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1

Preparation and evaluation of polysaccharide sulfates for inhibiting Helicobacter pylori adhesion.  

PubMed

In treatments of Helicobacter pylori infections, recrudescences were common because of an unfavorable bacterial eradication rate due to the ever increasing resistance to antibiotics. In this study, we chose pectin, guar gum and chitosan to synthesize their sulfates to inhibit adhesions of H. pylori and thus enhance the eradication rate. The introduction of sulfates was characterized using FT-IR and elemental analysis. Data from zeta-potential, hydrodynamic diameter, hydrolysis and rheological property demonstrated the sulfates were physicochemically stable. Inhibition assay of hemagglutination and adhesion indicated sulfates prevented H. pylori from adhering to erythrocytes and AGS cells. In binding assay, affinities of sulfates to H. pylori suggested sulfates could compete with target cells for bacteria and moderated the bacterial adhesion to hosts. A higher content of galactoses and 2,3-O-linked sulfates benefited this action. Thus polysaccharide sulfates can serve as potential adjuvants to raise the bacterial eradication rate by inhibiting adhesions of H. pylori. PMID:24528746

Song, Weijuan; Wang, Yalong; Zhang, Liyan; Fu, Shengnan; Zeng, Ying; Hu, Haiyan

2014-03-15

2

Inhibition of Chondroitin-4-Sulfate-Specific Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes by Sulfated Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin 4-sulfate (CSA) has been linked to the severe disease outcome of pregnancy-associated malaria. Soluble polysaccharides that release mature-stage parasitized erythrocytes into the peripheral circulation may help elucidate these interactions and have the potential to aid in developing therapeutic strategies. We have screened a panel of 11 sulfated polysaccharides for their capacities to inhibit adhesion of infected erythrocytes to CSA expressed on CHO-K1 cells and ex vivo human placental tissue. Two carrageenans and a cellulose sulfate (CS10) were able to inhibit adhesion to CSA and to cause already bound infected erythrocytes to de-adhere in a dose-dependent manner. CS10, like CSA and in contrast to all other compounds tested, remained bound to infected erythrocytes after washing and continued to inhibit binding. Both carrageenans and CS10 inhibited adhesion to placental tissue. Although highly sulfated dextran sulfate can inhibit CSA-mediated adhesion to CHO cells, this polysaccharide amplified adhesion to placental tissue severalfold, demonstrating the importance of evaluating inhibitory compounds in systems as close to in vivo as possible. Interestingly, and in contrast to all other compounds tested, which had a random distribution of sulfate groups, CS10 exhibited a clustered sulfate pattern along the polymer chain, similar to that of the undersulfated placental CSA preferred by placental-tissue-binding infected erythrocytes. Therefore, the specific antiadhesive capacity observed here seems to depend not only on the degree of charge and sulfation but also on a particular pattern of sulfation. PMID:15972521

Andrews, Katherine T.; Klatt, Nicole; Adams, Yvonne; Mischnick, Petra; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

2005-01-01

3

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by modulating RANKL signaling.  

PubMed

Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-?B, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-?B activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption. PMID:25334060

Kim, Young Woo; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon

2014-01-01

4

Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions. PMID:24361592

Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

2014-01-30

5

Highly Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infectivity in Cell Lines and Human Tracheal-Bronchial Histocultures  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exploits cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) as attachment receptors. The interaction between RSV and HSPGs thus presents an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitors of RSV infection. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was used to generate a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure that mimics the heparin/heparan sulfate biosynthetic precursor. The screening of a series of N-sulfated (K5-NS), O-sulfated (K5-OS), and N,O-sulfated (K5-N,OS) derivatives with different degrees of sulfation revealed the highly sulfated K5 derivatives K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) to be inhibitors of RSV. Their 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 1.07 nM and 3.81 nM in two different cell lines, and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. Inhibition of RSV infection was maintained in binding and attachment assays but not in preattachment assays. Moreover, antiviral activity was also evident when the K5 derivatives were added postinfection, both in cell-to-cell spread and viral yield reduction assays. Finally, both K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) prevented RSV infection in human-derived tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells cultured to form a pseudostratified, highly differentiated model of the epithelial tissue of the human respiratory tract. Together, these features put K5-N,OS(H) and K5-OS(H) forward as attractive candidates for further development as RSV inhibitors. PMID:24914125

Cagno, Valeria; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Volante, Marco; Veccelli, Elena; Oreste, Pasqua; Rusnati, Marco

2014-01-01

6

Sulfation of tea polysaccharides: synthesis, characterization and hypoglycemic activity.  

PubMed

Neutral polysaccharides (NTPS) and acid polysaccharides (ATPS) from tea leaves were obtained on a D315 macroporous anion-exchange resin column chromatography. NTPS and ATPS were sulfated by the pyridine-sulfonic acid method to obtain NTPS-S and ATPS-S. It was found that NTPS was easier sulfated than ATPS. There are strong characteristic absorption peaks located in 1258 cm(-1), 1146 cm(-1), 832 cm(-1) and 617 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectra of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of polysaccharides also affected the endothermic and exothermic peaks via the DSC scan analysis. The appearance of exothermic peaks in both NTPS-S and ATPS-S indicated that the redox reaction might happen. The comparative study of hypoglycemic effect on mice showed that the sulfation of polysaccharides significantly improved hypoglycemic activity. PMID:20026346

Wang, Yuanfeng; Peng, Yonghua; Wei, Xinlin; Yang, Zhiwei; Xiao, Jianbo; Jin, Zhengyu

2010-03-01

7

Sulfated modification and cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (POP1) was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Four sulfated derivatives of POP1 (POP1-s1, POP1-s2, POP1-s3 and POP1-s4) were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid method with N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a dehydration-condensation agent. FT-IR spectra and 13C NMR spectra indicated the sulfated groups had been introduced at the C-6 and C-2 positions of POP1. Sulfated derivatives had different degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 1.01 to 1.81, and different weight-average molecular mass (Mw) ranging from 41.4 to 48.5 KDa. Sulfated derivatives except POP1-s5 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and Hela cells in vitro significantly, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance cytotoxicity of POP1 on tumor cells. Flow cytometric studies revealed that sulfated derivatives could mediate the cell-cycle arrest of Hela cells in the S phase. PMID:20820911

Chen, Tong; Wang, Jin; Li, Yuanyuan; Shen, Jianmin; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Haixia

2010-08-01

8

Sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida: isolation, structural characteristics, and antitumor activity.  

PubMed

During the last decade brown seaweeds attracted much attention as a source of polysaccharides, namely laminarans, alginic acids, and sulfated polysaccharides-fucoidans, with various structures and biological activities. In this study, sulfated polysaccharides were isolated from brown seaweeds Saccharina japonica (formerly named Laminaria) and Undaria pinnatifida and their antitumor activity was tested against human breast cancer T-47D and melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The sulfated polysaccharide form S. japonica was highly branched partially acetylated sulfated galactofucan, built up of (1?3)-?-L-fucose residues. The sulfated polysaccharide from U. pinnatifida was partially acetylated highly sulfated galactofucan consisting of (1?3)- or (1?3);(1?4)-?-L-fucose residues. Fucoidans from S. japonica and U. pinnatifida distinctly inhibited proliferation and colony formation in both breast cancer and melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the use of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds S. japonica and U. pinnatifida might be a potential approach for cancer treatment. PMID:22024567

Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

2011-12-13

9

Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application. PMID:21566795

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

2011-01-01

10

Evaluation of Macroalgae Sulfated Polysaccharides on the Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Promastigote  

PubMed Central

The sulfated polysaccharides from Solieria filiformis (Sf), Botryocladia occidentalis (Bo), Caulerpa racemosa (Cr) and Gracilaria caudata (Gc) were extracted and extensively purified. These compounds were then subjected to in vitro assays to evaluate the inhibition of these polysaccharides on the growth of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes. Under the same assay conditions, only three of the four sulfated polysaccharides were active against L. amazonensis, and the polysaccharide purified from Cr was the most potent (EC50 value: 34.5 ?g/mL). The polysaccharides derived from Bo and Sf demonstrated moderate anti-leishmanial activity (EC50 values of 63.7 ?g/mL and 137.4 ?g/mL). In addition, we also performed in vitro cytotoxic assays toward peritoneal macrophages and J774 macrophages. For the in vitro cytotoxicity assay employing J774 cells, all of the sulfated polysaccharides decreased cell survival, with CC50 values of 27.3 ?g/mL, 49.3 ?g/mL, 73.2 ?g/mL, and 99.8 ?g/mL for Bo, Cr, Gc, and Sf, respectively. However, none of the sulfated polysaccharides reduced the cell growth rate of the peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that macroalgae contain compounds with various chemical properties that can control specific pathogens. According to our results, the assayed sulfated polysaccharides were able to modulate the growth rate and cell survival of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes in in vitro assays, and these effects involved the interaction of the sulfated polysaccharides on the cell membrane of the parasites. PMID:23519148

Pires, Camila Lehnhardt; Rodrigues, Selma Dzimidas; Bristot, Daniel; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Farias, Wladimir Ronald Lobo; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

2013-01-01

11

In vitro antiviral activity of sulfated Auricularia auricula polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Total Auricularia auricula polysaccharide (AAP(t)) was prepared by extracting and removing the proteins. Column chromatography was used to further graded it into AAP(1) and AAP(2). Three AAPs were modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain three sulfated AAPs (sAAPs), sAAP(t), sAAP(1) and sAAP(2), respectively. Three sAAPs and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivation system of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) in three manners, pre-, post- and simultaneous-adding polysaccharide with NDV respectively, taking three non-modified AAPs as control. Their anti-viral activities were compared by MTT method. The results showed that sAAPs and AAPs at a certain concentration could significantly inhibit the cellular infectivity of NDV in three manners. The effects of sAAPs were better than that of AAPs. It indicated that sulfated modification could enhance the antiviral activity of AAP. sAAP(1) and sAAP(t) possessed stronger activity and would be as the component of a new-type antiviral drug. PMID:22939338

Nguyen, The Luong; Chen, Jin; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Junmin; Abula, Saifuding; Zhang, Jing; Qin, Tao; Chen, Xingying; Chen, Xiaolan; Khakame, Shem Kakai; Dang, Bao Khanh

2012-10-15

12

Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity  

PubMed Central

The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor). PMID:21339952

Esteves, Ana I. S.; Nicolai, Marisa; Humanes, Madalena; Goncalves, Joao

2011-01-01

13

Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Dengue Virus Infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Interacting with the Viral Envelope Protein E Domain III  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes cytokine-mediated alterations in the barrier function of the microvascular endothelium, leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We observed that DENV (serotype 2) productively infects primary (HMVEC-d) and immortalized (HMEC-1) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, despite the absence of well-described DENV receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or the mannose receptor on the cell surface. However, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were highly expressed on these cells and pre-treatment of HMEC-1 cells with heparinase II or with glycosaminoglycans reduced DENV infectivity up to 90%, suggesting that DENV uses HSPGs as attachment receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 derivatives, which are structurally similar to heparin/heparan sulfate but lack anticoagulant activity, were able to block DENV infection of HMEC-1 and HMVEC-d cells in the nanomolar range. The highly sulfated K5-OS(H) and K5-N,OS(H) inhibited virus attachment and subsequent entry into microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope (E) protein, as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis using the receptor-binding domain III of the E protein. PMID:24015314

Vervaeke, Peter; Alen, Marijke; Noppen, Sam; Schols, Dominique; Oreste, Pasqua; Liekens, Sandra

2013-01-01

14

Antiviral Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Rhodophytha, Gigartinales) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales)  

PubMed Central

Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from two red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Gigartinales, Sphaerococcaceae) and Boergeseniella thuyoides (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) collected on the coast of Morocco inhibited in vitro replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) at 12.5 ?g/mL. In addition, polysaccharides were capable of inhibiting the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on Vero cells values of EC50 of 4.1 and 17.2 ?g/mL, respectively. The adsorption step of HSV-1 to the host cell seems to be the specific target for polysaccharide action. While for HIV-1, these results suggest a direct inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication by controlling the appearance of the new generations of virus and potential virucidal effect. The polysaccharides from S. coronopifolius (PSC) and B. thuyoides (PBT) were composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose, uronics acids, sulfate in ratios of 33.1, 11.0, 7.7 and 24.0% (w/w) and 25.4, 16.0, 3.2, 7.6% (w/w), respectively. PMID:21822410

Bouhlal, Rhimou; Haslin, Camille; Chermann, Jean-Claude; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Sinquin, Corinne; Simon, Gaelle; Cerantola, Stephane; Riadi, Hassane; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

2011-01-01

15

Preparation of heparan sulfate-like polysaccharide and application in stem cell chondrogenic differentiation.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that modulates individual development and cell growth through its interaction with growth factors. Structurally, heparan sulfate consists of repeating linear sulfated poly-anionic disaccharide structures. The K5 polysaccharide has the same structure as heparosan, and is the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli K5 strain which serves as a precursor in heparin and heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Here, we prepared sulfated K5 polysaccharides that are structurally similar to heparan sulfate and investigated their biocompatibility and bioactivity in stem cell chondrogenic differentiation. Briefly, sulfation groups were added to -NH- and/or -OH of a precursor heparosan and the modified heparosan was qualitatively analyzed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR techniques. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the sulfated K5 capsular polysaccharide. Relative mRNA expression of the chondrogenic differentiation marker COL2A1 was significantly upregulated in cells treated with the N,O-sulfated K5 polysaccharide confirming that the sulfated K5 capsular polysaccharide is able to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation. The main sulfation pattern for chondrogenic activity is N,6-O sulfation and the activity was not proportional to the sulfation level. This type of mimic was prepared in nearly a gram scale, supporting further structural study and 3 dimension stem cell culture. Together, the results of this study show that sulfated K5 capsular polysaccharides are able to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation without affecting cell viability. PMID:25464079

Zhao, Shancheng; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jingxiao; Chen, Jinghua

2015-01-12

16

In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Derivatives of Polysaccharides Extracted from Auricularia auricular  

PubMed Central

In this research, two types of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives were successfully synthesized. Their antioxidant activities were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. In addition, the degree of sulfation was evaluated using ion-chromatography and IR spectra. The results verify that, when employing scavenging superoxide radical tests, both the sulfation of acid Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SAAAP) and the sulfation of neutral Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SNAAP) derivatives possessed considerable antioxidant activity and had a more powerful antioxidant competence than that of the native non-sulfated polysaccharides (AAAP and NAAP). On the other hand, AAAP and NAAP exhibited stronger activity on scavenging both the hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Available data obtained with in vitro measurements indicates that the sulfated groups of AAAP and NAAP played an important role on antioxidant activity. In sum, the research demonstrates that the antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives in vitro has a potential significance for seeking new natural antioxidant protective agents. PMID:21686185

Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Zhi

2011-01-01

17

Chemical characterization and antiherpes activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Lithothamnion muelleri.  

PubMed

We report herein the chemical characterization and antiherpes activity of polysaccharides from the red alga Lithothamnion muelleri (Hapalidiaceae). The polysaccharide-rich fractions B1 and B2 were obtained by extraction with Na2CO3 and were purified by size exclusion chromatography to afford Fra-B1 and Fra-B2. The polysaccharides were characterized by FT-IR and chemical analysis (total contents of carbohydrates, proteins, sulfate and uronic acid), whereas their average molecular weights were estimated by high performance gel permeation chromatography. The monosaccharide analysis detected galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, rhamnose and arabinose in the four polysaccharide samples. Antiherpetic in vitro assays showed that B1 and B2 inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) when added simultaneously to viral infection affording selectivity indices (SI=CC50/EC50) higher than 20. Investigation of the mechanism of action indicated that B1 and B2 act on the initial steps of HSV replication, mainly inhibiting viral adsorption but also viral penetration into the cells. PMID:24608026

Malagoli, Bruna G; Cardozo, Francielle T G S; Gomes, Jose Hugo S; Ferraz, Vany P; Simões, Cláudia M O; Braga, Fernão C

2014-05-01

18

Sulfated Polysaccharides Purified from Two Species of Padina Improve Collagen and Epidermis Formation in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii using CaCl2 and ethanol precipitation. The sulfate content of each polysaccharide was determined. Two identical wounds (either burn or excision) were made on the back of 4 groups of male Wistar rats (10 rats per group) under anesthesia. The algal polysaccharide ointments (2%) were applied twice daily on one side and the other wound was treated with Eucerin (as control). The rats were sacrificed on day 7 or 14, and then the wound samples were examined for epidermal thickness by light microscope. Furthermore, hydroxyproline content (as a marker of collagen formation) was spectro-photometrically measured. The polysaccharides purified from P. boergesenii had higher sulfate content (32.6±1%) compared to P. tetrastromatica (19±1%). Both algal polysaccharides showed some improvements in collagen formation (hydroxyproline content) and epidermal thickness in both wound models compared to the vehicle. The sulfated polysaccharides purified from P. tetrastromatica and P. boergesenii seaweeds are able to induce collagen formation and epidermal regeneration in the two wound models. The superior healing properties of P. boergesenii polysaccharides might be correlated to its higher sulfate content. Both algal polysaccharides are good candidates for wound healing clinical trials. PMID:24551807

Kordjazi, Moazameh; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Feizi, Farideh; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Feghhi, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas

2013-01-01

19

Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}?8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28

20

Synthetic and semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycomimetics.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated polysaccharide involved in a myriad of biological processes. Due to the variable sulfation pattern of CS polymer chains, the need to study in detail structure-activity relationships regarding CS biomedical features has provoked much interest in obtaining synthetic CS species. This paper reviews two decades of synthetic and semi-synthetic CS oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycomimetics obtained by chemical, chemoenzymatic, enzymatic, and microbiological-chemical strategies. PMID:22410317

Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

2012-07-15

21

Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.  

PubMed

Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. PMID:23994790

Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

2013-11-01

22

Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of ? and ?-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed ?-carrageenan and oversulfated ?-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

2014-01-01

23

Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions

Diego O. Croci; Albana Cumashi; Natalia A. Ushakova; Marina E. Preobrazhenskaya; Antonio Piccoli; Licia Totani; Nadezhda E. Ustyuzhanina; Maria I. Bilan; Anatolii I. Usov; Alexey A. Grachev; Galina E. Morozevich; Albert E. Berman; Craig J. Sanderson; Maeve Kelly; Patrizia di Gregorio; Cosmo Rossi; Nicola Tinari; Stefano Iacobelli; Gabriel A. Rabinovich; Nikolay E. Nifantiev; Donald Gullberg

2011-01-01

24

Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells  

PubMed Central

Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

25

Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells.  

PubMed

Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon's eye, and dragon's eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500??g/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18?µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0?h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1?h and 2?h postinfection, albeit at 50??g/mL and 100??g/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. PMID:25221609

de Godoi, Ananda Marques; Faccin-Galhardi, Lígia Carla; Lopes, Nayara; Rechenchoski, Daniele Zendrini; de Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

26

Evaluation of sulfated polysaccharides from the brown seaweed Dictyopteris justii as antioxidant agents and as inhibitors of the formation of calcium oxalate crystals.  

PubMed

Oxalate crystals and other types of crystals are the cause of urolithiasis, and these are related to oxidative stress. The search for new compounds with antioxidant qualities and inhibitors of these crystal formations is therefore necessary. In this study, we extracted four sulfated polysaccharides, a fucoglucoxyloglucuronan (DJ-0.3v), a heterofucan (DJ-0.4v), and two glucans (DJ-0.5v and DJ-1.2v), from the marine alga Dictyopteris justii. The presence of sulfated polysaccharides was confirmed by chemical analysis and FT-IR. All the sulfated polysaccharides presented antioxidant activity under different conditions in some of the in vitro tests and inhibited the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Fucan DJ-0.4v was the polysaccharide that showed the best antioxidant activity and was one of the best inhibitors of the crystallization of calcium oxalate. Glucan DJ-0.5v was the second most potent inhibitor of the formation of oxalate crystals, as it stabilized dehydrated oxalate crystals (less aggressive form), preventing them from transforming into monohydrate crystals (more aggressive form). The obtained data lead us to propose that these sulfated polysaccharides are promising agents for use in the treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:24287990

Melo, Karoline Rachel Teodosio; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Vidal, Arthur Anthunes Jacome; Lima, Camila Renata Machado; Melo-Silveira, Raniere Fagundes; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2013-01-01

27

Semi-synthesis of unusual chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides containing GlcA(3-O-sulfate) or GlcA(2,3-di-O-sulfate) units.  

PubMed

The extraction from natural sources of Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a polysaccharide used for management of osteoarthritis, leads to very complex mixtures. The synthesis of CS by chemical modification of other polysaccharides has seldom been reported due to the intrinsic complexity that arises from fine chemical modifications of the polysaccharide structure. In view of the growing interest in expanding the application of CS to pharmacological fields other than osteoarthritis treatment, we launched a program to find new sources of known or even unprecedented CS polysaccharides. As part of this program, we report herein on an investigation of the use of a cyclic orthoester group to selectively protect the 4,6-diol of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in chondroitin (obtained from a microbial source), thereby facilitating its transformation into CSs. In particular, three CS polysaccharides were obtained and demonstrated to possess rare or hitherto unprecedented sulfation patterns by 2D NMR spectroscopy characterization. Two of them contained disaccharide subunits characterized by glucuronic acid residues selectively sulfated at position 3 (GlcA(3S)), the biological functions of which are known but have yet to be fully investigated. This first semi-synthetic access to GlcA(3S)-containing CS could greatly expedite such studies, since it can easily furnish considerable amounts of these polysaccharides, which are usually isolated with difficulty and in very low quantity from natural sources. PMID:22231439

Bedini, Emiliano; De Castro, Cristina; De Rosa, Mario; Di Nola, Annalida; Restaino, Odile F; Schiraldi, Chiara; Parrilli, Michelangelo

2012-02-13

28

High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

Konowalchuk, Thomas W

2014-01-14

29

Molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from Monostroma nitidum and their in vitro anticancer and immunomodulatory activities.  

PubMed

We investigated water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from Monostroma nitidum using ion-exchange chromatography to determine their molecular characteristics and biological activities. The crude and fractionated polysaccharides (F(1), F(2), and F(3)) consisted mostly of carbohydrates (58.3-91.9%), uronic acids (0-21.8%) and sulfates (1.8-17.7%) as well as varying amounts of proteins (1.6-9.4%). Their monosaccharide levels were significantly different including rhamnose (0-95.7%) and glucose (0-98.6%) content with small amounts of xylose (0.8-4.3%). These polysaccharides contained one or two subfractions with average molecular weights (M(w)) ranging from 94.4 to 1387×10(3) g/mol. The in vitro inhibitory activity (?75%) of the polysaccharides on a human cancer cell line (AGS) suggested that the polysaccharides had direct cytotoxic effects on the cancer cells. In addition, these hetero-polysaccharides (from the crude and F(1) and F(2) fractions) stimulated a macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7 cells, inducing considerable NO and PGE(2), production, which suggested that they could be strong immunomodulators. PMID:21145343

Karnjanapratum, Supatra; You, SangGuan

2011-03-01

30

In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera.  

PubMed

Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera and fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography (crude, F(1), F(2) and F(3) fractions) were investigated to determine their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. The sulfated polysaccharides, especially the F(1) and F(2) fractions, stimulated a macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7, inducing considerable nitric oxide (NO) and various cytokine production via up-regulated mRNA expression. The in vivo experiment results show that the sulfated polysaccharides (the crude and F(2) fractions) significantly increased Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation, revealing their potential comitogenic activity. In addition, IFN-? and IL-2 secretions were considerably increased by the F(2) fraction without altering the release of IL-4 and IL-5. This implies that the F(2) fraction can activate T cells by up-regulating Th-1 response and that Th-1 cells might be the main target cells of the F(2) fraction. These in vitro and in vivo results suggest that the sulfated polysaccharides are strong immunostimulators. PMID:21907732

Kim, Jin-Kyung; Cho, Myoung Lae; Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Shin, Il-Shik; You, Sang Guan

2011-12-01

31

The anti-DHAV activities of Astragalus polysaccharide and its sulfate compared with those of BSRPS and its sulfate.  

PubMed

This paper studied the anti-duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its sulfate (sAPS) compared with those of Bush Sophora Root polysaccharide (BSRPS) and its sulfate (sBSRPS). The antiviral activities of APS and sAPS were measured by MTT and real-time PCR methods, in vitro. In vivo experiment, the mortality rate and the evaluation indexes of hepatic injury, peroxidative injury and immune level were measured. Just like the condition of BSRPS and sBSRPS, the anti-DHAV activities of sAPS were stronger than those of APS, both in vitro and in vivo. It indicated sulfated modification could enhance the antiviral ability of polysaccharide. But unlike the antiviral effects of BSPRS and sBSRPS in vivo, APS and sAPS did not reduce the mortality rates as their abilities of scavenging free radicals and alleviating the hepatic injuries were weaker than those of BSRPS and sBSRPS. And they even did not enhance the immune levels. PMID:25498644

Chen, Yun; Song, Meiyun; Wang, Yixuan; Xiong, Wen; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Shuaibing; Xu, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yuanliang

2015-03-01

32

Structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from the green alga Codium divaricatum.  

PubMed

A sulfated polysaccharide, designated CP2-1, was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum by water extraction and purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. CP2-1 is a galactan which is highly sulfated and substituted with pyruvic acid ketals. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, the backbone of CP2-1 was mainly composed of (1?3)-?-d-galactopyranose residues, branched by single (1?)-?-d-galactopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-4 positions. The degree of branching was estimated to be about 12.2%. Sulfate groups were at C-4 of (1?3)-?-d-galactopyranose and C-6 of non-reducing terminal galactose residues. In addition, the ketals of pyruvic acid were found at 3,4- of non-reducing terminal galactose residues forming a five-membered ring. CP2-1 possessed a high anticoagulant activity as assessed by the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time assays. The investigation demonstrated that CP2-1 was an anticoagulant-active sulfated polysaccharide distinguishing from other sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae. PMID:25659687

Li, Na; Mao, Wenjun; Yan, Mengxia; Liu, Xue; Xia, Zheng; Wang, Shuyao; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Chenglong; Zhang, Lifang; Cao, Sujian

2015-05-01

33

Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis  

PubMed Central

Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm?1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1?6)-(1?3)-?-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1?3)-?-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1?3)-?-D-gluco-(1?2)-?-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 ?g/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 ?g/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 ?g/mL). PMID:23511057

Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simões, C. M. O.

2014-01-01

34

A chemically sulfated polysaccharide from Grifola frondos induces HepG2 cell apoptosis by notch1-NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides have been known to inhibit proliferation in tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in sulfated polysaccharides-induced apoptosis are still uncharacterized. In this study, the effect of a chemically sulfated polysaccharide obtained from Grifola frondosa (S-GFB) on HepG2 cell proliferation and apoptosis-related mechanism were investigated. It was found that S-GFB inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 at 48 h of 61 ?g ml(-1). The results of scanning electron micrographs indicated that S-GFB induced typical apoptotic morphological feature in HepG2 cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that S-GFB caused apoptosis of HepG2 cells through cells arrested at S phase. Western-blotting results showed that S-GFB inhibited notch1 expression, I?B-? degradation and NF-?B/p65 translocation from cytoplasm into nucleus. Simultaneously, the apoptotic mechanism of HepG2 cells induced by S-GFB was associated with down regulation of FLIP, and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Taken together, these findings suggest that the S-GFB induces apoptosis through a notch1/NF-?B/p65-mediated caspase pathway. PMID:23618270

Wang, Chun-ling; Meng, Meng; Liu, Sheng-bin; Wang, Li-rui; Hou, Li-hua; Cao, Xiao-hong

2013-06-01

35

Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches. PMID:23507892

Silva, Tiago H.; Alves, Anabela; Popa, Elena G.; Reys, Lara L.; Gomes, Manuela E.; Sousa, Rui A.; Silva, Simone S.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.

2012-01-01

36

Purification and Structural Characterization of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum and its Efficacy in Scavenging Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are one of the commercially beneficial compounds with a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. They are testified to be effective against free radicals and related health complications. This study aims to determine the antioxidant potential of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum, followed by its purification and structural characterization. Amount of extract obtained was 5% from 10 g of plant material. The carbohydrate and sulfate content were found to be 31 and 0.34 mg/10 g of plant material, respectively. Total sulfated polysaccharide extract showed a good radical scavenging activity at lower concentrations. The active principle from the total sulfated polysaccharide was fractionated in anion exchange and gel filtration columns followed by structural characterization using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fraction 12 closely matched with the Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of fucoidan. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum is identified as Fucoidan with potential radical scavenging activity compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene. PMID:23798781

Badrinathan, S.; Shiju, T. M.; Sharon Christa, A. Suneeva; Arya, R.; Pragasam, V.

2012-01-01

37

Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of a water-insoluble polysaccharides from Dictyophora indusiata.  

PubMed

The present study described the characterization and biological properties of water?soluble sulfated polysaccharides prepared from water?insoluble polysaccharide (DIP), which were extracted from Dictyophora indusiata. The sulfation of DIP was performed using the chlorosulfonic acid?pyridine method. The water solubilities of the sulfated derivatives were measured at room temperature according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and 1,1?diphenyl?2?picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as determined, together with the reduction ability of the sulfated polysaccharides. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of DIP and the sulfated derivatives on MCF?7 and B16 cells were then determined using an MTT assay. The substitution degrees of the sulfated polysaccharides were 0.584 (S1?DIP), 0.989 (S2?DIP) and 1.549 (S3?DIP) according to barium chloride?gelatin nephelometry. Infrared spectroscopy and 13C?nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that the substitution of S?DIP occurred mainly at the C?6 position, followed by the C?4 and C?2 positions. A significant increase was noted in the antioxidant activity of the sulfated derivatives compared with that of DIP. In addition, the S?DIPs exhibited a more marked reducing capacity and clearing activity of hydroxyl radicals and DPPH. This indicated that the antioxidant capacity of the polysaccharides was significantly higher following sulfation. Furthermore, in in vitro cell investigations, DIP exhibited no inhibitory effects on the growth of the B16 or MCF?7 tumor cells. However, the sulfated derivatives exerted marked inhibitory effects on these cell lines. Sulfate modification may therefore contribute to an improvement in water solubility and in the antioxidant and antitumor activities of natural DIP. PMID:25484243

Deng, Chao; Xu, Jingjing; Fu, Haitian; Chen, Jinghua; Xu, Xin

2015-04-01

38

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury  

E-print Network

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury Joshua M. Browna,1 , Jiang demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within

Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

39

Catalytic synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides. II: comparative studies of solution conformation and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Sulfated derivatives of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (ASP) with high degree of substitution (DS) were synthesized using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)/dimethylcyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as catalyst. Size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-LLS) results showed a decrease in fractal dimension (df) values of sulfated ASP (SASP). Compared to ASP and SASP with low DS (0.51-1.01), SASPcata2 exhibited an internal structure between rigid rod and random coil with a DS of 1.24. DS had greater influence on its conformation in aqueous solution. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed that the degradation of ASP and SO3H groups improved significantly the stiffness of the chains due to the electrostatic effect. Furthermore, antioxidant experiments revealed that high DS could enhance the scavenging activities of radicals and reducing power of SASP in vitro. The extended chain conformation was beneficial to enhance the biological activity of sulfated polysaccharides. PMID:24702939

Wang, Junlong; Niu, Shengfan; Zhao, Baotang; Luo, Tian; Liu, Die; Zhang, Ji

2014-07-17

40

Sulfated modification of longan polysaccharide and its immunomodulatory and antitumor activity in vitro.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LP1) was prepared from Dimocarpus longan Lour. by hot water extraction, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its sulfated derivative (LP1-S) was prepared by the sulfuric acid method. Preliminary tests in vitro showed LP1 and LP1-S could stimulate murine lymphocytes proliferation, increase pinocytic activity of murine macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in macrophages. Furthermore, LP1-S exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells in vitro than LP1, which might be caused by the sulfate group in its structures. These results indicated that the LP1-S might be useful for developing safe antitumor drugs or health food. PMID:24680807

Jiang, Jie; Meng, Fa-Yan; He, Zhou; Ning, Yuan-Ling; Li, Xue-Hua; Song, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Rui

2014-06-01

41

Immunoglobulin-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. Binding of agaropectin and heparin by human IgG proteins  

PubMed Central

The interaction of immunoglobulins with certain acidic polysaccharides was demonstrated by the binding of the sulfated glycans agaropectin and heparin by certain human IgG proteins. Heparin-binding IgG proteins can distinguish between the molecular forms of heparin derived from porcine intestine, bovine lung, and rat skin. The major specificity of these proteins is for native and certain high molecular weight subunit components of rat skin heparin. The interactions with multi-chain and single chain rat skin heparin are stable under physiological conditions and involve the Fab and, more specifically, the Fv region of the IgG molecule. These reactions occur as a result of an electrostatic interaction between cationic sites on certain IgG proteins and anionic sulfate resides of agaropectin or heparin. The characteristics of heparin-IgG interaction resemble those of heparin with other plasma proteins, the interactions of which have biological significance. PMID:7252414

1981-01-01

42

Algal sulfated carrageenan inhibits proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis regulatory genes.  

