminal transmembrane domain, contrasting to the original CSS2. Here, we investigated the roles of CSS2 variants. Both the original enzyme and the splice variant, designated CSS2A and CSS2B, respectively, were expressed at different levels and ratios in tissues. Western blot analysis of cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts confirmed that both enzymes were actually synthesized as proteins and were localized in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Pulldown assays revealed that either of CSS2A, CSS2B, and CSS1/ChSy-1 heterogeneously and homogeneously interacts with each other, suggesting that they form a complex of multimers. In vitro glycosyltransferase assays demonstrated a reduced glucuronyltransferase activity in CSS2B and no polymerizing activity in CSS2B co-expressed with CSS1, in contrast to CSS2A co-expressed with CSS1. Radiolabeling analysis of cultured COS-7 cells overexpressing each variant revealed that, whereas CSS2A facilitated CS biosynthesis, CSS2B inhibited it. Molecular modeling of CSS2A and CSS2B provided support for their properties. These findings, implicating regulation of CS chain polymerization by CSS2 variants, provide insight in elucidating the mechanisms of CS biosynthesis. PMID:20729547

  5. Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ehrig, Karina; Alban, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP) harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF) and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%). Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81), fucose content (86.1%) and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8) and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 μg/mL). Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP. PMID:25548975

  6. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 ?m. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  7. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lim, Ji Ye; Min, Soo Jin; Shin, Jae-Ho; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis leaves exert anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, although it remains unclear whether these leaves can suppress inflammation-related intestinal diseases. This study hypothesized that Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) exerts a protective effect against inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Therefore, colon tissues of DSS-induced colitis mice that were treated with SQE were assayed for levels of proinflammatory markers, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and activation of nuclear factor ?B. For this purpose, mice were pretreated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for a 2-week period. Mice then received either SQE or sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg body weight) with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days twice daily and 7 days of tap water ad libitum between DSS treatment. Treatment with SQE was found to attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index scores, shrinkage of colon length, and histopathologic changes. SQE reduced DSS-induced proliferation in distal colon tissues. It also significantly suppressed levels of tumor necrosis factor-? in serum and colon tissues, nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and I?B? in colon tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SQE supplementation can exert an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental chronic colitis. PMID:25287291

  8. Gums and Related Polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    In the context of carbohydrates, gums are usually considered to be non-starch, water-soluble polysaccharides with commercial importance. When used as ingredients in processed foods, they may be called hydrocolloids . Gums are used because of the functionalities they impart to whatever system or product into which they are incorporated. As with other polymers, their chemical structures, together with the nature of the aqueous environment surrounding the molecules (pH, types and concentrations of salts or other solutes, temperature, shear, etc.) determines the shapes of the molecules; the chemical nature and shapes of the molecules determines the gum's physiochemical properties, and their physicochemical properties determines their functionalities. All gums have one similar property, i. e., the ability to thicken water and aqueous systems, but they may impart different rheological properties to the systems they thicken. Certain gums provide certain functionalities better than do other gums.

  9. The interaction of boar sperm proacrosin with its natural substrate, the zona pellucida, and with polysulfated polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Urch, U A; Patel, H

    1991-04-01

    Boar sperm acrosin is an acrosomal protease with trypsin-like specificity, and it functions in fertilization by assisting sperm passage through the zona pellucida by limited hydrolysis of this extracellular matrix. In addition to a proteolytic active site domain, acrosin binds the zona pellucida at a separate binding domain that is lost during proacrosin autolysis. In this study, we quantitate the binding of proacrosin to the physiological substrate for acrosin, the zona pellucida, and to a non-substrate, the polysulfated polysaccharide fucoidan. Binding was analogous to sea urchin sperm bindin that binds egg jelly fucan and the vitelline envelope of sea urchin eggs. Proacrosin was found to bind to fucoidan and to the zona pellucida with binding affinities similar to bindin interaction with egg jelly fucan. These interactions were competitively inhibited by similar relative molecular mass polysulfated polymers. Since bindin and proacrosin have distinctly different amino acid sequences, their interaction with acidic sulfate esters demonstrates an example of convergent evolution wherein different macromolecules localized in analogous sperm compartments have the same biological function. From cDNA sequence analysis of proacrosin, this binding may be mediated through a consensus sequence for binding sulfated glycoconjugates. Proacrosin binding to the zona pellucida may serve as both a recognition or primary sperm receptor, as well as maintaining the sperm on the zona pellucida once the acrosome reaction has occurred. PMID:1908770

  10. In vivo immunological activity of carboxymethylated-sulfated (1?3)-?-D-glucan from sclerotium of Poria cocos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haili; Mukerabigwi, Jean Felix; Zhang, Yuannian; Han, Lin; Jiayinaguli, Telieke; Wang, Qing; Liu, Lina; Cao, Yu; Sun, Renqiang; Huang, Xueying

    2015-08-01

    ?-Glucans are one of the polysaccharides known as biological response modifiers extracted from the sclerotium of Poria cocos which has been used for several decades as Traditional Chinese Medicine. Due to its ability to activate immune system, it can be applied in chemotherapy after being chemically modified. In this study, sulfated (1?3)-?-D-glucan (S-P), carboxymethyl (1?3)-?-D-glucan (CMP), and carboxymethylated-sulfated (1?3)-?-D-glucan (S-CMP), which are (1?3)-?-D-glucan derivatives were synthesized. The current study was aimed to investigate in vivo potential immunological activity of S-CMP in mice. In addition, mice were separately treated with S-P, CMP and S-CMP to evaluate the relationship between single and multiple functional groups. Interestingly, S-CMP exhibited the best in vivo immunological activities and the highest inhibition rate against the implanted HepG2 tumor in BALB/c mice, with significant increase in serum hemolysin antibody titer, spleen antibody production as well as delayed type hypersensitivity compared with S-P and CMP. Furthermore, it was assumed that simultaneous introduction of carboxymethyl and sulfate groups also had great potential effect on antioxidant activity, as substantial decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content was remarked. Therefore, it may suggest that S-CMP has better immunological and anti-tumor effects on mice in vivo. PMID:26014139

  11. Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide-enriched fractions extracted from pulp tissue of Litchi Chinensis sonn.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanli; Zhang, Mingwei; Liao, Sentai; Yu, Shujuan; Chi, Jianwei; Wei, Zhencheng

    2010-04-01

    Natural antioxidants such as polysaccharides with strong antioxidant activities are used to protect against oxidative damage, yet little is known so far about the antioxidant effects of litchi fruit polysaccharides. In the present study, four different polysaccharide-enriched fractions were isolated from litchi pulp tissue and partially purified by a stepwise method of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) precipitation. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined by chemical methods, gas chromatography and IR spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activities of these fractions were investigated using various in vitro assay systems. These four polysaccharide-enriched fractions exhibited a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity as shown by their DPPH radical, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical inhibition, chelating ability and reducing power. Among the different fractions, LFP-III showed the strongest scavenging activity against DPPH radical, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and chelating ability. These findings suggest litchi polysaccharides from pulp tissue have potential as functional foods with enhanced antioxidant activity. PMID:20428034

  12. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Azin; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations. PMID:26484353

  13. A threading receptor for polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Harniman, Robert L; Renney, Charles M; Carter, Tom S; Crump, Matthew P; Davis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000?M(-1)), and is shown-by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy-to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules. PMID:26673266

  14. A threading receptor for polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J.; Casas-Solvas, Juan M.; Harniman, Robert L.; Renney, Charles M.; Carter, Tom S.; Crump, Matthew P.; Davis, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000 M‑1), and is shown—by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy—to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules.

  15. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ashley J; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A; Rudd, Timothy R

    2012-09-01

    The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled ?-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased ?-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins. PMID:22884801

  16. Modulating Inhibitors of Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis via Sulfation: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sulfates as Models1

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein’s tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  17. Optimization of a biological sulfate reduction process

    SciTech Connect

    Lebel, A.

    1985-01-01

    A biological sulfate reduction process is presented. It is intended to treat sulfate wastes by converting them to hydrogen sulfide which can be further oxidized to elemental sulfur. An optimization study of a completely-mixed reactor system was performed. Major operating parameters were determined at the bench-scale level. The study was conducted in batch-culture experiments, using a mixed Desulfovibrio culture from sewage. Kinetic values were extrapolated using the Michaelis-Menten model, which best fitted the experimental data. The iron loading and the sulfate loading significantly affected the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A model to determine V/sub m/ from the iron and sulfate loading values was explored. The model is limited by sulfate loading greater than 4.3 g/l, where bacterial growth is inhibited. Iron loading is not anticipated to suppress the bacterial metabolism efficiency since it remained in the linear pattern even at inhibition levels. Studies of the metabolic behavior of SRB, using lactic acid as the carbon source, showed a requirement of 2.7 moles of lactate for each mole of sulfate. This technique and its application to the sulfur recovery process are discussed.

  18. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  19. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and humic substances. Microbial polysaccharides are multifunctional and can be divided into intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides, and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of marine microorganisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of current knowledge on extracellular polysaccharides producing marine bacteria isolated from marine environment. PMID:25081078

  20. Structure and functional properties of ulvan, a polysaccharide from green seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Marc; Robic, Audrey

    2007-06-01

    With today's interest in novel renewable chemicals and polymers, the underexploited marine green algae belonging to species of Ulva and Entermorpha stimulated interest as sources of polysaccharides with innovative structure and functional properties. These algae are common on all seashores and can produce in time an important amount of biomass in nutrient-enriched waters. The major water-soluble polysaccharide, ulvan, extracted from the cell wall represents about 8-29% of the algae dry weight. The original physicochemical, rheological, and biological properties recently unraveled for this complex sulfated aldobiouronan open the way for novel potential applications. PMID:17458931

  1. Antimicrosporidian activity of sulphated polysaccharides from algae and their potential to control honeybee nosemosis.

    PubMed

    Roussel, M; Villay, A; Delbac, F; Michaud, P; Laroche, C; Roriz, D; El Alaoui, H; Diogon, M

    2015-11-20

    Nosemosis is one of the most common and widespread diseases of adult honeybees. The causative agents, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, belong to microsporidia some obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites. In this study, 10 sulphated polysaccharides from algae were evaluated for their antimicrosporidian activity. They were first shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of the mammal microsporidian model, Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The most efficient polysaccharides were then tested for their ability to inhibit the growth of Nosema ceranae in experimentally-infected adult honeybees. Two polysaccharides extracted from Porphyridium spp. did not show any toxicity in honeybees and one of them allowed a decrease of both parasite load and mortality rate due to N. ceranae infection. A decrease in parasite abundance but not in mortality rate was also observed with an iota carrageenan. Our results are promising and suggest that algal sulphated polysaccharides could be used to prevent and/or control bee nosemosis. PMID:26344274

  2. Impact of sulfation pattern on the conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides as revealed by NMR and MD.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ismael N L; Wang, Xiaocong; Glushka, John N; Santos, Gustavo R C; Valente, Ana P; Prestegard, James H; Woods, Robert J; Mouro, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-05-01

    Sulfated fucans from sea urchin egg jelly express well-defined chemical structures that vary with species. This species specificity regulates the sperm acrosome reaction, a critical step to assure intra-specific fertilization. In addition, these polysaccharides are involved in other biological activities such as anticoagulation. Although sulfation patterns are relevant to the levels of response in both activities, conformation and dynamics of these glycans are also contributing factors. However, data about these features of sulfated fucans are very rare. To address this, we have employed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments combined with molecular dynamics on structurally defined oligosaccharides derived from two sulfated fucans. The results have indicated that the oligosaccharides are flexible in solution. Ring conformation of their composing units displays just the (1)C4 chair configuration. In a particular octasaccharide, composed of two tetrasaccharide sequences, inter-residual hydrogen bonds play a role to decrease dynamics in these repeating units. Conversely, the linking disaccharide [-3)-?-L-Fucp-2(OSO3(-))-(1-3)-?-L-Fucp-4(OCO3(-))-(1-] located right between the two tetrasaccharide units has amplified motions suggested to be promoted by electrostatic repulsion of sulfates on opposite sides of the central glycosidic bond. This conjunction of information about conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides provides new insights to explain how these glycans behave free in solution and influenced by sulfation patterns. It may also serve for future studies concerning structure-function relationship of sulfated fucans, especially those involving sea urchin fertilization and anticoagulation. PMID:25527427

  3. Heparin and related polysaccharides: synthesis using recombinant enzymes and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Suflita, Matthew; Fu, Li; He, Wenqin; Koffas, Mattheos; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are linear anionic polysaccharides that exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. The two most prominent members of this class of polysaccharides are heparin/heparan sulfate and the chondroitin sulfates (including dermatan sulfate). These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of most animal cells. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on food animal tissues for their isolation and commercial production. Ton quantities of these glycosaminoglycans are used annually as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. The variability of animal-sourced glycosaminoglycans, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials, and their manufacturing processes suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade, there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans. This mini-review focuses on the use of recombinant enzymes and metabolic engineering for the production of heparin and chondroitin sulfates. PMID:26219501

  4. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  5. Effect of sulfate on carbon and electron flow during microbial methanogenesis in freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Winfrey, M R; Zeikus, J G

    1977-02-01

    The effect of sulfate on methane production in Lake Mendota sediments was investigated to clarify the mechanism of sulfate inhibition of methanogenesis. Methanogenesis was shown to be inhibited by the addition of as little as 0.2 mM sulfate. Sulfate inhibition was reversed by the addition of either H2 or acetate. Methane evolved when inhibition was reversed by H2 additions was derived from 14CO2. Conversely, when acetate was added to overcome sulfate inhibition, the evolved methane was derived from [2-14C]acetate. A competition for available H2 and acetate was proposed as the mechanism by which sulfate inhibited methanogenesis. Acetate was shown to be metabolized even in the absence of methanogenic activity. In the presence of sulfate, the methyl position of acetate was converted to CO2. The addition of sulfate to sediments did not result in the accumulation of significant amounts of sulfide in the pore water. Sulfate additions did not inhibit methanogenesis unless greater than 100 mug of free sulfide per ml was present in the pore water. These results indicate that carbon and electron flow are altered when sulfate is added to sediments. Sulfate-reducing organisms appear to assume the role of methanogenic bacteria in sulfate-containing sediments by utilizing methanogenic precursors. PMID:848951

  6. Heparan sulfate and heparin interactions with proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meneghetti, Maria C. Z.; Hughes, Ashley J.; Rudd, Timothy R.; Nader, Helena B.; Powell, Andrew K.; Yates, Edwin A.; Lima, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides are ubiquitous components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix of all multicellular animals, whereas heparin is present within mast cells and can be viewed as a more sulfated, tissue-specific, HS variant. HS and heparin regulate biological processes through interactions with a large repertoire of proteins. Owing to these interactions and diverse effects observed during in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments, manifold biological/pharmacological activities have been attributed to them. The properties that have been thought to bestow protein binding and biological activity upon HS and heparin vary from high levels of sequence specificity to a dependence on charge. In contrast to these opposing opinions, we will argue that the evidence supports both a level of redundancy and a degree of selectivity in the structure–activity relationship. The relationship between this apparent redundancy, the multi-dentate nature of heparin and HS polysaccharide chains, their involvement in protein networks and the multiple binding sites on proteins, each possessing different properties, will also be considered. Finally, the role of cations in modulating HS/heparin activity will be reviewed and some of the implications for structure–activity relationships and regulation will be discussed. PMID:26289657

  7. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  8. Additionally sulfated xylomannan sulfates from Scinaia hatei and their antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sayani; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Ray, Bimalendu

    2015-10-20

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) display affinity for cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans with biological relevance in virus entry. This study demonstrates the potential of chemically engineered sulfated xylomannans from Scinaia hatei as antiHSV drug candidate. Particularly, a dimethylformamide -SO3/pyridine based procedure has been employed for the generation of anionic polysaccharides. This one-step procedure has the power of providing a spectrum of xylomannans with varying molecular masses (<12-74kDa), sulfate content (1-50%) and glycosyl composition. Especially, the sulfated xylomannans S1F1 and S2F1 possessed altered activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 compared to the parental compound (F1) and that too in the absence of drug-induced cytotoxicity. Regarding methodological facet, the directive decoration of hydroxyl functionality with sulfate group plus changes in the molecular mass and sugar composition during isolation by the used reagent opens a door for the production of new molecular entity with altered biological activity from other natural sources. PMID:26256190

  9. Microbial polysaccharides with actual potential industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Paul, F; Morin, A; Monsan, P

    1986-01-01

    The microbial polysaccharides reviewed include xanthan gum, scleroglucan, PS-10, PS-21 and PS-53 gums, polysaccharides from Alcaligenes sp., PS-7 gum, gellan gum, curdlan, bacterial alginate, dextran, pullulan, Baker's Yeast Glycan, 6-deoxy-hexose-containing polysaccharides and bacterial cellulose. Factors limiting the commercial potential of certain microbial polysaccharides such as availability, rheological properties, and polyvalency are outlined. The polysaccharides are classified according to their uses as viscosity-increasing agents and as gelling agents. A third category includes polysaccharides with specific applications such as tailor-made dextran and pullulan and polysaccharides used as substrates for the preparation of rare sugars. The difficulties encountered in development of a polysaccharide at the industrial level are pointed out. PMID:14542395

  10. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhances the controlled release properties of the chondroitin sulfate gels. While introduction of chondroitin sulfate into a scaffold inhibits primary cortical outgrowth, the combination of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide and nerve growth factor promotes primary cortical neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. PMID:23507746