PubMed

Marine algae are prolific sources of sulfated polysaccharides, which may explain the low incidence of certain cancers in countries that traditionally consume marine food. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of non?skin cancer in females. In this study, extracted sulfated carrageenan (ESC), predominantly consisting of ??carrageenan extracted from the red alga Laurencia papillosa, was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The biological effects of the identified extract were investigated and its potential cytotoxic activity was tested against the MDA?MB?231 cancer cell line. The biological biometer of the inhibitory concentration of the polysaccharide?treated MDA?MB?231 cells was determined as 50 µM. Treatment with 50 µM ESC inhibited cell proliferation and promptly induced cell death through nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Characterization of polysaccharide?treated MDA?MB?231 cell death revealed that induction of apoptosis occurred via the activation of the extrinsic apoptotic caspase?8 gene. The apoptotic signaling pathway was regulated through caspase?3, caspase?9, p53, Bax and Bcl?2 genes. These findings suggest that ESC may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to target breast cancer via prompting apoptosis. PMID:25384757

Murad, Hossam; Ghannam, Ahmed; Al-Ktaifani, Mahmoud; Abbas, Assef; Hawat, Mohammad

2015-03-01

43

Aloe polysaccharides mediated radioprotective effect through the inhibition of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides from aloe are always considered an effective radioprotector on irradiation-induced skin damage. The aim of this study was to determine if aloe polysaccharides (AP) have radioprotective effects on normal human cells in vitro and mouse survival in vivo and to explore the mechanism. Pretreatment with 50 microg/ml AP could improve the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) of three normal cell lines 293, ECV304, and C. liver from 41.5%, 46.5%, and 40.9% to 49.4%, 72.1%, and 89.1%, respectively. AP could also reduce the apoptotic rate of C. liver cells from 9.5% and 43.0% to 2.2% and 10.9% 48 h and 72 h after 2 Gy irradiation, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that pretreatment with AP could block the upregulation of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax, and Bad and the downregulation of Bcl-2 by irradiation. AP could lower thymocyte apoptosis of mice in vivo after 6 Gy irradiation and abrogate the cell cycle perturbation. Fifty mg/kg of AP treatment for 30 min before 7.5 Gy irradiation provided the best radioprotective effect and improved the 30-day survival rate of mice to 86.0%, from 10.0%. AP exerted radioprotective effects in vitro and in vivo through an inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:15613791

Wang, Zong-Wei; Zhou, Jun-Min; Huang, Zhao-Sheng; Yang, An-Ping; Liu, Zong-Chao; Xia, Yun-Fei; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

2004-09-01

44

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein G Is Targeted by the Sulfated Oligo- and Polysaccharide Inhibitors of Virus Attachment to Cells?  

PubMed Central

Variants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) generated by virus passage in GMK-AH1 cells in the presence of the sulfated oligosaccharide PI-88 were analyzed. Many of these variants were substantially resistant to PI-88 in their initial infection of cells and/or their cell-to-cell spread. The major alteration detected in all variants resistant to PI-88 in the initial infection of cells was a frameshift mutation(s) in the glycoprotein G (gG) gene that resulted in the lack of protein expression. Molecular transfer of the altered gG gene into the wild-type background confirmed that the gG-deficient recombinants were resistant to PI-88. In addition to PI-88, all gG-deficient variants of HSV-2 were resistant to the sulfated polysaccharide heparin. The gG-deficient virions were capable of attaching to cells, and this activity was relatively resistant to PI-88. In addition to having a drug-resistant phenotype, the gG-deficient variants were inefficiently released from infected cells. Purified gG bound to heparin and showed the cell-binding activity which was inhibited by PI-88. Many PI-88 variants produced syncytia in cultured cells and contained alterations in gB, including the syncytium-inducing L792P amino acid substitution. Although this phenotype can enhance the lateral spread of HSV in cells, it conferred no virus resistance to PI-88. Some PI-88 variants also contained occasional alterations in gC, gD, gE, gK, and UL24. In conclusion, we found that glycoprotein gG, a mucin-like component of the HSV-2 envelope, was targeted by sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides. This is a novel finding that suggests the involvement of HSV-2 gG in interactions with sulfated polysaccharides, including cell surface glycosaminoglycans. PMID:17928351

Adamiak, Beata; Ekblad, Maria; Bergström, Tomas; Ferro, Vito; Trybala, Edward

2007-01-01

45

Oral Iron Absorption Test in Patients on CAPD: Comparison of Ferrous Sulfate and a Polysaccharide Ferric Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively compared the absorption of ferrous sulfate to that of a polysaccharide ferric complex (Niferex®) in 5 healthy controls and 7 stable patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). All study subjects received an equivalent of 150 mg of elemental iron of either preparation, in a random fashion. After a baseline fasting serum iron level was obtained, the serum

Mohammad Tinawi; Kevin J. Martin; Bahar Bastani

1996-01-01

46

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

47

Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from green algae, activates plant immunity through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

48

Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by complexation with polysaccharides: Carrageenan versus dextran sulfate.  

PubMed

Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by electrostatic complexation of drug molecules with oppositely charged polysaccharides represent a promising bioavailability enhancement strategy for poorly-soluble drugs owed to their high supersaturation generation capability and simple preparation. Using ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the model drug, we investigated the effects of using dextran sulfate (DXT) or carrageenan (CGN) on the (1) preparation efficiency, (2) physical characteristics, (3) supersaturation generation, (4) antimicrobial activity, and (5) cytotoxicity of the amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (nanoplex) produced. Owing to the higher charge density and chain flexibility of DXT, coupled with the greater hydrophobicity of CGN, the CIP-DXT nanoplex exhibited superior preparation efficiency and larger size than the CIP-CGN nanoplex. Whereas the low solubility and high gelation tendency of CGN resulted in superior supersaturation generation capability for the CIP-DXT nanoplex. The non-cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, colloidal, and amorphous state stability were established for both nanoplexes, making them an ideal supersaturated drug delivery system. PMID:25498670

Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

2015-03-01

49

Differential effects of polysulfated polysaccharide on experimental encephalomyelitis, proliferation of autoimmune T cells, and inhibition of heparanase activity.  

PubMed

The extravasation of activated T lymphocytes through blood vessel walls and their migration to inflammatory loci are associated with secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes, such as heparanase, which degrades heparan sulfate (HS) moieties of the ECM. The HS-degrading activity of heparanase was found to be inhibited by HS and heparin. Since induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires extravasation and migration of autoimmune T cells, degradation of ECM by heparanase is expected to be involved in induction of the disease. Herein, we examined whether laminarin sulfate, a polysulfated polysaccharide (PSS) isolated from the cell walls of seaweeds and subjected to chemical sulfation, could inhibit ECM degradation by mammalian heparanase, and could prevent EAE. PSS was a more potent inhibitor of heparanase-mediated degradation of ECM than heparin. In-vivo, PSS, injected once a week, inhibited the severity of actively-induced EAE in rats. However, inhibition of EAE was not due to an overall suppression of autoimmune T cells, since PSS enhanced the proliferation of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific, encephalitogenic T cells. PSS-activated autoimmune T cells, but not MBP-activated cells, failed to induce EAE in recipient rats. Moreover, rats injected with PSS-activated T cells were resistant to induction of EAE by anti-MBP CD4+ T cells. Thus, PSS may have potential clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8579728

Hershkoviz, R; Mor, F; Miao, H Q; Vlodavsky, I; Lider, O

1995-10-01

50

Isolation of a coaggregation-inhibiting cell wall polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis H1.  

PubMed

Coaggregation between Streptococcus sanguis H1 and Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 cells is mediated by a carbohydrate receptor on the former and an adhesin on the latter. Two methods were used to release the carbohydrate receptor from the gram-positive streptococcus, autoclaving and mutanolysin treatment. The polysaccharide released from the streptococcal cell wall by either treatment was purified by ion-exchange chromatography; this polysaccharide inhibited coaggregation when preincubated with the gram-negative capnocytophaga partner. After hydrolysis of the polysaccharide by hydrofluoric acid (HF), the major oligosaccharide of the polysaccharide was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. By analysis of the HF hydrolysis of the polysaccharide and the purified oligosaccharide, this major oligosaccharide appeared to be the repeating unit of the polysaccharide, with minor components resulting from internal hydrolysis of the major oligosaccharide. Gas chromatography results showed that the oligomer was a hexasaccharide, consisting of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose, in the ratio of 2:3:1, respectively. By weight, the purified hexasaccharide was a fourfold-more-potent inhibitor of coaggregation than the native polysaccharide. Resistance to hydrolysis by sulfuric acid alone and susceptibility to hydrolysis by HF suggested that oligosaccharide chains of the polysaccharide are linked by phosphodiester bonds. Studies with a coaggregation-defective mutant of S. sanguis H1 revealed that the cell walls of the mutant contained neither the polysaccharide nor the hexasaccharide repeating unit. The purification of both a polysaccharide and its constituent hexasaccharide repeating unit, which both inhibited coaggregation, and the absence of this polysaccharide or hexasaccharide on a coaggregation-defective mutant strongly suggest that the hexasaccharide derived from the polysaccharide functions as the receptor for the adhesin from C. ochracea ATCC 33596. PMID:2661543

Cassels, F J; London, J

1989-07-01

51

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae, improves cognitive impairment induced by infusion of A? peptide in rats.  

PubMed

Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide, derived from marine brown seaweed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of fucoidan on improving learning and memory impairment in rats induced by infusion of A? (1-40), and its possible mechanisms. The results indicated that fucoidan could ameliorate A?-induced learning and memory impairment in animal behavioral tests. Furthermore, fucoidan reversed the decreased activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and content of acetylcholine (Ach), as well as the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in hippocampal tissue of A?-injected rats. Moreover, these were accompanied by an increase of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and a decrease of caspase-3 activity. These results suggested that fucoidan could ameliorate the learning and memory abilities in A?-induced AD rats, and the mechanisms appeared to be due to regulating the cholinergic system, reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting the cell apoptosis. PMID:22301160

Gao, Yonglin; Li, Chunmei; Yin, Jungang; Shen, Jingyu; Wang, Hongtao; Wu, Yuzhen; Jin, Haizhu

2012-03-01

52

Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.  

PubMed

In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-? in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-?B signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of I?-B?. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-?B, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. PMID:24626144

Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

2014-06-01

53

Oral iron absorption test in patients on CAPD: comparison of ferrous sulfate and a polysaccharide ferric complex.  

PubMed

We prospectively compared the absorption of ferrous sulfate to that of a polysaccharide ferric complex (Niferex) in 5 healthy controls and 7 stable patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). All study subjects received an equivalent of 150 mg of elemental iron of either preparation, in a random fashion. After a baseline fasting serum iron level was obtained, the serum iron concentration was measured at 2 h in the control group and at 2 and 4 h in the CAPD patients. One to 2 months later, all study subjects received the alternative iron compound and were studied in an identical manner. A significant rise in serum iron was only observed in the healthy subjects after the ingestion of ferrous sulfate and not Niferex (ferrous sulfate 102 +/- (SE) 9 vs. 142 +/- 7 Mg/dl, p = 0.0005; Niferex 96 +/- (SE) 10 vs. 102 +/- 12 mg/dl; baseline vs. 2 h, respectively). The absorption of both compounds was poor in the patients on CAPD, with the 2- and 4-hour serum iron levels not significantly higher than the baseline values (ferrous sulfate 73 +/- 7 vs. 107 +/- 21 vs. 109 +/- 21 mg/dl, p = NS; Niferex 57 +/- 11 vs. 65 +/- 14 vs. 60 +/- 11 mg/dl, p = NS; baseline vs. 2 vs. 4 h, respectively). Our data suggest that the absorption of both ferrous sulfate and ferric polysaccharide complex is poor in patients on CAPD. PMID:8893143

Tinawi, M; Martin, K J; Bastani, B

1996-01-01

54

Influence of sulfation on anti-myocardial ischemic activity of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide (FOJ-5) from Radix ophiopogonis has shown anti-myocardial ischemic action in vitro and in vivo in our previous studies. In order to clarify the influence of chemical modifications on the action, a series of sulfated FOJ-5 (FOJ-5-S) with different substitution degrees were prepared and the anti-myocardial ischemic action of the natural FOJ-5 and the FOJ-5-S were studied in vitro and in vivo. Langendorff isolated rat hearts and acute myocardial ischemic rats induced by isoprenaline were employed as myocardial ischemic models in our experiments. The amplitude and frequency of cardiac contraction, coronary blood flow at different time points after ischemia/reperfusion were measured in vitro. The ST segment shift in electrocardiogram and lactate dehydrogenase level in blood plasma were observed on the in vivo model. The results indicated that FOJ-5 and FOJ-5-S had the anti-myocardial ischemic action compared with non-treated vehicle groups. Furthermore, it was found that FOJ-5-S had significant action on the in vivo model compared with FOJ-5 (P < 0.05). And the obtained results from the further study also indicated that only when the degree of substitution was in a certain range, the FOJ-5-S had excellent anti-myocardial ischemic activity. PMID:19431010

Zheng, Qin; Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Yan-Zuo

2009-01-01

55

Inhibition of Spontaneous Canine Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by an Urtica fissa Polysaccharide Fraction.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the inhibition of spontaneous canine benign prostatic hyperplasia by a crude polysaccharide fraction extracted from Urtica fissa roots and stems. After oral administration of U. fissa polysaccharide fraction for 3 months, the dog prostatic volume reduced significantly when compared to that before treatment using CT examination. The high-dosage U. fissa polysaccharide fraction (120?mg/kg body weight/day) and finasteride (0.5?mg/kg body weight/day) treatments showed both almost 30?% reduction of the initial prostatic volume. At the end of the administration of U. fissa polysaccharide fraction, the prostates were excised, and the volumes were measured by water displacement. The prostatic volume showed significant decrease by 11?%, 15?%, and 21?% for the 30, 60, and 120?mg/kg/day U. fissa polysaccharide fraction treatment groups, respectively, compared to the control group. Histological observation found that U. fissa polysaccharide fraction inhibited the dog prostatic epithelial cells proliferation and enlarged glandular lumen diameter. The crude polysaccharide fraction of U. fissa is a possible new candidate for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:25473922

Xiaocheng, Chen; Shan, He; Yuxing, Lu; Lizhen, Yuan; Linmao, Ding; Shoujun, Yuan; Qinglin, Zhang

2015-01-01

56

The role of the conformational profile of polysaccharides on skin penetration: the case of hyaluronan and its sulfates.  

PubMed

The literature data suggest the capacity of biomacromolecules to permeate the human skin, even though such a transdermal permeation appears to be governed by physicochemical parameters which are significantly different compared to those ruling the skin permeation of small molecules. On these grounds, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vitro diffusion properties through the human epidermis of hyaluronic acid and their sulfates. Low- and medium-molecular-weight hyaluronic acids and the corresponding derivatives at two degrees of sulfation were then tested. In vitro studies evidenced that the sulfated polymers permeate better than the corresponding hyaluronic acid, despite their vastly greater polarity, while the observed permeation markedly decreases when increasing the polymer's molecular weight regardless of the sulfation degree. Using a fluorescent-labeled polysaccharide, it was also evidenced that hyaluronans have a great affinity for corneocytes and likely cross the stratum corneum mainly through a transcellular route. The molecular-dynamics study revealed how the observed permeations for the investigated polysaccharides can be rationalized by monitoring their conformational profiles, since the permeation was found to be directly related to their capacity to assume extended and flexible conformations. PMID:24706625

Cilurzo, Francesco; Vistoli, Giulio; Gennari, Chiara G M; Selmin, Francesca; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Franzè, Silvia; Campisi, Monica; Minghetti, Paola

2014-04-01

57

Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of chondroitin-4-sulfate polysaccharide by chromic acid in aqueous perchlorate solutions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of chromic acid oxidation of chondroitin-4-sulfate polysaccharide as sulfated carbohydrates at a constant ionic strength of 4.0 mol dm(-3) has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The reaction kinetics showed a first-order dependence in chromic acid and fractional-first-order kinetics with respect to the chondroitin-4-sulfate concentration. The influence of [H(+)] on the reaction rates showed that the oxidation process is acid-catalyzed. Added Mn(2+) ions indicated the formation of Cr(IV) as intermediate species. A kinetic evidence for formation of 1:1 intermediate complex was revealed. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and a tentative reaction mechanism in good consistent with the kinetic results obtained is discussed. PMID:23399294

Hassan, Refat; Ibrahim, Samia; Dahy, Abdel Rahman; Zaafarany, Ishaq; Tirkistani, Fahd; Takagi, Hideo

2013-02-15

58

In Vivo Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of a Sulfated Derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelial Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. subrufescens), a basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest in Brazil, contains cell walls rich in glucomannan polysaccharides. The ?-(1?2)-gluco-?-(1?3)-mannan was isolated from A. brasiliensis mycelium, chemically modified by sulfation, and named MI-S. MI-S has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) attachment, entry, and cell-to-cell spread (F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. M. Camelini, A. Mascarello, M. J. Rossi, R. J. Nunes, C. R. Barardi, M. M. de Mendonça, and C. M. O. Simões, Antiviral Res. 92:108–114, 2011). The antiherpetic efficacy of MI-S was assessed in murine ocular, cutaneous, and genital infection models of HSV. Groups of 10 mice were infected with HSV-1 (strain KOS) or HSV-2 (strain 333). MI-S was given either topically or by oral gavage under various pre- and posttreatment regimens, and the severity of disease and viral titers in ocular and vaginal samples were determined. No toxicity was observed in the uninfected groups treated with MI-S. The topical and oral treatments with MI-S were not effective in reducing ocular disease. Topical application of MI-S on skin lesions was also not effective, but cutaneously infected mice treated orally with MI-S had significantly reduced disease scores (P < 0.05) after day 9, suggesting that healing was accelerated. Vaginal administration of MI-S 20 min before viral challenge reduced the mean disease scores on days 5 to 9 (P < 0.05), viral titers on day 1 (P < 0.05), and mortality (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the control groups (untreated and vehicle treated). These results show that MI-S may be useful as an oral agent to reduce the severity of HSV cutaneous and mucosal lesions and, more importantly, as a microbicide to block sexual transmission of HSV-2 genital infections. PMID:23507287

Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Larsen, I. V.; Carballo, E. V.; Jose, G.; Stern, R. A.; Brummel, R. C.; Camelini, C. M.; Rossi, M. J.; Simões, C. M. O.

2013-01-01

59

Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years  

PubMed Central

Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

2014-01-01

60

Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.  

PubMed

Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

2014-09-01

61

The polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum: Are they always inhibitors on human hepatocarcinoma cells?  

PubMed

The antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated focusing on the inhibition on human liver cancer cells. The polysaccharides inhibited human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 during earlier phase with lower dosage but obviously became less functional in later phase regardless of the dosage applied. However, apoptosis of the drugged HepG2 cells appeared in later incubation phase with high dosage, and the apoptosis could be enhanced by supplemental dose of the intracellular polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the intracellular polysaccharides inhibited other human hepatocarcinoma cells such as BEL-7402 and Huh-7 but luckily stimulated human normal liver cell L02 only in a positive dose- and time-dependent manner; so did the sulfated extracellular polysaccharides when it inhibited HepG2 and L02 cells. However, the toxicity of sulfated extracellular polysaccharides to L02 cells can be eliminated by the intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:22939333

Liu, Yu-jun; Shen, Jie; Xia, Yong-mei; Zhang, Jue; Park, Hyeon-soo

2012-10-15

62

Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysaccharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars  

E-print Network

Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysaccharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars Rajeev ABSTRACT: Cellulase enzymes contribute a major fraction of the total cost for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Although a several fold reduction in cellulase production costs

California at Riverside, University of

63

Tiaprofenic acid inhibits the renal reabsorption of sulfate in rats.  

PubMed

The objectives of the current investigation were: (1) to examine the effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, tiaprofenic acid (TA), on sulfate renal reabsorption, and (2) to determine if concomitant prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) could reverse these effects. In crossover studies, female Lewis rats (n = 9) received either TA (as an intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of 15 mg/kg and constant infusion of 0.02 mg/min) or its vehicle for 6 h. A blood sample was obtained at 5 h and urine was collected between 4 and 6 h. At a steady-state TA serum concentration of approximately 190 micrograms/ml, the PGE2 urinary excretion rate was inhibited by > 90% with no change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as measured by creatinine clearance. TA administration resulted in a significant decrease in serum sulfate concentrations (0.65 +/- 0.22 vs 1.1 +/- 0.15 mM, mean +/- SD, p < 0.01) and increase in sulfate clearance ratio (0.32 +/- 0.14 vs 0.13 +/- 0.06, p < 0.01) when compared to the vehicle-treated period. There was also a significant decrease in the fraction of sulfate reabsorbed by the kidneys (0.68 +/- 0.14 vs 0.87 +/- 0.06 in the vehicle-treated period, p < 0.01). In a second crossover study, rats received either TA or TA plus PGE2. PGE2 was administered as an infusion (0.1 micrograms/min) beginning 210 min after the start of the TA infusion. An additional group of rats served as controls and received both vehicles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8361986

Benincosa, L J; Morris, M E

1993-07-01

64

Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Cytoadhesion and Merozoite Invasion  

PubMed Central

Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-iEs) in the microvasculature of vital organs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of life-threatening malaria complications, such as cerebral malaria and malaria in pregnancy. This phenomenon is marked by the cytoadhesion of Pf-iEs to host receptors on the surfaces of endothelial cells, on noninfected erythrocytes, and in the placental trophoblast; therefore, these sites are potential targets for antiadhesion therapies. In this context, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparin, have shown the ability to inhibit Pf-iE cytoadherence and growth. Nevertheless, the use of heparin was discontinued due to serious side effects, such as bleeding. Other GAG-based therapies were hampered due to the potential risk of contamination with prions and viruses, as some GAGs are isolated from mammals. In this context, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a unique and highly sulfated GAG isolated from the sea cucumber, with respect to P. falciparum cytoadhesion and development. FucCS was effective in inhibiting the cytoadherence of Pf-iEs to human lung endothelial cells and placenta cryosections under static and flow conditions. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches of the FucCS structure virtually abolished the inhibitory effects of FucCS. Importantly, FucCS rapidly disrupted rosettes at high levels, and it was also able to block parasite development by interfering with merozoite invasion. Collectively, these findings highlight the potential of FucCS as a candidate for adjunct therapy against severe malaria. PMID:24395239

Bastos, Marcele F.; Albrecht, Letusa; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Lopes, Stefanie C. P.; Blanco, Yara C.; Carlos, Bianca C.; Castiñeiras, Catarina; Vicente, Cristina P.; Werneck, Claudio C.; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Mourão, Paulo A. S.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

2014-01-01

65

Strong cellulase inhibition by Mannan polysaccharides in cellulose conversion to sugars.  

PubMed

Cellulase enzymes contribute a major fraction of the total cost for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Although a several fold reduction in cellulase production costs and enhancement of cellulase activity and stability have been reported in recent years, sugar yields are still lower at low enzyme doses than desired commercially. We recently reported that hemicellulose xylan and its oligomers strongly inhibit cellulase and that supplementation of cellulase with xylanase and ?-xylosidase would significantly reduce such inhibition. In this study, mannan polysaccharides and their enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were discovered to be strongly inhibitory to fungal cellulase in cellulose conversion (>50% drop in % relative conversion), even at a small concentration of 0.1 g/L, and inhibition was much greater than experienced by other known inhibitors such as cellobiose, xylooligomers, and furfural. Furthermore, cellulase inhibition dramatically increased with heteromannan loading and mannan substitution with galactose side units. In general, enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were less inhibitory than their respective mannan polysaccharides except highly substituted ones. Supplementation of cellulase with commercial accessory enzymes such as xylanase, pectinase, and ?-glucosidase was effective in greatly relieving inhibition but only for less substituted heteromannans. However, cellulase supplementation with purified heteromannan specific enzymes relieved inhibition by these more substituted heteromannans as well, suggesting that commercial preparations need to have higher amounts of such activities to realize high sugar yields at the low enzyme protein loadings needed for low cost fuels production. PMID:24522973

Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

2014-07-01

66

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

67

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Inhibition by polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the predominant cause of severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine. Until now there is no recorded clinically effective antiviral chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of diseases caused by PEDV. This study aimed to investigate in vitro anti-PEDV effect of polysaccharide from Ginkgo biloba exocarp and mode of its action. The polysaccharide exhibited potent antiviral activity against PEDV reducing the formation of a visible CPE [a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)=1.7±1.3?g/mL], compared to positive control, ribavirin and it did not show cytotoxicity at 100?g/mL [a 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50)=100?g/mL]. Polysaccharide also showed effective inhibitory effects when added at the viral attachment and entry steps. Moreover, polysaccharide effectively inactivated PEDV infection in time-, dose- and temperature-dependent manners. Overall, this research revealed that polysaccharide could inhibit PEDV infection, and that polysaccharide may be involved in PEDV-Vero cell interactions, as the virus attachment and entry to the Vero cells was hindered by the polysaccharide. Therefore, polysaccharide possessing effective inhibitory effect on viral attachment and entry steps of PEDV life cycle is a good candidate for development of antivirals. PMID:25300802

Lee, Jung-Hee; Park, Jang-Soon; Lee, Seung-Woong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Young, Bae-Eun; Choi, Hwa-Jung

2015-01-01

68

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the degradation and inhibition cancer cell lines of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis.  

PubMed

The exposure of polysaccharides solutions to high-energy ultrasound produces a permanent reduction in viscosity and change in activity. However, the exact mechanism which occurs in the process is still not clear. In this work, degradation of polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis (PP) was indirectly and directly judged by intrinsic viscosity and high performance gel permeation chromatography. The degradation process was established with dynamics and affirmed by theoretical derivation. Inhibition of cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, 95D) was also investigated by assays of tetrazolium colorimetric. The intrinsic viscosity of the degraded PP decreased exponentially with increase in ultrasonic time, and theoretical derivation was established and confirmed well. The distribution and new fraction of degraded polysaccharides was found. Ultrasound degraded preferentially large PP molecules and cleavage took place roughly at the centre of the molecules. During ultrasound degradation the molecular weight distribution was narrowed. The inhibition activities of SGC7901 with ultrasound degraded polysaccharides were increased. PMID:25498684

Yu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Cunshan; Yang, Hua; Huang, Xingyi; Ma, Haile; Qin, Xiaopei; Hu, Jiali

2015-03-01

69

Sulfated Polysaccharide, Curdlan Sulfate, Efficiently Prevents Entry/Fusion and Restricts Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection In Vitro: A Possible Candidate for Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

Curdlan sulfate (CRDS), a sulfated 1?3-?-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV). CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E) protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion). The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the ?-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered. PMID:23658845

Zhang, Li Feng; Chin, Wei Xin; Muschin, Tegshi; Heinig, Lars; Suzuki, Youichi; Nanjundappa, Haraprasad; Yoshinaka, Yoshiyuki; Ryo, Akihide; Nomura, Nobuo; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Naoki

2013-01-01

70

Separation, purification, and ?-glucosidase inhibition of polysaccharides from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia.  

PubMed

Intracellular polysaccharides (iPs) were separated and purified from Coriolus versicolor LH1 mycelia and characterized for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties. Three iP fractions (iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1) were extracted, separated, and purified from LH1 mycelia using microwave extraction technology, a DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column, a Diaion HP20 macroporous adsorption column, and a Sephadex™ G-50 gel-permeation column. The principal constituents of iPL-F5-2-1, iPL-F5-4-1, and iPL-F5-5-1 were saponins and polyphenoic compound mixtures. The enzyme inhibition activity, IC(50) values, of these three fractions were 1.7, 1.8, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties were related to the presence of ?-(1,4) glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharide structure and the total relative percentage of d-glucose and d-galactose in the structure of polysaccharides, other than triterpenoids. PMID:23218298

Hsu, Wen-kuang; Hsu, Tai-hao; Lin, Fang-yi; Cheng, Yuan-kai; Yang, John Po-wen

2013-01-30

71

Dextran sulfate sodium inhibits alanine synthesis in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. PMID:21731444

Ye, Zhong; Mishchuk, Darya O; Stephens, Natasha S; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2011-01-01

72

Mechanisms of axon regeneration and its inhibition: roles of sulfated glycans.  

PubMed

Axons in the peripheral nervous system can regenerate after injury, whereas axons in the central nervous system (CNS) do not readily regenerate. Intrinsic regenerating capacity and emerging inhibitors could explain these contrasting phenotypes. Among the inhibitors, sulfated sugar chains including chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate have recently attracted attention, since these sugar chains strongly inhibit axon regeneration and also induce dystrophic endball formation, a hallmark of injured axons in the adult mammalian CNS. In addition, chondroitin sulfate is a negative regulator of synaptic plasticity. To overcome the inability of CNS axons to regenerate, a comprehensive understanding of both the positive and negative regulations of axon regeneration is required. These may include signaling waves from the injury site to the nucleus, intracellular signals for growth cone formation and axon regeneration, intracellular signals for the inhibition of axon regeneration, and extracellular inhibitory signals and their receptors. This review addresses these issues, with a focus on the roles of chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. PMID:24951877

Kadomatsu, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kazuma

2014-09-15

73

Sulfated, Low Molecular Weight Lignins Inhibit a Select Group of Heparin-Binding Serine Proteases  

PubMed Central

Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs), designed as oligomeric mimetics of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), have been found to bind in exosite II of thrombin (Abdel Aziz et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 413 (2011) 348–352). To assess whether sulfated LMWLs recognize other heparin-binding proteins, we studied their effect on serine proteases of the coagulation, inflammatory and digestive systems. Using chromogenic substrate hydrolysis assay, sulfated LMWLs were found to potently inhibit coagulation factor XIa and human leukocyte elastase, moderately inhibit cathepsin G and not inhibit coagulation factors VIIa, IXa, and XIIa, plasma kallikrein, activated protein C, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. Competition studies show that UFH competes with sulfated LMWLs for binding to factors Xa and XIa. These results further advance the heparin-mimicking property of sulfated LMWLs and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:22155248

Henry, Brian L.; Thakkar, Jay N.; Liang, Aiye; Desai, Umesh R.

2012-01-01

74

A chemically sulfated polysaccharide derived from Ganoderma lucidum induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells.  

PubMed

To develop new anticancer agents, we prepared a sulfated polysaccharide (SCGLP1) from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and the effect of SCGLP1 on human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line was investigated. Our result showed that treatment with SCGLP1 resulted in a significant inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and cell viability of MG63 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and caused apoptotic death in MG63 cells through an increase in G0/G1 phase arrest, but had minor cytotoxic effect on human normal osteoblast (NHOst) cells. Western blot analysis identified that SCGLP1-induced apoptosis was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax and Bad, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytosol, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the SCGLP1-induced apoptosis in MG63 cells. The data indicate that SCGLP1-induced apoptosis is primarily associated with caspase-3- and caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:24997619

Sun, Zhenchang; Huang, Kai; Fu, Xiaorui; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Cui, Yingying; Li, Haopeng

2014-10-01

75

Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

2001-01-01

76

Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

77

Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae Growth and Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis by Fructus mume.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscess of diabetic patients in Asian countries. With the spread of multiple-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae, there is an increasing need for the development of alternative bactericides and approaches to block the production of bacterial virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), especially from the K1 and K2 serotypes, is considered the major determinant for K. pneumoniae virulence. We found that extracts of the traditional Chinese medicine Fructus mume inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae strains of both serotypes. Furthermore, Fructus mume decreased the mucoviscosity, and the CPS produced in a dose-dependent manner, thus reducing bacterial resistance to serum killing. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that Fructus mume downregulated the mRNA levels of cps biosynthesis genes in both serotypes, possibly by increasing the intracellular iron concentration in K. pneumoniae. Moreover, citric acid, a major organic acid in Fructus mume extracts, was found to have an inhibitory effect on growth and CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae. Taken together, our results indicate that Fructus mume not only possesses antibacterial activity against highly virulent K. pneumoniae strains but also inhibits bacterial CPS biosynthesis, thereby facilitating pathogen clearance by the host immune system. PMID:24062785

Lin, Tien-Huang; Huang, Su-Hua; Wu, Chien-Chen; Liu, Hsin-Ho; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ching-Ting

2013-01-01

78

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heparan Sulfate: From Attachment to Entry Inhibition  

PubMed Central

By targeting cells that provide protection against infection, HIV-1 causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infection starts when gp120, the viral envelope glycoprotein, binds to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor usually CCR5 or CXCR4. As many microorganisms, HIV-1 also interacts with heparan sulfate (HS), a complex group of cell surface associated anionic polysaccharides. It has been thought that this binding, occurring at a step prior to CD4 recognition, increases infectivity by pre-concentrating the virion particles at the cell surface. Early work, dating from before the identification of CCR5 and CXCR4, showed that a variety of HS mimetics bind to the gp120 V3 loop through electrostatic interactions, compete with cell surface associated HS to bind the virus and consequently, neutralize the infectivity of a number of T-cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains. However, progress made to better understand HIV-1 attachment and entry, coupled with the recent identification of additional gp120 regions mediating HS recognition, have considerably modified this view. Firstly, the V3 loop from CXCR4-using viruses is much more positively charged compared to those using CCR5. HS inhibition of cell attachment is thus restricted to CXCR4-using viruses (such as T-cell line-adapted HIV-1). Secondly, studies aiming at characterizing the gp120/HS complex revealed that HS binding was far more complex than previously thought: in addition to the V3 loop of CXCR4 tropic gp120, HS interacts with several other cryptic areas of the protein, which can be induced upon CD4 binding, and are conserved amongst CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses. In view of these data, this review will detail the present knowledge on HS binding to HIV-1, with regards to attachment and entry processes. It will discuss the perspective of targeting the gp120 co-receptor binding site with HS mimetic compounds, a strategy that recently gave rise to entry inhibitors that work in the low nanomolar range, independently of co-receptor usage. PMID:24312095

Connell, Bridgette J.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

2013-01-01

79

Influence of NSAID-induced inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis on inorganic sulfate clearance in rats.  

PubMed

The objective of the present investigation was to examine the influence of inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis on the renal clearance of inorganic sulfate, an electrolyte involved in the biotransformation of both exogenous and endogenous substrates. Homeostasis of inorganic sulfate is maintained predominantly by renal reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Using a crossover study design, the renal clearance of sulfate was assessed in conscious female Lewis rats during control periods and following the infusion of two structurally dissimilar nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ibuprofen (IBU) and indomethacin (INDO). Animals were infused with IBU or INDO to achieve steady state concentrations of 59 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (mean +/- SD) of IBU and 22 +/- 3 micrograms/ml of INDO. At these serum concentrations, IBU and INDO produced greater than 80% decrease in the urinary excretion of prostaglandin (PG) E2. Treatment with either IBU or INDO significantly increased the renal clearance of sulfate, but did not alter the glomerular filtration rate as assessed by creatinine clearance. The role of prostaglandins in the effects of IBU and INDO on sulfate homeostasis was investigated by examining the influence of concomitant intraarterial PGE2 administration (infusion of 0.1 micrograms/min) on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced alterations in sulfate renal clearance. Although PGE2 alone did not significantly alter the renal clearance of inorganic sulfate or that of creatinine, the PGE2 infusion abolished the effects of IBU on sulfate renal clearance. Concomitant PGE2 administration also significantly increased the sulfate reabsorption rate in INDO-treated animals; other parameters were not significantly changed, although the fractional reabsorption of sulfate tended to increase (P = 0.17). The reason for the less pronounced effect on PGE2 on the INDO-sulfate interaction is as yet unknown, but may be partly due to additional mechanisms involved in the INDO-induced alterations in sulfate clearance. The results of these studies suggest that prostaglandin inhibition represents one mechanism whereby IBU can alter the renal clearance of inorganic sulfate. PMID:1549620

Morris, M E; Benincosa, L J

1992-04-01

80

Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds  

PubMed Central

Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1?3)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1?6)-?-d-galacto- and/or (1?2)-?-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups. PMID:22073012

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.; Meyer, Anne S.

2011-01-01

81

Protective effect of polysaccharides on simulated microgravity-induced functional inhibition of human NK cells.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are believed to be strong immunostimulants that can promote the proliferation and activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of five polysaccharides (Grifola frondosa polysaccharide (GFP), lentinan (LNT), G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) and yeast glucan (YG)) on primary human NK cells under normal or simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions. Our results demonstrated that polysaccharides markedly promoted the cytotoxicity of NK cells by enhancing IFN-? and perforin secretion and increasing the expression of the activating receptor NKp30 under normal conditions. Meanwhile polysaccharides can enhance NK cell function under SMG conditions by restoring the expression of the activating receptor NKG2D and reducing the early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, the antibody neutralization test showed that CR3 may be the critical receptor involved in polysaccharides induced NK cells activation. These findings indicated that polysaccharides may be used as immune regulators to promote the health of the public and astronauts during space missions. PMID:24299844

Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Yang, Hui; Jin, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Ye, Lin-Jie; Li, Ji; Huang, Qing-Sheng; Yin, Da-Chuan

2014-01-30

82

VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC OF HEPARAN SULFATE  

E-print Network

in the range of 14 to 31 suggesting reasonably good difference between activity and toxicity for polymeric sulfated carbohydrate including heparin, dextran sulfate, fucoidans, and sulfated galactans have been found

Desai, Umesh R

83

Inhibition of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities of anaerobic sewer biofilms by ferric iron dosing.  

PubMed

Ferric iron is commonly used for sulfide precipitation in sewers, thus achieving corrosion and odour control. Its impact on the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic sewer biofilms is investigated in this study. Two lab-scale rising main sewer systems fed with real sewage were operated for 8 months. One received Fe(3+) dosage (experimental system) and the other was used as a control. In addition to precipitating sulfide from bulk water, Fe(3+) dosage was found to significantly inhibit sulfate reduction and methane production by sewer biofilms. The experimental reactor discharged an effluent containing a higher concentration of sulfate and a lower concentration of methane in comparison with the reference reactor. Batch experiments showed that the addition of ferric ions reduced the sulfate reduction and methane production rates of the sewer biofilms by 60% and 80%, respectively. The batch experiments further showed that Fe(3+) dosage changed the final products of sulfate reduction with sulfide accounting for only 54% of the sulfate reduced. The other products could not be confirmed, but were not dissolved inorganic sulfur species such as sulfite or thiosulfate. The results suggest the addition of Fe(3+) at upstream locations would minimize the ferric salts required for achieving the same level of sulfide removal. Fe(3+) dosing could also substantially reduce the formation of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in sewers. PMID:19576610

Zhang, Lishan; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

2009-09-01

84

Synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals carrying tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands and inhibition of alphavirus infection.  

PubMed

We present two facile approaches for introducing multivalent displays of tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands on the surface of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for application as viral inhibitors. We tested the efficacy of cellulose nanocrystals, prepared either from cotton fibers or Whatman filter paper, to inhibit alphavirus infectivity in Vero (B) cells. Cellulose nanocrystals were produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis leading to nanocrystal surfaces decorated with anionic sulfate groups. When the fluorescent marker expressing Semliki Forest virus vector, VA7-EGFP, was incubated with CNCs, strong inhibition of virus infectivity was achieved, up to 100 and 88% for cotton and Whatman CNCs, respectively. When surface sulfate groups of CNCs were exchanged for tyrosine sulfate mimetic groups (i.e. phenyl sulfonates), improved viral inhibition was attained. Our observations suggest that the conjugation of target-specific functionalities to CNC surfaces provides a means to control their antiviral activity. Multivalent CNCs did not cause observable in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero (B) cells or human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells, even within the 100% virus-inhibitory concentrations. Based on the similar chemistry of known polyanionic inhibitors, our results suggest the potential application of CNCs as inhibitors of other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex viruses. PMID:24628489

Zoppe, Justin O; Ruottinen, Ville; Ruotsalainen, Janne; Rönkkö, Seppo; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Hinkkanen, Ari; Järvinen, Kristiina; Seppälä, Jukka

2014-04-14

85

Presence of sulfate does not inhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis that sulfate inhibits dolomite formation evolved from geochemical studies of porewaters from deep-sea sedimentary sequences and has been tested with hydrothermal experiments. We examined the sulfate inhibition factor using aerobic culture experiments with Virgibacillus marismortui and Halomonas meridiana, two moderately halophilic aerobic bacteria, which metabolize independent of sulfate concentration. The culture experiments were conducted at 25 and 35 °C using variable SO 42- concentrations (0, 14, 28 and 56 mM) and demonstrate that halophilic aerobic bacteria mediate direct precipitation of dolomite with or without SO 42- in the culture media which simulate dolomite occurrences commonly found under the Earth's surface conditions. Hence, we report that the presence of sulfate does not inhibit dolomite precipitation. Further, we hypothesize that, if sedimentary dolomite is a direct precipitate, as in our low-temperature culture experiments, the kinetic factors involved are likely to be quite different from those governing a dolomite replacement reaction, such as in hydrothermal experiments. Consequently, the occurrence and, presumably, growth of dolomite in SO 42--rich aerobic cultures may shed new light on the long-standing Dolomite Problem.

Sánchez-Román, Mónica; McKenzie, Judith A.; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Angela; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.; Vasconcelos, Crisógono

2009-07-01

86

Neisseria perflava amylosucrase: characterization of its product polysaccharide and a study of its inhibition by sucrose derivatives.  

PubMed

Neisseria perflava amylosucrase forms from sucrose a polysaccharide very similar to glycogen, except that a larger proportion of its D-glucosyl residues are in short branches. Iodine staining of samples taken during polysaccharide formation indicate that the initial product is less branched than that formed at longer times. This glycogen-like polysaccharide has an estimated molecular mass range of 1 MD to 20 MD. Sucrose derivatives modified at C-3 (3-deoxysucrose and alpha-D-allopyranosyl beta-D-fructofuranoside), C-6 (6-deoxysucrose and 6-deoxy-6-fluorosucrose), and both C-4 and C-6 (4,6-dideoxysucrose) were tested as inhibitors of amylosucrase. Derivatives modified at C-6 were potent competitive inhibitors, with Ki values of 6.2 +/- 0.3 mM (6-deoxysucrose) and 0.50 +/- 0.06 mM (6-deoxy-6-fluorosucrose). The KM value of sucrose is 26.5 +/- 4.6 mM. Sucrose derivatives modified at C-3 were not significantly inhibitory over the concentration range tested. 4,6-Dideoxysucrose gave an unusual, non-competitive inhibition, in that, increasing its concentration did not produce a commensurate increase in the level of inhibition, which instead appeared to approach a limit. None of these sucrose derivatives was a substrate for amylosucrase, nor were they glycosyl donors to maltotriose. PMID:2974759

Tao, B Y; Reilly, P J; Robyt, J F

1988-10-01

87

Production of N-sulfated polysaccharides using yeast-expressed N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1)  

E-print Network

-function enzyme modifies the GlcNAc-GlcA disaccharide repeating sugar backbone to make N-sulfated heparosan. N and NDST-4 is more restricted, existing only in fetal tissues and adult brain (Aikawa et al., 2001; Esko

Chen, Xi

88

Inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria in aquifer sediment by iron nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Batch microcosms were setup to determine the impact of different sized zero valent iron (Fe(0)) particles on microbial sulfate reduction during the in situ bio-precipitation of metals. The microcosms were constructed with aquifer sediment and groundwater from a low pH (3.1), heavy-metal contaminated aquifer. Nano (nFe(0)), micro (mFe(0)) and granular (gFe(0)) sized Fe(0) particles were added to separate microcosms. Additionally, selected microcosms were also amended with glycerol as a C-source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition to metal removal, Fe(0) in microcosms also raised the pH from 3.1 to 6.5, and decreased the oxidation redox potential from initial values of 249 to -226 mV, providing more favorable conditions for microbial sulfate reduction. mFe(0) and gFe(0) in combination with glycerol were found to enhance microbial sulfate reduction. However, no sulfate reduction occurred in the controls without Fe(0) or in the microcosm amended with nFe(0). A separate dose test confirmed the inhibition for sulfate reduction in presence of nFe(0). Hydrogen produced by Fe(0) was not capable of supporting microbial sulfate reduction as a lone electron donor in this study. Microbial analysis revealed that the addition of Fe(0) and glycerol shifted the microbial community towards Desulfosporosinus sp. from a population initially dominated by low pH and metal-resisting Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. PMID:24388832

Kumar, Naresh; Omoregie, Enoma O; Rose, Jerome; Masion, Armand; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Diels, Ludo; Bastiaens, Leen

2014-03-15

89

Heparan Sulfate Inhibits Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration and Engraftment in Mucopolysaccharidosis I*  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis I Hurler (MPSI-H) is a pediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic deficiencies in IDUA, coding for ?-l-iduronidase. Idua?/? mice share similar clinical pathology with patients, including the accumulation of the undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate (HS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), progressive neurodegeneration, and dysostosis multiplex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment for Hurler patients, but reduced intensity conditioning is a risk factor in transplantation, suggesting an underlying defect in hematopoietic cell engraftment. HS is a co-receptor in the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) migration to the bone marrow (BM), but the effect of HS alterations on HSPC migration, or the functional role of HS in MPSI-H are unknown. We demonstrate defective WT HSPC engraftment and migration in Idua?/? recipient BM, particularly under reduced intensity conditioning. Both intra- but especially extracellular Idua?/? BM HS was significantly increased and abnormally sulfated. Soluble heparinase-sensitive GAGs from Idua?/? BM and specifically 2-O-sulfated HS, elevated in Idua?/? BM, both inhibited CXCL12-mediated WT HSPC transwell migration, while DS had no effect. Thus we have shown that excess overly sulfated extracellular HS binds, and sequesters CXCL12, limiting hematopoietic migration and providing a potential mechanism for the limited scope of HSCT in Hurler disease. PMID:25359774

Watson, H. Angharad; Holley, Rebecca J.; Langford-Smith, Kia J.; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Wynn, Robert F.; Wraith, J. Edmond; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Bigger, Brian W.

2014-01-01

90

A role for a lithium-inhibited Golgi nucleotidase in skeletal development and sulfation  

PubMed Central

Sulfation is an important biological process that modulates the function of numerous molecules. It is directly mediated by cytosolic and Golgi sulfotransferases, which use 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphosulfate to produce sulfated acceptors and 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphate (PAP). Here, we identify a Golgi-resident PAP 3?-phosphatase (gPAPP) and demonstrate that its activity is potently inhibited by lithium in vitro. The inactivation of gPAPP in mice led to neonatal lethality, lung abnormalities resembling atelectasis, and dwarfism characterized by aberrant cartilage morphology. The phenotypic similarities of gPAPP mutant mice to chondrodysplastic models harboring mutations within components of the sulfation pathway lead to the discovery of undersulfated chondroitin in the absence of functional enzyme. Additionally, we observed loss of gPAPP leads to perturbations in the levels of heparan sulfate species in lung tissue and whole embryos. Our data are consistent with a model that clearance of the nucleotide product of sulfotransferases within the Golgi plays an important role in glycosaminoglycan sulfation, provide a unique genetic basis for chondrodysplasia, and define a function for gPAPP in the formation of skeletal elements derived through endochondral ossification. PMID:18695242

Frederick, Joshua P.; Tafari, A. Tsahai; Wu, Sheue-Mei; Megosh, Louis C.; Chiou, Shean-Tai; Irving, Ryan P.; York, John D.

2008-01-01

91

Biphasic Role of Chondroitin Sulfate in Cardiac Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells through Inhibition of Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling  

PubMed Central

The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury. PMID:24667694

Prinz, Robert D.; Willis, Catherine M.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Klüppel, Michael

2014-01-01

92

Mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium sulfate inhibit mycotoxigenic fungi.  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate inhibits mycotoxigenic fungi. Elevated extracellular pH, alone, was not responsible for the antifungal activity. Although conidia of Penicillium griseofulvum and Fusarium graminearum had internal pH (pHi) values as high as 8.0 in buffer at an external pH (pHo) of 9.5, their viability was not markedly affected. The pHi values from conidia equilibrated in glycine-NaOH-buffered treatments without ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate were similar to values obtained from buffered treatments containing the ammonium salts. Thus, inhibition did not appear to be directly related to increased pHi. Ammonium sulfate in buffered media at pH greater than or equal to 8.7 was as inhibitory as ammonium bicarbonate, but was completely ineffective at pH less than or equal to 7.8. The hypothesis that free ammonia caused the fungal inhibition was tested by using ammonium sulfate as a model for ammonium bicarbonate. Viability, expressed as log CFU/ml, and percent germination of P. griseofulvum and F. graminearum decreased dramatically as the free ammonia concentration increased. Germination rate ratios (the germination rate in buffered ammonium sulfate divided by the germination rate in buffer alone) decreased linearly as the free ammonia concentration increased, further establishing NH3 as the toxic agent. Ammonium bicarbonate inhibits fungi because the bicarbonate anion supplies the alkalinity necessary to establish an antifungal concentration of free ammonia. PMID:2082821

DePasquale, D A; Montville, T J

1990-01-01

93

A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID:24789779

Colpitts, Che C.

2014-01-01

94

Structure-based identification and neutralization mechanism of tyrosine sulfate mimetics that inhibit HIV-1 entry.  

PubMed

Tyrosine sulfate-mediated interactions play an important role in HIV-1 entry. After engaging the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein binds to the CCR5 co-receptor via an interaction that requires two tyrosine sulfates, at positions 10 and 14 in the CCR5-N terminus. Building on previous structure determinations of this interaction, here we report the targeting of these tyrosine sulfate binding sites for drug design through in silico screening of small molecule libraries, identification of lead compounds, and characterization of biological activity. A class of tyrosine sulfate-mimicking small molecules containing a "phenyl sulfonate-linker-aromatic" motif was identified that specifically inhibited binding of gp120 to the CCR5-N terminus as well as to sulfated antibodies that recognize the co-receptor binding region on gp120. The most potent of these compounds bound gp120 with low micromolar affinity and its CD4-induced conformation with K(D)'s as tight as ?50 nM. Neutralization experiments suggested the targeted site to be conformationally inaccessible prior to CD4 engagement. Primary HIV-1 isolates were weakly neutralized, preincubation with soluble CD4 enhanced neutralization, and engineered isolates with increased dependence on the N terminus of CCR5 or with reduced conformational barriers were neutralized with IC(50) values as low as ?1 ?M. These results reveal the potential of targeting the tyrosine sulfate interactions of HIV-1 and provide insight into how mechanistic barriers, evolved by HIV-1 to evade antibody recognition, also restrict small-molecule-mediated neutralization. PMID:21793507

Acharya, Priyamvada; Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan; LaLonde, Judith M; Lam, Son N; Leslie, George J; Louder, Mark K; Frye, Leah L; Debnath, Asim K; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Luongo, Timothy S; Martin, Loïc; Watts, K Shawn; Hoxie, James A; Mascola, John R; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

2011-10-21

95

Sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Ulva lactuca attenuates d-galactosamine induced DNA fragmentation and necrosis during liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyceae), a commonly distributed seaweed, is rich in polysaccharide but has not been studied extensively. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of crude fraction of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide (ULP) on d-galactosamine (d-Gal)-induced DNA damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and necrosis in rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with ULP (100?mg/kg, orally) for 4 weeks before a single intraperitoneal injection of d-Gal (500?mg/kg). In addition to liver cell necrosis and DNA damage, antioxidant parameters, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and histopathology of liver tissue were evaluated. Results: ULP pre-treatment significantly attenuated a d-Gal-induced decrease in DNA and RNA levels (3.67?±?0.38) and (5.42?±?0.46), respectively. Comet tail length and acridine staining confirmed the number of cells undergoing necrosis were relatively lower in ULP treated rats (30?µm and 8-10% of counted cells) compared to rats treated with d-Gal (60?µm and 16% of counted cells). Biochemical (LPO, SOD and CAT) and histological evaluation (p?polysaccharide against d-Gal-induced elevation of LPO and infiltration of inflammatory cells into liver tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Although our previous studies have reported on the protective role of ULP against liver toxicity, our present findings show that ULP improved the hepatic antioxidant defense system against d-Gal-induced DNA damage and necrosis in rats. PMID:24329421

Sathivel, Arumugam; Balavinayagamani; Hanumantha Rao, Balaji Raghavendran; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

2013-12-13

96

Inhibiting stromal cell heparan sulfate synthesis improves stem cell mobilization and enables engraftment without cytotoxic conditioning.  

PubMed

The glycosyltransferase gene, Ext1, is essential for heparan sulfate production. Induced deletion of Ext1 selectively in Mx1-expressing bone marrow (BM) stromal cells, a known population of skeletal stem/progenitor cells, in adult mice resulted in marked changes in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) localization. HSPC egressed from BM to spleen after Ext1 deletion. This was associated with altered signaling in the stromal cells and with reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 production by them. Further, pharmacologic inhibition of heparan sulfate mobilized qualitatively more potent and quantitatively more HSPC from the BM than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, including in a setting of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor resistance. The reduced presence of endogenous HSPC after Ext1 deletion was associated with engraftment of transfused HSPC without any toxic conditioning of the host. Therefore, inhibiting heparan sulfate production may provide a means for avoiding the toxicities of radiation or chemotherapy in HSPC transplantation for nonmalignant conditions. PMID:25202142

Saez, Borja; Ferraro, Francesca; Yusuf, Rushdia Z; Cook, Colleen M; Yu, Vionnie W C; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Sykes, Stephen M; Palchaudhuri, Rahul; Schajnovitz, Amir; Lotinun, Sutada; Lymperi, Stefania; Mendez-Ferrer, Simon; Toro, Raquel Del; Day, Robyn; Vasic, Radovan; Acharya, Sanket S; Baron, Roland; Lin, Charles P; Yamaguchi, Yu; Wagers, Amy J; Scadden, David T

2014-11-01

97

[Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].  

PubMed

Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz. PMID:24720230

Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Tong

2014-01-01

98

Inhibition effects of inorganic multivalent cations on iron corrosion in aerated sodium sulfate solution  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition effects of inorganic multivalent cations on corrosion of Fe in an aerated 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}So{sub 4}) solution were investigated using polarization measurements. The cations formed deposit layers of their hydroxides on the Fe surface by reactions with hydroxide ions (OH{sup {minus}}) afforded through the cathodic process of Fe corrosion. Some layers on the surface were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Since the cations suppressed the cathodic process but stimulated the anodic one, their inhibition efficiencies were not markedly high. Inhibition effects of the cations on the cathodic process were related closely to the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle because the effect increased with the hardness of a cation as an acid.

Aramaki, K. [Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Yokomama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

1999-02-01

99

Proteolysis, NaOH and ultrasound-enhanced extraction of anticoagulant and antioxidant sulfated polysaccharides from the edible seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae.  

PubMed

The sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from the edible red seaweed, Gracilaria birdiae, were obtained using five different extraction conditions: Gracilaria birdiae 1 (GB1)-water; GB1s-water/sonication; GB1sp-water/sonication/proteolysis; GB2s-NaOH/sonication; and GB2sp-NaOH/sonication/proteolysis. The yield (g) increased in the following order: GB2sp>GB1sp>GB2s>GB1s>GB1. However, the amount of SP extracted increased in a different way: GB2sp>GB1>GB1sp>GB1s>GB2s. Infrared and electrophoresis analysis showed that all conditions extracted the same SP. In addition, monosaccharide composition showed that ultrasound promotes the extraction of polysaccharides other than SP. In the prothrombin time (PT) test, which evaluates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, none of the samples showed anticoagulant activity. While in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test, which evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, all samples showed anticoagulant activity, except GB2s. The aPTT activity decreased in the order of GB1sp>GB2sp>GB1>GB1s>GB2s. The total capacity antioxidant (TCA) of the SP was also affected by extraction condition, since GB2s and GB1 showed lower activity in comparison to the other conditions. In conclusion, the conditions of SP extraction influence their biological activities and chemical composition. The data revealed that NaOH/sonication/proteolysis was the best condition to extract anticoagulant and antioxidant SPs from Gracilaria birdiae. PMID:25401396

Fidelis, Gabriel Pereira; Camara, Rafael Barros Gomes; Queiroz, Moacir Fernandes; Santos Pereira Costa, Mariana Santana; Santos, Pablo Castro; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Costa, Leandro Silva

2014-01-01

100

Magnesium Sulfate Potentiates Effect of Digifab on Marinobufagenin-Induced Na/K-ATPase Inhibition  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Immunoneutralization of elevated circulating levels of endogenous digitalis-like Na/K-ATPase inhibitors (i.e. cardiotonic steroids (CTS)) represents a novel approach in the treatment of preeclampsia (PE). Recently we demonstrated that DigiFab (Fab fragments of affinity-purified ovine digoxin antibody) restores PE-induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase in erythrocytes ex vivo. Previously magnesium ions were shown to antagonize digitalis-induced toxicity, which is mediated by Na/K-ATPase inhibition. We hypothesized that magnesium sulfate would potentiate the effect of DigiFab in the reversal of CTS-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we studied the ex vivo effect of DigiFab on Na/K-ATPase activity in erythrocytes from patients with PE in the absence and in the presence of 3 mmol/L magnesium sulfate. RESULTS Compared with 11 normotensive pregnant subjects (29±1 years; gestational age = 39.0±0.2 weeks; blood pressure = 111±2/73±2mm Hg), the 12 patients with PE (30±1 years; gestational age = 37.9±0.3 weeks; blood pressure = 159±5/99±3mm Hg) had plasma levels of marino bufagenin increased 3-fold (1.38±0.40 vs. 0.38±0.10 nmol/L; P < 0.01) and activity of Na/K-ATPase in erythrocytes was inhibited (1.16±0.11 vs. 2.80±0.20 ?mol Pi/ml/h; P < 0.01). Ex vivo, DigiFab (1 µg/ml) restored erythrocyte Na/K-ATPase activity (1.72±0.13 µmol Pi/ml/h; P < 0.01), and 3 mmol magnesium sulfate potentiated the effect of DigiFab (2.30±0.20 µmol Pi/ml/h; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Magnesium is capable of increasing the efficacy of immunoneutralization of marinobufagenin-induced Na/K-ATPase inhibition. PMID:23878005

2013-01-01

101

Berberine Sulfate Inhibits Tumor-Promoting Activity of Teleocidin in Two-Stage Carcinogenesis on Mouse Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine sulfate, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Hydrastis canadensis L., inhibited the effects of the tumor promoters 12–O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and teleocidin, such as increased 32Pi-incorporation into phospholipids of cell membrane and hexose transport. Berberine sulfate also markedly suppressed the promoting effect of teleocidin on skin tumor formation in mice initiated with 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene.Copyright © 1986 S. Karger AG, Basel

H. Nishino; K. Kitagawa; H. Fujiki; A. Iwashima

1986-01-01

102

Cholesterol Sulfate and Cholesterol Sulfotransferase Inhibit Gluconeogenesis by Targeting Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4?  

PubMed Central

Sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated sulfation represents a critical mechanism in regulating the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1b catalyzes the sulfoconjugation of cholesterol to synthesize cholesterol sulfate (CS). In this study, we showed that the expression of SULT2B1b in the liver was induced in obese mice and during the transition from the fasted to the fed state, suggesting that the regulation of SULT2B1b is physiologically relevant. CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by targeting the gluconeogenic factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) in both cell cultures and transgenic mice. Treatment of mice with CS or transgenic overexpression of the CS-generating enzyme SULT2B1b in the liver inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and alleviated metabolic abnormalities both in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. Mechanistically, CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by suppressing the expression of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acss), leading to decreased acetylation and nuclear exclusion of HNF4?. Our results also suggested that leptin is a potential effector of SULT2B1b in improving metabolic function. We conclude that SULT2B1b and its enzymatic by-product CS are important metabolic regulators that control glucose metabolism, suggesting CS as a potential therapeutic agent and SULT2B1b as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. PMID:24277929

Shi, Xiongjie; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xu, Leyuan; Yan, Jiong; Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Xu, Meishu; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Sipula, Ian; O'Doherty, Robert Martin; Ren, Shunlin

2014-01-01

103

Cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol sulfotransferase inhibit gluconeogenesis by targeting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?.  

PubMed

Sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated sulfation represents a critical mechanism in regulating the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The cholesterol sulfotransferase SULT2B1b catalyzes the sulfoconjugation of cholesterol to synthesize cholesterol sulfate (CS). In this study, we showed that the expression of SULT2B1b in the liver was induced in obese mice and during the transition from the fasted to the fed state, suggesting that the regulation of SULT2B1b is physiologically relevant. CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by targeting the gluconeogenic factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) in both cell cultures and transgenic mice. Treatment of mice with CS or transgenic overexpression of the CS-generating enzyme SULT2B1b in the liver inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and alleviated metabolic abnormalities both in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) and in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. Mechanistically, CS and SULT2B1b inhibited gluconeogenesis by suppressing the expression of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (Acss), leading to decreased acetylation and nuclear exclusion of HNF4?. Our results also suggested that leptin is a potential effector of SULT2B1b in improving metabolic function. We conclude that SULT2B1b and its enzymatic by-product CS are important metabolic regulators that control glucose metabolism, suggesting CS as a potential therapeutic agent and SULT2B1b as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. PMID:24277929

Shi, Xiongjie; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Xu, Leyuan; Yan, Jiong; Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Xu, Meishu; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Sipula, Ian; O'Doherty, Robert Martin; Ren, Shunlin; Xie, Wen

2014-02-01

104

Dietary supplementation with soluble plantain non-starch polysaccharides inhibits intestinal invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the chicken.  

PubMed

Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1-99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5-10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64-81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75-90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

Parsons, Bryony N; Wigley, Paul; Simpson, Hannah L; Williams, Jonathan M; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J M; Fry, Stephen C; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Campbell, Barry J

2014-01-01

105

Dietary Supplementation with Soluble Plantain Non-Starch Polysaccharides Inhibits Intestinal Invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium in the Chicken  

PubMed Central

Soluble fibres (non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) from edible plants but particularly plantain banana (Musa spp.), have been shown in vitro and ex vivo to prevent various enteric pathogens from adhering to, or translocating across, the human intestinal epithelium, a property that we have termed contrabiotic. Here we report that dietary plantain fibre prevents invasion of the chicken intestinal mucosa by Salmonella. In vivo experiments were performed with chicks fed from hatch on a pellet diet containing soluble plantain NSP (0 to 200 mg/d) and orally infected with S.Typhimurium 4/74 at 8 d of age. Birds were sacrificed 3, 6 and 10 d post-infection. Bacteria were enumerated from liver, spleen and caecal contents. In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. Bacterial adherence and invasion were assessed by gentamicin protection assay. In vivo dietary supplementation with plantain NSP 50 mg/d reduced invasion by S.Typhimurium, as reflected by viable bacterial counts from splenic tissue, by 98.9% (95% CI, 98.1–99.7; P<0.0001). In vitro studies confirmed that plantain NSP (5–10 mg/ml) inhibited adhesion of S.Typhimurium 4/74 to a porcine epithelial cell-line (73% mean inhibition (95% CI, 64–81); P<0.001) and to primary chick caecal crypts (82% mean inhibition (95% CI, 75–90); P<0.001). Adherence inhibition was shown to be mediated via an effect on the epithelial cells and Ussing chamber experiments with ex-vivo human ileal mucosa showed that this effect was associated with increased short circuit current but no change in electrical resistance. The inhibitory activity of plantain NSP lay mainly within the acidic/pectic (homogalacturonan-rich) component. Supplementation of chick feed with plantain NSP was well tolerated and shows promise as a simple approach for reducing invasive salmonellosis. PMID:24498347

Simpson, Hannah L.; Williams, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Suzie; Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Fry, Stephen C.; O'Brien, David; Roberts, Carol L.; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Keita, Åsa V.; Söderholm, Johan D.; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Barry J.

2014-01-01

106

Efficacy of Zhuling polyporus polysaccharide with BCG to inhibit bladder carcinoma.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in reducing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) side effects while keeping intact its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of Sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus FRIES (Zhuling) and its main ingredient Polyporus Polysaccharide (PPS) to attenuate side effects of BCG therapy in vivo. The results show that bladder cancer development in model rats exhibited significantly reduced cancer invasiveness with Zhuling PPS combined with BCG. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis showed expression of costimulatory molecules CD86, CD40, and TLR4/CD14 significantly increased with Zhuling PPS in combination with BCG. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed stronger CD86 and CD40 staining. Our findings show Zhuling PPS strongly reduced side effects and displayed synergistic effects during BCG instillation in rat bladder cancer models. The findings also suggest that the attenuation effect may result from direct activation of dendritic cell (DC) TLR4. PMID:25542103

Zhang, Guo-Wei; Qin, Gui-Fang; Han, Bo; Li, Cai-Xia; Yang, Hong-Gai; Nie, Pi-Hu; Zeng, Xing

2015-03-15

107

The effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase: computational molecular dynamics integrating inhibition kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on tyrosinase via a combination of inhibition kinetics and computational simulations. Fucoidan reversibly inhibited tyrosinase in a mixed-type manner. Time-interval kinetics showed that the inhibition was processed as first order with biphasic

Zhi-Jiang Wang; Yue-Xiu Si; Sangho Oh; Jun-Mo Yang; Shang-Jun Yin; Yong-Doo Park; Jinhyuk Lee; Guo-Ying Qian

2012-01-01

108

Nociceptin/orphanin FQ inhibition with SB612111 ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel diseases, primarily Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown etiology. The majority of current therapeutic agents focus on controlling proinflammatory molecules. The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) has been described as a potential immunomodulator for inflammatory bowel diseases. In this study, we asked whether the small molecule N/OFQ antagonist (-)-cis-1-methyl-7-[[4-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]methyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-5-ol (SB612111) would inhibit the development of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Inhibition of the N/OFQ receptor (NOP) by SB612111 significantly ameliorated the clinical disease course in these animals, as indicated by reduced fecal bleeding, improved recovery from diarrhea and weight loss, and a reduction in histopathological alterations. In addition, the inflammatory response in the colon was diminished, as demonstrated by reduced cytokine protein and messenger RNA expression for CXCL1/keratinocyte-derived chemokine, interferon-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-?, some of which are known targets for the treatment of this devastating disease. Our results strongly support a role for the receptor-ligand pair NOP-N/OFQ in the pathogenesis of colitis. We conclude that inhibition of NOP receptors with small molecule inhibitors may constitute a novel, urgently needed approach for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:22449384

Alt, Carsten; Lam, Jennifer S; Harrison, M Travis; Kershaw, Kathleen M; Samuelsson, Steven; Toll, Lawrence; D'Andrea, Annalisa

2012-05-15

109

A New Role for RPTP{sigma} in Spinal Cord Injury: Signaling Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Inhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been known for more than two decades that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth and regeneration. In the adult nervous system, CSPGs are enriched in perineuronal nets, and their abundance is increased in reactive astrocytes following injury to brain or spinal cord. Degradation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sugar moieties by the local infusion of the bacterial enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) enhances experience-dependent neuronal plasticity in the adult visual cortex and results in substantially improved behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although the positive effects of ChaseABC treatment on neuronal plasticity have been known for some time, the underlying mechanisms remained enigmatic. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) has now been identified as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs. Similarly to ChaseABC treatment, functional ablation of Ptprs, the gene encoding RPTPσ, promotes neurite outgrowth in the presence of CSPGs in vitro and enhances axonal growth into CSPG-rich scar tissue following SCI in vivo. The discovery of neuronal RPTPσ as a receptor for inhibitory CSPGs not only provides important mechanistic clues about CSPG function, but also identifies a potential new target for enhancing axonal growth and plasticity after nervous system injury.