  11. Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

  12. Interfering with UDP-GlcNAc metabolism and heparan sulfate expression using a sugar analog reduces angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Xander M.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A.; Dona, Margo; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; van de Westerlo, Els M.; Kusters, Lisanne J.; Khaled, Yasmine; Jokela, Tiina A.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Kremer, Hannie; Stringer, Sally E.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; van Wijk, Erwin; van Delft, Floris L.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS), a long linear polysaccharide, is implicated in various steps of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. We successfully interfered with HS biosynthesis using a peracetylated 4-deoxy analog of the HS constituent GlcNAc and studied the compound's metabolic fate and its effect on angiogenesis. The 4-deoxy analog was activated intracellularly into UDP-4-deoxy-GlcNAc and HS expression was inhibited up to ~96% (IC50 = 16 ?M). HS chain size was reduced, without detectable incorporation of the 4-deoxy analog, likely due to reduced levels of UDP-GlcNAc and/or inhibition of glycosyltransferase activity. Comprehensive gene expression analysis revealed reduced expression of genes regulated by HS binding growth factors as FGF-2 and VEGF. Cellular binding and signaling of these angiogenic factors was inhibited. Micro-injection in zebrafish embryos strongly reduced HS biosynthesis, and angiogenesis was inhibited in both zebrafish and chicken model systems. All these data identify 4-deoxy-GlcNAc as a potent inhibitor of HS synthesis which hampers pro-angiogenic signaling and neo-vessel formation. PMID:23972127

  13. ERK Activation by Fucoidan Leads to Inhibition of Melanogenesis in Mel-Ab Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu Seok; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Myo-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed in the class Phaeophyceae, has been widely studied for its possible health benefits. However, the potential of fucoidan as a possible treatment for hyperpigmentation is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of fucoidan on melanogenesis and related signaling pathways using Mel-Ab cells. Fucoidan significantly decreased melanin content. While fucoidan treatment decreased tyrosinase activity, it did not do so directly. Western blot analysis indicated that fucoidan downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and reduced tyrosinase protein expression. Further investigation showed that fucoidan activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, suggesting a possible mechanism for the inhibition of melanin synthesis. Treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, resulted in the recovery of melanin production. Taken together, these findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits melanogenesis via ERK phosphorylation. PMID:25605994

  14. Extracellular polysaccharide production by thraustochytrid protists.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ruchi; Raghukumar, Seshagiri; Tharanathan, R; Bhosle, N B

    2005-01-01

    Four strains of marine stramenopilan protists, the thraustochytrids, were studied for their ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). Observations by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the production of a matrix of EPS around groups of cells in stationary cultures. EPS in shake culture filtrates ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 g/L. EPS production, which was studied in greater detail in 2 isolates, SC-1 and CW1, increased with age of cultures, reaching a peak in the stationary phase. Anion exchange chromatography yielded a single fraction of the EPS of both species. The EPS contained 39% to 53% sugars, besides proteins, lipids, uronic acids, and sulfates. Molecular weight of the EPS produced by SC-1 was approximately 94 kDa, and that of CW1, 320 kDa. Glucose formed the major component in the EPS of both isolates-galactose, mannose, and arabinose being the other components. Cultures of both isolates survived air-drying up to a period of 96 hours, suggesting a role for EPS in preventing desiccation of cells. PMID:15909227

  15. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  16. Sulfated heterorhamnans from the green seaweed Gayralia oxysperma: partial depolymerization, chemical structure and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Ropellato, Juliana; Carvalho, Mariana M; Ferreira, Luciana G; Noseda, Miguel D; Zuconelli, Cristiane R; Gonalves, Alan G; Ducatti, Diogo R B; Kenski, Juliana C N; Nasato, Pauline L; Winnischofer, Sheila M B; Duarte, Maria E R

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated heterorhamnans produced by Gayralia oxysperma were utilized for the preparation of two homogeneous and highly sulfated Smith-degraded products (M(w) of 109 and 251 kDa), which were constituted principally by 3-linked ?-L-rhamnosyl units 2- or 4-sulfate and 2-linked ?-L-rhamnosyl units 4- or 3,4-sulfate, in different percentages. The homogeneous products and the crude extracts containing the sulfated heterorhamnans showed cytotoxic effect against U87MG cells. These sulfated polysaccharides induced an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase with concomitant increase of the mRNA levels of p53 and p21. The presence of 2-linked disulfated rhamnose residues together with the molecular weight could be important factors to be correlated with the inhibitory effect on human glioblastoma cells. PMID:25498661

  17. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  18. Chondroitin / Dermatan Sulfate Modification Enzymes in Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Habicher, Judith; Haitina, Tatjana; Eriksson, Inger; Holmborn, Katarina; Dierker, Tabea; Ahlberg, Per E.; Ledin, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS). Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS. PMID:25793894

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND POLYSACCHARIDE FORMATION BY STRAINS OF CHROMOBACTERIUM VIOLACEUM

    PubMed Central

    Corpe, William A.

    1964-01-01

    Corpe, William A. (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.). Factors influencing growth and polysaccharide formation by strains of Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 88:14331441. 1964.Gelatinous Chromobacterium violaceum strains elaborate a fibrous exopolysaccharide that forms a matrix in which growing cells are embedded. Stable, nongelatinous variants arising from gelatinous cultures were of two types: (i) those that had lost the ability to produce polysaccharide, and (ii) those that had lost the capacity to bind the polymer into a matrix. Gelatinous strains growing in Tryptone did not produce a matrix, but rather elaborated polysaccharide free into the medium. The effect of Tryptone was not one of selection of nongelatinous variants. Growth and polysaccharide synthesis in a defined medium were greatest when amino acids were substituted for ammonia as a nitrogen source. Best growth and polysaccharide yield occurred when the ratio of carbohydrate to nitrogen was in the order of 10:1. Depolymerization of formed polymer occurred in cultures grown with Casamino Acids as the nitrogen source. Calcium ion stimulated polysaccharide formation. Iron, although stimulating growth, inhibited polysaccharide formation. Images PMID:14234803

  20. ESTIMATION OF THE SULFATED GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN CONTENT OF BOVINE SKIN WITH ALCIAN BLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures selected from the work of Bjornsson and Karlsson for the quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (SGAGs) with Alcian Blue were modified and adapted to the measurement of this type of polysaccharide in bovine skin. Modifications include: (1) pulverization of the skin under liquid nitr...

  1. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  2. The Structure-Activity Relationship between Marine Algae Polysaccharides and Anti-Complement Activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Wenjing; Liang, Hongze; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 different polysaccharides were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationships between the polysaccharides, mainly from marine algae, and anti-complement activity in the classical pathway. Factors considered included extraction methods, fractionations, molecular weight, molar ratio of galactose to fucose, sulfate, uronic acid (UA) content, linkage, branching, and the type of monosaccharide. It was shown that the larger the molecular weights, the better the activities. The molar ratio of galactose (Gal) to fucose (Fuc) was a positive factor at a concentration lower than 10 µg/mL, while it had no effect at a concentration more than 10 µg/mL. In addition, sulfate was necessary; however, the sulfate content, the sulfate pattern, linkage and branching had no effect at a concentration of more than 10 µg/mL. Moreover, the type of monosaccharide had no effect. Laminaran and UA fractions had no activity; however, they could reduce the activity by decreasing the effective concentration of the active composition when they were mixed with the active compositions. The effect of the extraction methods could not be determined. Finally, it was observed that sulfated galactofucan showed good anti-complement activity after separation. PMID:26712768

  3. [Effects of a polysaccharide extracted from a red alga (Bonnemaisonales) on mononucleate phagocytes in several rodents].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Catayee G; Chalet M; Teste J; Codomier L

    1980-06-01

    "Armatan" an acidic sulfated polysaccharide isolated from a red algae (Asparagopsis Armata), has a marked affinity for the Mononuclear Phagocytes System. Its activity seems fairly well established. Indeed, it sets off a series of evolutionary cellular processes beginning with an accumulation of monocytes at the inflammatory injection site; these cells are then replaced by macrophages over several weeks which are progressively substituted by fibroblasts, thereby inducing a final fibro-cicatricial reaction. The inductive effect of Armatan in this cellular evolution is discussed.

  4. Attenuation of Magnesium Sulfate on CoCl?-Induced Cell Death by Activating ERK1/2/MAPK and Inhibiting HIF-1? via Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Suppression in a Neuronal Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, You-Liang; Ju, Da-Tong; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Jing-Ying

    2015-08-31

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO?) ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis in a rat model. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms governing the anti-apoptotic effect of MgSO? on cobalt chloride (CoCl?)-exposed NB41A3 mouse neuroblastoma cells. MgSO? increased the viability of NB41A3 cells treated with CoCl? in a dose-dependent manner. MgSO? treatment was shown to lead to an increase in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, with a concomitant decrease in the pro-apoptotic proteins. MgSO? also attenuated the CoCl?-induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and reduced the release of cytochrome c form the mitochondria to the cytosol. Furthermore, exposure to CoCl? caused activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?). On the other hand, MgSO? markedly reduced CoCl?-induced HIF-1? activation and suppressed HIF-1? downstream protein BNIP3. MgSO? treatment induced ERK1/2 activation and attenuated CoCl?-induced activation of p38 and JNK. Addition of the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly reduced the ability of MgSO? to protect neurons from CoCl?-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, incubation of cultures with the p38 and JNK inhibitors did not significantly affect MgSO?-mediated neuroprotection. MgSO? appears to suppress CoCl?-induced NB41A3 cell death by activating ERK1/2/ MAPK pathways, which further modulates the role of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondria in NB41A3 cells. Our data suggest that MgSO? may act as a survival factor that preserves mitochondrial integrity and inhibits apoptotic pathways. PMID:26211648

  5. Structural characterization of a homogalacturonan from Capparis spinosa L. fruits and anti-complement activity of its sulfated derivative.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijun; Wang, Hongwei; Shi, Songshan; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

    2012-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide CSPS-2B-2 with a molecular mass of 8.8 kDa, was obtained from the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. Chemical and NMR spectral analysis verified CSPS-2B-2 was a linear poly-(1-4)-?-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 12.90.4% of carboxyl groups existed as methyl ester and 2.60.1% of D-GalpA residues were acetylated. A sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 with a sulfation degree of 0.880.02 was prepared via the substitution of C-2 and/or C-3 of GalpA residues in CSPS-2B-2. Bioassay on the complement and coagulation system demonstrated that Sul-2B-2 (CH(50): 3.50.2 ?g/mL) had a stronger inhibitory effect on the activation of complement system through the classic pathway than that of heparin (CH(50): 8.90.3 ?g/mL). Interestingly, Sul-2B-2 at low dose even middle dose (for example 52 ?g/mL) had no effect on coagulation system, which was totally different from heparin. Thus, our observation indicated that Sul-2B-2 was more efficient than heparin in inhibiting the activation of the complement system through classical pathway and exhibiting a relatively less anti-coagulant activity. These results suggested that the sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 prepared from the homogalacturonan in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L, might be a promising drug candidate in case of necessary therapeutic complement inhibition. PMID:22752400

  6. Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Tai; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Jin, Feng-Xin; Liu, De-Wen; Gao, Ming-Bo; Liu, Ze; Xin, Xiao-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe2+Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O2?) and hydroxyl radical (OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)Fe2+ system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na2S2O3 titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H2O2. APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O2?, OH and H2O2 significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health. PMID:22408421

  7. Polysaccharides templates for assembly of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Emam, Hossam E; Ahmed, Hanan B

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides are particularly attractive in biomedical applications due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. In addition to its ecofriendly effects and easy processing into different hydrogel shapes, made polysaccharides used on a large scale as suitable media for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In spite of, most of polysaccharides are water insoluble, but it has shown to be quite efficient capping agents and/or nanoreactor matrices for production of AgNPs. Several methods have been developed to get the benefit of multi-functionality for polysaccharides' macromolecules in preparation of AgNPs. Therefore, recently, preparation of nanosilver using different polysaccharides have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop nanocomposites by blending AgNPs with different polysaccharides matrices. The current review represents a wide survey for the published studies which interested in using of polysaccharides in nanosilver preparations. PMID:26453881

  8. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  9. Diverse Roles of Heparan Sulfate and Heparin in Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Olczyk, Pawel; Mencner, ?ukasz; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (Hp) are linear polysaccharide chains composed of repeating (1?4) linked pyrosulfuric acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy glucopyranose (glucosamine) residue. Mentioned glycosaminoglycans chains are covalently O-linked to serine residues within the core proteins creating heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans (HSPG). The latter ones participate in many physiological and pathological phenomena impacting both the plethora of ligands such as cytokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules and the variety of the ECM constituents. Moreover, HS/Hp determine the effective wound healing process. Initial growth of HS and Hp amount is pivotal during the early phase of tissue repair; however heparan sulfate and heparin also participate in further stages of tissue regeneration. PMID:26236728

  10. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  11. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of a red microalgal polysaccharide on herpes-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

    2003-04-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a species of red microalga has proved to be a potent antiviral agent against various members of the herpes family. In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate differences between normal cells, those infected with herpes viruses, and infected cells treated with red microalgal polysaccharide. FT-IR enables the characterization of cell or tissue pathology based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the cells. The advantage of microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy over conventional FT-IR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell cultures or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and noninfected cells, and between infected cells treated with the polysaccharide and those not treated. In infected cells, there was an impressive decrease in sugar content and a considerable increase in phosphate levels in conjunction with the infection progress. Our results also proved that sugars penetrated and accumulated inside cells treated with the red microalgal polysaccharide. These could have been sugar fragments of low molecular weight present in the polysaccharide solution, despite purification by dialysis. Such sugar accumulation might be responsible for a breakdown in the internal steps of the viral replication cycle. PMID:14658634

  12. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in Mikawa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Handa, Nobuhiko

    1985-05-01

    Isolation and chemical elucidation of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in seawater were conducted. The water samples were collected in Mikawa Bay, Japan during a red tide bloom of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum. Dissolved polysaccharides were concentrated from 5-101 of seawater with dialysis followed by separation by gel flitration, and isolation by ethanol precipitation. A heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose and a glucan were isolated from the polysaccharide component having a molecular weight more than 4,000 Dalton and were characterized by several chemical analyses. The heteropolysaccharide is a mucilaginous polysaccharide having a highly branched structure and a molecular weight of 10 4-5 × 10 6 Daltons and probably contains a sulfate half ester: the glucan is a polysaccharide with β-1,3- and 1,6-linkages (chrysolaminaran type). Concentrations of these were respectively ca. 20 and 67 μg l -1 at 1 m, and 2 and 26 μg l -1 at 6 m. A similar heteropolysaccharide was found in the boiling water extract of the particulate matter, while β-glucan was isolated in a much less purified form than the seawater β-glucan. In addition, a large amount of β-1,4 glucan was found in the strong alkali extract of the particulate matter, indicating that this glucan must be a cell wall polysaccharide derived from phytoplankton. These results strongly suggest that the heteropolysaccharide and chrysolaminaran type polysaccharide dissolved in seawater were derived from water soluble carbohydrates of phytoplankton through extracellular release or cell lysis.

  13. Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

  14. Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Young, L.Y. )

    1990-11-01

    We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO{sub 2}. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 {mu}mol liter{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol > 3-chlorophenol > 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol.

  15. Secondary Storage of Dermatan Sulfate in Sanfilippo Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Lamanna, William C.; Lawrence, Roger; Sarrazin, Stphane; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of genetically inherited disorders that result from the defective activity of lysosomal enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, causing their intralysosomal accumulation. Sanfilippo disease describes a subset of mucopolysaccharidoses resulting from defects in heparan sulfate catabolism. Sanfilippo disorders cause severe neuropathology in affected children. The reason for such extensive central nervous system dysfunction is unresolved, but it may be associated with the secondary accumulation of metabolites such as gangliosides. In this article, we describe the accumulation of dermatan sulfate as a novel secondary metabolite in Sanfilippo. Based on chondroitinase ABC digestion, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate levels in fibroblasts from Sanfilippo patients were elevated 25-fold above wild-type dermal fibroblasts. Lysosomal turnover of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in these cell lines was significantly impaired but could be normalized by reducing heparan sulfate storage using enzyme replacement therapy. Examination of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate catabolic enzymes showed that heparan sulfate and heparin can inhibit iduronate 2-sulfatase. Analysis of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fraction by chondroitinase ACII digestion showed dermatan sulfate storage, consistent with inhibition of iduronate 2-sulfatase. The discovery of a novel storage metabolite in Sanfilippo patients may have important implications for diagnosis and understanding disease pathology. PMID:21193389

  16. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and structural characterization of 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid-containing heparan sulfate hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Xu, Yongmei; Keire, David A; Liu, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Heparan sulfate and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides that consist of a repeating disaccharide unit of glucosamine and glucuronic or iduronic acid. The 2-O-sulfated iduronic acid (IdoA2S) residue is commonly found in heparan sulfate and heparin; however, 2-O-sulfated glucuronic acid (GlcA2S) is a less abundant monosaccharide (?<5% of total saccharides). Here, we report the synthesis of three GlcA2S-containing hexasaccharides using a chemoenzymatic approach. For comparison purposes, additional IdoA2S-containing hexasaccharides were synthesized. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were performed to obtain full chemical shift assignments for the GlcA2S- and IdoA2S-hexasaccharides. These data show that GlcA2S is a more structurally rigid saccharide residue than IdoA2S. The antithrombin (AT) binding affinities of a GlcA2S- and an IdoA2S-hexasaccharide were determined by affinity co-electrophoresis. In contrast to IdoA2S-hexasaccharides, the GlcA2S-hexasaccharide does not bind to AT, confirming that the presence of IdoA2S is critically important for the anticoagulant activity. The availability of pure synthetic GlcA2S-containing oligosaccharides will allow the investigation of the structure and activity relationships of individual sites in heparin or heparan sulfate. PMID:24770491

  17. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell differentiation and cell death. PMID:24344650

  18. Natural polysaccharides as electroactive polymers.

    PubMed

    Finkenstadt, Victoria L

    2005-06-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs), a new class of materials, have the potential to be used for applications like biosensors, environmentally sensitive membranes, artificial muscles, actuators, corrosion protection, electronic shielding, visual displays, solar materials, and components in high-energy batteries. The commercialization of synthetic EAPs, however, has so far been severely limited. Biological polymers offer a degree of functionality not available in most synthetic EAPs. Carbohydrate polymers are produced with great frequency in nature. Starch, cellulose, and chitin are some of the most abundant natural polymers on earth. Biopolymers are a renewable resource and have a wide range of uses in nature, functioning as energy storage, transport, signaling, and structural components. In general, electroactive materials with polysaccharide matrices reach conductance levels comparable with synthetic ion-conducting EAPs. This review gives a brief history of EAPs, including terminology, describes evaluation methods, and reports on the current progress of incorporating polysaccharides as matrices for doped, blended, and grafted electroactive materials. PMID:15724215