Yuntao Duan (University of Michigan School of Medicine;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV); Roman J. Giger (University of Michigan School of Medicine;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Department of Neurology REV)

2010-02-23

110

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 ?M regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

2013-01-01

111

A Purified Capsular Polysaccharide Markedly Inhibits Inflammatory Response during Endotoxic Shock  

PubMed Central

Capsular material of the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is composed mainly of a polysaccharide named glucuronoxylomannan (GXM). In this study, the effects of GXM were analyzed in an in vivo experimental system of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock. Endotoxic shock was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS from Escherichia coli. GXM treatment reduced the mortality of mice at early stages. Mice treated with LPS alone showed markedly increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6, whereas mice that were also treated with GXM showed significantly lower plasma levels of these cytokines. This effect was related to a marked suppression of Akt and I?B? activation. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of GXM on proinflammatory cytokine secretion was reproduced by treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of the Akt transcription pathway. Our results indicate that GXM has a beneficial effect on endotoxic shock, resulting in a significant increase in the rate of survival by dampening the hyperinflammatory response. PMID:23090956

Piccioni, M.; Monari, C.; Kenno, S.; Pericolini, E.; Gabrielli, E.; Pietrella, D.; Perito, S.; Bistoni, F.; Kozel, T. R.

2013-01-01

112

Recognition of bacterial capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides by the macrophage mannose receptor.  

PubMed

The in vitro binding of the macrophage mannose receptor to a range of different bacterial polysaccharides was investigated. The receptor was shown to bind to purified capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae and to the lipopolysaccharides, but not capsular polysaccharides, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Binding was Ca(2+)-dependent and inhibitable with d-mannose. A fusion protein of the mannose receptor containing carbohydrate recognition domains 4-7 and a full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor containing all domains external to the transmembrane region both displayed very similar binding specificities toward bacterial polysaccharides, suggesting that domains 4-7 are sufficient for recognition of these structures. Surprisingly, no direct correlation could be made between polysaccharide structure and binding to the mannose receptor, suggesting that polysaccharide conformation may play an important role in recognition. The full-length soluble form of the mannose receptor was able to bind simultaneously both polysaccharide via the carbohydrate recognition domains and sulfated oligosaccharide via the cysteine-rich domain. The possible involvement of the mannose receptor, either cell surface or soluble, in the innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial polysaccharides is discussed. PMID:12196537

Zamze, Susanne; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Jones, Hannah; Taylor, Philip R; Stillion, Richard J; Gordon, Siamon; Wong, Simon Y C

2002-11-01

113

Streptococcus suis capsular polysaccharide inhibits phagocytosis through destabilization of lipid microdomains and prevents lactosylceramide-dependent recognition.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis type 2 is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent, causing meningitis in both swine and humans. S. suis infects the host through the respiratory route, reaches the bloodstream, and persists until breaching into the central nervous system. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis type 2 is considered a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Though CPS allows S. suis to adhere to the membrane of cells of the immune system, it provides protection against phagocytosis. In fact, nonencapsulated mutants are easily internalized and killed by macrophages and dendritic cells. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms by which the CPS of S. suis prevents phagocytosis. By using latex beads covalently linked with purified CPS, it was shown that CPS itself was sufficient to inhibit entry of both latex beads and bystander fluorescent beads into macrophages. Upon contact with macrophages, encapsulated S. suis was shown to destabilize lipid microdomains at the cell surface, to block nitric oxide (NO) production during infection, and to prevent lactosylceramide accumulation at the phagocytic cup during infection. In contrast, the nonencapsulated mutant was easily internalized via lipid rafts, in a filipin-sensitive manner, leading to lactosylceramide recruitment and strong NO production. This is the first report to identify a role for CPS in lipid microdomain stability and to recognize an interaction between S. suis and lactosylceramide in phagocytes. PMID:22124659

Houde, Mathieu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Fleur; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Segura, Mariela

2012-02-01

114

Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

2011-07-01

115

Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels. PMID:22408412

Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

2012-01-01

116

Curcumin Inhibits STAT3 Signaling in the Colon of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-treated Mice  

PubMed Central

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) has a long history of use in medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. One of the major constituents of turmeric is curcumin (diferuloylmethane), which is responsible for its characteristic yellow color. In the present study, we have examined the chemoprotective effects of curcuminon dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. For this purpose, we pre-treated male ICR mice with curcumin (0.1 or 0.25 mmol/kg in 0.05% carboxymethyl cellulose) by gavage for a week and then co-treated the animals with curcumin by gavage and 3% DSS in drinking water for another 7 days. Our study revealed that administration of curcumin significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis and STAT3 signaling in mouse colon. The levels of the cell cycle regulators CDK4 and cylinD1 were significantly reduced by curcumin administration. Moreover, the expression of p53, which is an upstream regulator of the CDK4-cylinD1 complex, was inhibited by curcumin treatment. PMID:25337545

Yang, Joon-Yeop; Zhong, Xiancai; Yum, Hye-Won; Lee, Hyung-Jun; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

2013-01-01

117

[The inhibition of complement-dependent hemolysis of liposomes containing cerebroside sulfate].  

PubMed

Cerebroside sulfate (CGS) was found to be capable of inhibiting complement-dependent hemolysis. The activity dependence of CGS-containing liposomes on their composition was studied. Mixtures of CGS with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin from cattle brain, cerebroside from cattle spinal cord (CG), and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (ePC) were investigated. In the case of binary CGS/ePC mixtures, the antihemolytic activity varied nonlinearly with an increase in the mass part of CGS: it sharply increased with an increase in the CGS part from 0.3 to 0.5 and decreased by 20-30% of the maximum value with an increase in the CGS part from 0.9 to 1. On the basis of these experiments, the optimum distance between the charged groups of CGS was estimated to be 0.92-1.6 nm. In the ternary compositions of 4:3:3 CGS/ePC/polar lipid, only CG increased the activity of liposomes as compared to that of liposomes from the 4:6 CGS/ePC. The preliminary incubation of CGS-containing liposomes with complement decreased hemolysis more effectively than incubation with other components of the hemolytic system. This suggests that the interaction of CGS-containing liposomes with the complement proteins is responsible for their antihemolytic activity. PMID:10806554

Kaplun, A P; Burdelev, O O; Ivanova, N N; Krasnopol'ski?, Iu M; Shvets, V I

2000-01-01

118

Heparan sulfate structure: methods to study N-sulfation and NDST action.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important modulators of cellular processes where the negatively charged polysaccharide chains interact with target proteins. The sulfation pattern of the heparan sulfate chains will determine the proteins that will bind and the affinity of the interactions. The N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) enzymes are of key importance during heparan sulfate biosynthesis when the sulfation pattern is determined. In this chapter, metabolic labeling of heparan sulfate with [(35)S]sulfate or [(3)H]glucosamine in cell cultures is described, in addition to characterization of polysaccharide chain length and degree of N-sulfation. Methods to measure NDST enzyme activity are also presented. PMID:25325954

Dagälv, Anders; Lundequist, Anders; Filipek-Górniok, Beata; Dierker, Tabea; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellén, Lena

2015-01-01

119

Serpin-independent anticoagulant activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber composed of a chondroitin sulfate-like core with branches of sulfated fucose. This glycosaminoglycan has high anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Its serpin-dependent anticoagulant activity is mostly due to activating thrombin inhibition by heparin cofactor II. Here, we evaluated the anticoagulant activity of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate using antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-free plasmas. In contrast to mammalian heparin, the invertebrate glycosaminoglycan is still able to prolong coagulation time and delay thrombin and factor Xa generation in serpin-free plasmas. These observations suggest that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate has a serpin-independent anticoagulant effect. We further investigated this effect using purified blood coagulation proteins. Clearly, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits the intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complexes, which are critical for thrombin generation. It is possible that the invertebrate chondroitin sulfate inhibits interactions between cofactor Va and factor Xa. We also employed chemically modified polysaccharides in order to trace a structure versus activity relationship. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches, but not reduction of the glucuronic acid residues to glucose, abolished its activity. In conclusion, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate has broader effects on the coagulation system than mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In addition to its serpin-dependent inhibition of coagulation protease, it also inhibits the generation of factor Xa and thrombin by the tenase and prothrombinase complexes, respectively. In plasma systems, the serpin-independent anticoagulant effect of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate predominates over its serpin-dependent action. This glycosaminoglycan opens new avenues for the development of antithrombotic agents. PMID:18766257

Glauser, Bianca F; Pereira, Mariana S; Monteiro, Robson Q; Mourão, Paulo A S

2008-09-01

120

Development and characterization of new insulin containing polysaccharide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nanoparticle insulin delivery system was prepared by complexation of dextran sulfate and chitosan in aqueous solution. Parameters of the formulation such as the final mass of polysaccharides, the mass ratio of the two polysaccharides, pH of polysaccharides solution, and insulin theorical loading were identified as the modulating factors of nanoparticle physical properties. Particles with a mean diameter of 500nm

Bruno Sarmento; Ant ´ onio Ribeiro; Francisco Veiga; Domingos Ferreira

2006-01-01

121

Structure-Based Identification and Neutralization Mechanism of Tyrosine-Sulfate Mimetics that Inhibit HIV-1 Entry  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine sulfate-mediated interactions play an important role in HIV-1 entry. After engaging the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein binds to the CCR5 co-receptor via an interaction that requires two tyrosine-sulfates, at positions 10 and 14 in the CCR5-N terminus. Building on previous structure determinations of this interaction, here we report the targeting of these tyrosine sulfate-binding sites for drug design through in silico screening of small molecule libraries, identification of lead compounds, and characterization of biological activity. A class of tyrosine sulfate-mimicking small molecules containing a “phenyl sulfonate-linker-aromatic” motif was identified that specifically inhibited binding of gp120 to the CCR5-N terminus as well as to antibodies that recognize the co-receptor-binding region on gp120. The most potent of these compounds bound gp120 with low ?M affinity and its CD4-induced conformation with KDs as tight as ?50 nM. Neutralization experiments suggested the targeted site to be conformationally inaccessible prior to CD4 engagement. Primary HIV-1 isolates were weakly neutralized, pre-incubation with soluble CD4 enhanced neutralization, and engineered isolates with increased dependence on the N terminus of CCR5 or with reduced conformational barriers were neutralized with IC50 value as low as ? 1 ?M. These results reveal the potential of targeting the tyrosine-sulfate interactions of HIV-1 and provide insight into how mechanistic barriers, evolved by HIV-1 to evade antibody recognition, also restrict small molecule-mediated neutralization. PMID:21793507

Acharya, Priyamvada; Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan; Lalonde, Judith M.; Lam, Son N.; Leslie, George J.; Louder, Mark K.; Frye, Leah L.; Debnath, Asim K.; Greenwood, Jeremy R.; Luongo, Timothy S.; Martin, Loïc; Watts, K. Shawn; Hoxie, James A.; Mascola, John R.; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

2011-01-01

122

Mechanisms of direct inhibition of the respiratory sulfate-reduction pathway by (per)chlorate and nitrate.  

PubMed

We investigated perchlorate (ClO4(-)) and chlorate (ClO3(-)) (collectively (per)chlorate) in comparison with nitrate as potential inhibitors of sulfide (H2S) production by mesophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs). We demonstrate the specificity and potency of (per)chlorate as direct SRM inhibitors in both pure cultures and undefined sulfidogenic communities. We demonstrate that (per)chlorate and nitrate are antagonistic inhibitors and resistance is cross-inducible implying that these compounds share at least one common mechanism of resistance. Using tagged-transposon pools we identified genes responsible for sensitivity and resistance in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We found that mutants in Dde_2702 (Rex), a repressor of the central sulfate-reduction pathway were resistant to both (per)chlorate and nitrate. In general, Rex derepresses its regulon in response to increasing intracellular NADH:NAD(+) ratios. In cells in which respiratory sulfate reduction is inhibited, NADH:NAD(+) ratios should increase leading to derepression of the sulfate-reduction pathway. In support of this, in (per)chlorate or nitrate-stressed wild-type G20 we observed higher NADH:NAD(+) ratios, increased transcripts and increased peptide counts for genes in the core Rex regulon. We conclude that one mode of (per)chlorate and nitrate toxicity is as direct inhibitors of the central sulfate-reduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that (per)chlorate are more potent inhibitors than nitrate in both pure cultures and communities, implying that they represent an attractive alternative for controlling sulfidogenesis in industrial ecosystems. Of these, perchlorate offers better application logistics because of its inhibitory potency, solubility, relative chemical stability, low affinity for mineral cations and high mobility in environmental systems.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.216. PMID:25405978

Carlson, Hans K; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Hazra, Amrita B; Justice, Nicholas B; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Iavarone, Anthony T; Engelbrektson, Anna; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

2014-11-18

123

Inhibition of viral replication by nitric oxide and its reversal by ferrous sulfate and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites  

PubMed Central

IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage-derived cell line RAW 264.7 was previously shown to inhibit replication of the poxviruses ectromelia and vaccinia (VV) and HSV-1. In the current study we demonstrate that murine macrophages activated as a consequence of VV infection express inducible nitric oxide synthase. These activated macrophages were resistant to infection with VV and efficiently blocked the replication of VV and HSV-1 in infected bystander cells of epithelial and fibroblast origin. This inhibition was arginine dependent, correlated with nitrite production in cultures, and reversible by the NOS inhibitor N omega-monomethyl-L-arginine. NO- mediated inhibition of VV replication was studied by treatment of virus- infected human 293 cells with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl- penicillamine. Using a VV-specific DNA probe, antibodies specific for temporally expressed viral proteins, and transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that NO inhibited viral late gene protein synthesis, DNA replication, and virus particle formation, but not expression of the early proteins that were analyzed. Putative enzymatic targets of NO were identified by reversing the NO-mediated inhibition of VV replication in the 293 cells with exogenous ferrous sulfate and L- cysteine. Reversal of inhibition may derive from the capacity of these reagents to protect or regenerate nonheme iron or thiol groups, respectively, which are essential for the catalytic activities of enzymes susceptible to inactivation by NO. PMID:7539042

1995-01-01

124

Marine sulfated glycans with serpin-unrelated anticoagulant properties.  

PubMed

Marine organisms are a rich source of sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) from the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea and sulfated galactan from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis are one of these unusual molecules. Besides their uncommon structures, they also exhibit high anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects. Earlier, it was considered that the anticoagulant activities of these two marine glycans were driven mainly by a catalytic serpin-dependent mechanism likewise the mammalian heparins. Its serpin-dependent anticoagulant action relies on promoting thrombin and/or factor Xa inhibition by their specific natural inhibitors (the serpins antithrombin and heparin cofactor II). However, as opposed to heparins, these two previously mentioned marine glycans were proved still capable in promoting coagulation inhibition using serpin-free plasmas. This puzzle observation was further investigated and clearly demonstrated that the cucumber FucCS and the red algal sulfated galactan have an unusual serpin-independent anticoagulant effect by inhibiting the formation of factor Xa and/or thrombin through the procoagulants tenase and prothrombinase complexes, respectively. These marine polysaccharides with unusual anticoagulant effects open clearly new perspectives for the development of new antithrombotic drugs as well as push the glycomics project. PMID:24772670

Glauser, Bianca F; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

2013-01-01

125

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.  

PubMed

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

2004-11-01

126

Elastin peptide receptor-directed monocyte chemotactic polysaccharides derived from seaweed sporophyll and from infectious fungus.  

PubMed

We discovered that a seaweed sporophyll-derived polysaccharide of brown alga, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) bound to monocytes and attracted them in vitro and in vivo. Physicochemical properties, affinity to a lectin-bead column and sugar composition of the chemotactic polysaccharide indicated this molecule to be a highly sulfated fucogalactan. We then identified the monocyte receptor of the sulfated fucogalactan as the elastin peptide receptor by prophylactic inhibition of the binding and the chemoattraction with lactose and the synthetic elastin peptide, Val-Gly-Val-Ala-Pro-Gly. We assume that the galactose-binding lectin, which is a component of the elastin peptide receptor complex, would recognize a Gal residue of the sulfated fucogalactan. We also observed a similar chemoattracting polysaccharide in a pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, although the content of it was much lower than in the case of seaweed sporophyll. We speculate that the chemotactic response of monocytes to the sulfated fucogalactan is part of the innate immune system to fungal infection. PMID:18976701

Li, Ying; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tokita, Kazutaka; Kouike, Yukinori; Taniguchi, Chiho; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Nishino, Norikazu; Hama, Yoichiro; Asakawa, Makio; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

2008-01-01

127

Protein-bound polysaccharide PSK inhibits tumor invasiveness by down-regulation of TGF-?1 and MMPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by tumor cells play important roles in\\u000a tumor invasion. PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, is widely used in Japan as an immunopotentiating biological response\\u000a modifier for cancer patients. In this study, we focused on the effects of PSK on invasiveness, TGF-?1 production, and MMPs\\u000a expression in two human tumor cell lines,

Hao Zhang; Takashi Morisaki; Hisashi Matsunaga; Norihiro Sato; Akihiko Uchiyama; Kentaro Hashizume; Fumio Nagumo; Jutaro Tadano; Mitsuo Katano

2000-01-01

128

The depolymerized fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber potently inhibits HIV replication via interfering with virus entry.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS-1) is a nontoxic and water-soluble depolymerized glycosaminoglycan obtained from the sea cucumber Thelenota ananas. Anti-HIV activities of FuCS-1 were evaluated in the present study. FuCS-1 was effective in blocking laboratory strain HIV-1IIIB entry and replication (4.26?g/mL and 0.73?g/mL, respectively), and inhibiting infection by clinic isolate HIV-1KM018 and HIV-1TC-2 (23.75?g/mL and 31.86?g/mL, respectively) as well as suppressing HIV-1 drug-resistant virus. It also inhibited HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20 replication (100?g/mL). Notably, FuCS-1 showed highly effective antiviral activity against T-20-resistant strains (EC50 values ranging from 0.76?g/mL to 1.13?g/mL). Further studies indicated that FuCS-1 can potently bind the recombinant HIV-1 gp120 protein, but no inhibition of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was observed. In conclusion, FuCS-1 inhibited several strains of HIV-1 replication with different potencies. These results suggest that FuCS-1 may possess great potential to be further developed as novel HIV-1 entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly for those infected by T-20-resistant variants. PMID:23962762

Huang, Ning; Wu, Ming-Yi; Zheng, Chang-Bo; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2013-10-18

129

A RG-II type polysaccharide purified from Aconitum coreanum alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by inhibiting the NF-?B signal pathway.  

PubMed

Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [?6) -?-D-Galp (1?3)-?-L-Rhap-(1?4)-?-D-GalpA-(1?3)-?-D-Galp-(1?] with the side chain ?5)-?-D-Arap (1?3, 5)-?-D-Arap (1? attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1?3,4)-L-Rhap. T-?-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1?3,6)-?-D-Galp residues and T-?-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-?B-p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-I?B-? expression as well as the degradation of I?B-? and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-?B signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-?B as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-?B DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200 µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S W Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

2014-01-01

130

Effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on PCDD/F formation from active carbon and possible mechanism of inhibition.  

PubMed

The effect of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and urea (CO(NH2)2) on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) formation from active carbon was investigated in this study. Both additives could significantly inhibit PCDD/F formation, and PCDD/F (TEQ) generation was reduced to 98.5% (98%) or 64.5% (77.2%) after 5% (NH4)2SO4 or CO(NH2)2 was added into model ash, respectively. The inhibition efficiency of PCDDs was higher than the value of PCDFs, however, the reduction of PCDD/F yield was mainly from PCDFs decreasing. In addition, the solid-phase products were reduced more than the gas-phase compounds by inhibitors. By the measurement of chlorine emission in the phase of ion (Cl[Cl(-)]) and molecule gas (Cl[Cl2]), it was observed that both Cl[Cl(-)] and Cl[Cl2] were reduced after inhibitors were added into ash. Cl[Cl2] was reduced to 51.0% by urea addition, which was supposed as one possible mechanism of PCDD/F inhibition. PMID:25458682

Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhifu; Yang, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Ren, Jianli; Xu, Zhang

2014-11-01

131

Binding inhibition of angiogenic factors by heparan sulfate proteoglycans in aqueous humor: potential mechanism for maintenance of an avascular environment.  

PubMed

Aqueous humor is a clear fluid, primarily a blood filtrate, which circulates through the anterior chamber of the eye and bathes the cornea. We explored the possibility that components in the aqueous humor play a direct part in maintaining the avascular environment of the cornea. We report here that heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) was found in bovine aqueous humor and that it directly inhibits binding of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor to cell-surface heparan sulfate. We demonstrate that this holds true for all heparin binding proteins tested but not for epidermal growth factor, which does not bind heparin. Furthermore, we show, with mathematical modeling, that the concentration of HSPG in aqueous humor (approximately 4 microg/ml), when combined with the clearance of aqueous humor from the eye due to circulation, is sufficient to block the binding of heparin binding growth factors to corneal endothelium. This mechanism suggests a physiological process to control bioavailability of angiogenic growth factors in the cornea. PMID:12626427

Fannon, Michael; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Dowd, Christopher J; Freedman, Deborah A; Folkman, Judah; Nugent, Matthew A

2003-05-01

132

Dextran Sulfate Suppression of Viruses in the HIV Family: Inhibition of Virion Binding to CD4+ Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in the infection of human T lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is attachment to the target cell receptor, the CD4 antigen. This step may be vulnerable to attack by antibodies, chemicals, or small peptides. Dextran sulfate (molecular weight approximately 8000), which has been given to patients as an anticoagulant or antilipemic agent for more than two decades, was found to block the binding of virions to various target T lymphocytes, inhibit syncytia formation, and exert a potent inhibitory effect against HIV-1 in vitro at concentrations that may be clinically attainable in human beings. This drug also suppressed the replication of HIV-2 in vitro. These observations could have theoretical and clinical implications in the strategy to develop drugs against HIV types 1 and 2.

Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Looney, David J.; Kuno, Sachiko; Ueno, Ryuji; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Broder, Samuel

1988-04-01

133

Momordica charantia polysaccharides could protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Momordica charantia (MC) is a medicinal plant for stroke treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine, but its active compounds and molecular targets are unknown yet. M. charantia polysaccharide (MCP) is one of the important bioactive components in MC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MCP has neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through scavenging superoxide (O2(-)), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and inhibiting c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3) signaling cascades. We conducted experiments with in vivo global and focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rat models and in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) neural cells. The effects of MCP on apoptotic cell death and infarction volume, the bioactivities of scavenging O2(-), NO and ONOO(-), inhibiting lipid peroxidation and modulating JNK3 signaling pathway were investigated. Major results are summarized as below: (1) MCP dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death in neural cells under OGD condition in vitro and reduced infarction volume in ischemic brains in vivo; (2) MCP had directing scavenging effects on NO, O2(-) and ONOO(-) and inhibited lipid peroxidation; (3) MCP inhibited the activations of JNK3/c-Jun/Fas-L and JNK3/cytochrome C/caspases-3 signaling cascades in ischemic brains in vivo. Taken together, we conclude that MCP could be a promising neuroprotective ingredient of M. charantia and its mechanisms could be at least in part attributed to its antioxidant activities and inhibiting JNK3 signaling cascades during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25510970

Gong, Juanjuan; Sun, Fumou; Li, Yihang; Zhou, Xiaoling; Duan, Zhenzhen; Duan, Fugang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hansen; Qi, Suhua; Shen, Jiangang

2015-04-01

134

An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 ?g/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

2013-01-01

135

Functional polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa aqueous extract inhibit atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.  

PubMed

Grifola frondosa (GF), distributed widely in far east Asia including Korea, is popularly used as traditional medicines and health supplementary foods, especially for enhancing the immune functions of the body. To extend the application of GF polysaccharides (GFP) for atopic dermatitis (AD), we investigated the effects of GFP on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesion in NC/Nga mice. GFP treatment significantly reduced the dorsa skin dermatitis score and combination treatment with GFP, and dexamethasone has a synergistic effect in AD-like skin lesion by reduced Serum IgE, mast cells infiltration, and cytokines expression. These results indicate that GFP suppressed the AD-like skin lesions by controlling the Th-1/Th-2-type cytokines in NC/Nga mice. These findings strongly suggest that GFP can be useful for AD patients as a novel therapeutic agent and might be used for corticosteroids replacement or supplement agent. PMID:25248662

Park, Hyeon Soo; Hwang, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Mun Ki; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Yumnam, Silvia; Kim, Eun Hee; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Won, Chung Kil; Kim, Gon Sup

2015-01-01

136

Different K s values for hydrogen of methanogenic bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria: An explanation for the apparent inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Marburg) and Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus (AZ) are anaerobic sewage sludge bacteria which grow on H2 plus sulfate and H2 plus CO2 as sole energy sources, respectively. Their apparent Ks values for H2 were determined and found to be approximately 1 µM for the sulfate reducing bacterium and 6 µM for the methanogenic bacterium. In mixed cell suspensions of the

Jakob K. Kristjansson; Peter Schönheit; Rudolf K. Thauer

1982-01-01

137

Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Binds to Chemokines and Inhibits Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Mediated Signaling in Activated T Cells  

PubMed Central

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation. PMID:24718687

Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

2014-01-01

138

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate binds to chemokines and inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediated signaling in activated T cells.  

PubMed

Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, was a contaminant in heparin that was linked to the 2008 heparin adverse events in the US. Because of its highly negative charge, OSCS can interact with many components of the contact and immune systems. We have previously demonstrated that OSCS inhibited the complement classical pathway by binding C1 inhibitor and potentiating its interaction with C1s. In the present study, by using surface plasmon resonance, we found OSCS interacts with T cell chemokines that can impact adaptive immunity. The binding of OSCS to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) chemokines, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, caused a significant change in the secondary structures of these chemokines as detected by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra analysis. Functionally, OSCS binding profoundly inhibited SDF-1-induced calcium mobilization and T cell chemotaxis. Imaging flow cytometry revealed T cell morphological changes mediated by SDF-1? were completely blocked by OSCS. We conclude that the OSCS, a past contaminant in heparin, has broad interactions with the components of the human immune system beyond the contact and complement systems, and that may explain, in part, prior OSCS-related adverse events, while suggesting potentially useful therapeutic applications for related GAGs in the control of inflammation. PMID:24718687

Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Karnaukhova, Elena; Rajabi, Mohsen; Reeder, Kelly; Chen, Trina; Dhawan, Subhash; Kozlowski, Steven

2014-01-01

139

THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDE ON MUMPS VIRUS MULTIPLICATION  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides derived from type-specific Friedländer bacilli cause inhibition of the multiplication of mumps virus in the allantoic sac of the chick embryo. As little as 5 µg. of polysaccharide is effective as an inhibitor. Inhibition of multiplication is obtained when polysaccharide is injected as long as 4 days after inoculation of virus. Chemical studies have shown that the structural configurations of the polysaccharide responsible for specific serological activity are not identical with those which determine the inhibitory effect relative to mumps virus. The possible mechanisms of the inhibition of viral multiplication by means of polysaccharides are discussed. PMID:18912891

Ginsberg, Harold S.; Goebel, Walther F.; Horsfall, Frank L.

1948-01-01

140

Protein-bound polysaccharide K suppresses tumor fibrosis in gastric cancer by inhibiting the TGF-? signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most frequent metastatic pattern of gastric cancer and its prognosis is extremely poor. PC is characterized by rich fibrosis and the development of obstructive disorders such as ileus, jaundice and hydronephrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major causes of tissue fibrosis and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has a pivotal function in the progression of EMT. Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is a biological response modifier that can modulate the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway in vitro. In the present study, we established a fibrotic tumor model using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and a human gastric cancer cell line to evaluate whether PSK attenuates tumor fibrosis. HPMCs exposed to PSK did not undergo the morphological change from a cobblestone-like pattern to a spindle-shape pattern normally induced by treatment with TGF-?. Immunofluorescence further demonstrated that PSK suppressed TGF-?-induced overexpression of ?-SMA in the HPMCs. We further showed that HPMCs contributed to the proliferation of tumor fibrosis by using a mouse xenograft model. Additionally, PSK treatment of these mice significantly reduced the area of observable tumor fibrosis. These results suggest that seeded cancer cells transformed HPMCs into myofibroblast-like cells through their release of TGF-? in the microenvironment, facilitating the development of fibrous tumors in organs covered with HPMCs. Therefore, our study indicates that PSK has potential utility as an anti-fibrotic agent in the treatment of gastric cancer patients with PC. PMID:25435013

SHINBO, TOSHIFUMI; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; TSUKADA, TOMOYA; HARADA, SHINICHI; KINOSHITA, JUN; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; OKAMOTO, KOICHI; NINOMIYA, ITASU; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; KITAGAWA, HIROHISA; FUJIMURA, TAKESHI; YASHIRO, MASAKAZU; HIRAKAWA, KOUSEI; OHTA, TETSUO

2015-01-01

141

Protein-bound polysaccharide K suppresses tumor fibrosis in gastric cancer by inhibiting the TGF-? signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most frequent metastatic pattern of gastric cancer and its prognosis is extremely poor. PC is characterized by rich fibrosis and the development of obstructive disorders such as ileus, jaundice and hydronephrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major causes of tissue fibrosis and transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has a pivotal function in the progression of EMT. Protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) is a biological response modifier that can modulate the TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway in vitro. In the present study, we established a fibrotic tumor model using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and a human gastric cancer cell line to evaluate whether PSK attenuates tumor fibrosis. HPMCs exposed to PSK did not undergo the morphological change from a cobblestone-like pattern to a spindle-shape pattern normally induced by treatment with TGF-?. Immunofluorescence further demonstrated that PSK suppressed TGF-?-induced overexpression of ?-SMA in the HPMCs. We further showed that HPMCs contributed to the proliferation of tumor fibrosis by using a mouse xenograft model. Additionally, PSK treatment of these mice significantly reduced the area of observable tumor fibrosis. These results suggest that seeded cancer cells transformed HPMCs into myofibroblast-like cells through their release of TGF-? in the microenvironment, facilitating the development of fibrous tumors in organs covered with HPMCs. Therefore, our study indicates that PSK has potential utility as an anti-fibrotic agent in the treatment of gastric cancer patients with PC. PMID:25435013

Shinbo, Toshifumi; Fushida, Sachio; Tsukada, Tomoya; Harada, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Koichi; Ninomiya, Itasu; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Fujimura, Takeshi; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kousei; Ohta, Tetsuo

2015-02-01

142

Fine chemical structure analysis of oligosaccharides produced by an ulvan-lyase degradation of the water-soluble cell-wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A marine bacterium degrading the water-soluble cell wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp. (ulvan) has been isolated. The good correlation between ulvan degradation monitored by reducing-power, UV absorbance and viscosimetry, indicated that the crude enzymatic extract contains essentially an endo-ulvan lyase activity. This activity was rapidly inhibited by the reaction products which consisted of a series of ulvanobiouronic acid A 3-sulfate

Marc Lahaye; Magali Brunel; Estelle Bonnin

1997-01-01

143

Chondroitin Sulfate Is Indispensable for Pluripotency and Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are present on the surfaces of virtually all cells and in the extracellular matrix and are required for cytokinesis at early developmental stages. Studies have shown that heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are primed for differentiation, whereas the function of CS has not yet been elucidated. To clarify the role of CS, we generated glucuronyltransferase-I-knockout ESCs lacking CS. We found that CS was required to maintain the pluripotency of ESCs and promoted initial ESC commitment to differentiation compared with HS. In addition, CS-A and CS-E polysaccharides, but not CS-C polysaccharides, bound to E-cadherin and enhanced ESC differentiation. Multiple-lineage differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested wild-type ESCs. Collectively, these results suggest that CS is a novel determinant in controlling the functional integrity of ESCs via binding to E-cadherin.

Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

144

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans potently inhibit invasion and serve as a central organizer of the brain tumor microenvironment.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most pervasive and lethal of all brain malignancies. One factor that contributes to this poor prognosis is the highly invasive character of the tumor. GBM is characterized by microscopic infiltration of tumor cells throughout the brain, whereas non-neural metastases, as well as select lower grade gliomas, develop as self-contained and clearly delineated lesions. Illustrated by rodent xenograft tumor models as well as pathological human patient specimens, we present evidence that one fundamental switch between these two distinct pathologies--invasion and noninvasion--is mediated through the tumor extracellular matrix. Specifically, noninvasive lesions are associated with a rich matrix containing substantial amounts of glycosylated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), whereas glycosylated CSPGs are essentially absent from diffusely infiltrating tumors. CSPGs, acting as central organizers of the tumor microenvironment, dramatically influence resident reactive astrocytes, inducing their exodus from the tumor mass and the resultant encapsulation of noninvasive lesions. Additionally, CSPGs induce activation of tumor-associated microglia. We demonstrate that the astrogliotic capsule can directly inhibit tumor invasion, and its absence from GBM presents an environment favorable to diffuse infiltration. We also identify the leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase receptor (PTPRF) as a putative intermediary between extracellular glycosylated CSPGs and noninvasive tumor cells. In all, we present CSPGs as critical regulators of brain tumor histopathology and help to clarify the role of the tumor microenvironment in brain tumor invasion. PMID:24068827

Silver, Daniel J; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A; Schildts, Michela J; Yachnis, Anthony T; Smith, George M; Smith, Amy A; Scheffler, Bjorn; Reynolds, Brent A; Silver, Jerry; Steindler, Dennis A

2013-09-25

145

Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection.  

PubMed

Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 ?g/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage. PMID:25629385

Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

2015-01-01

146

A polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum inhibits tumor growth by induction of apoptosis and activation of immune response in CT26-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Ganoderma atrum is one species of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom with various biological activities. Recently, a novel polysaccharide, PSG-1, was purified from G. atrum. The antitumor activity and its mechanism of action were studied. In vitro, PSG-1 has little effect on inhibiting proliferation of CT26 tumor cells. However, the tumor size was significantly decreased in PSG-1-treated mice. The results showed that PSG-1 induced apoptosis in CT26 cells. Moreover, the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were markedly increased in PSG-1-treated mice. In contrast, the contents of cyclic GMP and DAG and the PKC activity were decreased. Similarly, the expression of PKA protein was upregulated, while PKC protein expression in PSG-1-treated group was lowered. Additionally, PSG-1 increased the immune organ index and serum biochemistry parameter. In general, PSG-1 enhances the antitumor immune response, induces apoptosis in CT26-bearing mice, and could be a safe and effective adjuvant for tumor therapy or functional food. PMID:25179589

Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Huang, Jianqin; Feng, Yanling; Xie, Mingyong

2014-09-24

147

In vivo immunomodulatory effects of Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model for inhibiting infection of Schistosoma mansoni  

SciTech Connect

Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus commonly used for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer in Chinese folk medicine. Extract of A. camphorate is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antihepatitis B virus and anticancer activities. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of polysaccharides derived from A. camphorata (AC-PS) on immune function by detection of cytokine expression and evaluation of the immune phenotype in a T1/T2 doubly transgenic mouse model. The protective effect of AC-PS in mice was tested by infection with Schistosoma mansoni. The induction of large amounts of IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and TNF-a mRNA were detected after 2 and 4 weeks of oral AC-PS administration in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In transgenic mice, 3 to 6 weeks of oral AC-PS administration increased the proportion of CD4{sup +} T cells and B cells within the spleen. More specifically, there was an increase of Th1 CD4{sup +} T cells and Be1 cells among spleen cells as observed by detection the of Type1/Type2 marker molecules. By using a disease model of parasitic infection, we found that AC-PS treatment inhibited infection with S. mansoni in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. AC-PS appears to influence the immune system of mice into developing Th1 responses and have potential for preventing infection with S. mansoni.

Cheng, P.-C. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-Y. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-C. [Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lee, K.-M. [Institute of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kmlee@ctust.edu.tw

2008-03-01

148

Elastin peptide receptor-directed monocyte chemotactic polysaccharides derived from seaweed sporophyll and from infectious fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discovered that a seaweed sporophyll-derived polysaccharide of brown alga, Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) bound to monocytes and attracted them in vitro and in vivo. Physicochemical properties, affinity to a lectin-bead column and sugar composition of the chemotactic polysaccharide indicated this molecule to be a highly sulfated fucogalactan. We then identified the monocyte receptor of the sulfated fucogalactan as the elastin

Ying Li; Hiroshi Nishiura; Kazutaka Tokita; Yukinori Kouike; Chiho Taniguchi; Masayoshi Iwahara; Norikazu Nishino; Yoichiro Hama; Makio Asakawa; Tetsuro Yamamoto

2008-01-01

149

Sulfated polyanions prevent HIV infection of lymphocytes by disruption of the CD4-gpl2O interaction, but do not inhibit monocyte infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polyanions (SPs) bind variably to lymphocyte-expressed CD4 and inhibit binding of monoclonal antibodies to the first two domains of CD4. To further define this interaction, soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4; four extracellular domains), its truncated amino-terminal two-domain derivative, and three linear peptide analogues spanning residues 6-60 (6-24, 20-40, 41-60) in the first domain were investigated for SP bind- ing. Dextran

G. Lynch; L. Low; S. Li; A. Sloane; S. Adams; C. Parish; B. Kemp

150

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

151

The Microbial Capsular Polysaccharide Galactoxylomannan Inhibits IL-17A Production in Circulating T Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

The persistence of activated T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium may be attributable to increased homing, increased retention or a possible imbalance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Induction of apoptosis may represent a potential therapeutic approach. Galactoxylomannan (GalXM) from the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can interact with T cells and induce T-cell apoptosis through the inhibition of CD45 phosphatase activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of GalXM on circulating T cells from patients with RA and the underlying mechanisms. GalXM immunomodulating effect on apoptosis and signal transduction pathway involved in IL-17A production was evaluated on T cells. RA T-cell apoptosis, higher than that of control T cells, was further increased by GalXM through induction of caspase-3 activation. Activated T cells expressing the CD45RO molecule and producing IL-17A were the main target of GalXM-induced apoptosis. GalXM induced consistent impairment of IL-17A production and inhibition of STAT3, which was hyperactivated in RA. In conclusion, GalXM triggered apoptosis of activated memory T cells and interfered with IL-17A production in RA. These data suggest therapeutic targeting of deleterious Th17 cells in RA and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:23308194

Pericolini, Eva; Alunno, Alessia; Gabrielli, Elena; Bartoloni, Elena; Cenci, Elio; Chow, Siu-Kei; Bistoni, Giovanni; Casadevall, Arturo; Gerli, Roberto; Vecchiarelli, Anna

2013-01-01

152

Magnesium sulfate.  

PubMed

Since the first American report on the use of magnesium sulfate tocolysis in 1977, its popularity as a tocolytic agent has increased progressively. Primarily because of its safety and familiarity, magnesium has become the primary tocolytic agent in the majority of U.S. centers. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, and long-term effects on neonates have not been studied. Although randomized studies show similar success compared to other tocolytic agents, no placebo-controlled study has shown neonatal improvement with magnesium sulfate tocolysis. This is similar to the studies of beta-sympathomimetic tocolytics and has led some authors (e.g., Higby) to suggest that safe dosages of magnesium sulfate are ineffective in preventing preterm birth and should not be used as a tocolytic agent. Although magnesium sulfate, like other tocolytics, has not fulfilled the initial promise of preventing preterm birth, it does appear if used correctly in a well identified population of patients to at least transiently inhibit preterm labor as well as other tocolytic agents with fewer side effects and fewer contraindications. PMID:8616968

Gordon, M C; Iams, J D

1995-12-01

153

Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII ? in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II ? expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated. Method Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II ? protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The CaMK II ? expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes. Conclusion GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II ? expression to protect epileptic neurons. PMID:25010576

Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Simon, Maria; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei; Di, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Shaobo

2014-01-01

154

Unique Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate from the Bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Safely Inhibits Arterial Thrombosis after Photochemically Induced Endothelial Lesion*  

PubMed Central

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing ?4.6 mg g?1 of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional 1H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg?1, 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg?1), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC50 = 0.835 ?g ml?1) and thrombin (IC50 = 9.3 ?g ml?1) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg?1, the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

Gomes, Angélica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

2010-01-01

155

Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

2015-02-01

156

Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1?3)-?-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*  

PubMed Central

A highly sulfated 3-linked ?-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

Fernández, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M.; Ciancia, Marina

2013-01-01

157

The IP-10 chemokine binds to a specific cell surface heparan sulfate site shared with platelet factor 4 and inhibits endothelial cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

IP-10 is a member of the chemokine family of cytokines and is induced in a variety of cells in response to interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide. The self-aggregation common to many chemokines, including IP-10, has hindered the identification of a specific IP-10 receptor. Using an IP-10 alkaline phosphatase fusion protein that fortuitously blocks this self-aggregation, we have identified an IP-10 binding site on a variety of cells including endothelial, epithelial, and hematopoietic cells. This binding site has a Kd of 25 nM, is inhibited by recombinant murine or human IP-10, and is dependent on the presence of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). This conclusion is based on the findings that IP-10 binding to cells is: (a) inhibited by heparin and heparan sulfate; (b) sensitive to a 1 M NaCl wash; (c) eliminated by treatment with heparinase and trypsin; and (d) absent on mutant CHO cells that do not express cell surface HSPG. Platelet factor 4 (PF4), but not IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1, RANTES, monocyte inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, or MIP-1 beta, can compete effectively with IP-10 for binding to the cell surface. Furthermore, IP-10 shares with PF4 the ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation (IC50 = 150 nM). These studies demonstrate specificity in the interaction of chemokines and HSPG, and they define IP-10 and PF4 as a distinct subset of chemokines sharing an HSPG- binding site and angiostatic properties. PMID:7790818

1995-01-01

158

Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase\\/Akt signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a remedy to promote health and longevity in China. The polysaccharide component with a branched (133)--D-glucan moiety from G. luci- dum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor ef- fects. In this study, we investigated the effect of PS-G on neutrophil viability, which is manifested by spontaneous

Ming-Jen Hsu; Shiuh-Sheng Lee; Wan-Wan Lin

159

Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.  

PubMed

The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health. PMID:22909979

Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, So?a; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

160

The Antiviral Activities and Mechanisms of Marine Polysaccharides: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:23235364

Wang, Wei; Wang, Shi-Xin; Guan, Hua-Shi

2012-01-01

161

Marine-derived polysaccharides for regulation of allergic responses.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are macromolecules made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. Polysaccharides from marine sources are widely distributed as the principle component in cell wall structures of seaweeds or exoskeletons of crustaceans. So far, marine polysaccharides have been used in many fields of biomaterials, food, cosmetic, and pharmacology. Especially, numerous pharmaceutical properties of marine polysaccharides have been revealed such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antitumor, antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticoagulant, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, antihepatopathy, antiuropathy, and antirenalpathy activities. Recently, several marine polysaccharides such alginate, porphyran, fucoidan, and chitin and its derivatives have been found as modulators of allergic responses due to enhancing innate immune system, altering Th1/Th2 balance, inhibiting IgE production, and suppressing mast cell degranulation. This contribution, therefore, focuses specially on the immunomodulatory effect of marine polysaccharides and emphasizes their potential application as candidates of pharmaceuticals as well as nutraceuticals to prevent allergic disorders. PMID:25300539

Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-01-01

162

Dextran sodium sulfate inhibits the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase: lithium chloride purification, a rapid and efficient technique to purify RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used in mouse studies to induce a very reproducible colitis that effectively mimics the clinical and histological features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanisms of action of DSS remain poorly understood, and observations by our laboratory and other groups indicate that DSS contamination of colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice potently inhibits the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of mRNA. Results A prior study used poly-A-mediated mRNA purification to remove DSS from RNA extracts, but we herein report a second efficient and cost-effective approach to counteract this inhibition, using lithium chloride precipitation to entirely remove DSS from RNAs. We also explored how DSS interferes with qRT-PCR process, and we report for the first time that DSS can alter the binding of reverse transcriptase to previously primed RNA and specifically inhibits the enzymatic activities of reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase in vitro. This likely explains why DSS-treated colonic RNA is not suitable to qRT-PCR amplification without a previous purification step. Conclusion In summary, we provide a simple method to remove DSS from colonic RNAs, and we demonstrate for the first time that DSS can inhibit the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase. In order to reliably analyze gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice, the efficiency rate of qRT-PCR must be the same between all the different experimental groups, including the water-treated control group, suggesting that whatever the duration and the percentage of the DSS treatment, RNAs must be purified. PMID:24010775

2013-01-01

163

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The polyanionic linear polysaccharide heparan sulfate specifically interacts with a multitude of extracellular ligands relevant\\u000a to all steps of tumor progression. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as coreceptors for cytokine and chemokine signaling,\\u000a modulating tumor cell growth and survival, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. As matrix receptors, they act in concert with integrins\\u000a to regulate tumor cell motility. As binding partners for matrix

Ezeddin Salem Gassar; Sherif A. Ibrahim; Martin Götte

164

Method for producing capsular polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

165

Anti-viral activity of red microalgal polysaccharides against retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Red microalgal polysaccharides significantly inhibited the production of retroviruses (murine leukemia virus- MuLV) and cell transformation by murine sarcoma virus(MuSV-124) in cell culture. The most effective inhibitory effect of these polysaccharides against both cell transformation and virus production was obtained when the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. Although, addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection.The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that microalgal polysaccharides inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. In conclusion, our findings could support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in the virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration. PMID:12204093

Talyshinsky, Marina M; Souprun, Yelena Y; Huleihel, Mahmoud M

2002-01-01

166

Structure of a sulfated xylofucan from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide composed of L-fucose, D-xylose, and sulfate in a molar proportion of about 5:2:3 was isolated from the brown alga Punctaria plantaginea. Polysaccharide structure was elucidated by methylation analysis, Smith degradation, as well as by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The polysaccharide was shown to contain a backbone of 3-linked ?-L-fucopyranose residues, about two thirds of which are sulfated at O-2 forming trisaccharide repeating units ?3)-?-L-Fucp2S-(1?3)-?-L-Fucp2S-(1?3)-?-L-Fucp-(1?. This structural regularity is masked by random distribution of non-sulfated ?-D-Xylp residues attached to position 4 of the backbone. The polysaccharide is a new representative of a complex 'fucoidan' family of sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweeds. PMID:24879011

Bilan, Maria I; Shashkov, Alexander S; Usov, Anatolii I

2014-07-01

167

Chondroitin sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... sulfate is manufactured from animal sources, such as cow cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate is used for osteoarthritis. It ... those that might transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). So far, there are no reports of ...

168

Barium Sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

Cheetah® ... Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), stomach, ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque ...

169

[Hepatoprotective effects of extracts and polysaccharides from seaweed].  

PubMed

Antioxidants of natural origin are considered as possible agents for prevention and treatment of liver diseases. Marine algae and in particular their extracts and obtained from them sulfated polysaccharides are significant sources of natural antioxidants. The recent data on the effect of the extracts and sulfated polysaccharides of seaweed on the functional activity of the liver with injuries induced by CCl4, some drugs (paracetamol, diclofenac), N-nitrosocompounds, aflatoxin are presented in the review. Particular attention is paid to the effect of sulfated polysaccharides and in particular fucoidans on the functional activity of the liver in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. Fucoidan is highly safe and active not only as an antioxidant but also as an inhibitor of HCV replication, has antiinflammatory and immunomodulating effects. The data of the review allow to conclude that seaweed extracts and sulfated polysaccharides may be a basis for development of new generation drugs in the future for the treatment and prevention of liver diseases. PMID:25300119

Besednova, N N; Zaporozhets, T S; Kuznetsova, T A; Kryzhanovski?, S P; Kovalev, N N; Zviagintseva, T N

2014-01-01

170

Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

2012-06-01

171

TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)?B, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NF?B-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. PMID:24447978

Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

2014-04-01

172

Polysaccharide isolated from Agardhiella ramosissima: chemical structure and anti-inflammation activity.  

PubMed

The sulfated polysaccharide (PLS) fraction of Agardhiella ramosissima was characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, NMR and gas-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. The main constituent of PLS was the ? carrageenan. The monosaccharide composition of the PLS showed galactose, 3,6-anhydrogalactose and 6-O-methylgalactose. The PLS (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced the paw oedema induced by carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin and also was able to significantly inhibit leucocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity and decrease the concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw tissue. In the antinociceptive tests, the pre-treatment with PLS reduced the number of writhes, the licking time but did not increase the latency time of response. This study demonstrates for the first time the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of PLS from A. ramosissima. Thus, we concluded that PLS could be a new natural tool in pain and acute inflammatory conditions. PMID:24274479

Batista, Jalles A; Dias, Eulina G N; Brito, Tarcisio V; Prudêncio, Rafael S; Silva, Renan O; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Souza, Marcellus Henrique L P; de Paula, Regina C M; Feitosa, Judith P A; Chaves, Luciano S; Melo, Márcia R S; Freitas, Ana L P; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Barbosa, André L R

2014-01-01

173

Polysaccharides from the green seaweed Codium decorticatum. Structure and cell wall distribution.  

PubMed

The cell wall polysaccharides from Codium decorticatum and their assembly were studied and these results were compared with those obtained previously for this genus. The water soluble polysaccharides are: (i) Pyruvylated and sulfated 3- and 6-linked ?-d--galactans with sulfate mainly on C-4 and also on C-6. Pyruvate ketals are linked to O-3 and O-4 of terminal ?-d-galactose or O-4 and O-6 of 3-linked ?-d-galactose. (ii) Sulfated 3-linked ?-l-arabinans substituted on C-2 or C-2 and C-4 predominantly with sulfate, but also with single stubs of arabinose, and (iii) 4-linked ?-d-mannans with a low degree of sulfation on C-2. The whole polysaccharide system comprises 6.9% of sulfated polysaccharides and 32.9% of fibrillar polysaccharides, mostly insoluble mannans. By in situ localization it was possible to detect two similar fibrillar layers separated by a zone rich in charged polymers. Besides, arabinogalactan proteins co-localized with the fibrillar components. PMID:25498707

Fernández, Paula Virginia; Raffo, María Paula; Alberghina, Josefina; Ciancia, Marina

2015-03-01

174

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation.  

PubMed

Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Lu, Jie; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Li, Min; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Yang, Ning; Li, Wei-Dong

2013-04-01

175

The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM\\/L1\\/NILE and N-CAM, and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that aggregation of microbeads coated with N-CAM and Ng-CAM is inhibited by incubation with soluble neurocan, a chow droitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain, suggesting that neurocan binds to these cell adhesion molecules (Gru- met, M., A. Flaccus, and R. U. Margolis. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:815). To investigate these interactions more directly, we have tested binding

David R. Friedlander; Peter Mflev; Laina Karthikeyan; Renbe K. Margolis; Richard U. Margolis; Martin Grumet

1994-01-01

176

Fine chemical structure analysis of oligosaccharides produced by an ulvan-lyase degradation of the water-soluble cell-wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp, (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).  

PubMed

A marine bacterium degrading the water-soluble cell wall polysaccharides from Ulva sp. (ulvan) has been isolated. The good correlation between ulvan degradation monitored by reducing-power, UV absorbance and viscosimetry, indicated that the crude enzymatic extract contains essentially an endo-ulvan lyase activity. This activity was rapidly inhibited by the reaction products which consisted of a series of ulvanobiouronic acid A 3-sulfate [-->4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Rhap 3-sulfate-(1-->]n with 4-deoxy-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronic acid at the non-reducing end. Other deviant repeating structures with beta-D-Xylp or alpha-IdopA replacing beta-D-GlcpA in the repeating ulvanobiouronic acid disaccharide and the presence of two consecutive (1-->4) linked beta-D-Glc pA demonstrated the great variability and complexity of ulvan chemical structure. PMID:9468631

Lahaye, M; Brunel, M; Bonnin, E

1997-11-28

177

In vitro inhibition of the replication of haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) by extracts from marine microalgae.  

PubMed

We have screened for in vitro inhibition of viral replication with extracts from the following marine microalgae: Porphyridium cruentum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Tetraselmis suecica, Chlorella autotrophica, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella bardawil, Isochrysis galbana, Isochrysis galbana var Tiso, Ellipsoidon sp. and Tetraselmis tetrathele. We have used as viral models two enveloped viruses of significant economic importance, the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) of salmonid fish and the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The aqueous extracts from P. cruentum, C. autotrophica and Ellipsoidon sp., produced a significant inhibition of the in vitro replication of both viruses in a dose-dependent manner. That this inhibition could be due to sulfated polysaccharides was suggested because the same pattern of viral inhibition was obtained by using exocellular extracts from microalgae enriched in these compounds and/or dextran sulfate of high molecular weight. However, the inhibition of viral replication did not correlate with the percentage of sulfatation of the exocellular polysaccharides. Extracts from marine microalgae may have prophylactic utility against fish and mammalian viral diseases. PMID:10588334

Fabregas, J; García, D; Fernandez-Alonso, M; Rocha, A I; Gómez-Puertas, P; Escribano, J M; Otero, A; Coll, J M

1999-11-01

178

Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study. PMID:19307459

Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

2013-01-01

179

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali: conformation, selectin binding, and biological activity.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ? 3)GalNAc?4,6S(1 ? 4) [Fuc?X(1 ? 3)]GlcA?(1 ?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Le(x) blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu(2+)-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

Panagos, Charalampos G; Thomson, Derek S; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D; Kelly, Maeve S; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D; Uhrín, Dušan

2014-10-10

180

Complement Activation by Core–Shell Poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate)–Polysaccharide Nanoparticles: Influences of Surface Morphology, Length, and Type of Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  Biodistribution of intravenously administered nanoparticles depends on opsonization. The aim of this study was the evaluation\\u000a of complement activation induced by nanoparticles coated with different polysaccharides. Influences of size and configuration\\u000a of dextran, dextran sulfate, or chitosan bound onto nanoparticles were investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by redox radical or anionic polymerization of isobutylcyanoacrylate in the presence\\u000a of polysaccharides. Conversion

Isabelle Bertholon; Christine Vauthier; Denis Labarre

2006-01-01

181

A Chemical Model for the Cooperation of Sulfates and Carboxylates in Calcite Crystal Nucleation: Relevance to Biomineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic matrix macromolecules involved in regulation of biological crystal growth often contain aspartic acid-rich domains and covalently bound sulfated polysaccharides. We propose that sulfates and beta -sheet structured carboxylates cooperate in oriented calcite crystal nucleation. The sulfates concentrate calcium, creating the supersaturation necessary for nucleation on the structured carboxylate domains. An artificial model, composed of sulfonated polystyrene surfaces and adsorbed

L. Addadi; J. Moradian; E. Shay; N. G. Maroudas; S. Weiner

1987-01-01

182

Species difference in the inhibitory potentials of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the hepatic sulfation and glucuronidation of bioactive flavonoids: differential observations among common inhibition parameters.  

PubMed

1. This study elucidated the species differences between rats and humans in the inhibitory potential of drugs against sulfation and glucuronidation, and whether such differences depend on the inhibition parameter adopted. 2. With 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as model inhibitors and three flavanoids baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A as model substrates, three common inhibition parameters percentage of control, IC50 and Ki were determined in rat liver cytosols (RLCs), human liver cytosols (HLCs), rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). The closeness of the inhibition parameters from rat liver preparations to that from human liver preparations was analyzed by geometric mean fold error (GMFE) and statistical comparisons. 3. The percentage of control in RLC/RLM was not significantly different from that in HLC/HLM, with a GMFE of 0.85 (RLC-HLC) and 1.03 (RLM-HLM); whereas the IC50 and Ki in RLC/RLM were significantly different from that in HLC/HLM. The trend of difference was consistent between IC50 and Ki, where these parameters in RLC and RLM underestimated (GMFE <0.5) and overestimated (GMFE >2) that in HLC and HLM, respectively. 4. In conclusion, the inhibitory potentials of NSAIDs against sulfation and glucuronidation in rats and humans were different and depended on the adopted inhibition parameters. PMID:24168065

Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Zuo, Zhong

2014-05-01

183

Inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis by the sinR orthologue PGN_0088 is indirectly associated with the penetration of Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms by macrolide antibiotics.  

PubMed

Microbes commonly adhere to surfaces, aggregate in self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and live in biofilms. Periodontitis is a serious oral infection that is initiated by the formation of biofilms by Porphyromonas gingivalis. EPS act as a barrier that protects biofilm-forming cells against sources of stress, including those induced by host immune cells and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, drugs intended to kill such micro-organisms cannot be used for the treatment of biofilm infections. Our previous studies revealed that subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMIC) of two macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, AZM and erythromycin, ERY) reduced P. gingivalis biofilms. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Bacillus subtilis sinR orthologue (PGN_0088) inhibits the synthesis of carbohydrates that are components of EPS in P. gingivalis biofilms. Here, we constructed a novel sinR mutant from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 and reveal that the increased abundance of carbohydrate in EPS of the mutant led to a reduced infiltration rate of AZM and ERY through EPS, and consequently elevated biofilm resistance to these macrolides. Detailed elucidation of the interaction between the product of the sinR gene and EPS will assist in the development of novel approaches that target EPS to prevent and inhibit the formation of biofilms. PMID:25500494

Yamamoto, Reiko; Noiri, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Mikiyo; Asahi, Yoko; Maezono, Hazuki; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Hayashi, Mikako

2015-02-01

184

Homogalacturonans from preinfused green tea: structural characterization and anticomplementary activity of their sulfated derivatives.  

PubMed

Two homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharides (TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C) were obtained from preinfused green tea. Their average molecular weights were estimated to be 41 kDa and 28 kDa, respectively. A combination of composition, methylation, and configuration analysis, as well as NMR spectroscopy, indicated that both TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C were poly-(1-4)-?-d-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 30.5 ± 0.3% and 28.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, of uronic acid existed as methyl ester. Two sulfated derivatives (Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C) from TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C were prepared after sulfation with a 2:1 chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine ratio. The anticomplementary assay showed that Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C demonstrated a stronger inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classic pathway, compared to that of heparin. Preliminary mechanism studies by using complement component depleted-sera indicated that both Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C selectively interact with C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, C5, and C9 but not with C3 and C4. The relationship between DS and the anticomplementary activity of sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans showed that low sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans also exhibited potent anticomplementary effect, which might greatly reduce the side effects related to heparin and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, such as anticoagulant activity and allergic-type reaction. These results suggested that sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans might be promising drug candidates for therapeutic complement inhibition. PMID:24171379

Wang, Huijun; Shi, Songshan; Gu, Xuelan; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Guodong; Wang, Hongwei; Bao, Bin; Fan, Hongwei; Zhang, Wuxia; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

2013-11-20

185

Trans locus inhibitors limit concomitant polysaccharide synthesis in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides fragilis  

PubMed Central

Bacteroides is an abundant genus of bacteria of the human intestinal microbiota. Bacteroides species synthesize a large number of capsular polysaccharides (PS), a biological property not shared with closely related oral species, suggesting importance for intestinal survival. Bacteroides fragilis, for example, synthesizes eight capsular polysaccharides per strain, each of which phase varies via inversion of the promoters located upstream of seven of the eight polysaccharide biosynthesis operons. In a single cell, many of these polysaccharide loci promoters can be simultaneously oriented on for transcription of the downstream biosynthesis operons. Here, we demonstrate that despite the promoter orientations, concomitant transcription of multiple polysaccharide loci within a cell is inhibited. The proteins encoded by the second gene of each of these eight loci, collectively designated the UpxZ proteins, inhibit the synthesis of heterologous polysaccharides. These unique proteins interfere with the ability of UpxY proteins encoded by other polysaccharide loci to function in transcriptional antitermination of their respective operon. The eight UpxZs have different inhibitory spectra, thus establishing a hierarchical regulatory network for polysaccharide synthesis. Limitation of concurrent polysaccharide synthesis strongly suggests that these bacteria evolved this property as an evasion-type mechanism to avoid killing by polysaccharide-targeting factors in the ecosystem. PMID:20547868

Chatzidaki-Livanis, Maria; Comstock, Laurie E.

2010-01-01

186

The role of novel chitin-like polysaccharides in Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

While controversy over the role of carbohydrates in amyloidosis has existed since the initial recognition of amyloid, current\\u000a understanding of the role of polysaccharides in the pathogenesis of amyloid deposition of Alzheimer disease and other amyloidoses\\u000a is limited to studies of glycoconjugates such as heparan sulfate proteglycan. We hypothesized that polysaccharides may play\\u000a a broader role in light of 1)

Rudy J. Castellani; George Perry; Mark A. Smith

2007-01-01

187

Heparin-inhibitable basement membrane-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed Central

Solubilized surface proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M6 were found by indirect immunofluorescence assays to bind selectively to proteoglycan-containing regions of basement membranes of kidney and cardiac muscle in vitro. Epithelial, endothelial, and interstitial cells were unstained. Binding of streptococcal protein to basement membranes was competitively inhibited by heparin and, to a lesser extent, by heparan sulfate. Weak inhibition was also observed with other glycosaminoglycans, including dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. Type IV collagen, gelatin, serum fibronectin, glucuronic acid, and a selection of monosaccharides had no significant effects on binding. The heparin-inhibitable basement membrane-binding protein was purified by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose 6-B. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea dissociated the affinity-purified protein into two polypeptides of 9,000 and 15,000 mrs. Chemical analyses revealed that the purified protein was devoid of cysteine, amino and neutral sugars, and phosphate. Thus, the polypeptides are not glycosylated or complexed with trace amounts of lipoteichoic acid or polysaccharide. Binding of purified protein to tissue was determined by direct radioassay and indirect immunofluorescence and was inhibitable by heparin. Although the in vivo effects of this streptococcal component remain to be determined, its deposition on basement membranes in vitro supports the hypothesis that it contributes to the pathogenesis of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis or acute rheumatic fever. Images PMID:3290104

Bergey, E J; Stinson, M W

1988-01-01

188

Isolation and Analysis of the Nucleic Acids and Polysaccharides from Clostridium welchii  

PubMed Central

A method previously described for the use of bentonite in the isolation of the nucleic acids from two gram-positive organisms was applied to the isolation of the nucleic acids from two strains of Clostridium welchii. The nucleic acids were separated from polysaccharides by the fractional precipitation of their cetyltrimethyl-ammonium salts from sodium chloride solution, and the base composition of the nucleic acids was determined. One strain of C. welchii investigated (NCTC 10578) was shown to produce considerable quantities of an acidic and also a weakly acidic or neutral polysaccharide; the other strain (ATCC 10543) gave very small quantities of the latter but none of the former polysaccharide. The monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides was determined and the acidic polysaccharide was shown to resemble dermatan sulfate. PMID:5423367

Darby, G. K.; Jones, A. S.; Kennedy, J. F.; Walker, R. T.

1970-01-01

189

Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. PMID:25129780

Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

2014-11-01

190

Structure and affinity for antithrombin of heparan sulfate chains derived from basement membrane proteoglycans  

SciTech Connect

Metabolically /sup 35/S- or /sup 3/H-labeled heparan sulfate was isolated from murine Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic basement membrane produced by parietal endoderm cells, and from the basement membrane-producing Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse tumor. The polysaccharides were subjected to structural analysis involving identification of products formed on deamination of the polysaccharides with nitrous acid. The polysaccharide from Reichert's membrane contained N- and O-sulfate groups in approximately equal proportions. It bound almost quantitatively and with high affinity to antithrombin. A high proportion of antithrombin-binding sequence was also indicated by the finding that 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues accounted for about 10% of the total O-sulfate groups. In contrast, at least 80% of the sulfate residues in the heparan sulfate isolated from the mouse tumor were N-substituents. Only a minor proportion of this polysaccharide bound with high affinity to antithrombin, and no 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues were detected. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functional role of heparan sulfate in basement membranes.

Pejler, G.; Baeckstroem, G.Li.; Lindahl, U.; Paulsson, M.; Dziadek, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Timpl, R.

1987-04-15

191

Extracellular Polysaccharides of Actinomyces viscosus  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharide(s) have been isolated from supernatants of broth cultures of Actinomyces viscosus, strain T6. The organism produces significant quantities (2 mg/mg of cell [dry weight], 108 mg/liter) of this polysaccharide in the absence of sucrose. Chemical analysis indicated that N-acetylglucosamine (62%) was the major component; galactose (7%), glucose (4%), uronic acid (3%), and smaller amounts of glycerol, rhamnose, arabinose, and xylose were also present. The polysaccharide(s) is only slightly soluble in aqueous solutions. Although further purification of the polysaccharides will be necessary before definitive chemical and structural studies, the formation of extracellular polysaccharides is significant because it offers a possible explanation for plaque formation by these organisms. PMID:4851986

Rosan, Burton; Hammond, Benjamin F.