  19. Cellulose degradation by polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Vu, Van V; Span, Elise A; Phillips, Christopher M; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), also known as lytic PMOs (LPMOs), enhance the depolymerization of recalcitrant polysaccharides by hydrolytic enzymes and are found in the majority of cellulolytic fungi and actinomycete bacteria. For more than a decade, PMOs were incorrectly annotated as family 61 glycoside hydrolases (GH61s) or family 33 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM33s). PMOs have an unusual surface-exposed active site with a tightly bound Cu(II) ion that catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of crystalline cellulose, leading to glycosidic bond cleavage. The genomes of some cellulolytic fungi contain more than 20 genes encoding cellulose-active PMOs, suggesting a diversity of biological activities. PMOs show great promise in reducing the cost of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars; however, many questions remain about their reaction mechanism and biological function. This review addresses, in depth, the structural and mechanistic aspects of oxidative depolymerization of cellulose by PMOs and considers their biological function and phylogenetic diversity. PMID:25784051

  20. Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  1. Molybdate transport through the plant sulfate transporter SHST1.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Kate L; Tyerman, Stephen D; Kaiser, Brent N

    2008-04-30

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient required by plants. The mechanism of molybdenum uptake in plants is poorly understood, however, evidence has suggested that sulfate transporters may be involved. The sulfate transporter from Stylosanthes hamata, SHST1, restored growth of the sulfate transport yeast mutant, YSD1, on media containing low amounts of molybdate. Kinetic analysis using 99MoO4(2-) demonstrated that SHST1 enhanced the uptake of molybdate into yeast cells at nM concentrations. Uptake was not inhibited by sulfate, but sulfate transport via SHST1 was reduced with molybdate. These results are the first measurement of molybdate transport by a characterised plant sulfate transport protein. PMID:18396170

  2. Controls of Polysaccharide Chemistry on the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Calcium Carbonate Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffre, A. J.; Han, N.; Dove, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Polysaccharide fibrils control the orientation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biominerals. Good examples are found in the multilayered extracellular mucilaginous sheath of green algae and cyanobacteria and in specialized vesicles inside coccolithophorids. More complex organisms such as arthropods and mollusks form biomineralized exoskeletons and shells that consist of insoluble polysaccharides and soluble acid-rich proteins. In these structures, CaCO3 mineral orientation occurs along fibers of the polysaccharide chitin. This raises the question of whether polysaccharide chemistry has specific roles in directing biomineralization. The last three decades of research show that acidic proteins influence CaCO3 polymorph selection, crystallographic orientation, and nucleation and growth rates but little is known about the function of polysaccharides. In fact, polysaccharides are long considered an inert component of organic frameworks. In this experimental investigation, we test the hypothesis that polysaccharides have chemistry-specific influences on calcification by measuring the kinetics of calcite nucleation onto three types of polysaccharide films under controlled solution compositions. Characterized polysaccharides of simple repeating monomer sequences were chosen as model compounds to represent the major carbohydrates seen in microbial and calcifying environments: 1) alginic acid with carboxyl groups, 2) hyaluronic acid with alternating carboxyl and acetylamine groups, and 3) chitosan with amine and acetylamine groups. Biosubstrates were prepared by electrodeposition of these compounds as thin gel-like films onto gold-coated silicon wafers. Using a flow-through cell, heterogeneous nucleation rates of calcite were measured for a suite of supersaturation conditions. These rate data were compared to similar measurements for carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers. Calcite nucleation rates onto the three polysaccharides vary by a factor of 400x. Preliminary analyses of the data attribute these differences to changes in both kinetic and thermodynamic barriers to nucleation. These initial findings indicate that polysaccharide chemistry can have active roles in regulating the kinetics of calcite formation. It may be time to reconsider their presumed function as inert framework molecules for mineralized structures. Future work will investigate CaCO3 nucleation on substrates of polysaccharides with more complex functionalization and monomer sequences to decipher the origins of these effects in promoting or inhibiting mineralization.

  3. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE ; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  4. Review: prospects for the use of extracts and polysaccharides from marine algae to prevent and treat the diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Besednova, Natalya N; Zaporozhets, Tatyana S; Somova, Larisa M; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori possesses a broad spectrum of pathogenic factors that allow it to survive and colonize the gastric mucosa, and thus, the pathogenetic targets, which have the same diversity, require search for and the development of alternative, effective, and innocuous means for the eradication of H.pylori. In recent years, fucoidanshave been extensively studied due to the numerous interesting biological activities, including the anti-adhesive, anti-oxidative, antitoxic, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, and anti-infection effects. This review summarizes thedata on the effects of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of marine algae, mainly fucoidans, on pathogenic targets in Helicobacter infection. The pathogenetic targets for therapeutic agents after H.pylori infection, such as flagellas, urease, and other enzymes, including adhesins, cytotoxin A (VacA), phospholipase, and L-8, are characterized here. The main target for the sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed is cell receptors of the gastric mucosa. This review presents the published data about the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharides on the gastric mucosa. It is known that fucoidan and other sulfated polysaccharides from algae have anti-ulcer effects, prevent the adhesion of H.pylori to, and reduce the formation of biofilm. The authors speculate that the effect of sulfated polysaccharides on the infectious process caused by H.pylori is related to their action on innate and adaptive immunity cells, and also anti-oxidant and antitoxic potential. Presented in the review are materials indicated for the study of extracts and sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed during H.pylori infection, as these compounds are characterized by multimodality actions. Based on the analysis of literary materials in recent years, the authors concluded that fucoidan can be attributed to the generation of new candidates to create drugs intended for the inclusion in the scheme of eradication therapy of H.pylori infection. PMID:25660579

  5. Quantification of free polysaccharide in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q P; Shannon, A G; Heller, R K; Lamb, D H

    2000-01-01

    A precipitation method using deoxycholate/HCI has been applied successfully to separate unconjugated free polysaccharide from carrier protein-bound material in meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccines. The method effectively separated free and bound polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotypes A, C, W135 and Y. Free polysaccharide remained in the supernatant after deoxycholate treatment while protein-bound polysaccharide was fully precipitated. Testing by both colorimetric assay and high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) has confirmed the selective loss of protein-bound polysaccharide in samples of conjugate vaccine or conjugate vaccine mixed with known amounts of free polysaccharide. This rapid separation method requires minimum sample handling and is specific, reproducible, and allows assessment of free polysaccharide levels in vaccines at final container concentration. PMID:11214246

  6. Marine Polysaccharides in Pharmaceutical Applications: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Laurienzo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The enormous variety of polysaccharides that can be extracted from marine plants and animal organisms or produced by marine bacteria means that the field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of micro-organisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. Following an overview of the current knowledge on marine polysaccharides, with special attention to potential pharmaceutical applications and to more recent progress on the discovering of new polysaccharides with biological appealing characteristics, this review will focus on possible strategies for chemical or physical modification aimed to tailor the final properties of interest. PMID:20948899

  7. Marine polysaccharides in pharmaceutical applications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laurienzo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The enormous variety of polysaccharides that can be extracted from marine plants and animal organisms or produced by marine bacteria means that the field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of micro-organisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. Following an overview of the current knowledge on marine polysaccharides, with special attention to potential pharmaceutical applications and to more recent progress on the discovering of new polysaccharides with biological appealing characteristics, this review will focus on possible strategies for chemical or physical modification aimed to tailor the final properties of interest. PMID:20948899

  8. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

  9. Significance of protein elicitor isolated from Tuber melanosporum on the production of ganoderic acid and Ganoderma polysaccharides during the fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from the culture mycelia of Tuber melanosporum, the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) was significantly stimulated during Ganoderma lucidum fermentation. Compared with our previous results that, GA content was inhibited by polysaccharide elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum, while improved by the elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, protein was identified to be the exact component inducing GA biosynthesis in this work. G. lucidum cell growth was significantly inhibited by elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, and polysaccharide elicitor did not inhibit the cell growth. In this work, the remarkable inhibition on the cell growth was considerably eliminated under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum. These suggested maybe the interaction of polysaccharide and protein components existed in the inhibition on the cell growth of G. lucidum. Not only GA content but also total GA accumulation obtained the highest values after the elicitation of protein elicitor. The maximal GA production of 260.5 5.6 mg/L was 31.2% higher than the control. Under the elicitation of protein elicitor, the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and the content of intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) were also enhanced; however, total IPS accumulation was lower. GA biosynthesis was also significantly affected by the addition time of protein elicitor, whose optimal value was the culture of day 4. PMID:20369259

  10. Inhibition of Aflatoxin Synthesis in Aspergillus flavus by Three Structurally Modified Lentinans

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinyou; Mo, Haizhen; Chen, Ying; Ding, Ding; Hu, Liangbin

    2014-01-01

    The chemical properties of ?-glucans leading to their inhibition on aflatoxin (AF) production by Aspergillus flavus remain unclear. In this study, structurally modified lentinan derivatives were prepared by carboxymethylation, sulfation, and phosphorylation to explore their inhibition activity to AF synthesis. The results demonstrated that inhibitory activity of lentinan decreased at higher or lower concentrations than 200 ?g/mL. Compared with lentinan, the sulphated derivatives only performed a reduced optimal inhibition rate at a higher concentration. The phosphorylated derivatives achieved complete inhibition of AF production at 50 ?g/mL, but the inhibitory activity was attenuated with an increase of concentration. The minimum concentration of carboxymethylated derivatives to completely inhibit AF synthesis was the same as that of the original lentinan, whereas their inhibition activity was not reduced at the increasing concentration. RT-PCR analyses were conducted to understand the effects of lentinan and its carboxymethylated derivatives on the transcription of certain genes associated with AF biosynthesis. The results showed that lentinan delayed the transcription of aflQ, whereas its carboxymethylated derivatives promoted the transcriptions of all the tested genes. Our results revealed that some chemical group features apart from the ?-bond could play the vital role in the prevention of AF formation by polysaccharide, and highlighted the structural modifications which could promote its practicability in the control of aflatoxin contamination. PMID:24599078

  11. Polysaccharide-based nanocomposites and their applications

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingying; Monty, Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharide nanocomposites have become increasingly important materials over the past decade. Polysaccharides offer a green alternative to synthetic polymers in the preparation of soft nanomaterials. They have also been used in composites with hard nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanomaterials. This mini review describes methods for polysaccharide nanocomposite preparation and reviews the various types and diverse applications for these novel materials. PMID:25498200

  12. Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, John James

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

  13. Retinal structure and function preservation by polysaccharides of wolfberry in a mouse model of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Xiao, Jia; Peng, Bo; Xing, Feiyue; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L.; Lin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in a variety of genes that are mostly expressed by rod cells, which results in initial death of rod photoreceptors followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. RP is currently untreatable and usually leads to partial or complete blindness. Here, we explored the potential neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides of wolfberry, which are long known to possess primary beneficial properties in the eyes, on photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd10 mouse model of RP. We found that these polysaccharides provided long-term morphological and functional preservation of photoreceptors and improved visual behaviors in rd10 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that polysaccharides exerted neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified that polysaccharides modulated inflammation and apoptosis partly through inhibition of NF-?B and HIF-1? expressions, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated the synergistic protective effects of polysaccharides in preserving photoreceptors against degeneration in rd10 mice. Our study provides rationale and scientific support on using polysaccharides of wolfberry as one supplementary treatment of RP patients in the future. PMID:25535040

  14. Comparative studies on the immunoregulatory effects of three polysaccharides using high content imaging system.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaocheng; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Liecheng; Zhu, Ning; Li, Jingling; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Zhibi; Wang, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Leshuai W

    2016-05-01

    In this study, polysaccharides were isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, Ganoderma lucidum and Radix ophiopogonis and named APSII, GLPII and OGPII for comparison of their immunoactivities. MTT assay indicated that these polysaccharides increased the metabolic activity of Raw264.7 macrophages and induced cell differentiation to dendritic like cells. High content screening and mathematical modeling were used to quantify the cell irregularity, a hallmark of cell differentiation by polysaccharides. The results showed that GLPII increased cell irregularity, but APSII and OGPII had slightly less effects. Imaging analysis also revealed that polysaccharides inhibited cell proliferation while inducing the cell differentiation. In addition, APSII and GLPII but not OGPII induced NO production and enhanced cell phagocytic ability. Interestingly, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor blocked polysaccharide-enhanced phagocytosis, indicating NO production is crucial for macrophages to acquire phagocytic ability, which was further confirmed by correlation studies. APSII and GLPII significantly promoted the maturation of macrophages by the increase in the expression of MHCII, CD40, CD80 and CD86, while OGPII had less effects. In summary, we have suggested a practical and economical method to quantify macrophage differentiation (irregularity) induced by polysaccharides for quality assurance and have found the role of NO production on macrophage phagocytic ability. PMID:26783639

  15. Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from spent coffee grounds by alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), obtained during the processing of coffee powder with hot water to make soluble coffee, are the main coffee industry residues and retain approximately seventy percent of the polysaccharides present in the roasted coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to extract polysaccharides from SCG by using an alkali pretreatment with sodium hydroxide at 25°C, and determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracted polysaccharides. Galactose (60.27%mol) was the dominant sugar in the recovered polysaccharides, followed by arabinose (19.93%mol), glucose (15.37%mol) and mannose (4.43%mol). SCG polysaccharides were thermostable, and presented a typical carbohydrate pattern. Additionally, they showed good antioxidant activity through different methods and presented high antimicrobial percent inhibition against Phoma violacea and Cladosporium cladosporioides (41.27% and 54.60%, respectively). These findings allow identifying possible applications for these polysaccharides in the food industry. PMID:25965493

  16. Soluble polysaccharide and biomass of red microalga Porphyridium sp. alter intestinal morphology and reduce serum cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Dvir, I; Chayoth, R; Sod-Moriah, U; Shany, S; Nyska, A; Stark, A H; Madar, Z; Arad, S M

    2000-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. on gastrointestinal physiology and lipid metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets containing dietary fibre from pelleted red microalgal cells (biomass) or their sulfated polysaccharide, pectin or cellulose (control) were fed to rats for a period of 30 d. All three fibre-supplemented diets increased the length of both the small intestine and colon, with a significantly greater effect in rats fed the algal polysaccharide. The polysaccharide also increased mucosa and muscularis cross-sectional area of the jejunum, and caused hypertrophy in the muscularis layer. The algal biomass significantly lowered gastrointestinal transit time by 44% in comparison with the control rats. Serum and mucosal cholecystokinin levels were lower in rats on the pectin and polysaccharide diets, while cholecystokinin levels in rats fed algal biomass were not different from those in the control animals. In comparison with the control diet, all the experimental diets significantly lowered serum cholesterol levels (22-29%). Feeding of non-fermentable algal polysaccharide or biomass significantly increased faecal weight and bile acid excretion compared with pectin-fed or control rats. The algal polysaccharide and biomass were thus shown to be potent hypocholesterolaemic agents active at low concentrations in the diet. Both metabolic and morphological changes were observed following consumption of algae, suggesting several possible mechanisms by which the alga affects lipid metabolism. The results presented in the present study encourage the use of red microalga as a functional food. PMID:11103217

  17. Ultrastructure of ulvan: a polysaccharide from green seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Robic, Audrey; Gaillard, Cdric; Sassi, Jean-Franois; Lerat, Yannick; Lahaye, Marc

    2009-08-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of the gel forming green seaweed sulfated polysaccharide ulvan revealed a spherical-based morphology (10-18 nm diameter) more or less aggregated in aqueous solution. At pH 13 in TBAOH (tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxyde) or NaOH, ulvan formed an open gel-like structure or a continuous film by fusion or coalescence of bead-like structures, while in acidic pH conditions, ulvan appeared as dispersed beads. Low concentrations of sodium chloride, copper or boric acid induced the formation of aggregates. These results highlight the hydrophobic and aggregative behavior of ulvan that are discussed in regard to the peculiar gel formation and the low intrinsic viscosity of the polysaccharide in aqueous solution. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 652-664, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com. PMID:19353644

  18. O-Acetylation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gille, Sascha; Pauly, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of structurally diverse polymers, many of which are O-acetylated. How plants O-acetylate wall polymers and what its function is remained elusive until recently, when two protein families were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis that are involved in the O-acetylation of wall polysaccharides the reduced wall acetylation (RWA) and the trichome birefringence-like (TBL) proteins. This review discusses the role of these two protein families in polysaccharide O-acetylation and outlines the differences and similarities of polymer acetylation mechanisms in plants, fungi, bacteria, and mammals. Members of the TBL protein family had been shown to impact pathogen resistance, freezing tolerance, and cellulose biosynthesis. The connection of TBLs to polysaccharide O-acetylation thus gives crucial leads into the biological function of wall polymer O-acetylation. From a biotechnological point understanding the O-acetylation mechanism is important as acetyl-substituents inhibit the enzymatic degradation of wall polymers and released acetate can be a potent inhibitor in microbial fermentations, thus impacting the economic viability of, e.g., lignocellulosic based biofuel production. PMID:22639638

  19. Antiadhesive activity of ulvan polysaccharides covalently immobilized onto titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Gadenne, Virginie; Lebrun, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Thebault, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial adhesion leading to biofilm formation on the surface of implants is responsible for pathogenesis infections. One promising strategy to reduce the risk of infection consists of modifying implant surfaces by antibacterial coating. In the present study, the ability of ulvan, a non biocidal algal polysaccharide, to limit bacterial adhesion on titanium was investigated. To this end, titanium surfaces were modified by two different ulvans. Polysaccharides were covalently immobilized on titanium surfaces which had been previously functionalized by self assembled monolayers of aminoundecyltrimethoxysilane (AUTMS). Each step in the modification process was characterized by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bacterial adhesion assays showed that immobilized ulvans on titanium surface strongly decreased by about 90% the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, AFM observations showed that the polysaccharide also inhibited the bacterial spreading on the surface but not cell-to-cell interaction. The permanence of the anti-adhesive effect of the surfaces was finally tested on a non-motile organism, i.e., Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed that the effect was maintained for at least 24h. PMID:23994748

  20. Polysaccharide production by microalgae. Final report on phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing overall biomass production rates. Three different algae were studied--unicellular blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis, filamentous blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and a green colonial alga, Scenedesmus sp. Batch cultures were grown with varying amounts of nitrate to limit nitrogen uptake at various stages in the batch growth curve. In the presence of high nitrate concentrations, the Synechococcus culture became stationary within four days, whereas both Spirulina and Scenedesmus maintained an appreciable growth rate and high daily productivities, for at least a week. With limiting nitrate concentrations, the cellular content of polysaccharide (measured as total carbohydrates) increased markedly, from 20-25 percent to 70-80 percent in Synechococcus and Spirulina. Depending on the level of nitrate used, onset of nitrogen limitation could be set at various culture densities. In all cases, little or no inhibition of total biomass production was noted.