1974-01-01

192

PhysicoChemical Characterization of Agar-Type Polysaccharides Used as Aqueous Gels in in vitro Micropropagation of Several Clones of Thuja plicata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of four agar-type polysaccharides on the budding and the elongation of five clones of Thuja plicata was tested. The polysac charides were used as solidifying agents for culture media and differed in their sulfate content (0.14 to 10.95% W\\/W). Budding was reduced on the most highly sulfated polysaccharide, and the differences observed between clones in elonga tion were

B. Pochet; V. Rouxhet; M. M. Mestdagh; J. François

1993-01-01

193

Mechanism of Inhibitory Effect of Dextran Sulfate and Heparin on Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfated polysaccharides dextran sulfate and heparin have proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. Dextran sulfate (Mr 5000) and heparin (Mr 15,000) completely protected MT-4 cells against HIV-1-induced cytopathogenicity at a concentration of 25 mu g\\/ml. Their 50% inhibitory concentrations were 9.1 mu g\\/ml (dextran sulfate) and 7.0 mu g\\/ml

Masanori Baba; Rudi Pauwels; Jan Balzarini; Jef Arnout; Jan Desmyter; Erik de Clercq

1988-01-01

194

Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class  

PubMed Central

Basidiomycete mushrooms represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds with anticancer properties. This feature is primarily attributed to polysaccharides and their derivatives. The anticancer potential of polysaccharides is linked to their origin, composition and chemical structure, solubility and method of isolation. Moreover, their activity can be significantly increased by chemical modifications. Anticancer effects of polysaccharides can be expressed indirectly (immunostimulation) or directly (cell proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis induction). Among the wide range of polysaccharides with documented anticancer properties, lentinan, polysaccharide-K (PSK) and schizophyllan deserve special attention. These polysaccharides for many years have been successfully applied in cancer treatment and their mechanism of action is the best known. PMID:23788896

Rzeski, Wojciech

2012-01-01

195

Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 3, below the pK{sub a} of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

Welch, S.A.; Barker, W.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Banfield, J.F. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Mineralogical Inst.] [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Mineralogical Inst.

1999-05-01

196

Chemically sulfated galactomannan from Dimorphandra gardneriana seed: characterization and toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

Dimorphandra gardneriana galactomannan (DG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the sulfation agent. The degree of substitution was 0.32, determined from the sulfur percentage. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by FTIR spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical SO stretching vibration at 1,259 cm(-1). NMR data showed that the sulfation occurred on primary hydroxyl groups. NMR and GPC data indicate degradation during reaction with elimination of galactose. At the maximum tested concentration of 1,000 ?g/mL, unmodified DG polysaccharide did not show a statistically significant cytotoxicity in Vero cells by the MTT method. Therefore, the CC50>1,000 ?g/mL obtained for the sulfated polysaccharides from D. gardneriana in Vero cells point to its lower cytotoxicity than the sulfated galactomannan from Mimosa scabrella. PMID:24299869

Moura Neto, E; Sombra, V G; Richter, A R; Abreu, C M W S; Maciel, J S; Cunha, P L R; Ono, L; Sierakowski, M R; Feitosa, J P A; de Paula, R C M

2014-01-30

197

A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm modulates in vitro fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a glycosaminoglycan obtained from sea cucumber, has the same structure as mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. This new polysaccharide has a more favorable effect than heparin on vascular cell growth. It inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation as heparin, and it has a potent enhancing effect on endothelial cell proliferation and migration in the presence of heparin-binding growth factors. We now extend our studies to the effect of this glycosaminoglycan on endothelial cells to an in vitro angiogenesis model on Matrigel. FucCS, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), strongly increases the capacity of endothelial cells to form vascular tubes on Matrigel with a well-organized capillary-like network and typical closed structures. Comparison between the activity of native and chemically modified chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber reveals that the sulfated fucose branches are the structural motif for the proangiogenic activity. Heparin does not induce angiogenesis in this experimental model. We also have evidence for the proposition that endothelial cell proliferation is not the sole event involved in the in vitro FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. It implies a variety of other modifications of the endothelial cells and of their interaction with the extracellular matrix, such as integrin expression and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Finally, the proangiogenic effect of FucCS, concomitant with its capacity to prevent venous and arterial thrombosis, in animal models makes this new glycosaminoglycan a promising molecule with possible beneficial effects in pathological conditions affecting blood vessels such as the neovascularization of ischemic areas. PMID:12496356

Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Chabut, Delphine; Zierer, Maximiliano; Matou, Sabine; Helley, Dominique; Bros, Andrée; Mourão, Paulo A S; Fischer, Anne-Marie

2002-12-01

198

Polysaccharides of Berberis vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflorescence were collected in the period of mass flowering (May 31), and fruit and leaves in the phase of technical ripening of the fruit (September 28) in the environs of Ryazan' in 1981. The polysaccharides (PSs) from the air-dry raw material (moisture content of the flowers and leaves 9.2-10.2%, and of the fruit 10.1-11.0%) that had been twice extracted

E. G. Martynov; E. A. Stroev; D. D. Peskov

1984-01-01

199

Feedback inhibition by thiols outranks glutathione depletion: a luciferase-based screen reveals glutathione-deficient ?-ECS and glutathione synthetase mutants impaired in cadmium-induced sulfate assimilation.  

PubMed

Plants exposed to heavy metals rapidly induce changes in gene expression that activate and enhance detoxification mechanisms, including toxic-metal chelation and the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. However, the mechanisms mediating toxic heavy metal-induced gene expression remain largely unknown. To genetically elucidate cadmium-specific transcriptional responses in Arabidopsis, we designed a genetic screen based on the activation of a cadmium-inducible reporter gene. Microarray studies identified a high-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR1;2) among the most robust and rapid cadmium-inducible transcripts. The SULTR1;2 promoter (2.2?kb) was fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene to quantitatively report the transcriptional response of plants exposed to cadmium. Stably transformed luciferase reporter lines were ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized, and stable M(2) seedlings were screened for an abnormal luciferase response during exposure to cadmium. The screen identified non-allelic mutant lines that fell into one of three categories: (i) super response to cadmium (SRC) mutants; (ii) constitutive response to cadmium (CRC) mutants; or (iii) non-response and reduced response to cadmium (NRC) mutants. Two nrc mutants, nrc1 and nrc2, were mapped, cloned and further characterized. The nrc1 mutation was mapped to the ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene and the nrc2 mutation was identified as the first viable recessive mutant allele in the glutathione synthetase gene. Moreover, genetic, HPLC mass spectrometry, and gene expression analysis of the nrc1 and nrc2 mutants, revealed that intracellular glutathione depletion alone would be insufficient to induce gene expression of sulfate uptake and assimilation mechanisms. Our results modify the glutathione-depletion driven model for sulfate assimilation gene induction during cadmium stress, and suggest that an enhanced oxidative state and depletion of upstream thiols, in addition to glutathione depletion, are necessary to induce the transcription of sulfate assimilation genes during early cadmium stress. PMID:22283708

Jobe, Timothy O; Sung, Dong-Yul; Akmakjian, Garo; Pham, Allis; Komives, Elizabeth A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Schroeder, Julian I

2012-06-01

200

Release of mutagenic metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene from the perfused rat liver after inhibition of glucuronidation and sulfation by salicylamide.  

PubMed

The role of glucuronide and sulfate conjugation in presystemic inactivation of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) metabolites was investigated with rat livers perfused with BP (12 mumol). Comparisons were made between metabolite profiles and mutagenicity of medium from perfusions with and without salicylamide, a selective inhibitor of glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. After 4 h perfusion in the presence of salicylamide, certain BP metabolites (diols, quinones, phenols, and metabolites more polar than BP-9,10-diol) were significantly increased at the expense of quinones and phenols in the glucuronide fraction. Mutagenicity of medium (detected by the Ames test, using tester strains TA98 and TA100) was low in perfusion without salicylamide. Mutagenicity detected with tester strain TA98 was significantly increased in perfusions with salicylamide. Involvement of glucuronidation in BP inactivation was also observed at the subcellular level; when cofactors of glucuronidation were added to liver homogenates along with the NADPH regenerating system in the Ames test, BP mutagenicity was markedly decreased. Both the activation of BP to mutagenic metabolites and the inactivation of BP metabolites by glucuronidation was much more pronounced with liver homogenates from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats than with those from phenobarbital-treated animals or untreated controls. The results suggest an important role for glucuronidation and sulfation in the inactivation and elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:6268312

Bock, K W; Bock-Hennig, B S; Lilienblum, W; Volp, R F

1981-08-01

201

Selectin blocking activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber. Effect on tumor metastasis and neutrophil recruitment.  

PubMed

Heparin is an excellent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to the carbohydrate determinant, sialyl Lewis(x). As a consequence of its anti-selectin activity, heparin attenuates metastasis and inflammation. Here we show that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber composed of a chondroitin sulfate backbone substituted at the 3-position of the beta-D-glucuronic acid residues with 2,4-disulfated alpha-L-fucopyranosyl branches, is a potent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to immobilized sialyl Lewis(x) and LS180 carcinoma cell attachment to immobilized P- and L-selectins. Inhibition occurs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, FucCS was 4-8-fold more potent than heparin in the inhibition of the P- and L-selectin-sialyl Lewis(x) interactions. No inhibition of E-selectin was observed. FucCS also inhibited lung colonization by adenocarcinoma MC-38 cells in an experimental metastasis model in mice, as well as neutrophil recruitment in two models of inflammation (thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation). Inhibition occurred at a dose that produces no significant change in plasma activated partial thromboplastin time. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches on the FucCS abolished the inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results suggest that invertebrate FucCS may be a potential alternative to heparin for blocking metastasis and inflammatory reactions without the undesirable side effects of anticoagulant heparin. PMID:17371880

Borsig, Lubor; Wang, Lianchun; Cavalcante, Moises C M; Cardilo-Reis, Larissa; Ferreira, Paola L; Mourão, Paulo A S; Esko, Jeffrey D; Pavão, Mauro S G

2007-05-18

202

Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Significance, and Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polysaccharides are properties present significance in all living organisms where they carry out one or more of their diverse functions. While there is no specific category or definition of a complex polysaccharide, most are structurally complex. Polysaccharides contain 1-5 different monosaccharide (sugar) units. The different sugar units may have different anomeric configurations and/or be joined by different glycosidic linkages. Polysaccharides may be linear or branched. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure; in either case, the branches may be isolated or clustered. Polysaccharides may contain non-carbohydrate groups. Esters or cyclic acetal groups, when present, can be removed by appropriate treatments. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i. e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. Most are polymolecular, i. e., differ in fine structure from molecule to molecule. So most polysaccharides can be said to be structurally complex. They may be attached to protein molecules or to other polysaccharide molecules. They are solvated by water. Most dissolve in aqueous systems, especially if they are alkaline. Polysaccharides can be depolymerized by acids and heat, specific enzymes, and high pH systems following oxidation. Their hydroxyl groups can be esterified (acylated), etherified (alkylated), and oxidized. Amino groups can be acylated (and deacylated). Carboxyl groups can be converted into esters, amides, and amines. Structural modification makes the molecules even more complex and polymolecular and, perhaps, polydisperse.

Bemiller, James N.

203

Sulfated modification and anti-tumor activity of laminarin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the sulfated modification of laminarin and the changes in structure and antitumor activity. The chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method was applied for sulfated modification. The molecular weights of laminarin and laminarin sulfate (LAMS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and IR and NMR spectra were also recorded. The surface conformations of laminarin and LAMS were observed with a scanning electron microscope. The antitumor activities of the two polysaccharides were also evaluated using an MTT assay. LAMS with a sulfate content of 45.92% and a molecular weight of 16,000 was synthesized. The IR spectra of laminarin and LAMS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of a polysaccharide, and LAMS also had the characteristic absorption peaks of sulfate moieties. The NMR spectra showed that laminarin and LAMS had ?-(1?3) glycosidic bonds forming the main chain, and sulfate substitution was at the hydroxyl groups of C2 and C6. Under the scanning electron microscope, there were clear differences in surface conformation between laminarin and LAMS; laminarin was cloud-like and spongy, while LAMS was block-like and flaky. The MTT results showed that laminarin and LAMS had inhibitory effects on LoVo cell growth, and the antitumor activity of LAMS was higher than that of laminarin at the same concentration. This suggests that sulfated modification was able to change the laminarin structure and markedly enhance the antitumor activity. PMID:24223655

JI, CHEN-FENG; JI, YU-BIN; MENG, DE-YOU

2013-01-01

204

The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that aggregation of microbeads coated with N- CAM and Ng-CAM is inhibited by incubation with soluble neurocan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain, suggesting that neurocan binds to these cell adhesion molecules (Grumet, M., A. Flaccus, and R. U. Margolis. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:815). To investigate these interactions more directly, we have tested binding of soluble 125I- neurocan to microwells coated with different glycoproteins. Neurocan bound at high levels to Ng-CAM and N-CAM, but little or no binding was detected to myelin-associated glycoprotein, EGF receptor, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV. The binding to Ng-CAM and N-CAM was saturable and in each case Scatchard plots indicated a high affinity binding site with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 nM. Binding was significantly reduced after treatment of neurocan with chondroitinase, and free chondroitin sulfate inhibited binding of neurocan to Ng-CAM and N-CAM. These results indicate a role for chondroitin sulfate in this process, although the core glycoprotein also has binding activity. The COOH-terminal half of neurocan was shown to have binding properties essentially identical to those of the full-length proteoglycan. To study the potential biological functions of neurocan, its effects on neuronal adhesion and neurite growth were analyzed. When neurons were incubated on dishes coated with different combinations of neurocan and Ng-CAM, neuronal adhesion and neurite extension were inhibited. Experiments using anti-Ng-CAM antibodies as a substrate also indicate that neurocan has a direct inhibitory effect on neuronal adhesion and neurite growth. Immunoperoxidase staining of tissue sections showed that neurocan, Ng-CAM, and N-CAM are all present at highest concentration in the molecular layer and fiber tracts of developing cerebellum. The overlapping localization in vivo, the molecular binding studies, and the striking effects on neuronal adhesion and neurite growth support the view that neurocan may modulate neuronal adhesion and neurite growth during development by binding to neural cell adhesion molecules. PMID:7513709

1994-01-01

205

Niches of two polysaccharide-degrading Polaribacter isolates from the North Sea during a spring diatom bloom.  

PubMed

Members of the flavobacterial genus Polaribacter thrive in response to North Sea spring phytoplankton blooms. We analyzed two respective Polaribacter species by whole genome sequencing, comparative genomics, substrate tests and proteomics. Both can degrade algal polysaccharides but occupy distinct niches. The liquid culture isolate Polaribacter sp. strain Hel1_33_49 has a 3.0-Mbp genome with an overall peptidase:CAZyme ratio of 1.37, four putative polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) and features proteorhodopsin, whereas the agar plate isolate Polaribacter sp. strain Hel1_85 has a 3.9-Mbp genome with an even peptidase:CAZyme ratio, eight PULs, a mannitol dehydrogenase for decomposing algal mannitol-capped polysaccharides but no proteorhodopsin. Unlike other sequenced Polaribacter species, both isolates have larger sulfatase-rich PULs, supporting earlier assumptions that Polaribacter take part in the decomposition of sulfated polysaccharides. Both strains grow on algal laminarin and the sulfated polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate. For strain Hel1_33_49, we identified by proteomics (i) a laminarin-induced PUL, (ii) chondroitin sulfate-induced CAZymes and (iii) a chondroitin-induced operon that likely enables chondroitin sulfate recognition. These and other data suggest that strain Hel1_33_49 is a planktonic flavobacterium feeding on proteins and a small subset of algal polysaccharides, while the more versatile strain Hel1_85 can decompose a broader spectrum of polysaccharides and likely associates with algae.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 5 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.225. PMID:25478683

Xing, Peng; Hahnke, Richard L; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Huang, Sixing; Barbeyron, Tristan; Harder, Jens; Becher, Dörte; Schweder, Thomas; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Amann, Rudolf I; Teeling, Hanno

2014-12-01

206

Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity  

PubMed Central

The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP) harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF) and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%). Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81), fucose content (86.1%) and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8) and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 ?g/mL). Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP. PMID:25548975

Ehrig, Karina; Alban, Susanne

2014-01-01

207

Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima-Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity.  

PubMed

The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP) from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP) harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF) and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%). Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81), fucose content (86.1%) and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8) and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 ?g/mL). Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP. PMID:25548975

Ehrig, Karina; Alban, Susanne

2014-01-01

208

Photo-activated inhibition of sulfate equilibrium exchange in human erythrocyte ghosts by a 4-azido-2-nitrobenzoate derivative of phlorizin.  

PubMed

Like phlorizin, two glycosidic esters of phlorizin, the 4-azido-2-nitrobenzoate (ANB-phlorizin) and the 2-nitrobenzoate (NB-phlorizin) were found to be effective inhibitors of SO42- equilibrium exchange at the outer but not at the inner membrane surface of the human erythrocyte ghost. After photolysis of ghost suspensions in the presence of extracellular ANB-phlorizin an irreversible inhibition of SO42- exchange was observed, while photolysis of intracellular ANB-phlorizin was without effect. After photolysis in the presence of extracellular or intracellular tritiated ANB-phlorizin gel electrophoresis of the labelled membranes revealed similar locations of binding. These findings suggest that the sidedness of action of ANB-phlorizin could not be related to inaccessibility of the inner membrane surface for the agent but that inhibition occurs via binding to fixed sites at the outer membrane surface that are not associated with a mobile carrier which crosses the membrane. PMID:963067

Kaplan, J H; Fasold, H

1976-09-01

209

Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

2003-09-01

210

Structure and functional properties of ulvan, a polysaccharide from green seaweeds.  

PubMed

With today's interest in novel renewable chemicals and polymers, the underexploited marine green algae belonging to species of Ulva and Entermorpha stimulated interest as sources of polysaccharides with innovative structure and functional properties. These algae are common on all seashores and can produce in time an important amount of biomass in nutrient-enriched waters. The major water-soluble polysaccharide, ulvan, extracted from the cell wall represents about 8-29% of the algae dry weight. The original physicochemical, rheological, and biological properties recently unraveled for this complex sulfated aldobiouronan open the way for novel potential applications. PMID:17458931

Lahaye, Marc; Robic, Audrey

2007-06-01

211

Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation  

SciTech Connect

Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

1988-07-15

212

ERK Activation by Fucoidan Leads to Inhibition of Melanogenesis in Mel-Ab Cells  

PubMed Central

Fucoidan, a fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed in the class Phaeophyceae, has been widely studied for its possible health benefits. However, the potential of fucoidan as a possible treatment for hyperpigmentation is not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of fucoidan on melanogenesis and related signaling pathways using Mel-Ab cells. Fucoidan significantly decreased melanin content. While fucoidan treatment decreased tyrosinase activity, it did not do so directly. Western blot analysis indicated that fucoidan downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and reduced tyrosinase protein expression. Further investigation showed that fucoidan activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, suggesting a possible mechanism for the inhibition of melanin synthesis. Treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, resulted in the recovery of melanin production. Taken together, these findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits melanogenesis via ERK phosphorylation. PMID:25605994

Song, Yu Seok; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Myo-Kyoung

2015-01-01

213

Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

1993-01-01

214

Interfering with UDP-GlcNAc metabolism and heparan sulfate expression using a sugar analog reduces angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS), a long linear polysaccharide, is implicated in various steps of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. We successfully interfered with HS biosynthesis using a peracetylated 4-deoxy analog of the HS constituent GlcNAc and studied the compound's metabolic fate and its effect on angiogenesis. The 4-deoxy analog was activated intracellularly into UDP-4-deoxy-GlcNAc and HS expression was inhibited up to ~96% (IC50 = 16 ?M). HS chain size was reduced, without detectable incorporation of the 4-deoxy analog, likely due to reduced levels of UDP-GlcNAc and/or inhibition of glycosyltransferase activity. Comprehensive gene expression analysis revealed reduced expression of genes regulated by HS binding growth factors as FGF-2 and VEGF. Cellular binding and signaling of these angiogenic factors was inhibited. Micro-injection in zebrafish embryos strongly reduced HS biosynthesis, and angiogenesis was inhibited in both zebrafish and chicken model systems. All these data identify 4-deoxy-GlcNAc as a potent inhibitor of HS synthesis which hampers pro-angiogenic signaling and neo-vessel formation. PMID:23972127

van Wijk, Xander M.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A.; Dona, Margo; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; van de Westerlo, Els M.; Kusters, Lisanne J.; Khaled, Yasmine; Jokela, Tiina A.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Kremer, Hannie; Stringer, Sally E.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; van Wijk, Erwin; van Delft, Floris L.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

2013-01-01

215

Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate  

PubMed Central

Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

2013-01-01

216

Cell surface polysaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum and a nonnodulating mutant.  

PubMed Central

The cell surface polysaccharides of wild-type Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 and a nonnodulating mutant, strain HS123, were analyzed. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) of the wild type and the mutant strain do not differ in their sugar composition. CPS and EPS are composed of mannose, 4-O-methylgalactose/galactose, glucose, and galacturonic acid in a ratio of 1:1:2:1, respectively. H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the EPS and CPS of the wild type and mutant strain are very similar, but not identical, suggesting minor structural variation in these polysaccharides. The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the above two strains were purified, and their compositions were determined. Gross differences in the chemical compositions of the two LPS were observed. Chemical and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that strain HS123 is a rough-type mutant lacking a complete LPS. The LPS of mutant strain HS123 is composed of mannose, glucose, glucosamine, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, and lipid A. The wild-type LPS is composed of fucose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, fucosamine, quinovosamine, glucosamine, uronic acid, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, and lipid A. Preliminary sugar analysis of lipid A from B. japonicum identified mannose, while traces of glucosamine were detected. 3-Hydroxydodecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acids formed a major portion of the fatty acids in lipid A. Lesser quantities of nonhydroxylated 16:0, 18:0, 22:0, and 24:0 acids also were detected. Images PMID:3793715

Puvanesarajah, V; Schell, F M; Gerhold, D; Stacey, G

1987-01-01

217

Characteristic hexasaccharide sequences in octasaccharides derived from shark cartilage chondroitin sulfate D with a neurite outgrowth promoting activity.  

PubMed

A mouse brain chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, DSD-1-PG, bears the DSD-1 epitope and has neurite outgrowth promoting properties. Shark cartilage CS-C inhibits the interactions between the DSD-1-specific monoclonal antibody 473HD and the CS chains of the DSD-1-PG, which is expressed on the mouse glial cells (Faissner, A., Clement, A., Lochter, A., Streit, A., Mandl, C., and Schachner, M. (1994) J. Cell Biol. 126, 783-799). On the other hand, several hexasaccharides isolated from commercial shark cartilage CS-D, which contains a higher proportion of characteristic D units (GlcUA(2-sulfate)beta1-3GalNAc(6-sulfate)) as compared with CS-C, has the A-D tetrasaccharide sequence composed of an A disaccharide unit (GlcUAbeta1-3GalNAc(4-sulfate)) and a D disaccharide unit (Nadanaka, S. and Sugahara, K. (1997) Glycobiology 7, 253-263). In this study, the biological activities and the structure of shark cartilage CS-D were investigated. CS-D inhibited the interactions between monoclonal antibody 473HD and DSD-1-PG and also promoted neurite outgrowth of embryonic day 18 hippocampal neurons. Eight octasaccharide fractions were isolated from CS-D after partial digestion with bacterial chondroitinase ABC by means of gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange high performance liquid chromotography to investigate the frequency and the arrangement of the A-D tetrasaccharide unit in the polymer sequence. Structural analysis performed by a combination of enzymatic digestions with 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the isolated octasaccharides shared the common core structure DeltaHexAalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(GlcUAbeta1-3GalNAc)3 with four, five, and six sulfate esters at various hydroxyl groups in different combinations. In the structure, DeltaHexA and GlcUA represent 4-deoxy-alpha-L-threo-hex-4-enepyranosyluronic acid and glucuronic acid, respectively. No D-D tetrasaccharide sequence was found, and discrete D disaccharide units were demonstrated exclusively as A-D tetrasaccharide units in either an A-D-A or an A-D-C hexasaccharide sequence in the five octasaccharides that represented about 5.0% (w/w) of the starting polysaccharides (C denotes the disaccharide GlcUAbeta1-3GalNAc(6-sulfate)). It remains to be determined whether such characteristic hexasaccharide sequences present in shark cartilage CS-D serve as functional domain structures recognized by some protein ligands. PMID:9452446

Nadanaka, S; Clement, A; Masayama, K; Faissner, A; Sugahara, K

1998-02-01

218

Bacterial cadherin domains as carbohydrate binding modules: determination of affinity constants to insoluble complex polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) doublet domains from the complex polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, demonstrated reversible calcium-dependent binding to different complex polysaccharides, which serve as growth substrates for the bacterium. Here we describe a procedure based on adsorption of CA and CADG doublet domains to different insoluble complex polysaccharides, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for visualizing and quantifying the distribution of cadherins between the bound and unbound fractions. Scatchard plots were employed to determine the kinetics of interactions of CA and CADG with several complex carbohydrates. On the basis of these binding studies, the CA and CADG doublet domains are proposed to form a new family of carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). PMID:22843394

Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

2012-01-01

219

The extraction process optimization and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides (EFP) from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) with four independent variables was investigated, such as extraction temperature (°C), water/solid ratio, extraction number (n), and extraction time (h). The results indicated optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 97°C, water/solid ratio of 9:1, extraction number of 2 and extraction time of 2.4h, respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental value was 24.6±0.62, which was well in close agreement with value predicted by the model. The preliminary chemical analysis of EFP revealed the EFP contained 25.43% polysaccharides, 20.42% uronic acids, 2.54% sulfate radical and 23.41% proteins. And the neutral polysaccharides were mainly composed of glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, xylose, mannose in the ratio of 21:8:5:3:1:1. PMID:21664923

Liu, Jicheng; Sun, Yongxu; Liu, Lei; Yu, Chunlei

2011-10-01

220

In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferation Activities of Polysaccharides from Various Extracts of Different Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides were extracted from eight kinds of Chinese mushrooms using three solvents and were evaluated for their total carbohydrate, polyphenolic and protein contents, and antioxidant and anti-proliferation activities. The results suggested that all the polysaccharides had significant antioxidant capacities (EC50 ranged from 1.70 ± 0.42 to 65.98 ± 1.74 ?M TE/g crude polysaccharide inhibition of ABTS+, EC50 ranged from 5.06 ± 0.12 to 127.38 ± 1.58 mg VCE/g CP scavenging of OH· and EC50 ranged from 0.70 ± 0.04 to 33.54 ± 0.49 mg VCE/g CP inhibition of lipid peroxidation) (TE: trolox equivalent; VCE: VC equivalent; CP: crude polysaccharide). The acid extracts of Russula vinosa Lindblad had the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. Aqueous extracts of Dictyophora indusiata and Hohenbuehelia serotina possessed, respectively, the highest OH· scavenging capacity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Mushroom extracts also inhibited proliferation of HeLa and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the mushroom polysaccharides might be potential antioxidant resources. PMID:22754332

Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lu; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hua

2012-01-01

221

Sulfated heterorhamnans from the green seaweed Gayralia oxysperma: partial depolymerization, chemical structure and antitumor activity.  

PubMed

Sulfated heterorhamnans produced by Gayralia oxysperma were utilized for the preparation of two homogeneous and highly sulfated Smith-degraded products (Mwof 109 and 251kDa), which were constituted principally by 3-linked ?-l-rhamnosyl units 2- or 4-sulfate and 2-linked ?-l-rhamnosyl units 4- or 3,4-sulfate, in different percentages. The homogeneous products and the crude extracts containing the sulfated heterorhamnans showed cytotoxic effect against U87MG cells. These sulfated polysaccharides induced an increase in the number of cells in G1 phase with concomitant increase of the mRNA levels of p53 and p21. The presence of 2-linked disulfated rhamnose residues together with the molecular weight could be important factors to be correlated with the inhibitory effect on human glioblastoma cells. PMID:25498661

Ropellato, Juliana; Carvalho, Mariana M; Ferreira, Luciana G; Noseda, Miguel D; Zuconelli, Cristiane R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Ducatti, Diogo R B; Kenski, Juliana C N; Nasato, Pauline L; Winnischofer, Sheila M B; Duarte, Maria E R

2015-03-01

222

Biocompatible Polysaccharide?Based Electrorheological Suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the polysaccharide family and its modified forms, chitosan, cellulose phosphate, and potato starch phosphate have been adopted as anhydrous electrorheological (ER) fluids to improve the shortcomings of the corresponding pristine hydrous polysaccharides of cellulose and potato starch, including temperature limitation and density difference between dispersed particles and the oil medium. The biocompatible polysaccharides with polar organic modifications containing electronic

J. H. Sung; H. J. Choi

2005-01-01

223

Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe2+–Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O2•?) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)—N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)–Fe2+ system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na2S2O3 titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H2O2. APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O2•?, •OH and H2O2 significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health. PMID:22408421

Li, Xing-Tai; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Jin, Feng-Xin; Liu, De-Wen; Gao, Ming-Bo; Liu, Ze; Xin, Xiao-Juan

2012-01-01

224

Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

1995-01-01

225

Enhancement of HIV infection by cellulose sulfate.  

PubMed

Cellulose sulfate, a polyanionic compound derived from cotton, has been proposed as a topical microbicide to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV. However, a phase III clinical trial of a vaginal gel formulation of cellulose sulfate (Ushercell) had to be prematurely closed after early data indicated microbicide users had a higher rate of HIV infection than women using a placebo. The unexpected results of the cellulose sulfate trail prompted us to reexamine and attempt to replicate the available preclinical data for this compound and other polyanions. We show here that cellulose sulfate has a biphasic effect on HIV infection in vitro: at high concentrations it inhibits infection but at low concentrations it significantly and reproducibly increases HIV infection. This stimulatory effect is evident for the R5-tropic strains of virus responsible for sexual transmission, reflects the rate of infection rather than viral growth, and occurs at clinically relevant concentrations of the compound. An examination of published studies shows that the biphasic effect of cellulose sulfate was evident in previous research by independent laboratories and is also found for other polyanions such as dextrin sulfate and PRO2000. These data help in understanding the failure of the Ushercell clinical trial and indicate that cellulose sulfate is not safe for mucosal application in humans. PMID:18627218

Tao, Wang; Richards, Chris; Hamer, Dean

2008-07-01

226

The beneficial properties of marine polysaccharides in alleviation of allergic responses.  

PubMed

Marine polysaccharides have been found as the principle component in cell wall structures of seaweeds or exoskeletons of crustaceans. Due to numerous pharmaceutical properties of marine polysaccharides such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antitumor, antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticoagulant, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, and antihepatopathy activities, they have been applied in many fields of biomaterials, food, cosmetic, and pharmacology. Recently, several marine polysaccharides such alginate, porphyran, fucoidan, and chitin and its derivatives have been evidenced as downregulators of allergic responses due to enhancement of innate immune system, alteration of Th1/Th2 balance forward to Th1 cells, inhibition of IgE production, and suppression of mast cell degranulation. This contribution, therefore, focuses on antiallergic properties of marine polysaccharides and emphasizes their potential application as bioactive food ingredients as well as nutraceuticals for prevention of allergic disorders. PMID:25379652

Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, Se-Kwon

2015-01-01

227

Fine structure of polysaccharide microcrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative staining showed the presence of microcrystals in various polysaccharides. Cellulose microcrystals from Valoniopsis, Vaucheria, and an unidentified tunicate had widths of 20, 27, and 30 Å, respectively. Mannan microcrystals from Acetabularia were 10x25 Å and were oriented in linear arrays with their long axis perpendicular to the array axis. dichotomosiphon and Caulerpa xylans had respective microcrystal widths of 22

Bruce C. Parker; George F. Leeper

1969-01-01

228

The potential of chondroitin sulfate as a therapeutic agent.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an omnipresent glycosaminoglycan with significant biologic roles. Chondroitin sulfate has not one structure but its polysaccharide backbone is modified to a smaller or higher degree according to the cell, tissue, species localization, and/or physiopathological stimuli. The potential of chondroitin sulfate for the therapy of osteoarthritis has been under investigation in several clinical trials, which have shown that it is safe and well tolerated. However, there are many issues still unresolved, such as the structure-modifying effects of CS in osteoarthritis, symptom-modifying efficacy in certain groups of patients, structure-activity-pharmacokinetic relationships, knowledge of mechanism of action, and better quality control of the preparations. Furthermore, ongoing basic research on its biologic role will probably show other therapeutic applications. PMID:18661362

Lamari, Fotini N

2008-01-01

229

Isolation, purification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Grifola frondosa.  