  1. BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticle modified biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenming; Wang, Kefeng; Lu, Xiong; Li, Minqi; Liu, Hongrui; Xie, Chaoming; Meng, Fanzhi; Jiang, Ou; Li, Chen; Zhi, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated chitosan/chondrotin sulfate nanoparticles (CHI/CS NPs) are developed to enhance ectopic bone formation on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. BMP-2 contained CHI/CS NPs were prepared by a simple and mild polyelectrolyte complexation process. It does not involve harsh organic solvents and high temperature, and therefore retain growth factors activity. These NPs were immobilized on BCP scaffolds, and realize the sustained release of growth factors from the scaffolds. The bare BCP scaffolds, NP loaded scaffolds (BCP-NP), and NP loaded and polydopamine coated scaffolds (BCP-Dop-NP) were seeded with bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. BMSC culture results indicate that all scaffolds favor cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation. Afterwards, the bare BCP, BCP-NP, and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds were implanted into rabbits intramuscularly to evaluate the ectopic bone formation of scaffolds. In vivo results indicate that the BCP-NP and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds enhance more ectopic bone formation than the bare BCP scaffolds. Both the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide NPs are effective to improve the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. In addition, BCP-NP scaffolds induce more bone formation than BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds. This is because BCP-NP scaffolds harness the intrinsic osteoinductivity BCP and BMP-2, whereas BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds have polydopamine coatings that inhibit the surfaces biological features of BCP scaffolds, and therefore weaken the bone formation ability of scaffolds. PMID:25100662

  2. Substrates for Sulfate Reduction and Methane Production in Intertidal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Winfrey, Michael R.; Ward, David M.

    1983-01-01

    The activity of and potential substrates for methane-producing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria were examined in marsh, estuary, and beach intertidal sediments. Slow rates of methane production were detected in all sediments, although rates of sulfate reduction were 100- to 1,000-fold higher. After sulfate was depleted in sediments, the rates of methane production sharply increased. The addition of methylamine stimulated methanogenesis in the presence of sulfate, and [14C]methylamine was rapidly converted to 14CH4 and 14CO2 in freshly collected marsh sediment. Acetate, hydrogen, or methionine additions did not stimulate methanogenesis. [methyl-14C]methionine and [2-14C]acetate were converted to 14CO2 and not to 14CH4 in fresh sediment. No reduction of 14CO2 to 14CH4 occurred in fresh sediment. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited [2-14C]acetate metabolism by 98.5%. Fluoracetate, an inhibitor of acetate metabolism, inhibited sulfate reduction by 61%. These results suggest that acetate is a major electron donor for sulfate reduction in marine sediments. In the presence of high concentrations of sulfate, methane may be derived from novel substrates such as methylamine. PMID:16346165

  3. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein. PMID:24413804

  4. Manipulation of cellulose nanocrystal surface sulfate groups toward biomimetic nanostructures in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Zoppe, Justin O; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Seppl, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    We report a facile aqueous procedure to create multivalent displays of sulfonated ligands on CNCs for future applications as viral inhibitors. CNCs were decorated with model compounds containing sulfonate groups via reactions of epoxides and isothiocyanates with amines under alkaline conditions. At first, surface sulfate groups of CNCs were hydrolytically cleaved by alkaline hydrolysis to increase the number of available surface hydroxyls. Success of desulfation was confirmed via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CNC surface hydroxyl groups were then activated with epichlorohydrin before subsequent reactions. As proof of concept toward aqueous pathways for functionalizing nanoparticles with sulfonated ligands, 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt hydrate (CPSA) and 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate sodium salt monohydrate (4-SPITC) were chosen as model compounds to react with homobifunctional 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EBEA) molecular spacer. The approaches presented are not only applicable to polysaccharide nanocrystals, but also other classes of polymeric and inorganic substrates presenting surface hydroxyl groups, as in the case of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), silica or glass. CNCs carrying sulfonated ligands were characterized by ATR-FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Surface chemical compositions of desired elements were determined via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We anticipate that with these facile aqueous procedures as the proof of concept, a diverse library of target-specific functionalities can be conjugated to CNCs for applications in nanomedicine, especially related to viral inhibition. PMID:25933518

  5. [The role of cellular mediators in the development of the phenomenon of inhibition induced by barium sulfate luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of blood under the influence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with intolerance to these drugs].

    PubMed

    Chausova, S V; Gurevich, K G; Bondareva, G P; Filatov, O Ju; Malyshev, I Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated contribution mediator mechanism in the development of the phenomenon of inhibition induced by barium sulfate luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (SLCHL) of blood under the influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with intolerance to these drugs. It was found that the phenomenon of suppression SLCHL blood under the influence of NSAIDs in patients with intolerance is mediated by the participation of mediators, and the contribution of H1--and H2--histamine receptors, 5-HT2 serotonin receptors and Cys-leukotriene receptors in the development of that phenomenon depends on the chemical nature of NSAIDs and the clinical manifestations of intolerance. PMID:26852602

  6. Factor H and Properdin Recognize Different Epitopes on Renal Tubular Epithelial Heparan Sulfate*

    PubMed Central

    Zaferani, Azadeh; Vivès, Romain R.; van der Pol, Pieter; Navis, Gerjan J.; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Seelen, Marc A.; van den Born, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    During proteinuria, renal tubular epithelial cells become exposed to ultrafiltrate-derived serum proteins, including complement factors. Recently, we showed that properdin binds to tubular heparan sulfates (HS). We now document that factor H also binds to tubular HS, although to a different epitope than properdin. Factor H was present on the urinary side of renal tubular cells in proteinuric, but not in normal renal tissues and colocalized with properdin in proteinuric kidneys. Factor H dose-dependently bound to proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) in vitro. Preincubation of factor H with exogenous heparin and pretreatment of PTECs with heparitinase abolished the binding to PTECs. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed high affinity of factor H for heparin and HS (KD values of 32 and 93 nm, respectively). Using a library of HS-like polysaccharides, we showed that chain length and high sulfation density are the most important determinants for glycosaminoglycan-factor H interaction and clearly differ from properdin-heparinoid interaction. Coincubation of properdin and factor H did not hamper HS/heparin binding of one another, indicating recognition of different nonoverlapping epitopes on HS/heparin by factor H and properdin. Finally we showed that certain low anticoagulant heparinoids can inhibit properdin binding to tubular HS, with a minor effect on factor H binding to tubular HS. As a result, these heparinoids can control the alternative complement pathway. In conclusion, factor H and properdin interact with different HS epitopes of PTECs. These interactions can be manipulated with some low anticoagulant heparinoids, which can be important for preventing complement-derived tubular injury in proteinuric renal diseases. PMID:22815489

  7. Human serum antibodies to extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of moulds.

    PubMed

    Notermans, S; Dufrenne, J; Wijnands, L M; Engel, H W

    1988-02-01

    The presence of antibodies to extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of moulds in sera of healthy subjects (N = 125) was determined. Antibodies against the EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium moniliforme and Botrytis tulipae were found in relatively high amounts in all sera. No effect of age on antibodies present could be demonstrated. Antibodies against each of the EPS tested were only neutralized by the homologous EPS and by EPS of moulds belonging to the same genus or a taxonomically closely related genus. Antibodies against the EPS of P. digitatum were inhibited by methyl-beta-D-galactofuranoside, indicating that the galactofuranose part of this EPS is immunodominant. PMID:3379539

  8. Solution NMR spectroscopy of food polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many polysaccharides are allowed for direct food use, where they serve a number of useful functions. In addition to possibly being a source of calories, a food polysaccharide may be a dietary fiber, bulking agent, crystallization inhibitor, thickener, encapsulant, gelling agent, foam and emulsion s...

  9. Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase-2 Is Necessary for Chain Extension of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Critical for Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2?/? mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2?/? chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ?10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis. PMID:22952769

  10. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. )

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  11. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

  12. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc) is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc) analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP), suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26414071

  13. Unexplored possibilities of all-polysaccharide composites.

    PubMed

    Simkovic, Ivan

    2013-06-20

    Composites made solely from polysaccharides are mostly ecological because they can degrade without leaving behind ecologically harmful residues, in contrast to composites which contain synthetic polymers. Herein, the following groups of all-polysaccharide composites (APCs) are discussed: an all-cellulose group that includes cotton composites, cellulose combined with other polysaccharides, as well as those based on chitin/chitosan, heparin, hyaluronan, xylan, glucomannan, pectin, xyloglucan, arabinan, starch, carrageenan, alginate, galactan as one of the components in combination with other polysaccharides. They can be used in medical, paper, food, packing, textile, electronic, mechanical engineering and other applications. The composites were tested for absorptivity, biodegradability, crystallinity, rheology, and mechanical, optical, separation, gelling, pasting, film-forming, adhesive, antimicrobial properties, as well as water vapor permeability, water repellency, dye uptake, and fire-retardancy. Except for food applications, composites based on more than two types of polysaccharides have rarely been used and many possible combinations remain unexplored. PMID:23648032

  14. Polysaccharide-based nanoparticles for theranostic nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Swierczewska, M; Han, H S; Kim, K; Park, J H; Lee, S

    2016-04-01

    Polysaccharides are natural biological molecules that have numerous advantages for theranostics, the integrated approach of therapeutics and diagnostics. Their derivable reactive groups can be leveraged for functionalization with a nanoparticle-enabling conjugate, therapeutics (small molecules, proteins, peptides, photosensitizers) and/or diagnostic agents (imaging agents, sensors). In addition, polysaccharides are diverse in size and charge, biodegradable and abundant and show low toxicity in vivo. Polysaccharide-based nanoparticles are increasingly being used as platforms for simultaneous drug delivery and imaging and are therefore becoming popular theranostic nanoparticles. The review focuses on the method of nanoparticle formation (self-assembled, physical or chemical cross-linked) when engineering polysaccharide-based nanoparticles for theranostic nanomedicine. We highlight recent examples of polysaccharide-based theranostic systems from literature and their potential for use in the clinic, particularly chitosan- and hyaluronic acid-based NPs. PMID:26639578

  15. Fucoidan extract derived from Undaria pinnatifida inhibits angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Jia; Chang, Alan K; Liu, Bing; Yang, Lili; Li, Qiaomei; Wang, Peisheng; Zou, Xiangyang

    2012-06-15

    In recent years, anti-angiogenic therapy has become an effective strategy for inhibiting tumor growth. Fucoidan is a class of fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides found in brown algae, and it is known to have strong anti-tumor property. Using a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-based cell culture model, the present study investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. Treatment of HUVECs with various concentrations of fucoidan resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, cell migration, tube formation and vascular network formation. However, significant inhibition of cell proliferation only occurred with longer treatment time (48 h instead of 24h or less). About 40% of cell proliferation and cell migration and 61% of tube formation by HUVECs were inhibited by 400 μg/ml fucoidan, the maximum concentration tested. These results appeared to suggest that modulation of angiogenesis by fucoidan might not occur through growth inhibition and apoptosis. Ex vivo angiogenesis assay demonstrated that at 100 μg/ml, fucoidan caused significant reduction in microvessel outgrowth. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that at 400 μg/ml, fucoidan significantly reduced the expression of the angiogenesis factor VEGF-A in the suppression of angiogenesis activity. Our results showed that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida may have a new therapeutic potential in the prevention angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:22510492

  16. Natural polysaccharides promote chondrocyte adhesion and proliferation on magnetic nanoparticle/PVA composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruixia; Nie, Lei; Du, Gaolai; Xiong, Xiaopeng; Fu, Jun

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the synergistic effects of natural polysaccharides and inorganic nanoparticles on cell adhesion and growth on intrinsically cell non-adhesive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels. Previously, we have demonstrated that Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite (nHAP) nanoparticles are effective in increasing osteoblast growth on PVA hydrogels. Herein, we blended hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), two important components of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), with Fe2O3/nHAP/PVA hydrogels. The presence of these natural polyelectrolytes dramatically increased the pore size and the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) while maintaining excellent compressive strength of hydrogels. Chondrocytes were seeded and cultured on composite PVA hydrogels containing Fe2O3, nHAP and Fe2O3/nHAP hybrids and Fe2O3/nHAP with HA or CS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay consistently confirmed that the addition of HA or CS promotes chondrocyte adhesion and growth on PVA and composite hydrogels. Particularly, the combination of HA and CS exhibited further promotion to cell adhesion and proliferation compared with any single polysaccharide. The results demonstrated that the magnetic composite nanoparticles and polysaccharides provided synergistic promotion to cell adhesion and growth. Such polysaccharide-augmented composite hydrogels may have potentials in biomedical applications. PMID:26037704

  17. Purification, characterization and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii residue.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gaoxing; Yang, Wenjian; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Fang, Yong; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-19

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii residue was isolated and further purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography to yield PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3. Molecular weights were determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of monosaccharide composition confirmed that PEPE-1, PEPE-2 and PEPE-3 were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Sulfate and uronic acid content, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum were also evaluated. The antitumor activities of the polysaccharides against HepG-2 cells were studied in vitro. Results showed that the three polysaccharides could suppress the proliferation and enhance lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of HepG-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect increased in the order of PEPE-1polysaccharides extracted from P. eryngii residue might be suitable for functional foods and natural antitumor drugs development. PMID:25263894

  18. Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

  19. Effects of sulfate on microcystin production, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress in Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Gin, Karina Y H; He, Yiliang

    2016-02-01

    Increasing sulfate in freshwater systems, caused by human activities and climate change, may have negative effects on aquatic organisms. Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) is both a major primary producer and a common toxic cyanobacterium, playing an important role in the aquatic environment. This study first investigated the effects of sulfate on M. aeruginosa. The experiment presented here aims at analyzing the effects of sulfate on physiological indices, molecular levels, and its influencing mechanism. The results of our experiment showed that sulfate (at 40, 80, and 300 mg L(-1)) inhibited M. aeruginosa growth, increased both intracellular and extracellular toxin contents, and enhanced the mcyD transcript level. Sulfate inhibited the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa, based on the decrease in pigment content and the down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes after sulfate exposure. Furthermore, sulfate decreased the maximum electron transport rate, causing the cell to accumulate surplus electrons and form reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfate also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which showed that sulfate damaged the cytomembrane. This damage contributed to the release of intracellular toxin to the culture medium. Although sulfate increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, expression of sod, and total antioxidant capacity in M. aeruginosa, it still overwhelmed the antioxidant system since the ROS level simultaneously increased, and finally caused oxidative stress. Our results indicate that sulfate has direct effects on M. aeruginosa, inhibits photosynthesis, causes oxidative stress, increases toxin production, and affects the related genes expression in M. aeruginosa. PMID:26490939

  20. Anaerobic Production of Extracellular Polysaccharide by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens nyx

    PubMed Central

    Wachenheim, Daniel E.; Patterson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic production of extracellular polysaccharide (EP) was examined, using a previously uncharacterized, obligately anaerobic rumen isolate, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens nyx, which produced an EP that was rheologically similar to xanthan gum. The main objectives were to determine the nutritional requirements and conditions which promoted EP production by strain nyx. Strain nyx was grown anaerobically in defined and semidefined media. In addition to carbohydrate and nitrogen sources, strain nyx required acetic acid, folic acid, biotin, and pyridoxamine. Strain nyx produced similar amounts of EP at 35 to 40C. Conditions that improved growth usually improved EP production. Of the carbohydrates tested, glucose supported the fastest growth and most EP production, followed by sucrose, xylose, and lactose. Strain nyx utilized ammonium sulfate, urea, or vitamin-free casein hydrolysate as nitrogen sources for growth and EP production. At 2 and 20 g/liter, respectively, ammonium sulfate and vitamin-free casein hydrolysate supported about the same rates of growth and EP production. EP was not produced in the lag or stationary phases, and EP production was exponential during exponential cell growth. Based on the results of this work, anaerobic EP production with B. fibrisolvens nyx could reduce energy costs for industrial EP production compared with the cost of aerated systems. Finally, this work demonstrated that, under appropriate growth conditions, a gastrointestinal tract (ruminal) microorganism produced high levels of EP. PMID:16348636

  1. SULFATE REQUIREMENT FOR IRON OXIDATION BY THIOBACILLUS FERROOXIDANS

    PubMed Central

    Lazaroff, Norman

    1963-01-01

    Lazaroff, Norman (British Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, B.C., Canada). Sulfate requirement for iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J. Bacteriol. 85:78–83. 1963.—The growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is initially inhibited in media containing ferrous chloride in place of ferrous sulfate. This inhibition of growth is due to the requirement of a high relative proportion of sulfate ions to chloride (or other anions) for iron oxidation. Adaptation takes place, producing strains which are able to oxidize iron in media containing an initially unfavorable anionic composition. Adaptation is possibly due to the selection of spontaneous mutants capable of oxidizing iron in high chloride, low sulfate media. Such cells are found at a frequency of 10−5 of the population of unadapted cultures. PMID:16561990

  2. Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.