PubMed

The crude polysaccharides (GFP) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography in that order. Three main fractions, GFP-1, GFP-2 and GFP-3, were obtained through the isolation and purification steps. Then the antioxidant activities of these three fractions were investigated in vitro. The results showed that GFP-1, GFP-2 and GFP-3 possessed significant inhibitory effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical; their reducing power, ferrous ions chelating effect and the inhibition ability of the rat liver lipid oxidation where also strong. These results suggest that G. frondosa polysaccharides could be a suitable natural antioxidant and may be the functional foods for humans. PMID:24750604

Chen, Gui-tang; Ma, Xue-mei; Liu, Sheng-to; Liao, Yan-li; Zhao, Guo-qang

2012-06-01

230

Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death. Methods THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments. Results P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts. Conclusions P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell differentiation and cell death. PMID:24344650

2013-01-01

231

Chondroitin Sulfates Affect the Formation of the Segmental Motor Nerves in Zebrafish Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondroitin sulfates have been implicated in the promotion and in the inhibition of axon growth. In the zebrafish embryo, chondroitin sulfates are present at the interface of the somites and the notochord where spinal motor axons extend ventrally to establish the midsegmental ventral motor nerves. Injection of chondroitinase ABC prior to motor axon outgrowth effectively removed all chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity

Robert R. Bernhardt; Melitta Schachner

2000-01-01

232

Regulation of sulfate transport and synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research indicates that several sulfate transporters — exhibiting different tissue specificities and modes of expression — may play distinct roles in sulfate uptake within specific tissues and in long-distance sulfate translocation. The transcription levels of particular genes and feedback inhibition of serine acetyltransferase play major roles in regulating sulfur assimilation and cysteine synthesis. O-acetylserine and glutathione presumably act within

Kazuki Saito

2000-01-01

233

Significance of protein elicitor isolated from Tuber melanosporum on the production of ganoderic acid and Ganoderma polysaccharides during the fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from the culture mycelia of Tuber melanosporum, the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) was significantly stimulated during Ganoderma lucidum fermentation. Compared with our previous results that, GA content was inhibited by polysaccharide elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum, while improved by the elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, protein was identified to be the exact component inducing GA biosynthesis in this work. G. lucidum cell growth was significantly inhibited by elicitor of polysaccharide and protein, and polysaccharide elicitor did not inhibit the cell growth. In this work, the remarkable inhibition on the cell growth was considerably eliminated under the elicitation of protein elicitor isolated from T. melanosporum. These suggested maybe the interaction of polysaccharide and protein components existed in the inhibition on the cell growth of G. lucidum. Not only GA content but also total GA accumulation obtained the highest values after the elicitation of protein elicitor. The maximal GA production of 260.5 ± 5.6 mg/L was 31.2% higher than the control. Under the elicitation of protein elicitor, the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and the content of intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) were also enhanced; however, total IPS accumulation was lower. GA biosynthesis was also significantly affected by the addition time of protein elicitor, whose optimal value was the culture of day 4. PMID:20369259

Zhu, Li-Wen; Tang, Ya-Jie

2010-10-01

234

Adeno-associated virus type 2 binding study on model heparan sulfate surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms involved in virus infections is useful in its application in areas such as gene therapy, drug development and delivery, and biosensors. In collaboration with UNC Gene Therapy Center and School of Pharmacy, we are specifically looking at the interaction between human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), a potential viral vector, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), a known cell surface receptor for AAV2. Recent development in glycobiology has shown that some protein-polysaccharide binding is sugar sequence dependent. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide chain of sulfated iduronic/glucuronic and sulfate glucosamine residues and can be differentiated into sequence specific structures by enzymes. These enzymatic modifications, known as heparan sulfate sulfotransferase modified modifications, have been shown to change the biological nature of heparan sulfate such as specific binding to proteins and viruses. For understanding HS-assisted viral infection mechanisms, we are interested in investigating the binding affinity and stability of AAV to different HS structures. We have developed a model heparan sulfate surface in which AAV adsorption studies are done and analyzed using the atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, a miniArray assay has been created to facilitate to this study. Adsorption studies are done in 4 white LED wells with approximately 3 mm2 reaction areas which minimize sample use and waste.

Negishi, Atsuko; Liu, Jian; McCarty, Douglas; Samulski, Jude; Superfine, Richard

2003-11-01

235

Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

236

A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2012-09-07

237

Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction: Competitive and Noncompetitive Substrates in Estuarine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Sulfate ions did not inhibit methanogenesis in estuarine sediments supplemented with methanol, trimethylamine, or methionine. However, sulfate greatly retarded methanogenesis when hydrogen or acetate was the substrate. Sulfate reduction was stimulated by acetate, hydrogen, and acetate plus hydrogen, but not by methanol or trimethylamine. These results indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria will outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, acetate, or both, but will not compete with methanogens for compounds like methanol, trimethylamine, or methionine, thereby allowing methanogenesis and sulfate reduction to operate simultaneously within anoxic, sulfate-containing sediments. PMID:16346144

Oremland, Ronald S.; Polcin, Sandra

1982-01-01

238

[Antitussive action of extracts and polysaccharides of marsh mallow (Althea officinalis L., var. robusta)].  

PubMed

The complex extract and the polysaccharide isolated from the roots of marsh mallow were tested for antitussive activity in unanaesthetized cats of both sexes. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous area of the respiratory system with a Nylon fibre (diameter 0.35 mm). Cough was evaluated on the basis of the changes in lateral tracheal pressure. The polysaccharide and the complex extract were administered p.o. in a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The efficiency of the mentioned compounds was compared with the cough-suppressing effect of drugs belonging to the non-narcotic antitussics. The results of the experiments showed that administration of the polysaccharide led to a statistically significant decrease of the number of cough efforts both from laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial areas of the the respiratory system. The polysaccharide in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was as effective in inhibition of the cough reflex as Sirupus Althaeae in a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. and more effective than prenoxdiazine in a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. However, the cough-suppressing effect of the polysaccharide was lower than that of dropropizine. The extract was less effective than the polysaccharide. PMID:1615030

Nosál'ova, G; Strapková, A; Kardosová, A; Capek, P; Zathurecký, L; Bukovská, E

1992-03-01

239

Retinal structure and function preservation by polysaccharides of wolfberry in a mouse model of retinal degeneration  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in a variety of genes that are mostly expressed by rod cells, which results in initial death of rod photoreceptors followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. RP is currently untreatable and usually leads to partial or complete blindness. Here, we explored the potential neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides of wolfberry, which are long known to possess primary beneficial properties in the eyes, on photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd10 mouse model of RP. We found that these polysaccharides provided long-term morphological and functional preservation of photoreceptors and improved visual behaviors in rd10 mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that polysaccharides exerted neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Furthermore, we identified that polysaccharides modulated inflammation and apoptosis partly through inhibition of NF-?B and HIF-1? expressions, respectively. Overall, we demonstrated the synergistic protective effects of polysaccharides in preserving photoreceptors against degeneration in rd10 mice. Our study provides rationale and scientific support on using polysaccharides of wolfberry as one supplementary treatment of RP patients in the future. PMID:25535040

Wang, Ke; Xiao, Jia; Peng, Bo; Xing, Feiyue; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L.; Lin, Bin

2014-01-01

240

Fine structure of polysaccharide microcrystals.  

PubMed

Negative staining showed the presence of microcrystals in various polysaccharides. Cellulose microcrystals from Valoniopsis, Vaucheria, and an unidentified tunicate had widths of 20, 27, and 30 Å, respectively. Mannan microcrystals from Acetabularia were 10x25 Å and were oriented in linear arrays with their long axis perpendicular to the array axis. dichotomosiphon and Caulerpa xylans had respective microcrystal widths of 22 and 24 Å. All microcrystals appeared as component part of microfibrils. PMID:24504718

Parker, B C; Leeper, G F

1969-03-01

241

Marine Polysaccharides in Pharmaceutical Applications: An Overview  

PubMed Central

The enormous variety of polysaccharides that can be extracted from marine plants and animal organisms or produced by marine bacteria means that the field of marine polysaccharides is constantly evolving. Recent advances in biological techniques allow high levels of polysaccharides of interest to be produced in vitro. Biotechnology is a powerful tool to obtain polysaccharides from a variety of micro-organisms, by controlling the growth conditions in a bioreactor while tailoring the production of biologically active compounds. Following an overview of the current knowledge on marine polysaccharides, with special attention to potential pharmaceutical applications and to more recent progress on the discovering of new polysaccharides with biological appealing characteristics, this review will focus on possible strategies for chemical or physical modification aimed to tailor the final properties of interest. PMID:20948899

Laurienzo, Paola

2010-01-01

242

Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date. PMID:24300453

Zhang, Nan; Wardwell, Patricia R.; Bader, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

243

Roles of Heparan Sulfate Sulfation in Dentinogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix. PMID:22351753

Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md. Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

2012-01-01

244

Capillary Electrophoresis Applied to Polysaccharide Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Capillary electrophoresis is a consolidated analytical approach for the structural characterization of polysaccharide mono-\\u000a and oligomer constituents, as demonstrated in this chapter, which surveys several applications of this technique on chemically\\u000a and enzymatically degraded polysaccharides, covering the last 10 to 12 years. Capillary electrophoresis is also demonstrated\\u000a to be highly reliable for determination of polysaccharides in biological samples, as it

Mila Toppazzini; Anna Coslovi; Sergio Paoletti

245

Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia

Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau

2008-01-01

246

Capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans modulate production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophils  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we characterized the in vitro modulation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps) induced in human neutrophils by the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, evaluating the participation of capsular polysaccharides glucuronoxylomanan (GXM) and glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal) in this phenomenon. The mutant acapsular strain CAP67 and the capsular polysaccharide GXMGal induced NET production. In contrast, the wild-type strain and the major polysaccharide GXM did not induce NET release. In addition, C. neoformans and the capsular polysaccharide GXM inhibited PMA-induced NET release. Additionally, we observed that the NET-enriched supernatants induced through CAP67 yeasts showed fungicidal activity on the capsular strain, and neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, collagenase and histones were the key components for the induction of NET fungicidal activity. The signaling pathways associated with NET induction through the CAP67 strain were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD-4). Neither polysaccharide induced ROS production however both molecules blocked the production of ROS through PMA-activated neutrophils. Taken together, the results demonstrate that C. neoformans and the capsular component GXM inhibit the production of NETs in human neutrophils. This mechanism indicates a potentially new and important modulation factor for this fungal pathogen. PMID:25620354

Rocha, Juliana D. B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Morrot, Alexandre; Heise, Norton; Nunes, Marise P.; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; DosReis, George A.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.

2015-01-01

247

Capsular polysaccharides from Cryptococcus neoformans modulate production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by human neutrophils.  

PubMed

In the present study, we characterized the in vitro modulation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps) induced in human neutrophils by the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, evaluating the participation of capsular polysaccharides glucuronoxylomanan (GXM) and glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal) in this phenomenon. The mutant acapsular strain CAP67 and the capsular polysaccharide GXMGal induced NET production. In contrast, the wild-type strain and the major polysaccharide GXM did not induce NET release. In addition, C. neoformans and the capsular polysaccharide GXM inhibited PMA-induced NET release. Additionally, we observed that the NET-enriched supernatants induced through CAP67 yeasts showed fungicidal activity on the capsular strain, and neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, collagenase and histones were the key components for the induction of NET fungicidal activity. The signaling pathways associated with NET induction through the CAP67 strain were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD-4). Neither polysaccharide induced ROS production however both molecules blocked the production of ROS through PMA-activated neutrophils. Taken together, the results demonstrate that C. neoformans and the capsular component GXM inhibit the production of NETs in human neutrophils. This mechanism indicates a potentially new and important modulation factor for this fungal pathogen. PMID:25620354

Rocha, Juliana D B; Nascimento, Michelle T C; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Morrot, Alexandre; Heise, Norton; Nunes, Marise P; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; DosReis, George A; Saraiva, Elvira M; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G

2015-01-01

248

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin;Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

249

BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticle modified biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.  

PubMed

Bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated chitosan/chondrotin sulfate nanoparticles (CHI/CS NPs) are developed to enhance ectopic bone formation on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. BMP-2 contained CHI/CS NPs were prepared by a simple and mild polyelectrolyte complexation process. It does not involve harsh organic solvents and high temperature, and therefore retain growth factors activity. These NPs were immobilized on BCP scaffolds, and realize the sustained release of growth factors from the scaffolds. The bare BCP scaffolds, NP loaded scaffolds (BCP-NP), and NP loaded and polydopamine coated scaffolds (BCP-Dop-NP) were seeded with bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. BMSC culture results indicate that all scaffolds favor cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation. Afterwards, the bare BCP, BCP-NP, and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds were implanted into rabbits intramuscularly to evaluate the ectopic bone formation of scaffolds. In vivo results indicate that the BCP-NP and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds enhance more ectopic bone formation than the bare BCP scaffolds. Both the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide NPs are effective to improve the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. In addition, BCP-NP scaffolds induce more bone formation than BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds. This is because BCP-NP scaffolds harness the intrinsic osteoinductivity BCP and BMP-2, whereas BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds have polydopamine coatings that inhibit the surfaces biological features of BCP scaffolds, and therefore weaken the bone formation ability of scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014. PMID:25100662

Wang, Zhenming; Wang, Kefeng; Lu, Xiong; Li, Minqi; Liu, Hongrui; Xie, Chaoming; Meng, Fanzhi; Jiang, Ou; Li, Chen; Zhi, Wei

2014-07-21

250

Antiadhesive activity of ulvan polysaccharides covalently immobilized onto titanium surface.  

PubMed

Bacterial adhesion leading to biofilm formation on the surface of implants is responsible for pathogenesis infections. One promising strategy to reduce the risk of infection consists of modifying implant surfaces by antibacterial coating. In the present study, the ability of ulvan, a non biocidal algal polysaccharide, to limit bacterial adhesion on titanium was investigated. To this end, titanium surfaces were modified by two different ulvans. Polysaccharides were covalently immobilized on titanium surfaces which had been previously functionalized by self assembled monolayers of aminoundecyltrimethoxysilane (AUTMS). Each step in the modification process was characterized by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bacterial adhesion assays showed that immobilized ulvans on titanium surface strongly decreased by about 90% the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, AFM observations showed that the polysaccharide also inhibited the bacterial spreading on the surface but not cell-to-cell interaction. The permanence of the anti-adhesive effect of the surfaces was finally tested on a non-motile organism, i.e., Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed that the effect was maintained for at least 24h. PMID:23994748

Gadenne, Virginie; Lebrun, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Thebault, Pascal

2013-12-01

251

Fucoidan extract derived from Undaria pinnatifida inhibits angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  

PubMed

In recent years, anti-angiogenic therapy has become an effective strategy for inhibiting tumor growth. Fucoidan is a class of fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides found in brown algae, and it is known to have strong anti-tumor property. Using a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-based cell culture model, the present study investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. Treatment of HUVECs with various concentrations of fucoidan resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, cell migration, tube formation and vascular network formation. However, significant inhibition of cell proliferation only occurred with longer treatment time (48 h instead of 24h or less). About 40% of cell proliferation and cell migration and 61% of tube formation by HUVECs were inhibited by 400 ?g/ml fucoidan, the maximum concentration tested. These results appeared to suggest that modulation of angiogenesis by fucoidan might not occur through growth inhibition and apoptosis. Ex vivo angiogenesis assay demonstrated that at 100 ?g/ml, fucoidan caused significant reduction in microvessel outgrowth. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that at 400 ?g/ml, fucoidan significantly reduced the expression of the angiogenesis factor VEGF-A in the suppression of angiogenesis activity. Our results showed that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida may have a new therapeutic potential in the prevention angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:22510492

Liu, Fang; Wang, Jia; Chang, Alan K; Liu, Bing; Yang, Lili; Li, Qiaomei; Wang, Peisheng; Zou, Xiangyang

2012-06-15

252

Ultrastructure of ulvan: a polysaccharide from green seaweeds.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural analysis of the gel forming green seaweed sulfated polysaccharide ulvan revealed a spherical-based morphology (10-18 nm diameter) more or less aggregated in aqueous solution. At pH 13 in TBAOH (tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxyde) or NaOH, ulvan formed an open gel-like structure or a continuous film by fusion or coalescence of bead-like structures, while in acidic pH conditions, ulvan appeared as dispersed beads. Low concentrations of sodium chloride, copper or boric acid induced the formation of aggregates. These results highlight the hydrophobic and aggregative behavior of ulvan that are discussed in regard to the peculiar gel formation and the low intrinsic viscosity of the polysaccharide in aqueous solution. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 652-664, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com. PMID:19353644

Robic, Audrey; Gaillard, Cédric; Sassi, Jean-François; Lerat, Yannick; Lahaye, Marc

2009-08-01

253

Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

Fenske, John James

254

Factor H and Properdin Recognize Different Epitopes on Renal Tubular Epithelial Heparan Sulfate*  

PubMed Central

During proteinuria, renal tubular epithelial cells become exposed to ultrafiltrate-derived serum proteins, including complement factors. Recently, we showed that properdin binds to tubular heparan sulfates (HS). We now document that factor H also binds to tubular HS, although to a different epitope than properdin. Factor H was present on the urinary side of renal tubular cells in proteinuric, but not in normal renal tissues and colocalized with properdin in proteinuric kidneys. Factor H dose-dependently bound to proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) in vitro. Preincubation of factor H with exogenous heparin and pretreatment of PTECs with heparitinase abolished the binding to PTECs. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed high affinity of factor H for heparin and HS (KD values of 32 and 93 nm, respectively). Using a library of HS-like polysaccharides, we showed that chain length and high sulfation density are the most important determinants for glycosaminoglycan-factor H interaction and clearly differ from properdin-heparinoid interaction. Coincubation of properdin and factor H did not hamper HS/heparin binding of one another, indicating recognition of different nonoverlapping epitopes on HS/heparin by factor H and properdin. Finally we showed that certain low anticoagulant heparinoids can inhibit properdin binding to tubular HS, with a minor effect on factor H binding to tubular HS. As a result, these heparinoids can control the alternative complement pathway. In conclusion, factor H and properdin interact with different HS epitopes of PTECs. These interactions can be manipulated with some low anticoagulant heparinoids, which can be important for preventing complement-derived tubular injury in proteinuric renal diseases. PMID:22815489

Zaferani, Azadeh; Vivès, Romain R.; van der Pol, Pieter; Navis, Gerjan J.; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Seelen, Marc A.; van den Born, Jacob

2012-01-01

255

Antiinflammatory activity of the pectic polysaccharide from Comarum palustre.  

PubMed

A pectic polysaccharide named comaruman (CP) was extracted from the aerial part of Comarum palustre with 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate and subsequent precipitation with ethanol. Oral administration of comaruman (5-100 mg/kg) was found to reduce a paw edema observed 24 h after injection of 2% formalin in mice. A fraction of comaruman (CP-H9) exhibited a similar antiinflammatory activity. Comaruman, CP deprived of lipid, CP purified by proteins and CP fractions obtained with acidic hydrolysis inhibit spontaneous and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro. PMID:15885926

Popov, S V; Popova, G Yu; Ovodova, R G; Ovodov, Yu S

2005-06-01

256

[Immunological study on the antitumor effects of fungus polysaccharides compounds].  

PubMed

Fungus polysaccharides compounds (FPC) are the mixture of procyanidins oligomers, glycyrrhetinicacid and polysaccharides of hericium erinaceus, lentinus edodes and poria cocos. The antitumor effects of FPC and its immunity regulating effects as an immunostimulant on the mice burdened with sarcoma 180 (S-180) were studied. FPC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW) was gavaged to mice for 31 days. S-180 was transplanted to these mice on the 21th day. Lentinus edodes group was gavaged 200 mg/kg BW saccharine of lentinus edodes. The results showed that FPC could inhibit the growth of S-180 effectively. The inhibitory rates were 37.74%, 44.73% and 48.32% respectively. The antineoplastic activity of FPC (200 mg/kg. BW) was more effective than polysaccharide of lentinus edodes at the same dose. In S-180 burdened mice, the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2, NK activity and the induced IL-2, IFN-gamma levels were decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. As an immunostimulant, FPC could increase the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2 in S-180 burdened mice, but had no significant effects on the percentage of Lyt-2. Polysaccharide of lentinus edodes alone could also increase the immunity competence of mice burdened with S-180, but was not better than that of FPC at the same dose. It could be concluded that the compound of antineoplastic component could be synergetic. PMID:12725070

Liu, C; Gao, P; Qian, J; Yan, W

2000-05-30

257

Botanical polysaccharides: Macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of

Igor A. Schepetkin; Mark T. Quinn

2006-01-01

258

Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

1987-10-01

259

Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

260

Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein. PMID:24413804

Pomin, Vitor H.

2014-01-01

261

Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

2012-09-01

262

Effect of type III group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide on invasion of respiratory epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Group B streptococcal (GBS) capsular polysaccharide is an important virulence factor, and its role in invasion of cultured respiratory epithelial cells was investigated. A type III GBS clinical isolate, COH1, and asialo and unencapsulated isogenic transposon capsule mutants of it were compared in an in vitro invasion assay. The results demonstrated that capsule attenuated the invasion process. Invasion was not affected when the A549 epithelial cells were preincubated with purified type III GBS capsular polysaccharide. Polyclonal type III GBS capsule antibody inhibited invasion by COH1 but did not affect invasion by the capsule mutants. Serotypes Ia, Ib, Ia/c, II, and III all invaded respiratory epithelial cells but demonstrated some strain variation in magnitude of invasion. These observations led us to conclude that type III capsular polysaccharide was not essential for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells by GBS and that bacterial factors other than capsule were responsible for respiratory epithelial cell invasion. Images PMID:8406885

Hulse, M L; Smith, S; Chi, E Y; Pham, A; Rubens, C E

1993-01-01

263

Glycopeptide Sulfation Evades Resistance  

PubMed Central

The incidence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is increasing at an alarming rate. Resistance against front-line therapeutics such as the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has emerged and has spread to highly virulent pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide antibiotics are natural products from the Actinomycetes that have a characteristic heptapeptide core. The chemical diversity of the class is achieved through glycosylation, halogenation, methylation, and acylation of the core, modifications that are implicated in improved solubility, stability, or activity of the molecule. Sulfation is yet another modification observed infrequently in glycopeptides, but its role is not known. Although glycopeptide sulfotransferases are found in the environmental metagenome and must therefore serve an evolutionary purpose, all previous studies have reported decreased antibiotic activity with sulfation. We report that sulfation of glycopeptides has little effect on the compound's ability to bind its target, the d-Ala-d-Ala peptidoglycan precursors of the bacterial cell wall. However, sulfation does impact glycopeptide dimerization, and importantly, sulfated glycopeptides are significantly less potent inducers of the resistance gene cluster vanHAX in actinomycetes. Our results begin to unravel the mystery of the biological role of glycopeptide sulfation and offer a potential new strategy for the development of new antibiotics that avoid resistance. PMID:23104813

Kalan, Lindsay; Perry, Julie; Koteva, Kalinka; Thaker, Maulik

2013-01-01

264

Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.  

PubMed

Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. PMID:25659711

Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

2015-05-01

265

Antioxidant and anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from freshwater clam, Corbicula fluminea.  

PubMed

The fresh water clam Corbicula fluminea is currently one of the most economically important aquatic species in China because of its nutritional value and pharmacological activity. In order to explore the potential of C. fluminea as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, a papain-released polysaccharide designated CFPS-2 was isolated. Chemical composition analysis indicated that CFPS-2 contained glucosamine, glucose, galactose, fucose, protein and sulfate groups, with an average molecular weight of about 22 kDa. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antitumor activities, in vitro, of the polysaccharide fractions (crude CFPS and purified CFPS-2) were evaluated. CFPS-2, which exhibited strong antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner also showed significant inhibitory effects on growth of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901) and human ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3 and A2780). The present results suggest that CFPS-2 could be a potential candidate for the development of novel functional food ingredient. PMID:23325349

Liao, Ningbo; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Nian; Dong, Shilei; Yang, Bo; Liu, Donghong

2013-04-25

266

Isolation, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Tamarindus indica L.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide was isolated from Tamarindus indica L. (TIP) and was characterized in terms of moisture and ash content, pH, water holding capacity, particle size, tapped density, bulk density, carr's index, Hausners ratio, angle of repose, content of glucose, uronic acid and sulfate. Morphological, spectral (UV-vis, FTIR) and DSC thermal analysis reveals polysaccharide nature of the isolated starch. DPPH radical scavenging activity of TIP shows RSA comparable to that of silymarin. Hepatoprotective potential of TIP in terms of biochemical parameters, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and BRN were significantly increased (P<0.05) and reduction of serum Total protein in the group of rats given thioacetamide (100mg/kg s.c.). Histopathology reveals that TIP under antagonize the effect of thioacetamide by acting, either as membrane stabilizer, thereby preventing the distortion of the cellular ionic environment associated with thioacetamide intoxication, or by preventing interaction of thioacetamide with the transcriptional machinery of the cells. PMID:24507248

Samal, Predeep Kumar; Dangi, Jawahar Singh

2014-02-15

267

Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.  

PubMed

In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSPH, WSPU, WSPM and WSPE were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSPU contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSPU was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. PMID:25498681

Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

2015-03-01

268

Ulvan Lyases Isolated from the Flavobacteria Persicivirga ulvanivorans Are the First Members of a New Polysaccharide Lyase Family*  

PubMed Central

Ulvans are complex sulfated polysaccharides found in the cell walls of green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. These polysaccharides are composed of disaccharide repetition moieties made up of sulfated rhamnose linked to either glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, or xylose. Two ulvan lyases of 30 and 46 kDa were purified from the culture supernatant of Persicivirga ulvanivorans. Based on peptide sequencing, the gene encoding the 46-kDa ulvan lyase was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the protein is modular and possesses a catalytic module similar to that of the 30-kDa ulvan lyase along with a module of unknown function. The ulvan-degrading function of the gene was confirmed by expression of the catalytic module in a heterologous system. The gene encoding the catalytic module has no sequence homolog in sequence databases and is likely to be the first member of a novel polysaccharide lyase family. Analysis of degradation products showed that both the 30- and 46-kDa ulvan lyases are endolytic and cleave the glycosidic bond between the sulfated rhamnose and a glucuronic or iduronic acid. PMID:22009751

Nyvall Collén, Pi; Sassi, Jean-François; Rogniaux, Hélène; Marfaing, Hélène; Helbert, William

2011-01-01

269

Ulvan lyases isolated from the Flavobacteria Persicivirga ulvanivorans are the first members of a new polysaccharide lyase family.  

PubMed

Ulvans are complex sulfated polysaccharides found in the cell walls of green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. These polysaccharides are composed of disaccharide repetition moieties made up of sulfated rhamnose linked to either glucuronic acid, iduronic acid, or xylose. Two ulvan lyases of 30 and 46 kDa were purified from the culture supernatant of Persicivirga ulvanivorans. Based on peptide sequencing, the gene encoding the 46-kDa ulvan lyase was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the protein is modular and possesses a catalytic module similar to that of the 30-kDa ulvan lyase along with a module of unknown function. The ulvan-degrading function of the gene was confirmed by expression of the catalytic module in a heterologous system. The gene encoding the catalytic module has no sequence homolog in sequence databases and is likely to be the first member of a novel polysaccharide lyase family. Analysis of degradation products showed that both the 30- and 46-kDa ulvan lyases are endolytic and cleave the glycosidic bond between the sulfated rhamnose and a glucuronic or iduronic acid. PMID:22009751

Nyvall Collén, Pi; Sassi, Jean-François; Rogniaux, Hélène; Marfaing, Hélène; Helbert, William

2011-12-01

270

The aggregation of a?42 induced by nano copper and the antagonistic action of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The toxic effect of A?42 induced by copper nanoparticle (Cu NPs) was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence technique. Five hundred nanometers of copper nanoparticle capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used to evaluate the aggregation and fibrils of A?42. The morphologies of A?42 incubated in the presence of Cu NPs changed gradually. The aggregation and fibrils were observed in AFM images. However, in the presence of polysaccharides, the Cu NPs-induced fibrillation of A?42 was inhibited. Interestingly, the formed Cu NPs-polysaccharides complexes can even remodel the preformed A?42 fibrils into the low neurotoxic amorphous aggregates, which were maybe ascribed to the higher affinity of polysaccharides for A?42 than Cu NPs. Besides, it was found that the binding constant of Cu NPs to A?42 is smaller than that of polysaccharides. The relationship among polysaccharides, copper nanoparticle, and A?42 morphologies and its neurotoxicity were discussed, and the binding force was analyzed. PMID:25410807

Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guoguang; Zou, Jinmei

2015-02-01

271

Effect of aloe polysaccharide on caspase-3 expression following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity, economic and social burden and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to address stroke prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aloe polysaccharide on caspase-3 expression following cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (16 rats in each group): aloe polysaccharide, ginkgo leaf tablet, nimodipine, model and sham surgery groups. The rats were administered the appropriate drug or normal saline for 7 days by gavage. A rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury was established using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Caspase-3 protein and mRNA expression levels in the cerebral cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Results showed that caspase-3 protein and mRNA expression levels in the cerebral cortex in the aloe polysaccharide, ginkgo leaf tablet and nimodipine groups were significantly lower compared with the model group and were higher than the sham surgery group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in caspase-3 protein and mRNA expression among the aloe polysaccharide, the ginkgo leaf tablet and the nimodipine groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, aloe polysaccharide has a protective effect on cerebral ischemia that may be due to the inhibition of neuronal cell apoptosis. PMID:22641427

Lu, Zhong-Qian; Deng, Yi-Jun; Lu, Jian-Xia

2012-08-01

272

Soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex nanogels: folic acid loading, protection, and controlled delivery.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a facile approach to produce nanogels via self-assembly of folic acid, soy protein, and soy polysaccharide. High-pressure homogenization was introduced to break down the original aggregates of soy protein, which benefits the binding of soy protein with soy polysaccharide and folic acid at pH 4.0. After a heat treatment that causes the soy protein denaturation and gelation, folic acid-loaded soy protein/soy polysaccharide complex nanogels were fabricated. The nanogels have a polysaccharide surface that makes the nanogels dispersible in acidic conditions where folic acid is insoluble and soy protein forms precipitates after heating. More importantly, the protein and polysaccharide can inhibit the reactions between dissolved oxygen and folic acid during UV irradiation. After the preparation and storage of the nanogels in the presence of heat, oxygen, and light in acidic conditions, most of the folic acid molecules in the nanogels remain in their natural structure and can be released rapidly at neutral pH, that is, in the intestine. Because most food and beverages are acidic, the nanogels are a suitable delivery system of folic acid in food and beverages. PMID:23758109

Ding, Xuzhe; Yao, Ping

2013-07-01

273

Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides  

DOEpatents

A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Holleman, James W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01

274

Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin?  

PubMed Central

Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile strength of DS-epi1-null skin. PMID:19687302

Maccarana, Marco; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Kongsgaard, Mads; Magnusson, S. Peter; Oldberg, Åke; Malmström, Anders

2009-01-01

275

Heparan sulfate C5-epimerase is essential for heparin biosynthesis in mast cells.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of heparin, a mast cell-derived glycosaminoglycan with widespread importance in medicine, has not been fully elucidated. In biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), a structurally related polysaccharide, HS glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) converts D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residues. We have generated Hsepi-null mouse mutant mast cells, and we show that the same enzyme catalyzes the generation of IdoA in heparin and that 'heparin' lacking IdoA shows a distorted O-sulfation pattern. PMID:16532012

Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Li, Jin-Ping; Lindahl, Ulf; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

2006-04-01

276

Rheology of interfacial protein-polysaccharide composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology and mechanical properties of protein adsorption layers can significantly be altered by the presence of surfactants, lipids, particles, other proteins, and polysaccharides. In food emulsions, polysaccharides are primarily considered as bulk thickener but can under appropriate environmental conditions stabilize or destabilize the protein adsorption layer and, thus, the entire emulsion system. Despite their ubiquitous usage as stabilization agent, relatively few investigations focus on the interfacial rheology of composite protein/polysaccharide adsorption layers. The manuscript provides a brief review on both main stabilization mechanisms, thermodynamic phase separation and electrostatic interaction and discusses the rheological response in light of the environmental conditions such as ionic strength and pH.

Fischer, P.

2013-05-01

277

Polysaccharide Based Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polysaccharide based hydrogels for their physico-chemical and biological properties can be used as scaffolds for soft tissue\\u000a regneration and as vehicles for drug controlled release. For both these applications, Hyaluronan shows optimal characteristics\\u000a even though its quick enzymatic degradability makes this natural polysaccharide unsuitable for applications which require\\u000a prolonged presence in the human organism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a For this reason, new semisynthetic polysaccharides

Gemma Leone; Rolando Barbucci

2009-01-01

278

Localization and characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the body of the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Annelida).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the compartmental distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) in adults and their occurrence during the development of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. S-GAGs were extracted from the body of earthworms to identify their composition and the time of their appearance and disappearance in embryonic, newborn, juvenile, and adult earthworms. S-GAGs were also analyzed in earthworm tissue using histochemical metachromatic staining. Purified S-GAGs obtained from the whole body of adult earthworms were composed of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS). In addition, an unknown, highly sulfated polysaccharide (HSP) was detected. In order to characterize specifically the S-GAG composition in the integument, earthworms were dissected and as much as possible of their viscera was removed. HS and CS were the predominant sulfated polysaccharides in the dissected integument, whereas in viscera, CS, HS and the HSP were found in proportions similar to those identified in the body. The qualitative S-GAG composition in juveniles was similar to that obtained from adult earthworms. CS was the predominant S-GAG in newborn earthworms, accompanied by lesser amounts of HS and by tiny amounts of the HSP. This study provides a detailed descriptive account of the pattern of S-GAG synthesis during development, and also the characterization of the tissue distribution of these compounds in the body of earthworms. PMID:20546857

Amaral, Hanna B F; Mateus, Samuel H; Ferreira, Laina C; Ribeiro, Cristiane C; Palumbo-Junior, Antonio; Domingos, Maria-Aparecida O; Cinelli, Leonardo P; Costa-Filho, Adilson; Nasciutti, Luiz E; Silva, Luiz-Claudio F

2011-07-01

279

Structural heterogeneity among unique sulfated L-galactans from different species of ascidians (tunicates).  