    PubMed

    Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

    2014-02-15

    Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells. PMID:24507248

  3. Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu

    2013-03-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. PMID:23246900

  4. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Mllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (1050 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  5. Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient γ -ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Timothy O.; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2 kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M2 seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion, are necessary to induce the transcription of sulfate assimilation genes during early cadmium stress. PMID:22283708

  6. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide. PMID:25843860

  7. Comparison of the preliminary characterizations and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuo-fa; Lv, Guo-ying; Song, Ting-ting; Jin, Qun-li; Huang, Jian-bo; Fan, Lei-fa; Cai, Wei-ming

    2015-11-01

    Three polysaccharides (PPB-MB, PPB-MW and PPB-MM) were obtained from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii growth on different culture substrates (mulberry branches, mixed wood sawdust and an equal combination of the two materials) and their chemical composition was investigated. PPB-MM contained the highest contents of neutral sugar (66.59%) and uronic acid (23.38%), followed by PPB-MW and PPB-MB, with PPB-MW having the highest protein content. The three polysaccharides were all composed of six kinds of monosaccharides, namely fucose, mannose, glactose, xylose, arabinose and glucose. The antioxidant activities of the three polysaccharides were determined using lipid peroxidant inhibition, ABTS radical scavenging, and Fe(2+)-chelating assay. Results showed that PPB-MM exhibited the highest antioxidant properties in all the assays. As a result, an equal combination of mulberry branches and mixed wood sawdust serves as a good culture substrate for producing such antioxidant polysaccharides. PMID:26256363

  8. Endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate disrupts zebrafish embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Kerri A.; Curtis, Lawrence R.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Fish in agricultural and remote areas may be exposed to endosulfan and its degradation products as a result of direct runoff, atmospheric transport and deposition. The following study used the zebrafish developmental model to investigate the responses to endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate, the major degradation product of endosulfan I and II. Embryos were dechorionated and waterborne exposed to the endosulfan I or endosulfan sulfate from 6 to 120 hours post fertilization (hpf). Endosulfan I exposure concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 10 ?g/L and endosulfan sulfate from 1 to 100 ?g/L. Water solutions were renewed every 24 hours and fish were scored for overt developmental and behavioral abnormalities. Chemical analysis was performed on water, whole embryo, and larvae samples to determine waterborne exposure concentrations and tissue concentrations throughout the 5-day period. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint for both endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate was an abnormal response of the embryo/larvae to touch, suggesting that endosulfan I and sulfate are developmentally neurotoxic. The waterborne exposure EC50s for inhibition of touch response for endosulfan I and endosulfan sulfate were 2.2 ?g/L and 23 ?g/L, respectively. The endosulfans were highly concentrated by the organisms, and the inhibition of touch response tissue EC50, determined from the measured tissue concentrations, was 367 ng/g for endosulfan I and 4552 ng/g for endosulfan sulfate. PMID:19883949

  9. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. PMID:25081076

  10. Anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from blueberry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiyun; Liu, Ning; Wu, Zhaoxia; Feng, Ying; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1) from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg-1·d-1) inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05), increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05), boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01), promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05) and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01). From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator. PMID:25734419

  11. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William L.; Compere, Alicia L.; Holleman, James W.

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  12. Ulvan Lyases Isolated from the Flavobacteria Persicivirga ulvanivorans Are the First Members of a New Polysaccharide Lyase Family*

    PubMed Central

    Nyvall Colln, Pi; Sassi, Jean-Franois; Rogniaux, Hlne; Marfaing, Hlne; Helbert, William

    2011-01-01

    Ulvans are complex sulfated polysaccharides found in the cell walls of green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. These polysaccharides are composed of disaccharide repetition moieties made up of sulfated rhamnose linked to either glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, or xylose. Two ulvan lyases of 30 and 46 kDa were purified from the culture supernatant of Persicivirga ulvanivorans. Based on peptide sequencing, the gene encoding the 46-kDa ulvan lyase was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the protein is modular and possesses a catalytic module similar to that of the 30-kDa ulvan lyase along with a module of unknown function. The ulvan-degrading function of the gene was confirmed by expression of the catalytic module in a heterologous system. The gene encoding the catalytic module has no sequence homolog in sequence databases and is likely to be the first member of a novel polysaccharide lyase family. Analysis of degradation products showed that both the 30- and 46-kDa ulvan lyases are endolytic and cleave the glycosidic bond between the sulfated rhamnose and a glucuronic or iduronic acid. PMID:22009751

  13. Ulvan lyases isolated from the Flavobacteria Persicivirga ulvanivorans are the first members of a new polysaccharide lyase family.

    PubMed

    Nyvall Colln, Pi; Sassi, Jean-Franois; Rogniaux, Hlne; Marfaing, Hlne; Helbert, William

    2011-12-01

    Ulvans are complex sulfated polysaccharides found in the cell walls of green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. These polysaccharides are composed of disaccharide repetition moieties made up of sulfated rhamnose linked to either glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, or xylose. Two ulvan lyases of 30 and 46 kDa were purified from the culture supernatant of Persicivirga ulvanivorans. Based on peptide sequencing, the gene encoding the 46-kDa ulvan lyase was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the protein is modular and possesses a catalytic module similar to that of the 30-kDa ulvan lyase along with a module of unknown function. The ulvan-degrading function of the gene was confirmed by expression of the catalytic module in a heterologous system. The gene encoding the catalytic module has no sequence homolog in sequence databases and is likely to be the first member of a novel polysaccharide lyase family. Analysis of degradation products showed that both the 30- and 46-kDa ulvan lyases are endolytic and cleave the glycosidic bond between the sulfated rhamnose and a glucuronic or iduronic acid. PMID:22009751

  14. Sulfate Aerosol Particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Robert W.

    1987-09-01

    The condensation of SO3 vapor to detrimental acid-mist occurs only after substantial flue gas cooling, usually downstream from electrostatic precipitators. This condensation is an equilibrium process depending on gas temperature and water vapor pressure. Smelter plume opacity is related to acidmist and other sulfate aerosol particulate concentration through Mie particulate scattering theory. It is possible to estimate the amounts of sulfate particulate emissions and plume opacity, particularly those resulting from anticipated changes in smelter operations and flue gas treatment. These estimates can be used to determine compliance with current or anticipated regulations on smelter particulate emissions or plume opacity.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet action spectroscopy of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, Quentin; Brunet, Claire; Vernier, Arnaud; Allouche, Abdul-Rahman; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Lemoine, Jérôme; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    We studied the optical properties of gas-phase polysaccharides (maltose, maltotetraose, and maltohexaose) ions by action spectroscopy using the coupling between a quadrupole ion trap and a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility (France) in the 7 to 18 eV range. The spectra provide unique benchmarks for evaluation of theoretical data on electronic transitions of model carbohydrates in the VUV range. The effects of the nature of the charge held by polysaccharide ions on the relaxation processes were also explored. Finally the effect of isomerization of polysaccharides (with melezitose and raffinose) on their photofragmentation with VUV photons is presented. PMID:23722725

  16. Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunyan; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi; Cui, Jiangxia

    2013-01-01

    Background Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. Objective: To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. Materials and Methods The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Results and Conclusion Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples. PMID:23661989

  17. Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels.

    PubMed

    Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Chaari, Fatma; Maktouf, Sameh; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouz

    2016-08-15

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from potato peel waste (PPW). The structure of the polysaccharides from PPW (PPPW) was examined by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the extracted polysaccharides form a semi-crystalline polymer constituted essentially of the functional groups CO, CH and OH. Acid hydrolysis of this polymer yielded glucose (76.25%) as the dominant sugar functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) of this polymer were studied. The PPPW showed interesting water-holding and fat-binding capacities which were 4.097±0.537g/g and 4.398±0.04g/g, respectively. In addition, it presented good foaming and emulsion properties. The antioxidant activity of this polymer was also studied and revealed that the polysaccharides showed interesting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 PPPW=11.578mg/mL), reducing power and β-carotene bleaching inhibition activities, and also a strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 PPPW=2mg/mL). Overall, the results suggest that the polysaccharide is a promising source of natural antioxidants and can be used as additive in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:27006219

  18. Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonghua; Jiao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yifei; Zhou, Changren; Zhang, Ziyong

    2008-12-14

    Natural polysaccharides, due to their outstanding merits, have received more and more attention in the field of drug delivery systems. In particular, polysaccharides seem to be the most promising materials in the preparation of nanometeric carriers. This review relates to the newest developments in the preparation of polysaccharides-based nanoparticles. In this review, four mechanisms are introduced to prepare polysaccharides-based nanoparticles, that is, covalent crosslinking, ionic crosslinking, polyelectrolyte complex, and the self-assembly of hydrophobically modified polysaccharides. PMID:18848591

  19. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  20. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  1. Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; Garca, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mnica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2014-09-01

    Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. PMID:24879929

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELL WALL POLYSACCHARIDES OF THE COENCOCYTIC GREEN SEAWEED BRYOPSIS PLUMOSA (BRYOPSIDACEAE, CHLOROPHYTA) FROM THE ARGENTINE COAST(1).

    PubMed

    Ciancia, Marina; Alberghina, Josefina; Arata, Paula Ximena; Benavides, Hugo; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Estevez, Jose Manuel

    2012-04-01

    Bryopsis sp. from a restricted area of the rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina) on the Atlantic coast was identified as Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) based on morphological characters and rbcL and tufA DNA barcodes. To analyze the cell wall polysaccharides of this seaweed, the major room temperature (B1) and 90°C (X1) water extracts were studied. By linkage analysis and NMR spectroscopy, the structure of a sulfated galactan was determined, and putative sulfated rhamnan structures and furanosidic nonsulfated arabinan structures were also found. By anion exchange chromatography of X1, a fraction (F4), comprising a sulfated galactan as major structure was isolated. Structural analysis showed a linear backbone constituted of 3-linked β-d-galactose units, partially sulfated on C-6 and partially substituted with pyruvic acid forming an acetal linked to O-4 and O-6. This galactan has common structural features with those of green seaweeds of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta), but some important differences were also found. This is the first report about the structure of the water-soluble polysaccharides biosynthesized by seaweeds of the genus Bryopsis. These sulfated galactans and rhamnans were in situ localized mostly in two layers, one close to the plasma membrane and the other close to the apoplast, leaving a middle amorphous, unstained cell wall zone. In addition, fibrillar polysaccharides, comprising (1→3)-β-d-xylans and cellulose, were obtained by treatment of the residue from the water extractions with an LiCl/DMSO solution at high temperature. These polymers were also localized in a bilayer arrangement. PMID:27009722

  3. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Conformational Analysis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Side Chains of Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C–H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc–GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  5. Conformational analysis of the oligosaccharides related to side chains of holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from holothurian species were shown to affect various biological processes, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, clot formation, thrombosis, inflammation, and some others. To understand the mechanism of FCSs action, knowledge about their spatial arrangement is required. We have started the systematic synthesis, conformational analysis, and study of biological activity of the oligosaccharides related to various fragments of these types of natural polysaccharides. In this communication, five molecules representing distinct structural fragments of chondroitin sulfate have been studied by means of molecular modeling and NMR. These are three disaccharides and two trisaccharides containing fucose and glucuronic acid residues with one sulfate group per each fucose residue or without it. Long-range C-H coupling constants were used for the verification of the theoretical models. The presence of two conformers for both linkage types was revealed. For the Fuc-GlA linkage, the dominant conformer was the same as described previously in a literature as the molecular dynamics (MD) average in a dodechasaccharide FCS fragment representing the backbone chain of the polysaccharide including GalNAc residues. This shows that the studied oligosaccharides, in addition to larger ones, may be considered as reliable models for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies to reveal pharmacophore fragments of FCS. PMID:25686272

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  7. CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF AZOTOBACTER AGILIS1

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gary H.; Johnstone, Donald B.

    1964-01-01

    Cohen, Gary H. (University of Vermont, Burlington), and Donald B. Johnstone. Capsular polysaccharide of Azotobacter agilis. J. Bacteriol. 88:16951699. 1964.Capsular polysaccharide from Azotobacter agilis strain 132 was recovered from washed cells by alkaline digestion. The polysaccharide was purified by centrifugation, repeated alcohol precipitation, Sevag deproteinization, and treatment with ribonuclease and charcoal-cellulose. Methods of isolation and purification appeared to provide a polymer showing no evidence of heterogeneity when examined by chemical and physical methods. Colorimetric, paper chromatographic, and enzymatic analyses on both intact and acid-hydrolyzed polysaccharide indicated that the polymer contained galactose and rhamnose at a molar ratio of approximately 1.0:0.7. A sialic acid-like component was also present in the polysaccharide. The study shows significant differences in the chemical composition of the extra-cellular polysaccharide of A. agilis and that of A. vinelandii. This adds further biochemical evidence for the right of these species to independent status. Images PMID:14240959

  8. Genomic Potential for Polysaccharide Deconstruction in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases are important enzymes that support bacterial growth by enabling the degradation of polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, xylan, and chitin) in the environment. Presently, little is known about the overall phylogenetic distribution of the genomic potential to degrade these polysaccharides in bacteria. However, knowing the phylogenetic breadth of these traits may help us predict the overall polysaccharide processing in environmental microbial communities. In order to address this, we identified and analyzed the distribution of 392,166 enzyme genes derived from 53 glycoside hydrolase families in 8,133 sequenced bacterial genomes. Enzymes for oligosaccharides and starch/glycogen were observed in most taxonomic groups, whereas glycoside hydrolases for structural polymers (i.e., cellulose, xylan, and chitin) were observed in clusters of relatives at taxonomic levels ranging from species to genus as determined by consenTRAIT. The potential for starch and glycogen processing, as well as oligosaccharide processing, was observed in 85% of the strains, whereas 65% possessed enzymes to degrade some structural polysaccharides (i.e., cellulose, xylan, or chitin). Potential degraders targeting one, two, and three structural polysaccharides accounted for 22.6, 32.9, and 9.3% of genomes analyzed, respectively. Finally, potential degraders targeting multiple structural polysaccharides displayed increased potential for oligosaccharide deconstruction. This study provides a framework for linking the potential for polymer deconstruction with phylogeny in complex microbial assemblages. PMID:25527556

  9. Glucosamine sulfate--environmental antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Alexander P

    2009-10-01

    We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk (every media of 20 ml) left opened for 1 week with and without Arthryl supplements 1,500 mg, the content of one package of the medication. A similar volume (20 ml) is ingested in taking the medication. Experiments with three repeatable results were taken for consideration. Arthryl inhibited environmental bacterial colonies' growth in every media but fungi growth was not impaired. Milk stayed liquid for the whole week with supplement of the Arthryl compared with sour milk transformation without Arthryl. Sample B showed inhibitory properties of the bacterial colonies on the fungi growth. The sample with Arthryl showed progressive growth of fungi without bacterial growth after 10 days of follow up compared with bacterial growth on media without Arthryl. Glucosamine sulfate as a new trademark Arthryl has environmental antibacterial properties but does not inhibit growth of fungal colonies. PMID:19495827

  10. Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

    2014-09-01

    Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 μg/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

  11. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments. [Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Washed cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of (/sup 75/Se)selenate to (/sup 75/Se)selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was greater than or equal to0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace quantities of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

  12. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of levan polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Kenneth; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    2014-03-01

    Levan is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that is composed of ?-D-fructofuranose units with ?(2-6) linkages between fructose rings. It is synthesized by the action of a secreted levansucrase (EC 2.4.1.10) that converts sucrose into the levan externally (exopolysaccharide). Levan is a homopolysaccharide that is non-toxic, water soluble,, and has anti-tumor activity and low immunological response. Therefore, levan presents great potential to be used as a novel functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Despite these favorable properties, levan has a moderately low mechanical properties and poor film forming capability. In the current study, the agglomeration behavior of levan in water and in saline solutions was investigated at 298 and 310 K by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The viscoelastic properties of neat and oxidized levan films were studied via nanoindentation experiments in the quasi-static and dynamic modes The material is partially based upon work supported by NSF under Grant Nos. 1200270 and 1003574, and TUBITAK 111M232.

  14. Discrepancies in composition and biological effects of different formulations of chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Farran, Aina; Montell, Eullia; Vergs, Josep; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common, progressive joint disease, and treatments generally aim for symptomatic improvement. However, SYmptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs in Osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) not only reduce joint pain, but slow structural disease progression. One such agent is chondroitin sulfate-a complex, heterogeneous polysaccharide. It is extracted from various animal cartilages, thus has a wide range of molecular weights and different amounts and patterns of sulfation. Chondroitin sulfate has an excellent safety profile, and although various meta-analyses have concluded that it has a beneficial effect on symptoms and structure, others have concluded little or no benefit. This may be due, at least partly, to variations in the quality of the chondroitin sulfate used for a particular study. Chondroitin sulfate is available as pharmaceutical- and nutraceutical-grade products, and the latter have great variations in preparation, composition, purity and effects. Moreover, some products contain a negligible amount of chondroitin sulfate and among samples with reasonable amounts, in vitro testing showed widely varying effects. Of importance, although some showed anti-inflammatory effects, others demonstrated weak effects, and some instances were even pro-inflammatory. This could be related to contaminants, which depend on the origin, production and purification process. It is therefore vitally important that only pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate be used for treating osteoarthritis patients. PMID:25756648

  15. Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.; Buddecke, E. )

    1988-10-01

    Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate has been isolated from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells preincubated with ({sup 35}S)sulfate or a combination of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine and ({sup 35}S)methionine. The purified proteoheparan sulfate had an apparent M{sub r} of 200,000 on calibrated Sepharose CL-2B columns. The glycosaminoglycan component (M{sub r} {approximately}30,000) was identified as heparan sulfate by its susceptibility to specific enzymatic and chemical degradation. After degradation of the proteoheparan sulfate by microbial heparitinase the resulting protein core had an apparent M{sub r} of 92,000 on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Its mobility was similar in the absence and presence of reducing agents indicating that the protein core consists of a single polypeptide chain. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that about 40% of the cell layer-associated proteoheparan sulfate was released into the medium, while the remainder was internalized and converted to smaller species through a series of degradation steps. Initially there was a proteolytical cleavage of the protein core generating glycosaminoglycan peptide intermediates with polysaccharides chains similar in size to the original. The half-life of the native proteoheparan sulfate was found to be about 4 h.

  16. A common sugar-nucleotide-mediated mechanism of inhibition of (glycosamino)glycan biosynthesis, as evidenced by 6F-GalNAc (Ac3).

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Xander M; Lawrence, Roger; Thijssen, Victor L; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A; Troost, Ran; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; Griffioen, Arjan W; Lefeber, Dirk J; van Delft, Floris L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2015-07-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, and alterations in their amount and structure have been associated with diseases such as cancer. In this study, we probed 11 sugar analogs for their capacity to interfere with GAG biosynthesis. One analog, with a modification not directly involved in the glycosidic bond formation, 6F-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) (Ac3), was selected for further study on its metabolic and biologic effect. Treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cells with 50 μM 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) inhibited biosynthesis of GAGs (chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by ∼50-60%, heparan sulfate by ∼35%), N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)/GalNAc containing glycans recognized by the lectins Datura stramonium and peanut agglutinin (by ∼74 and ∼43%, respectively), and O-GlcNAc protein modification. With respect to function, 6F-GalNAc (Ac3) treatment inhibited growth factor signaling and reduced in vivo angiogenesis by ∼33%. Although the analog was readily transformed in cells into the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-activated form, it was not incorporated into GAGs. Rather, it strongly reduced cellular UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GlcNAc pools. Together with data from the literature, these findings indicate that nucleotide sugar depletion without incorporation is a common mechanism of sugar analogs for inhibiting GAG/glycan biosynthesis. PMID:25868729

  17. Determination of residual dextran sulfate in protein products by SEC-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Loubna M; Jayawickreme, Shiranthi

    2016-02-01

    Dextran sulfate is a polyanionic derivative of dextran, produced by esterification of dextran with chlorosulphonic acid. Dextran sulfate with an average molecular weight of 8000Da can be added to the cell culture to inhibit binding of proteins to cells, increasing cellular growth and productivity. Residual dextran sulfate levels must be monitored during the purification process development to insure clearance. A size-exclusion chromatography based HPLC assay has been developed for the separation and quantitation of dextran sulfate in a highly concentrated purified protein drug substance sample. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was used to precipitate the protein and separate the dextran sulfate. Detection and quantitation of dextran sulfate was achieved by post column reaction with dimethylene blue to form a metachromatic complex that absorbs visible light at 530nm. The quantitation limit (LOQ) was determined to be 1.5μg/mL dextran sulfate in high concentration protein samples. PMID:26773880

  18. Sulfation of LH Does Not Affect Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Boime, Irving

    2009-01-01

    LH and FSH are produced by the same gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary but differ in their mode of secretion. LH secretion is primarily episodic, or regulated, while FSH secretion is primarily basal, or constitutive. The asparagine (N)-linked oligosaccharides of LH and FSH terminate with sulfate and sialic acid, respectively. TSH also contains sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides and is secreted through the regulated pathway. It has been hypothesized that sulfate plays a role in segregating LH to the regulated pathway. Using a mouse pituitary model, we tested this hypothesis by examining the secretory fate of LH from pituitaries treated with sodium chlorate, a known inhibitor of sulfation. Here we show that mouse LH is sulfated and secreted through the regulated pathway, while FSH is secreted constitutively. LH secretion from chlorate treated pituitaries, which showed complete inhibition of sulfation, was similar to untreated pituitaries. These data suggest that the metabolic role for sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides is not for intracellular trafficking but for the extracellular bioactivity of LH. PMID:19647136

  19. Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.

    PubMed

    Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Kluger, Bernhard; Sarkanj, Bojan; Lemmens, Marc; Hametner, Christian; Frhlich, Johannes; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44 less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range. PMID:25492089

  20. Variations of pH as an additional tool in the analysis of crowded NMR spectra of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Bilan, Maria I; Shashkov, Alexander S; Gerbst, Alexey G; Usov, Anatolii I; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-03-24

    The influence of pH variation on chemical shift values in NMR spectra of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates was studied using polysaccharides isolated from three sea cucumber species Apostichopus japonicus, Actinopyga mauritiana and Cucumaria japonica. The signals of glucuronic acid residues were found to be the most sensitive to pH changes in comparison to the chemical shifts of the sulfated galactosamine and fucosyl units, most of which were altered insignificantly. It was shown that in the presence of imidazole-HCl buffer (pH 7.2) NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from A. japonicus and A. mauritiana were sufficiently resolved, whereas under acidic conditions their (1)H NMR spectra were complicated by overlapping of H-1 signals of GlcA and GalNAc. In the case of polysaccharide from C. japonica bearing 3-O-fucosylated and 3-O-sulfated glucuronic acid residues in the backbone, acidification of the medium led to separation of H-1 signals of GlcA3S and GalNAc. Therefore, the combination of data obtained at different pH values may be useful for interpretation of overcrowded spectra of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates. PMID:26895544

  1. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thöle, Christian; Brandt, Simone; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates) after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS) with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL) led to reduced binding to 3'-sialyl lactose, sialylated Le(a) and Le(x). A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation) indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity. PMID:26389872

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

    2014-10-01

    The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

  3. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  4. Chemical and physical stability of citral and limonene in sodium dodecyl sulfate-chitosan and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Darinka; Cercaci, Luisito; Alamed, Jean; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2007-05-01

    Citral and limonene are the major flavor components of citrus oils. Both of these compounds can undergo chemical degradation leading to loss of flavor and the formation of undesirable off-flavors. Engineering the interface of emulsion droplets with emulsifiers that inhibit chemical reactions could provide a novel technique to stabilize citral and limonene. At present, emulsified flavor oils are usually stabilized by gum arabic (GA), which is a naturally occurring polysaccharide-protein complex. The objective of this study was to examine if citral and limonene were more stable in emulsions stabilized with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-chitosan complex than GA. Citral degraded less in GA-stabilized than in SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. However, SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions were more effective at retarding the formation of the citral oxidation product, p-cymene, than GA-stabilized emulsions. Limonene degradation and the formation of limonene oxidation products, limonene oxide and carvone, were lower in the SDS-chitosan- than GA-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. The ability of an SDS-chitosan multilayer emulsifier system to inhibit the oxidative deterioration of citral and limonene could be due to the formation of a cationic and thick emulsion droplet interface that could repel prooxidative metals, thus decreasing prooxidant-lipid interactions. PMID:17419641

  5. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  6. Synthesis of the Oligosaccharides Related to Branching Sites of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Fomitskaya, Polina A.; Gerbst, Alexey G.; Dmitrenok, Andrey S.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

    2015-01-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl β-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 α-l-fucosyl or α-l-fucosyl-(1→3)-α-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific α-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-α-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the α-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  7. Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Fomitskaya, Polina A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2015-02-01

    Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl β-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 α-l-fucosyl or α-l-fucosyl-(1→3)-α-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific α-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-α-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the α-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

  8. Experimental study of acid-sulfate alteration of basalt and implications for sulfate deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Robbins, Mark; Moskowitz, Bruce; Berquó, Thelma S.; Jöns, Niels; Hynek, Brian M.

    2013-04-01

    Acid-sulfate alteration of basalt by SO2-bearing volcanic vapors has been proposed as one possible origin for sulfate-rich deposits on Mars. To better define mineralogical signatures of acid-sulfate alteration, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate alteration pathways and geochemical processes during reaction of basalt with sulfuric acid. Pyroclastic cinders composed of phenocrysts including plagioclase, olivine, and augite embedded in glass were reacted with sulfuric acid at 145 °C for up to 137 days at a range of fluid : rock ratios. During the experiments, the phenocrysts reacted rapidly to form secondary products, while the glass was unreactive. Major products included amorphous silica, anhydrite, and Fe-rich natroalunite, along with minor iron oxides/oxyhydroxides (probably hematite) and trace levels of other sulfates. At the lowest fluid : rock ratio, hexahydrite and an unidentified Fe-silicate phase also occurred as major products. Reaction-path models indicated that formation of the products required both slow dissolution of glass and kinetic inhibitions to precipitation of a number of minerals including phyllosilicates and other aluminosilicates as well as Al- and Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides. Similar models performed for Martian basalt compositions predict that the initial stages of acid-sulfate alteration of pyroclastic deposits on Mars should result in formation of amorphous silica, anhydrite, Fe-bearing natroalunite, and kieserite, along with relict basaltic glass. In addition, analysis of the experimental products indicates that Fe-bearing natroalunite produces a Mössbauer spectrum closely resembling that of jarosite, suggesting that it should be considered an alternative to the component in sulfate-rich bedrocks at Meridiani Planum that has previously been identified as jarosite.

  9. Characterization of a novel purified polysaccharide from the flesh of Cipangopaludina chinensis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingying; Xiong, Qingping; Wang, Xiaoli; Li, Xia; Yu, Chunhao; Wu, Jie; Yi, Jing; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Ying; Cui, Hao

    2016-01-20

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the characterization of a novel polysaccharide from the flesh of Cipangopaludina chinensis, named CCPSn. The results found CCPSn was a white powder, readily soluble in hot water and slightly soluble in water. CCPSn was a homopolysaccharide composed of D-glucose (D-Glc) with molecular weight of 91.1 kDa. Based on analysis of UV-visible, FT-IR, periodic acid oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation, GM-MS and NMR, the structure of CCPSn was elucidated as follows: the backbone was composed of (1 ? 3) linked ?-D-Glc. The branches, consisting of a single (1 ? 3) linked ?-D-Glc units and terminal ?-D-Glc-4-O-SO3(-), were attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was calculated to be about 16.73%. The C-1 of terminal ?-D-Glc-4-O-SO3(-) was linked to O-3 of (1 ? 3) linked ?-D-Glc in the branches. In addition, the results indicated CCPSn was a sulfated polysaccharide with the sulfate radical content of 9.12%. PMID:26572424

  10. Structure of a fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber. Evidence for the presence of 3-O-sulfo-beta-D-glucuronosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R P; Mulloy, B; Mourão, P A

    1991-07-25

    The structure of a unique focose-branched chondroitin sulfate isolated from the body wall of a sea cucumber was examined in detail. This glycosaminoglycan contains side chain disaccharide units of sulfated fucopyranosyl units linked to approximately one-half of the glucuronic acid moieties through the O-3 position of the acid. The intact polysaccharide is totally resistant to chondroitinase degradation, whereas, after defucosylation, it is partially degraded by the enzyme. However, only after an additional step of desulfation, the chondroitin from sea cucumber is almost totally degraded by chondroitinase AC or ABC. This result, together with the methylation and NMR studies of the native and chemically modified polysaccharide, suggest that besides the fucose branches, the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate contains sulfate esters at position O-3 of the beta-D-glucuronic acid units. Furthermore, the proteoglycan from the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate is recognized by anti-Leu-7 monoclonal antibody, which specifically recognizes 3-sulfoglucuronic acid residues. In analogy with the fucose branched units, the 3-O-sulfo-beta-D-glucuronosyl residues are resistant to chondroitinase degradation. Regarding the position of the glycosidic linkage and site of sulfation in the fucose branches, our results suggest high heterogeneity. Tentatively, it is possible to suggest the preponderance of disaccharide units formed by 3,4-di-O-sulfo-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl units glycosidically linked through position 1----2 to 4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-fucopyranose. Finally, the presence of unusual 4/6-disulfated disaccharide units, together with the common 6-sulfated and non-sulfated units, was detected in the chondroitin sulfate core of this polysaccharide. PMID:1906878

  11. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Lukianova, Tamara J.; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N+·HSO4 −·SO4 2−, each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen bonds. PMID:26870401

  12. Immobilized phosphorylase for synthesis of polysaccharides from glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous processes for enzymatic production of carbohydrates from glucose are discussed. Key reactant in process is identified as phosphorylase which catalyzes reversible formation or degradation of polysaccharide. Chemical compounds and reactions to synthesize polysaccharides are analyzed.

  13. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, David S. (Stone Mountain, GA); Gudlavalleti, Seshu K. (Kensington, MD); Tzeng, Yih-Ling (Atlanta, GA); Datta, Anup K. (San Diego, CA); Carlson, Russell W. (Athens, GA)

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  14. Learning from microbial strategies for polysaccharide degradation.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Déjean, Guillaume; Davies, Gideon J; Brumer, Harry

    2016-02-15

    Complex carbohydrates are ubiquitous in all kingdoms of life. As major components of the plant cell wall they constitute both a rich renewable carbon source for biotechnological transformation into fuels, chemicals and materials, and also form an important energy source as part of a healthy human diet. In both contexts, there has been significant, sustained interest in understanding how microbes transform these substrates. Classical perspectives of microbial polysaccharide degradation are currently being augmented by recent advances in the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Fundamental discoveries in carbohydrate enzymology are both advancing biological understanding, as well as informing applications in industrial biomass conversion and modulation of the human gut microbiota to mediate health benefits. PMID:26862194

  15. Influence of polysaccharides on wine protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Meier, Miriam; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Polysaccharides are the major high-molecular weight components of wines. In contrast, proteins occur only in small amounts in wine, but contribute to haze formation. The detailed mechanism of aggregation of these proteins, especially in combination with other wine components, remains unclear. This study demonstrates the different aggregation behavior between a buffer and a model wine system by dynamic light scattering. Arabinogalactan-protein, for example, shows an increased aggregation in the model wine system, while in the buffer system a reducing effect is observed. Thus, we could show the importance to examine the behavior of wine additives under conditions close to reality, instead of simpler buffer systems. Additional experiments on melting points of wine proteins reveal that only some isoforms of thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases are involved in haze formation. We can confirm interactions between polysaccharides and proteins, but none of these polysaccharides is able to prevent haze in wine. PMID:26830558

  16. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Meier, P J; Valantinas, J; Hugentobler, G; Rahm, I

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient (50 mM in, 5 mM out, pH 8.0 in and out), but not pH (pH 8.0 in, 6.0 out) or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium ("overshoot"). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate (apparent Km, approximately 0.3 mM) and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide,4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC50, approximately 40 microM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. In conjunction with the previously reported chloride-bicarbonate exchanger (J. Clin. Invest. 75: 1256-1263, 1985), these findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation. PMID:3661708

  17. Structural characterisation of a polysaccharide from radix ranunculus ternati.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yun; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide, HB-1, with a molecular weight of 23,930, was isolated from radix Ranunculi ternati. by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, deproteination,ultrafiltration and gel-filtration column chromatography. Its sugar composition was determined by GLC as Glc, Ara, and Gal in a molar ration of 16.071: 2.722: 1. And the absolute configuration of Glc was identified as D. Smith degradation and methylation reaction showed the proportion of -(1)Glc (A) was about 16%, -(1)Glc(4)- (B) about 62%, (C) about 14%, and -(1)Gal(6)- (D) about 8%. The repetitive unit was likely composed of 3 As, 3 Cs, 13 Bs and 1 D. Together with the average molecular weight, it was predictable that HB-1 consisted of about seven of the repetitive unit. The inhibition activity of HB-1 on human glioma cell line SF188 was also measured, only to find it inactive. PMID:25587330

  18. Maintaining quality of litchi fruit with acidified calcium sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acidified calcium sulfate (ACS) on quality of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. cv ‘Brewster’) fruit after harvest was evaluated. ACS at 1.25% or higher concentrations significantly inhibited the activities of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in pericarp during storage at both 5 and 10 ºC...

  19. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  20. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  1. [Phage associated polysaccharide depolymerases - characteristics and application].

    PubMed

    Maszewska, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been of interest as agents combating undesirable bacteria since their discovery nearly 100 years ago. Currently, intensive research is being conducted into two groups of phage enzymes, which cause damage to bacterial cells. The first group includes lysins responsible for breaking down the cell wall in order to release progeny phages and the second is polysaccharides depolymerases (PDs), which degrade capsular and structural polysaccharides, including exopolysaccharides (EPS) - a dominant bacterial biofilm component. PDs can be attached to a phage tail or present as a free form diffused to the medium, their production takes place constitutively or is induced by the polysaccharide presence. PDs belong to two groups of enzymes: hydrolases (glycanases) or polysaccharide lyases. These enzymes are a very heterogeneous group with regard to substrate specificity, the molecular weight or sensitivity bakteriofato physical and chemical factors. Phages producing PDs act against encapsulated infectious bacteria and have a great potential as a new class of anti-biofilm agents. Polysaccharide depolymerases depriving bacteria of the capsule, reduce their virulence and sensitize them to the immune system. The variety of biofilms forming bacteria and exopolysaccharides produced by them requires the use of specific phages producing DP. The problem of DP and phages specificity can be solved by using phage cocktails or introducing into the virus genome genes encoding enzymes degrading various bacterial exopolysaccharides important in the biofilm formation or broadening the host range. The use of DP or a DP-producing phage combined with other antibiofilm agents brings promising results. This indicates a direction for further research to develop effective methods to combat bacterial biofilms. Phage-borne PDs can be used for determination of the bacterial polysaccharides structure or efficient capsular typing. PMID:26206986

  2. Microbial Polysaccharides Template Assembly of Nanocrystal Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Clara S.; De Stasio, Gelsomina; Welch, Susan A.; Girasole, Marco; Frazer, Bradley H.; Nesterova, Maria V.; Fakra, Sirine; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-03-01

    Biological systems can produce extraordinary inorganic structures and morphologies. The mechanisms of synthesis are poorly understood but are of great interest for engineering novel materials. We use spectromicroscopy to show that microbially generated submicrometer-diameter iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) filaments contain polysaccharides, providing an explanation for the formation of akaganeite pseudo-single crystals with aspect ratios of ~1000:1. We infer that the cells extrude the polysaccharide strands to localize FeOOH precipitation in proximity to the cell membrane to harness the proton gradient for energy generation. Characterization of organic compounds with high spatial resolution, correlated with mineralogical information, should improve our understanding of biomineralization mechanisms.