PubMed

The sulfated polysaccharides that occur in the tunic of ascidians differ markedly in molecular weight and chemical composition. A high molecular weight fraction (F-1), which has a high galactose content and a strong negative optical rotation, is present in all species. Several structural differences were observed among the F-1 fractions obtained from three species of ascidians that were studied in detail. Large numbers of alpha-L-galactopyranose residues sulfated at position 3 and linked glycosidically through position 1----4 are present in F-1 from all three ascidians. However, alpha-L-galactopyranose units, 1----3-linked and partially sulfated at position 4, comprise about half of the sugar units in the central core of F-1 from Ascidian nigra. In addition, L-galactopyranose nonreducing end units occur in F-1 from Styela plicata and A. nigra, but comprise only a minor fraction of F-1 from Clavelina sp. The combination of these various component units gives a complex structure for F-1 from S. plicata and A. nigra, whereas F-1 from Clavelina sp. possesses a simpler structure. The structures of these ascidian glycans are unique among all previously described sulfated polysaccharides, since they are highly branched (except that from Clavelina sp), sulfated at position 3, and contain large amounts of L-galactose without its D-enantiomorph. These data show unusual examples of polyanionic glycans with structural function in animal tissues. PMID:2722889

Pavão, M S; Albano, R M; Lawson, A M; Mourão, P A

1989-06-15

280

Diversity and Genetic Basis of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Vibrio cholerae elaborates three types of polysaccharide structures: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of which is the O-polysaccharide\\u000a or O-antigen, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K-antigen, and “rugose” polysaccharide also known as exopolysaccharide (EPS)\\u000a or Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS). The major protective antigen for V. cholerae is the O-antigen. A strain typing scheme based on the somatic O-antigen has been in use for

Shanmuga Sozhamannan; Fitnat H. Yildiz

281

Herbal polysaccharides and cough reflex.  

PubMed

In the last decades plant substances have become a leading form of treatment of many respiratory symptoms, including cough. It has been shown that compounds purified form polysaccharides from Adhatoda vasica, Withania somnifera, and Glycyrrhiza glabra have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antispasmodic action, or antiallergic properties, and they often act as cough suppressants. This work demonstrates new natural substitutes for synthetic antitussives whose application is associated with numerous adverse effects. We investigated pharmacodynamic characteristics of arabinogalacatan samples extracted from A. vasica, W. somnifera, and G. glabra. These extracts showed the ability to reduce citric acid-induced cough in awake guinea pigs after oral administration in a dose of 50mg/kg. The strongest antitussive effect (81%) was found after application of the extract from G. glabra. There was a 67% cough suppression with A. vasica and 61% with W. somnifera, which was comparable with the antitussive activity of codeine (62%). PMID:23597834

Nosalova, Gabriela; Fleskova, Dana; Jurecek, Ludovit; Sadlonova, Vladimira; Ray, Bimalendu

2013-06-01

282

Immunostimulatory Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Fucus evanescens: Role of Sulfates and Acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidans are natural polysaccharides mainly consisting of sulfated ?-L-fucopyranose. A wide range of biological activities has been attributed to fucoidans. However, their immunostimulatory role with respect to structure-activity relationships is still under debate. To address this question, hyposulfated (hypoS), deacetylated (deAc), and both hyposulfated and deacetylated (hypoSdeAc) derivatives of native Fucus evanescens fucoidan were used to stimulate bone marrow–derived dendritic

Stanislav R. Khil’chenko; Tatiana S. Zaporozhets; Natalia M. Shevchenko; Tatiana N. Zvyagintseva; Uwe Vogel; Peter Seeberger; Bernd Lepenies

2011-01-01

283

Synergistic interactions between the genetically modified bacterial polysaccharide P2 and carob or konjac mannan.  

PubMed

Rheological studies have confirmed that the bacterial polysaccharide P2, a genetically modified variant of the Acetobacter xylinum polysaccharide acetan, undergoes synergistic gelation with either of the plant polysaccharides carob or konjac mannan. X-ray fibre diffraction data shows that P2 can form a 5-fold helical structure of pitch 4.7nm and an axial rise per disaccharide repeat of 0.92nm. Optical rotation data demonstrate that P2 undergoes a coil-helix transition in solution and that deacylation enhances the stability of the helical structure in solution. Studies made on mixtures prepared at different temperatures and ionic strengths suggest that denaturation of the P2 helix favours interaction and gelation. Deacetylation of P2 enhances gelation. X-ray diffraction data for oriented fibres prepared from deacetylated P2-konjac mannan mixed films reveal a 6-fold helical structure of pitch 5.54nm with an axial rise per disaccharide repeat also of 0.92nm. This mixed helix provides direct evidence for binding between the two polysaccharides. P2 contains two sites of acetylation: one on the backbone and one on the sidechain. The former site of acetylation inhibits helix formation for P2. It is suggested that this site of acetylation also inhibits formation of the mixed helix, explaining the enhanced gelation of mixtures on deacetylation. PMID:15337451

Ridout, Michael; Cairns, Paul; Brownsey, Geoffrey; Morris, Victor

2004-09-13

284

An Inhibitor-Based Method To Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments  

PubMed Central

A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Field-sampled litter from the common reed (Phragmites australis), which contains cellulose and arabinoxylan as its main polysaccharides, was used as a model system. Toluene concentrations of between 1 and 10% resulted in the accumulation of similar amounts of monomeric carbohydrates, which was linear over time for most neutral sugars. Toluene (3%) did not have an effect on extracellular enzyme activities, and microbial sugar uptake was completely inhibited, as demonstrated with (sup14)C-labelled xylose and glucose. Experiments with enhancement cultures and fixed reed litter suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in reed litter was the main source of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose accumulation. In contrast, the accumulation of high amounts of the alditols mannitol and glucitol was probably caused by lysis of the microbial population in toluene-treated reed litter. Glucose accumulated at rates of 1.3 and 0.10 (mu)mol (middot) g of dry matter content(sup-1) (middot) h(sup-1) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively, whereas xylose accumulation rates were only 10% of the glucose accumulation rates. PMID:16535044

Boschker, H.; Bertilsson, S. A.; Dekkers, E.; Cappenberg, T. E.

1995-01-01

285

Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA), which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues. PMID:25513953

Mason, Kerryn; Meikle, Peter; Hopwood, John; Fuller, Maria

2014-01-01

286

Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

2013-10-15

287

Study of Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharides on endothelial cells permeability induced by HMGB1.  

PubMed

Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide (APS) shows various biological activities. Here, we explored the effect of APS on high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) -induced endothelial cell permeability. The results indicated APS pretreatment effectively inhibited HMGB1-induced increased permeability in endothelial cells (ECs). Signal transduction studies showed APS inhibited not only the activation of small guanylate Rho and its downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK), but also the subsequent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) in ECs. In conclusion, our investigations suggested that APS inhibited HMGB1-induced increased permeability in ECs, regulated by Rho/ROCK signal pathways. PMID:23218386

Zheng, Yun-Jiang; Zhou, Bin; Song, Zhi-Fang; Li, Lei; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Ru-Yuan; Tang, Yao-Qing

2013-01-30

288

Effects of chlorate on the sulfation process of Trypanosoma cruzi glycoconjugates. Implication of parasite sulfates in cellular invasion.  

PubMed

Sulfation, a post-translational modification which plays a key role in various biological processes, is inhibited by competition with chlorate. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, sulfated structures have been described as part of glycolipids and we have reported sulfated high-mannose type oligosaccharides in the C-T domain of the cruzipain (Cz) glycoprotein. However, sulfation pathways have not been described yet in this parasite. Herein, we studied the effect of chlorate treatment on T. cruzi with the aim to gain some knowledge about sulfation metabolism and the role of sulfated molecules in this parasite. In chlorate-treated epimastigotes, immunoblotting with anti-sulfates enriched Cz IgGs (AS-enriched IgGs) showed Cz undersulfation. Accordingly, a Cz mobility shift toward higher isoelectric points was observed in 2D-PAGE probed with anti-Cz antibodies. Ultrastructural membrane abnormalities and a significant decrease of dark lipid reservosomes were shown by electron microscopy and a significant decrease in sulfatide levels was confirmed by TLC/UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Altogether, these results suggest T. cruzi sulfation occurs via PAPS. Sulfated epitopes in trypomastigote and amastigote forms were evidenced using AS-enriched IgGs by immunoblotting. Their presence on trypomastigotes surface was demonstrated by flow cytometry and IF with Cz/dCz specific antibodies. Interestingly, the percentage of infected cardiac HL-1 cells decreased 40% when using chlorate-treated trypomastigotes, suggesting sulfates are involved in the invasion process. The same effect was observed when cells were pre-incubated with dCz, dC-T or an anti-high mannose receptor (HMR) antibody, suggesting Cz sulfates and HMR are also involved in the infection process by T. cruzi. PMID:24879929

Ferrero, Maximiliano R; Soprano, Luciana L; Acosta, Diana M; García, Gabriela A; Esteva, Mónica I; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

2014-09-01

289

Preliminary study on the potential of polysaccharide from indigenous Tiger's Milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) as anti-lung cancer agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tiger's Milk mushroom is a tropical polypore genus that can be found in the tropical part of the world in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vanuatu. In Malaysia, Lignosus rhinocerus is the most sought after medicinal mushroom by Semai aborigine upon request by local herbalist. This priced mushroom has been used traditionally to treat various diseases such as asthma, breast cancer, cough, fever and food poisoning. Current results indicated polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus extracted through hot water is able to inhibit up to 45% growth of human lung carcinoma. Inhibition is achieved when concentration of polysaccharide are in the range of 4-8 ?g/ml. Present preliminary study suggests beta-glucan-rich polysaccharide from sclerotia of indigenous L. rhinocerus has anti-proliferation activity on human lung carcinoma (A549).

Lai, Wei Hong; Zainal, Zamri; Daud, Fauzi

2014-09-01

290

Chitosan (polysaccharide) Cationic polyelectrolyte (NH3  

E-print Network

Chitosan (polysaccharide) Cationic polyelectrolyte (NH3 +) pH dependant solubility (pH to hydrogen evolution Chitosan molecules deprotonate and immobilized at electrode surface Electrochemical reaction rate depends on current density Electrochemical deposition of chitosan Thin film formation

Rubloff, Gary W.

291

Bis(4-sulfamoylanilinium) sulfate  

PubMed Central

In the title salt, 2C6H9N2O2S+·SO4 2?, the sulfate S atom is situated on a crystallographic twofold axis (the symmetry of the anion is 2). The anion exerts intense libration, which is manifested by shortening of the observed sulfate S—O bonds, as well as by features in the electron-density map. The crystal structure is stabilized through a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network formed by strong N—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:23634124

Ravikumar, B.; Pandiarajan, S.; Athimoolam, S.

2013-01-01

292

Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB\\/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H\\/HeJ

Bao-Mei Shao; Hui Dai; Wen Xu; Zhi-Bin Lin; Xiao-Ming Gao

2004-01-01

293

Polysaccharide from the leaves of Phytolacca americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysaccharide has been isolated from the leaves ofPhytolacca americana and has been characterized. It has been established that it contains residues of galactose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose,\\u000a in a ratio of 3:4:1:3 and also D-galacturonic acid (85–90%). The results obtained permit the polysaccharide to be assigned\\u000a to the class of pectin substances.

L. A. Chistyakova; S. I. Denisova

1982-01-01

294

Plasmin Regulation through Allosteric, Sulfated, Small Molecules.  

PubMed

Plasmin, a key serine protease, plays a major role in clot lysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Heparin, a natural polydisperse sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is known to allosterically modulate plasmin activity. No small allosteric inhibitor of plasmin has been discovered to date. We screened an in-house library of 55 sulfated, small glycosaminoglycan mimetics based on nine distinct scaffolds and varying number and positions of sulfate groups to discover several promising hits. Of these, a pentasulfated flavonoid-quinazolinone dimer 32 was found to be the most potent sulfated small inhibitor of plasmin (IC50 = 45 ?M, efficacy = 100%). Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric inhibition of plasmin by these inhibitors. Studies also indicated that the most potent inhibitors are selective for plasmin over thrombin and factor Xa, two serine proteases in coagulation cascade. Interestingly, different inhibitors exhibited different levels of efficacy (40%-100%), an observation alluding to the unique advantage offered by an allosteric process. Overall, our work presents the first small, synthetic allosteric plasmin inhibitors for further rational design. PMID:25569517

Al-Horani, Rami A; Karuturi, Rajesh; White, Domonique T; Desai, Umesh R

2015-01-01

295

Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1989-04-01

296

Sulfate could mediate the therapeutic effect of glucosamine sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucosamine sulfate is a controversial osteoarthritis remedy that is presumed to stimulate articular cartilage glycosaminoglycan synthesis by increasing glucosamine concentrations in the joint space. However, this is not plausible because even large oral doses of the product have no effect on serum glucosamine concentrations. We propose instead that sulfate could mediate the clinical benefit attributed to this treatment. Sulfate is

L. John Hoffer; Ludmila N. Kaplan; Mazen J. Hamadeh; Ariadna C. Grigoriu; Murray Baron

2001-01-01

297

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

1987-01-01

298

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

299

Synthesis of selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans are involved in a wide variety of developmental and pathophysiological functions. Similar to a gene knockout, the ability to inhibit GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the function of endogenous GAG chains. However, ubiquitously and irreversibly knocking out all GAG biosynthesis would cause multiple effects making it difficult to attribute a specific biological role to a specific GAG structure in spatiotemporal manner. Reversible and selective inhibition of GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the importance of endogenous GAGs to specific cellular, tissue, or organ systems. In this chapter, we describe the chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-xylosides as selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis. PMID:25325945

Mencio, Caitlin; Garud, Dinesh R; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Koketsu, Mamoru

2015-01-01

300

Antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

In this study, polysaccharides were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Polyporaceae) and their antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using in vivo models. Potential antitumor activity was shown by G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) against solid tumor induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells. GLP at 100 mg kg(-1) body mass showed 80.8 and 77.6% reduction in tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively, when administered 24 h after tumour implantation. Again, GLP at the same dose but when administered prior to tumour inoculation, showed 79.5 and 81.2% inhibition of tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively. GLP showed significant dose-dependent activity in carrageenean-induced (acute) and formalin-induced (chronic) inflammation assays. At 100 mg kg(-1), GLP exhibited 57.6 and 58.2% inhibition in carrageenean-induced and formalin-induced assays, respectively. PMID:21945912

Joseph, Soniamol; Sabulal, Baby; George, Varughese; Antony, Kuttikkadan Rony; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

2011-09-01

301

Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.  

PubMed

Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 ?g/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. PMID:24906751

Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2014-09-22

302

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of water soluble polysaccharide from Arachis hypogaea seeds.  

PubMed

The water soluble crude polysaccharide (AHP) was obtained from the aqueous extracts of the Arachis hypogaea seeds through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities against the bacteria of AHP were investigated. AHP at 2 mg/mL was found to inhibit the formation of superoxide anion (55.33 %) and hydroxyl radicals (30.85 %), to scavenge the DPPH radical (57.43 %) and to chelate iron ion (27.83 %) in in vitro systems. AHP also exhibited the antibacterial activities. AHP at 12.5 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to AHP than the Gram-negative bacteria. Polysaccharide with antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the "Chang Sheng Guo" further increased the nutritive values of peanuts as well as the natural health product potential. PMID:25328235

Jiang, Shengjuan; Ma, Yuhan; Yan, Dazhuang

2014-10-01

303

Effect of fatty acids on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum in shake flask cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids were added into the media to investigate their effects on the mycelial growth and polysaccharide formation by Ganoderma lucidum. The experiments were carried out in freely suspended cultures or immobilized cultures using shake flasks. The results indicate that the extent of stimulation or inhibition were associated with the types and levels of fatty acids. Oleic acid at the

Fan-Chiang Yang; Yn-Fuu Ke; Shanq-Shin Kuo

2000-01-01

304

Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate has been isolated from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells preincubated with ({sup 35}S)sulfate or a combination of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine and ({sup 35}S)methionine. The purified proteoheparan sulfate had an apparent M{sub r} of 200,000 on calibrated Sepharose CL-2B columns. The glycosaminoglycan component (M{sub r} {approximately}30,000) was identified as heparan sulfate by its susceptibility to specific enzymatic and chemical degradation. After degradation of the proteoheparan sulfate by microbial heparitinase the resulting protein core had an apparent M{sub r} of 92,000 on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Its mobility was similar in the absence and presence of reducing agents indicating that the protein core consists of a single polypeptide chain. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that about 40% of the cell layer-associated proteoheparan sulfate was released into the medium, while the remainder was internalized and converted to smaller species through a series of degradation steps. Initially there was a proteolytical cleavage of the protein core generating glycosaminoglycan peptide intermediates with polysaccharides chains similar in size to the original. The half-life of the native proteoheparan sulfate was found to be about 4 h.

Schmidt, A.; Buddecke, E. (Univ. of Muenster (West Germany))

1988-10-01

305

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), a basidiomycete white rot fungus, has long been prescribed to prevent and treat various human diseases, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from G. lucidum, such as triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, sterols, and alkaloids, among others. This paper examines the potential role of G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) in tumor therapy and the possible mechanisms involved. Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the anti-tumor activities of GLPS are mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic effects. GLPS affects immune cells and immune-related cells including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In addition, recent data also suggest that GLPS suppresses tumorigenesis or inhibits tumor growth through direct cytotoxic effect and anti-angiogenic actions. However, many questions still need to be answered before both G. lucidum and GLPS can be widely accepted and used as anti-tumor agents. PMID:21213395

Xu, Zengtao; Chen, Xiuping; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Chen, Lidian; Wang, Yitao

2011-01-01

306

Deoxynivalenol-sulfates: identification and quantification of novel conjugated (masked) mycotoxins in wheat.  

PubMed

We report the identification of deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate as two novel metabolites of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat. Wheat ears which were either artificially infected with Fusarium graminearum or directly treated with the major Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were sampled 96 h after treatment. Reference standards, which have been chemically synthesized and confirmed by NMR, were used to establish a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI)-MS/MS-based "dilute and shoot" method for the detection, unambiguous identification, and quantification of both sulfate conjugates in wheat extracts. Using this approach, detection limits of 0.003 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate and 0.002 mg/kg for deoxynivalenol-15-sulfate were achieved. Matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification of DON-sulfates in the investigated samples. In DON-treated samples, DON-3-sulfate was detected in the range of 0.29-1.4 mg/kg fresh weight while DON-15-sulfate concentrations were significantly lower (range 0.015-0.061 mg/kg fresh weight). In Fusarium-infected wheat samples, DON-3-sulfate was the only detected sulfate conjugate (range 0.022-0.059 mg/kg fresh weight). These results clearly demonstrate the potential of wheat to form sulfate conjugates of DON. In order to test whether sulfation is a detoxification reaction in planta, we determined the ability of the sulfated DON derivatives to inhibit in vitro protein synthesis of wheat ribosomes. The results demonstrate that both DON-sulfates can be regarded as detoxification products. DON-15-sulfate was about 44× less inhibitory than the native toxin, and no toxicity was observed for DON-3-sulfate in the tested range. PMID:25492089

Warth, Benedikt; Fruhmann, Philipp; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Kluger, Bernhard; Sarkanj, Bojan; Lemmens, Marc; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

2015-02-01

307

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from Lobophora variegata on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the action of sulfated polysaccharides, fucans, from algae Lobophora variegata on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats. Groups of fucans, obtained after acetone fractionation (0.3-2.0 volumes), were denominated F0.3, F0.5, F0.8, F1, F1.5, and F2. The results that F1 contained a high yield in relation to other fractionated fucans. Chemical and structure analysis of F1 was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the fraction F1 were also observed. Thus, 2 mg/mL of F1 inhibited the phosphomolybdate in the total antioxidant activity assay. The EC(50) values were 0.3 mg/mL and 0.12 mg/mL for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Fucan F1 (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg by body weight), diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), and L-NAME (25 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in rats, according to body weight of different groups of animals (n=6). After 6 h, analyses of cell influx and nitrite levels were conducted. Then after 96 h, analysis of edema and concentration of serum TNF-? was carried out along with histopathological analysis. F1 at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg i.p. by body weight reduced cell influx in 52.1-96.7% and nitric oxide level in 27.2-39% compared with the control group. The reduction of edema and serum TNF-? was observed at 50 mg/kg i.p. (p<0.001). These results suggest that this heterofucan from the brown algae L. variegata has potential anti-inflammatory activity in acute zymosan-induced arthritis in rats and that antioxidant activity promotes modulation in the cellular redox state. PMID:21504801

Paiva, Almino Afonso de O; Castro, Allisson J G; Nascimento, Marília S; Will, Luiza Sheyla E P; Santos, Nednaldo D; Araújo, Renata M; Xavier, Caroline A C; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Leite, Edda Lisboa

2011-09-01

308

Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement.  

PubMed

Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm. PMID:22504437

Bolland, Jeffrey R; Simmons, Warren L; Daubenspeck, James M; Dybvig, Kevin

2012-07-01

309

Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita  

PubMed Central

The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor ?, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

2008-01-01

310

Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from E. corneum gigeriae galli.  

PubMed

In the present study, optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Endothelium corneum gigeriae galli (PEGG) were investigated. It was found that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction temperature 87.0°C, extraction time 177.0 min, enzyme concentration 1.65%, enzymatic hydrolysis time 141.0 min, liquid-to-solid ratio 20, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 55°C and enzymatic hydrolysis pH 3.6. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 5.08%. In addition, PEGG had a relatively high sulfate radical content. PEGG was composed of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with molar percentages of 13.1, 4.5, 72.8 and 9.6%, respectively. The average molecular weight was 83 kDa. And there were infrared characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides in the FT-IR spectroscopy of PEGG. For antioxidant activities in vitro, PEGG showed possessed strong hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fe(2+) chelating and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. PMID:24751271

Xiong, Qingping; Li, Xia; Zhou, Ruizhen; Hao, Hairong; Li, Songlin; Jing, Yi; Zhu, Chun; Zhang, Qinghua; Shi, Yingying

2014-08-01

311

Mechanisms for Induction of L-Selectin Loss from T Lymphocytes by a Cryptococcal Polysaccharide, Glucuronoxylomannan  

PubMed Central

Disseminated cryptococcosis is accompanied by cryptococcal polysaccharides in the serum and the lack of cellular infiltrates in infected tissues. Cryptococcal polysaccharides given intravenously to mice inhibit the influx of T lymphocytes into the sites of cell-mediated immune response. The focus here was to determine whether cryptococcal polysaccharides modulate the expression of molecules, such as L-selectin, that are important in extravasation of T cells. Cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), but not galactoxylomannan or mannoprotein, was found to cause loss of L-selectin from freshly isolated human T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets and from Jurkat cells. With the signaling-pathway inhibitors staurosporine (which inhibits protein kinase C) and herbimycin A (which inhibits protein tyrosine kinases), we showed that GXM or the cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen CneF directly induces L-selectin loss from CD4+ and CD8+ T cells via a herbimycin A-sensitive pathway(s) presumably involving one or more protein tyrosine kinases but not via a pathway involving protein kinase C. Loss of L-selectin from the T cells before the T cells have a chance to bind to L-selectin ligands on endothelial cells would be expected to prevent T-cell migration into inflamed tissues and/or lymph organs. PMID:9864219

Dong, Zhao Ming; Jackson, Lydgia; Murphy, Juneann W.

1999-01-01

312

Synthesis of the oligosaccharides related to branching sites of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumbers.  

PubMed

Natural anionic polysaccharides fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers attract great attention nowadays due to their ability to influence various biological processes, such as blood coagulation, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and viral adhesion. To determine pharmacophore fragments in FCS we have started systematic synthesis of oligosaccharides with well-defined structure related to various fragments of these polysaccharides. In this communication, the synthesis of non-sulfated and selectively O-sulfated di- and trisaccharides structurally related to branching sites of FCS is described. The target compounds are built up of propyl ?-d-glucuronic acid residue bearing at O-3 ?-l-fucosyl or ?-l-fucosyl-(1?3)-?-l-fucosyl substituents. O-Sulfation pattern in the fucose units of the synthetic targets was selected according to the known to date holothurian FCS structures. Stereospecific ?-glycoside bond formation was achieved using 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloroacetyl-?-l-fucosyl trichloroacetimidate as a donor. Stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation was explained by the remote participation of the chloroacetyl groups with the formation of the stabilized glycosyl cations, which could be attacked by the glycosyl acceptor only from the ?-side. The experimental results were in good agreement with the SCF/MP2 calculated energies of such participation. The synthesized oligosaccharides are regarded as model compounds for the determination of a structure-activity relationship in FCS. PMID:25648510

Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Fomitskaya, Polina A; Gerbst, Alexey G; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

2015-01-01

313

From algal polysaccharides to cyclodextrins to stabilize a urease inhibitor.  

PubMed

N-Butyl-phosphorotriamide (NBPT) is a fertilizer widely used for its urease inhibiting properties. Nevertheless, formulations currently commercialized are complex and do not avoid severe decrease of activity due to the low stability of the bioactive compound under acidic conditions. According to its structure, NPBT was thought to be able to interact with both polar additives, by its phosphoramide function, and hydrophobic ones, through its alkyl chain. In this context, and in order to simplify formulations of this bioactive compound, a panel of natural polysaccharides was studied, including starch, ?-(1,3)-glucans, carraghenans and alginates. We also used cyclodextrins, characterized the most stable inclusion complex with ?-cyclodextrin and evaluated the stability of NBPT thus protected against hydrolysis under acidic conditions. PMID:25129728

Pro, Danièle; Huguet, Samuel; Arkoun, Mustapha; Nugier-Chauvin, Caroline; Garcia-Mina, José Maria; Ourry, Alain; Wolbert, Dominique; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ferrières, Vincent

2014-11-01

314

Structural Characterisation of a Polysaccharide from Radix Ranunculus Ternati  

PubMed Central

A water soluble polysaccharide, HB-1, with a molecular weight of 23,930, was isolated from radix Ranunculi ternati. by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, deproteination?ultrafiltration and gel-filtration column chromatography. Its sugar composition was determined by GLC as Glc, Ara, and Gal in a molar ration of 16.071: 2.722: 1. And the absolute configuration of Glc was identified as D. Smith degradation and methylation reaction showed the proportion of —1Glc (A) was about 16%, —1Glc4— (B) about 62%, (C) about 14%, and —1Gal6— (D) about 8%. The repetitive unit was likely composed of 3 As, 3 Cs, 13 Bs and 1 D. Together with the average molecular weight, it was predictable that HB-1 consisted of about seven of the repetitive unit. The inhibition activity of HB-1 on human glioma cell line SF188 was also measured, only to find it inactive. PMID:25587330

Huang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yun; Jin, Xin

2014-01-01

315

Heparin/Heparan Sulfate N-Sulfamidase from Flavobacterium heparinum  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) are chemically and structurally heterogeneous biopolymers that that function as key regulators of numerous biological functions. The elucidation of HSGAG fine structure is fundamental to understanding their functional diversity, and this is facilitated by the use of select degrading enzymes of defined substrate specificity. Our previous studies have reported the cloning, characterization, recombinant expression, and structure-function analysis in Escherichia coli of the Flavobacterium heparinum 2-O-sulfatase and 6-O-sulfatase enzymes that cleave O-sulfate groups from specific locations of the HSGAG polymer. Building on these preceding studies, we report here the molecular cloning and recombinant expression in Escherichia coli of an N-sulfamidase, specific for HSGAGs. In addition, we examine the basic enzymology of this enzyme through molecular modeling studies and structure-function analysis of substrate specificity and basic biochemistry. We use the results from these studies to propose a novel mechanism for nitrogen-sulfur bond cleavage by the N-sulfamidase. Taken together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate that N-sulfamidase is a predominantly exolytic enzyme that specifically acts on N-sulfated and 6-O-desulfated glucosamines present as monosaccharides or at the nonreducing end of odd-numbered oligosaccharide substrates. In conjunction with the previously reported specificities for the F. heparinum 2-O-sulfatase, 6-O-sulfatase, and unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, we are able to now reconstruct in vitro the defined exolytic sequence for the heparin and heparan sulfate degradation pathway of F. heparinum and apply these enzymes in tandem toward the exo-sequencing of heparin-derived oligosaccharides. PMID:19726673

Myette, James R.; Soundararajan, Venkataramanan; Behr, Jonathan; Shriver, Zachary; Raman, Rahul; Sasisekharan, Ram

2009-01-01

316

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

2011-01-01

317

Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions  

DOEpatents

Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

Stephens, David S. (Stone Mountain, GA); Gudlavalleti, Seshu K. (Kensington, MD); Tzeng, Yih-Ling (Atlanta, GA); Datta, Anup K. (San Diego, CA); Carlson, Russell W. (Athens, GA)

2011-02-08

318

Immobilized phosphorylase for synthesis of polysaccharides from glucose  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous processes for enzymatic production of carbohydrates from glucose are discussed. Key reactant in process is identified as phosphorylase which catalyzes reversible formation or degradation of polysaccharide. Chemical compounds and reactions to synthesize polysaccharides are analyzed.

Marshall, D. L.

1972-01-01

319

Synthesis of the repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide of Shigella sonnei and quantitation of its serologic activity.  

PubMed

The chemical synthesis of the zwitterionic disaccharide 2 is described that corresponds to the repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide (1) of the gram-negative human pathogen Shigella sonnei. Passive hemolysis inhibition tests using a hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against S. sonnei showed that the serologic activity of the disaccharide 2 is nearly 2- to 3-fold higher than those of its component monosaccharides. NMR data of 2 are in support of the proposed structure of the O-specific polysaccharide. PMID:10636234

Tóth, A; Medgyes, A; Bajza, I; Lipták, A; Batta, G; Kontrohr, T; Péterffy, K; Pozsgay, V

2000-01-01

320

Role of Heparan Sulfate in Ocular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitous and structurally diverse cell surface polysaccharide and extracellular matrix component, is a factor common to several major eye pathologies. Its multitude of functions and variable distribution among the different ocular tissues makes it an important contributor to a variety of disease states. Although HS facilitates the pathogenesis of many disorders, its role in each varies. Unique functions of HS have been particularly noted in viral and bacterial keratitis and age-related macular degeneration. Combined, these pathologies comprise a large portion of conditions leading to visual impairment worldwide. Given this prevalence of diseases facilitated by HS, it is prudent to take an in-depth look at this compound in the context of these pathologic states. While the initial part of the review will discuss the pathogenic aspects of HS, it is also important to consider the wider implications of such roles for HS. The remainder of the article will specifically address one such implication, the possibility for future use of novel HS-based therapeutics to combat these eye pathologies. PMID:23410824

Park, Paul J; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

321

Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through

Igor A. Schepetkin; Gang Xie; Liliya N. Kirpotina; Robyn A. Klein; Mark A. Jutila; Mark T. Quinn

2008-01-01

322

Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. PMID:21062638

Nosá?ová, Gabriela; Prisenž?áková, Lubica; Koš?álová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

2011-04-01

323

Cryptococcal polysaccharides bind to CD18 on human neutrophils.  

PubMed Central

CD18, the beta chain of the beta 2 integrin family of adhesion molecules, is associated with three different alpha chains (CD11a, -b, and -c) and is expressed on the surface of all types of leukocytes. CD18-containing molecules are up-regulated on the surface of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMN]) in response to chemotactic agents and are implicated in mediating adhesion to an inflamed endothelium, which is a prerequisite to migration of PMN into infected tissues. In a previous study, we found that a cryptococcal culture filtrate (CneF), when injected into the bloodstream of mice to simulate the antigenemia in cryptococcosis, inhibits PMN accumulation at the site of an inflammatory stimulus. In the present study, we assessed the ability of CneF and its individual components, i.e., glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), and mannoprotein (MP), to interact with CD18 on human PMN. CneF labeled with 14C was shown to bind to human PMN in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of PMN with anti-CD18, but not an isotype-matched control monoclonal antibody (MAb) or anti-CD11a MAb, blocked the binding of 14C-labeled CneF to PMN. In addition, CneF, GXM, and GalXM but not MP significantly blocked the binding of the anti-CD18 MAb to CD18 on the surface of unactivated and formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine-activated PMN as determined by indirect immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometric analysis. In the same experiments, the cryptococcal polysaccharides did not affect the binding of an anti-CD11a or anti-L-selectin MAb to the surface of PMN at 4 degrees C. The results suggest that CneF and its components GXM and GalXM bind to CD18 on human PMN. Based on our findings, we propose that CD18 is a possible molecular target of cryptococcal polysaccharides and that binding of the polysaccharides to CD18 has the potential to inhibit leukocyte infiltration into inflammatory sites. PMID:9009313

Dong, Z M; Murphy, J W

1997-01-01

324

Heparan sulfate differences in rheumatoid arthritis versus healthy sera.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex and highly variable polysaccharide, expressed ubiquitously on the cell surface as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and found in the extracellular matrix as free HS fragments. Its heterogeneity due to various acetylation and sulfation patterns endows a multitude of functions. In animal tissues, HS interacts with a wide range of proteins to mediate numerous biological activities; given its multiple roles in inflammation processes, characterization of HS in human serum has significant potential for elucidating disease mechanisms. Historically, investigation of HS was limited by its low concentration in human serum, together with the complexity of the serum matrix. In this study, we used a modified mass spectrometry method to examine HS disaccharide profiles in the serum of 50 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and compared our results to 51 sera from healthy women. Using various purification methods and online LC-MS/MS, we discovered statistically significant differences in the sulfation and acetylation patterns between populations. Since early diagnosis of RA is considered important in decelerating the disease's progression, identification of specific biomolecule characterizations may provide