  3. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

  4. Characterization of acidic polysaccharides from the mollusks through acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiuling; Wen, Chengrong; Lu, Jiaojiao; Teng, Nan; Song, Shuang; Zhu, Beiwei

    2015-10-01

    Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) exist widely in nature. Herein we propose an elegant methodology to identify UACPs by analyzing their disaccharides produced from the acid hydrolysis using HPLC-MS(n) upon 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. Based on the optimization of experimental conditions by the single factor experiment and orthogonal test design, the combination of 1.3M TFA at 105°C for 3h is found to be the optimum. Subsequently, these conditions were applied to investigate the distribution of UACPs in 20 selected species of edible Bivalvia and Gastropoda. PMP-disaccharides derived from UACPs in mollusks were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectra with those of the reference PMP-disaccharides from hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin (HP), and AGSP with →4)-GlcA(1→2)-Man(1→ repeating units. The analysis reveals the prevalence of CS in the shellfishes as well as the HP, and existence of three non-GAG UACPs in 7 mollusks. PMID:26076626

  5. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brunold, Christian; Schmidt, Ahlert

    1978-01-01

    When 0.5 mm cysteine is added to cultures of Lemna minor L. growing with sulfate as the sole sulfur source, there is a rapid 80% loss of extractable adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase. This loss is accompanied by an inhibition of sulfate uptake; however, lack of sulfate is not responsible for the decreasing adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase activity. Cultivation with cysteine causes an increase in the cyst(e)ine pool of L. minor. This fact taken together with the observed inactivation of adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase in crude extracts by cysteine suggests that the cysteine pool is involved in the in vivo regulation of the enzyme. The activity of adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase is restored within 24 hours after transfer to a culture medium without cysteine. This restoration is partially blocked by 6-methyl purine and actinomycin D and completely by cycloheximide. Cycloheximide added to cultures of L. minor L. causes a loss of extractable APSTase comparable to the one obtained with cysteine. This loss may be in part due to cysteine, since cycloheximide causes a pronounced increase in the cysteine pool of L. minor. PMID:16660289

  6. Organics, soot, and ambient sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Novakov, T.

    1982-09-01

    Evidence is presented for significant local sulfate formation, the existence of a chemical link between ambient sulfate and organic particulate material is postulated, and a new SO/sub 2/ oxidation process by a reaction between organic products of incomplete combustion and SO/sub 2/ is described. Specifically, results of field studies on the relationship among sulfate, SO/sub 2/, and carbonaceous particles, speciation of sulfate and nitrogenous species, and laboratory results on certain aspects of SO/sub 2/ oxidation are presented. It is concluded that in highly polluted atmospheres, large concentrations of ambient sulfate can be produced by conversion of locally emitted SO/sub 2/ by a process that is largely independent of SO/sub 2/ but proportional to soot concentration. Ambient sulfate from many locations is found as anomalous ammonium sulfate where charged organic nitrogen complexes substitute for ammonium ions. Such sulfate is found when the aerosol is rich in organic constituents. The reaction between pyrolysis products of hydrocarbon fuels and SO/sub 2/ is an efficient mechanism for sulfate ion formation. This reaction is strongly dependent on combustion conditions.

  7. In vitro antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of polysaccharides extracted from Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenfei; Liu, Min; Fang, Zhexiang; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-06-01

    A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (WPS) was obtained from Laminaria japonica by hot water extraction. Three major polysaccharide fractions (WPS-1, WPS-2 and WPS-3) were purified from WPS by anion-exchange chromatography. Monosaccharide components analysis indicated that galactose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS and WPS-3, accounting for 56.25% and 54.11%, respectively. And fucose was the predominant monosaccharide in WPS-1 and WPS-2, accounting for 46.91% and 45.1%, respectively. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that WPS-2 showed significant function of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and WPS-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on superoxide radical. Cytotoxicity of all polysaccharide fractions was evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. Results showed that WPS-1 and WPS-2 significantly inhibited the growth of A375 cells and low anti-proliferative effects of WPS-2 on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were observed. These results suggested that the polysaccharide fraction of WPS-2 might be explored as a potential safe antioxidant and antitumor agent. PMID:22521618

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of an acidic polysaccharide extracted from Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan; Lv, You

    2007-06-13

    A simple and sensitive high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method was designed for quantitative analysis of the component monosaccharides of an acidic polysaccharide extracted from pumpkin. In this method, the polysaccharide was hydrolyzed into component monosaccharides with 2.0 M trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 6 h and then labeled with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, and subsequently the labeled monosaccharide derivatives were separated by HPCE. As a result, glucose (21.7%) and glucuronic acid (18.9%) were identified to be the main component monosaccharides, followed by galactose (11.5%), arabinose (9.8%), xylose (4.4%), and rhamnose (2.8%). Furthermore, the pumpkin polysaccharide was also demonstrated to effectively inhibit the H2O2-caused decrease of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and malondialdehyde formation, and also reduced the H2O2-caused decline of superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione depletion in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages, indicating that pumpkin polysaccharide possessed significant cytoprotective effect and antioxidative activity. PMID:17511465

  9. Reduction of capsular polysaccharide production in Klebsiella pneumoniae by sodium salicylate.

    PubMed Central

    Domenico, P; Schwartz, S; Cunha, B A

    1989-01-01

    Heavily encapsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae (serotypes 1 and 2) was cultured in the presence of sodium salicylate. The addition of salicylate (2 to 30 micrograms/ml) progressively decreased the amount of capsular polysaccharide produced by all strains without significantly inhibiting cell growth. Further addition of salicylate (50 to 200 micrograms/ml) was progressively inhibitory to cell growth and decreased the production of polysaccharide only slightly. The optimal concentration of salicylate that could reduce the polysaccharide production of heavily encapsulated, virulent strains by 50% or more was 30 micrograms/ml. Mutants of these bacteria that produced less capsule were affected by salicylate to a lesser degree. All concentrations of salicylate tested were physiologically achievable in humans and within the therapeutic range of aspirin. The addition of calcium and magnesium partially reversed the effects of salicylate on polysaccharide production. Chelating agents, particularly EGTA [ethylene-bis(oxyethylenenitrile)tetraacetic acid], reduce capsule production as salicylate did. Thus, the chelation of calcium and magnesium by salicylate could account, at least in part, for the reduction of capsule. Optical density measurements allowed for rapid monitoring of capsule production in various culture media because a large part of culture turbidity was apparently due to the capsule. Decreased production of the primary K. pneumoniae virulence factor with salicylate may have therapeutic potential. PMID:2680983

  10. Oligo- and polysaccharides exhibit a structure-dependent bioactivity on human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deters, Alexandra M; Lengsfeld, Christian; Hensel, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    In traditional medicine, a variety of plants with high carbohydrate contents were used for dermatological therapies. Contemporary investigations confirmed exogenous carbohydrates as biologically active. The recent study describes the characterization of oligo- and polysaccharides from medicinal herbs and evaluation of composite-dependent physiological activity of carbohydrates on human keratinocytes in vitro. Polysaccharide isolation was followed by size- and charge fractionation. Identification of monosaccharide components was performed by GLC/MS. Primary human keratinocytes (NHK) and cells of the cell line HaCaT were used for investigation of carbohydrate action on cellular proliferation (BrdU-uptake), differentiation specific enzymes (involucrin), cell viability (MTT-reduction) and cytotoxicity. Incubation of keratinocytes with a purified beta-glucan from Reed mace seeds resulted in an improved proliferation followed by an increased differentiation after contact inhibition. Fucosylated oligo- and polysaccharides of human milk and Sea weed induced involucrin expression as maker for early differentiation without an increase in proliferation. Cell viability and proliferation of keratinocytes were enhanced by an arabinogalactan of Kaki fruits. Okra fruit rhamnogalacturonans increased cell proliferation. Heart sease pectin-like polysaccharides reduced the proliferation significantly but improved the cell viability. These results led assume that the carbohydrates of traditional used herbs play a part in their efficacy. PMID:16111846

  11. Silkrose: A novel acidic polysaccharide from the silkmoth that can stimulate the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Takashi; Kusano, Kie; Ido, Atsushi; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2016-01-20

    We have identified a novel acidic polysaccharide from silkmoth (Antheraea yamamai) pupae that activates the mammalian innate immune response. This bioactive polysaccharide was isolated using nitric oxide production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. We named this polysaccharide "silkrose". It has a molecular weight of 3.15 10(5) and comprises nine monosaccharides. The expression profiles indicated that silkrose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? that exist downstream of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-indeptendent signaling pathways. Also, the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which exists upstream of the signaling pathways, led to the suppression of NO production by silkrose. Furthermore, this polysaccharide promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B in RAW264 cells, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in macrophages through the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that silkrose activates the innate immune response to various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. PMID:26572439

  12. Okra polysaccharide improves metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yang, Baican; Huang, Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Okra is a tropical vegetable that is rich in polysaccharides. Here, we investigated the effects of okra polysaccharide (OP) on metabolic disorders in mice. We found that OP lowered body weight and glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased serum total cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. OP regulated the gene expression of liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in the liver and the adipose tissue of the mice. These results suggest that OP may have therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases via the inhibition of LXR and PPAR signaling. PMID:23894043

  13. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Vronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 m were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

  14. Structure of a homofructosan from Saussurea costus and anti-complementary activity of its sulfated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Fei; Bligh, S W Annie; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-05-25

    A homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharide APS-W1, (2→1)-β-d-fructofuranosan, with an average molecular weight of 3.9kDa, was isolated and characterized from the roots of Saussurea costus. Five sulfated derivatives of APS-W1 with different degrees of sulfation were prepared and they showed strong inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classical pathway (CP50: 2.2-18.9μg/mL; 8.3μg/mL for heparin) and alternative pathway (AP50: 11.4-115.8μg/mL; 89.2μg/mL for heparin). Mechanism studies by using complement-depleted sera indicated that sulfated derivatives with different positions of sulfation targeted to different complement proteins. Meanwhile the sulfated derivatives have limited anticoagulant effect based on re-calcification time and thrombin time. These results suggested that the sulfated derivatives prepared from APS-W1 could be promising potential complement inhibitors for the treatment of diseases caused by an over-activated complement system. PMID:24708964

  15. Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bathe, Mark; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Tidor, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS intrinsic stiffness, and steric interactions on CS osmotic pressure are investigated. At physiological ionic strength (0.15 M NaCl), the sulfation type and pattern, as measured by a standard statistical description of copolymerization, are found to have a negligible influence on CS osmotic pressure, which depends principally on the mean volumetric fixed charge density. The intrinsic backbone stiffness characteristic of polysaccharides such as CS, however, is demonstrated to contribute significantly to its osmotic pressure behavior, which is similar to that of a solution of charged rods for the 20-disaccharide chains considered. Steric excluded volume is found to play a negligible role in determining CS osmotic pressure at physiological ionic strength due to the dominance of repulsive intermolecular electrostatic interactions that maintain chains maximally spaced in that regime, whereas at high ionic-strength steric interactions become dominant due to electrostatic screening. Osmotic pressure predictions are compared to experimental data and to well-established theoretical models including the Donnan theory and the Poisson-Boltzmann cylindrical cell model. PMID:16055525

  16. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wu, Tao; Dai, ShengDong; Xu, Jinling; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) extracts against obesity have been reported; however, the anti-obesity ability of the major components of green tea, polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine is not clear. Therefore, experiments with total green tea extracts, polyphenols, polysaccharides, caffeine, and a complex of polysaccharide and polyphenol at a dose of 400 or 800 mg kg? were conducted on high-fat diet fed rats for 6 weeks to investigate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicated that polyphenols and polysaccharides were responsible for the suppressive effect of green tea extracts on body weight increase and fat accumulation. Moreover, polyphenols, polysaccharides, or caffeine can improve blood lipid and antioxidant levels, and effectively reduce rat serum leptin levels, inhibit the absorption of fatty acids, and markedly reduce the expression levels of the IL-6 and TNF-? gene. Furthermore, it was shown that polysaccharides and polyphenols were synergistic in reduction of serum leptin levels and in anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the polysaccharide combination with polyphenols might be a potential therapy against obesity. PMID:25431018

  17. Method for Simultaneous Measurement of Antibodies to 23 Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Raymond E.; Schlottmann, Sonela A.; Sammons, Deborah L.; Smith, Jerome P.; Snawder, John C.; Striley, Cynthia A. F.; MacKenzie, Barbara A.; Weissman, David N.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay (FCMIA) method for the simultaneous (multiplexed) measurement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to 23 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PnPS) serotypes present in the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) licensed by the Food and Drug Administration, i.e., PnPSs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19A, 19F, 20, 22F, 23F, and 33F. In addition, the assay incorporates an internal control that allows for contemporaneous evaluation of the effectiveness of pneumococcal cell wall polysaccharide (C-PS) preadsorption and a second control of PnPS 25 (which is not present in any polysaccharide or conjugate vaccine), which can be used to evaluate interassay reproducibility (useful for pre- versus postvaccination studies). The FCMIA was standardized with U.S. reference antipneumococcal serotype standard serum 89S-2. Preadsorption of 89S-2 with each PnPS and C-PS yielded homologous inhibition for serotypes 1, 6B, 9N, 9V, 11A, 12F,14, 15B, 18C, 19A, 19F, 20, 22F, 25, and 33F; heterologous inhibition for serotypes 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 15B, 17F, 20, and 23F; and neither homologous nor heterologous inhibition for serotypes 2, 3, 4, and 5. The minimum detectable concentrations for the 24 multiplexed (PnPS and C-PS) FCMIAs ranged from 20 pg/ml for PnPS 3 to 600 pg/ml for PnPS 14. The PnPS FCMIA method has numerous benefits over enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays commonly used to measure anti-PnPS-specific IgG levels, including increased speed, smaller sample volumes, equivalent or better sensitivity, and increased dynamic range. PMID:12965898

  18. Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

  19. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  20. Anticorrosive Microbial Polysaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble microbial polysaccharides are often implicated in biofilm formation and are believed to mediate cell-cell aggregation and adhesion to surfaces. Generally, biofilm formation is considered harmful or undesirable, as it leads to increased drag, plugging of pores, dimished heat transfer, ...

  1. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  2. Observation of an Organic-Inorganic Lattice Match during Biomimetic Growth of (001)-Oriented Calcite Crystals under Floating Sulfate Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kewalramani, S.; Kim, K; Stripe, B; Evmenenko, G; Dommett, G; Dutta, P

    2008-01-01

    Macromolecular layers rich in amino acids and with some sulfated polysaccharides appear to control oriented calcite growth in living organisms. Calcite crystals nucleating under floating acid monolayers have been found to be unoriented on average. We have now observed directly, using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, that there is a 1:1 match between the monolayer unit cell and the unit cell of the (001) plane of calcite. Thus, sulfate head groups appear to act as templates for the growth of (001)-oriented calcite crystals, which is the orientation commonly found in biominerals.

  3. Analysis of Saprolegnia parasitica Transcriptome following Treatment with Copper Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Sun, Qi; Yuan, Hai-Lan; Liang, Nan; Fang, Wen-Hong; Li, Hao-Ran; Yang, Xian-Le

    2016-01-01

    Background Massive infection caused by oomycete fungus Saprolegnia parasitica is detrimental to freshwater fish. Recently, we showed that copper sulfate demonstrated good efficacy for controlling S. parasitica infection in grass carp. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of S. parasitica growth by copper sulfate by analyzing the transcriptome of copper sulfate—treated S. parasitica. To examine the mechanism of copper sulfate inhibiting S. parasitica, we utilized RNA-seq technology to compare differential gene expression in S. parasitica treated with or without copper sulfate. Results The total mapped rates of the reads with the reference genome were 90.50% in the control group and 73.50% in the experimental group. In the control group, annotated splice junctions, partial novel splice junctions and complete novel splice junctions were about 83%, 3% and 14%, respectively. In the treatment group, the corresponding values were about 75%, 6% and 19%. Following copper sulfate treatment, a total 310 genes were markedly upregulated and 556 genes were markedly downregulated in S. parasitica. Material metabolism related GO terms including cofactor binding (33 genes), 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase complex (4 genes), carboxylic acid metabolic process (40 genes) were the most significantly enriched. KEGG pathway analysis also determined that the metabolism-related biological pathways were significantly enriched, including the metabolic pathways (98 genes), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathways (42 genes), fatty acid metabolism (13 genes), phenylalanine metabolism (7 genes), starch and sucrose metabolism pathway (12 genes). The qRT-PCR results were largely consistent with the RNA-Seq results. Conclusion Our results indicate that copper sulfate inhibits S. parasitica growth by affecting multiple biological functions, including protein synthesis, energy biogenesis, and metabolism. PMID:26895329

  4. Arylsulfatase B modulates neurite outgrowth via astrocyte chondroitin-4-sulfate: dysregulation by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Kusumo, Handojo; Goodlett, Charles R; Tobacman, Joanne K; Guizzetti, Marina

    2014-02-01

    In utero ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, associated with reduced brain plasticity; the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood, particularly with respect to glial involvement. Astrocytes release factors that modulate neurite outgrowth. We explored the hypothesis that ethanol inhibits neurite outgrowth by increasing the levels of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in astrocytes. Astrocyte treatment with ethanol inhibited the activity of arylsulfatase B (ARSB), the enzyme that removes sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and triggers the degradation of C4S, increased total sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), C4S, and neurocan core-protein content and inhibited neurite outgrowth in neurons cocultured with ethanol-treated astrocytes in vitro, effects reversed by treatment with recombinant ARSB. Ethanol also inhibited ARSB activity and increased sulfate GAG and neurocan levels in the developing hippocampus after in vivo ethanol exposure. ARSB silencing increased the levels of sulfated GAGs, C4S, and neurocan in astrocytes and inhibited neurite outgrowth in cocultured neurons, indicating that ARSB activity directly regulates C4S and affects neurocan expression. In summary, this study reports two major findings: ARSB modulates sulfated GAG and neurocan levels in astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth in cocultured neurons; and ethanol inhibits the activity of ARSB, increases sulfated GAG, C4S, and neurocan levels, and thereby inhibits astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth. An unscheduled increase in CSPGs in the developing brain may lead to altered brain connectivity and to premature decrease in neuronal plasticity and therefore represents a novel mechanism by which ethanol can exert its neurodevelopmental effects. PMID:24311516

  5. Arylsulfatase B modulates neurite outgrowth via astrocyte chondroitin-4-sulfate: dysregulation by ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Kusumo, Handojo; Goodlett, Charles R.; Tobacman, Joanne K.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In utero ethanol exposure causes Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, associated with reduced brain plasticity; the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood, particularly with respect to glial involvement. Astrocytes release factors that modulate neurite outgrowth. We explored the hypothesis that ethanol inhibits neurite outgrowth by increasing the release of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) from astrocytes. Astrocyte treatment with ethanol inhibited the activity of arylsulfatase B (ARSB), the enzyme that removes sulfate groups from chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S) and triggers the degradation of C4S, increased total sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), C4S, and neurocan core-protein content and inhibited neurite outgrowth in neurons co-cultured with ethanol-treated astrocytes in vitro, effects reversed by treatment with recombinant ARSB. Ethanol also inhibited ARSB activity and increased sulfate GAG and neurocan levels in the developing hippocampus after in vivo ethanol exposure. ARSB silencing increased the levels of sulfated GAGs, C4S, and neurocan in astrocytes and inhibited neurite outgrowth in co-cultured neurons, indicating that ARSB activity directly regulates C4S and affects neurocan expression. In summary, this study reports two major findings: ARSB modulates sulfated GAG and neurocan levels in astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth in co-cultured neurons; and ethanol inhibits the activity of ARSB, increases sulfated GAG, C4S, and neurocan levels, and thereby inhibits astrocyte-mediated neurite outgrowth. An unscheduled increase in CSPGs in the developing brain may lead to altered brain connectivity and to premature decrease in neuronal plasticity and therefore represents a novel mechanism by which ethanol can exert its neurodevelopmental effects. PMID:24311516

  6. Structure-function relationships of immunostimulatory polysaccharides: A review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Snia S; Passos, Cludia P; Madureira, Pedro; Vilanova, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-11-01

    Immunostimulatory polysaccharides are compounds capable of interacting with the immune system and enhance specific mechanisms of the host response. Glucans, mannans, pectic polysaccharides, arabinogalactans, fucoidans, galactans, hyaluronans, fructans, and xylans are polysaccharides with reported immunostimulatory activity. The structural features that have been related with such activity are the monosaccharide and glycosidic-linkage composition, conformation, molecular weight, functional groups, and branching characteristics. However, the establishment of structure-function relationships is possible only if purified and characterized polysaccharides are used and selective structural modifications performed. Aiming at contributing to the definition of the structure-function relationships necessary to design immunostimulatory polysaccharides with potential for preventive or therapeutical purposes or to be recognized as health-improving ingredients in functional foods, this review introduces basic immunological concepts required to understand the mechanisms that rule the potential claimed immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides and critically presents a literature survey on the structural features of the polysaccharides and reported immunostimulatory activity. PMID:26256362

  7. Plagioclase dissolution during CO?-SO? cosequestration: effects of sulfate.

    PubMed

    Min, Yujia; Kubicki, James D; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-02-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising methods to mitigate the adverse impacts of global climate change. The performance of GCS can be affected by mineral dissolution and precipitation induced by injected CO2. Cosequestration with acidic gas such as SO2 can reduce the high cost of GCS, but it will increase the sulfate's concentration in GCS sites, where sulfate can potentially affect plagioclase dissolution/precipitation. This work investigated the effects of 0.05 M sulfate on plagioclase (anorthite) dissolution and subsequent mineral precipitation at 90 C, 100 atm CO2, and 1 M NaCl, conditions relevant to GCS sites. The adsorption of sulfate on anorthite, a Ca-rich plagioclase, was examined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and then simulated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the dissolution rate of anorthite was enhanced by a factor of 1.36 by the formation of inner-sphere monodentate complexes between sulfate and the aluminum sites on anorthite surfaces. However, this effect was almost completely suppressed in the presence of 0.01 M oxalate, an organic ligand that can exist in GCS sites. Interestingly, sulfate also inhibited the formation of secondary mineral precipitation through the formation of aluminum-sulfate complexes in the aqueous phase. This work, for the first time, reports the surface complexation between sulfate and plagioclase that can occur in GCS sites. The results provide new insights for obtaining scientific guidelines for the proper amount of SO2 coinjection and finally for evaluating the economic efficiency and environmental safety of GCS operations. PMID:25549263

  8. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. )

    1990-12-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs as... ferrous sulfate (dried). Ferrous sulfate (dried) consists primarily of ferrous sulfate monohydrate...

  10. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan: serpin-independent effect and specific interaction with factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Bianca F.; Rezende, Ricardo M.; Melo, Fabio R.; Pereira, Mariana S.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Rezaie, Alireza R.; Mouro, Paulo A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary An algal sulfated galactan has high anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Its serpin-dependent anticoagulant action is due to promoting thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. Here, we evaluated the anticoagulant effect of the algal sulfated galactan using serpin-free plasma. In contrast to heparin, the sulfated galactan is still able to prolong coagulation time and delay thrombin and factor Xa generation in serpin-free plasma. We further investigated this effect using purified blood coagulation proteins, discovering that sulfated galactan inhibits the intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complexes, which are critical for factor Xa and thrombin generation, respectively. We also investigated the mechanism by which sulfated galactan promotes factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin using specific recombinant mutants of the protease. We show that sulfated galactan interacts with the heparin-binding exosite of factor Xa and Arg-236 and Lys-240 of this site are critical residues for this interaction, as observed for heparin. Thus, sulfated galactan and heparin have similar high-affinity and specificity for interaction with factor Xa, though they have differences in their chemical structures. Similar to heparin, the ability of sulfated galactan to potentiate factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin is calcium-dependent. However, in contrast to heparin, this effect is not entirely dependent on the conformation of the ?-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain of the protease. In conclusion, sulfated galactan and heparin have some similar effects on blood coagulation, but also differ significantly at the molecular level. This sulfated galactan opens new perspective for the development of antithrombotic drugs. PMID:19967150

  11. Effects of Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, H L; Li, D F; Chang, B Y; Gong, L M; Dai, J G; Yi, G F

    2003-03-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of two Chinese herbal polysaccharides [achyranthan (ACH), a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide, and astragalan (APS), a high-molecular-weight polysaccaride] on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Trial 1 was a 28-d growth assay, in which 7-d-old broilers (n = 240) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments, with eight replicate pens per treatment and ten chickens per pen. Dietary treatments included a control corn-soy-fishmeal (Treatment 1), a diet with 200 mg/kg APS (Treatment 2), and a diet with 200 mg/kg ACH (Treatment 3). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture on Days 7, 14, 21, and 28 for determination of serum parameters, and chickens were killed on Day 28 to measure immune organ indexes. Trial 2 was an in vitro trial to study the effects of different concentrations of polysaccharides on broiler splenocyte functions. In Trial 1, feeding either APS or ACH had no significant effects on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, feeding ACH significantly increased microhemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers, bursa of Fabricius index, serum albumin, serum calcium, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations at Day 28 (P < or = 0.05). In Trial 2, both polysaccharides showed significant immunostimulating effects. They increased NO and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of splenocytes and enhanced splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Those results indicate that the immunostimulating effects of APS are not as pronounced as those of ACH. Achyranthan showed immunostimulating effects in both the growth assay and in vitro studies. Therefore, ACH may be a Chinese herbal polysaccharide that has the potential to be used as a feed additive to improve broilers' immunity. PMID:12705395

  12. Polysaccharide with antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory and ACE inhibitory activities from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee-Feng; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-04-01

    Functional polysaccharide was isolated from Momordica charantia, with a yield of 36% (w/w). M. charantia bioactive polysaccharide (MCBP) was an acidic and branched heteropolysaccharide with a molecular weight of 92kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis indicated that MCBP was a pectin-like polysaccharide with an esterification degree of 53% and it contains numerous monosaccharides, predominantly glucose, galactose, and galaturonic acid. The results also showed that MCBP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (31.9%), ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.95mM), α-amylase inhibition (89.1%), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (94.1%). In the terms of functionality, MCBP showed a lower water-holding capacity but higher in oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity compared to citrus pectin. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that MCBP formed gels with a porous structure, and flow analysis showed that the gel solution exhibited pseudoplastic shear-thinning behavior. These findings indicated that MCBP is a promising functional macromolecular carbohydrate for the food and nutraceutical industries. PMID:26778156

  13. Sulfation of melatonin: enzymatic characterization, differences of organs, species and genders, and bioactivity variation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangge; Huo, Xiaokui; Dong, Peipei; Wu, Baojian; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Chao; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaochi

    2015-04-15

    Exogenous melatonin (Mel) is widely used in clinic for multiple therapeutic purposes. In metabolism pathways of Mel, 6-hydroxymelatonin-sulfate (S-O-Mel) and N-acetylserotonin sulfate (S-NAS) are the most abundant metabolites account for over 90% of total Mel metabolites in humans, indicating that sulfation plays an important role in reflecting the functions and clearance of Mel in vivo. In the present study, we characterized Mel sulfation using various human organ cytosols (liver, lung, kidney, small intestine and brain), liver cytosols from five different animal species, and cDNA-expressed human sulfotransferase (SULT) for the first time. Our results demonstrated that liver, lung, kidney and small intestine of humans had high catalytic efficiency for Mel sulfation, however, brain contained a very low reaction rate. Interestingly, organ cytosols prepared from females exhibited higher sulfation activity than those of males. SULT isoforms 1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1 and 1E1 exhibited metabolic activities toward Mel. According to kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), chemical inhibition, correlation analysis, molecular docking and sulfation assays with recombinant human SULTs isoforms, SULT1A1 was determined as the major enzyme responsible for Mel sulfation. Furthermore, considerable species differences in Mel sulfation were observed, and the total intrinsic clearance rate of Mel sulfation was as follows: monkey>rat>dog>human>pig>mouse. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effects of Mel and its sulfated metabolites were evaluated by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells, and S-O-Mel as a bioactive form, exhibited potent bioactivity. Our investigation provided a global view of the enzyme-dependent sulfation of Mel that can guide biomedical research on Mel. PMID:25738837

  14. Liberation of sulfate from sulfate esters by soils.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, C; Rose, R A

    1976-01-01

    When incubated with acid, alkaline, and neutral soils, a variety of synthetic sulfate esters representing the various classes of these compounds was hydrolyzed by enzymes, probably of microbial origin. The appearance of sulfate in the soil water occurred immediately after introduction into the soils with some esters, whereas with others it occurred only after lag periods. Heat treatment destroyed the hydrolytic acitivity in the soils. The ester sulfate groups present in humic acid extracted from the soil appeared to be resistant to hydrolysis by a variety of sulfohydrolases extracted from bacteria and other organisms. Images PMID:938044

  15. Inhibitory activity of polysaccharide extracts from three kinds of edible fungi on proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell and mouse implanted S180 tumor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shi-Ming; Xiao, Zheng-Ming; Xu, Zhao-Hui

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine the activities of polysaccharide extracts from Flammulina velutipes (Curt. ex Fr.) Sing (FV), Lentinus edodes (LE) and Agaricus bisporus-Sing (AB) on the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and on mouse implanted S-180 tumors in vivo. METHODS: The polysaccharide extracts were isolated from the fruit bodies of FV, LE and AB by the methods of hot-water extraction, Sevags removal of proteins, ethanol precipitation, trypsin digestion and ethanol fractional precipitation. Human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were treated with 50 mg/L polysaccharide extracts, and the mitosis index, mitochondria activity and cell proliferation were detected at different times in both control and experimental groups. The mice with S-180 implanted tumors were injected with the polysaccharide extracts at 24 mg/kg body weight for 9 d and the tumor weight was measured on the 15th day. RESULTS: The mitosis index of hepatoma cells in vitro could be significantly decreased by treatment with the polysaccharide extracts from the three kinds of edible fungi (P < 0.005). The cell numbers and mitochondria activity of SMMC-7721 cells treated with polysaccharide extracts were lower than those in control groups (P < 0.005). The inhibition rates of polysaccharide extracts against implanted S-180 tumors in mice were 52.8%, 56.6% and 51.9% respectively compared with that in control groups. CONCLUSION: The polysaccharide extracts from the three kinds o f edible fungi could inhibit not only the cultured malignant cells in vitro but also implanted S-180 tumor in vivo. PMID:11819477

  16. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against α-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of diabetes. This study provides scientific evidence and advances in the preparation technology and a hypoglycemic activities evaluation method for seaweed polysaccharides, especially glycosidase inhibition in combination with an antioxidative activity evaluation method.

  17. Homologous overexpression of rfaH in E. coli K4 improves the production of chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate, are among the top ranked products in industrial biotechnology for biomedical applications, with a growing world market of billion dollars per year. Recently a remarkable progress has been made in the development of tailor-made strains as sources for the manufacturing of such products. The genetic modification of E. coli K4, a natural producer of chondroitin sulfate precursor, is challenging considering the lack of detailed information on its genome, as well as its mobilome. Chondroitin sulfate is currently used as nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and several new therapeutic applications, spanning from the development of skin substitutes to live attenuated vaccines, are under evaluation. Results E. coli K4 was used as host for the overexpression of RfaH, a positive regulator that controls expression of the polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and other genes necessary for the virulence of E. coli K4. Various engineering strategies were compared to investigate different types of expression systems (plasmid vs integrative cassettes) and integration sites (genome vs endogenous mobile element). All strains analysed in shake flasks on different media showed a capsular polysaccharide production improved by 40 to 140%, compared to the wild type, with respect to the final product titer. A DO-stat fed-batch process on the 2L scale was also developed for the best performing integrative strain, EcK4r3, yielding 5.3 g∙L-1 of K4 polysaccharide. The effect of rfaH overexpression in EcK4r3 affected the production of lipopolysaccharide and the expression of genes involved in the polysaccharide biosynthesis pathway (kfoC and kfoA), as expected. An alteration of cellular metabolism was revealed by changes of intracellular pools of UDP-sugars which are used as precursors for polysaccharide biosynthesis. Conclusions The present study describes the identification of a gene target and the application of a successful metabolic engineering strategy to the unconventional host E. coli K4 demonstrating the feasibility of using the recombinant strain as stable cell factory for further process implementations. PMID:23659469

  18. ?-Amylase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Wu, Di; Ning, Xin; Yang, Guang; Lin, Ziheng; Tian, Meihong; Zhou, Yifa

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ?-amylase-assisted extraction was used to isolate the polysaccharide that remained in hot water-extracted ginseng. The yield of the polysaccharide was 9.0%, almost equal to that of the hot water-extracted polysaccharide. Using anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography, the polysaccharide was fractionated into a neutral polysaccharide fraction and six pectic fractions. The neutral fraction accounted for 76% of the polysaccharide and contained both amylopectin and amylose. The pectic polysaccharide fractions were identified to be arabinogalactan, type-I rhamnogalacturonan and homogalacturonan-type pectin by high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform-infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Structural and lymphocyte proliferation activity results showed that these polysaccharides were different from those extracted by hot water, indicating that ginseng contains complex polysaccharides with diverse structures, which results in its diverse pharmacological activities. The ?-amylase-assisted extraction is a novel method for preparing ginseng polysaccharides and could be applied toward the further study and exploration of ginseng. These findings provide technical and theoretical support for ginseng pharmacology. PMID:25616118

  19. Biosynthesis of heparin. Availability of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kusche, M.; Torri, G.; Casu, B.; Lindahl, U. )

    1990-05-05

    Heparin preparations isolated from pig intestinal mucosa and from bovine lung were fractionated with regard to affinity for antithrombin. The resulting fractions, with high (HA) or low (LA) affinity for the proteinase inhibitor, were analyzed by 13C NMR or by identification of di- and tetrasaccharides obtained through deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid. Structural differences between corresponding HA and LA fractions were essentially restricted to minor constituents, in particular 3-O-sulfated glucosamine units that occurred (1 or 2 residues/chain) in all HA preparations but were scarce or absent in LA heparin. The HA fractions also consistently showed higher contents of nonsulfated iduronic acid and, to a lesser extent, N-acetylated glucosamine units than the LA fractions. The two tetrasaccharide sequences, -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3- and -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3(6-OSO3)- , recently implicated as part of the acceptor site for glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfate groups were identified in mucosal LA heparin; it was calculated that the preparation contained approximately one potential acceptor site/polysaccharide chain. Yet this material did not yield any labeled HA components on incubation with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phospho-(35S)sulfate in the presence of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase, solubilized from a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. The failure to incorporate any 3-O-sulfate groups could conceivably be explained by the occurrence of a D-glucuronic rather than L-iduronic acid unit linked at the reducing ends of the above tetrasaccharide sequences. Alternatively, 3-O-sulfation may be restricted by other, as yet unidentified, inhibitory structural elements that are preferentially expressed in polysaccharide sequences selected for the generation of LA heparin.Au

  20. Microbial polysaccharides template assembly of nanocrystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Clara S; De Stasio, Gelsomina; Welch, Susan A; Girasole, Marco; Frazer, Bradley H; Nesterova, Maria V; Fakra, Sirine; Banfield, Jillian F

    2004-03-12

    Biological systems can produce extraordinary inorganic structures and morphologies. The mechanisms of synthesis are poorly understood but are of great interest for engineering novel materials. We use spectromicroscopy to show that microbially generated submicrometer-diameter iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) filaments contain polysaccharides, providing an explanation for the formation of akaganeite pseudo-single crystals with aspect ratios of approximately 1000:1. We infer that the cells extrude the polysaccharide strands to localize FeOOH precipitation in proximity to the cell membrane to harness the proton gradient for energy generation. Characterization of organic compounds with high spatial resolution, correlated with mineralogical information, should improve our understanding of biomineralization mechanisms. PMID:15016997

  1. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional r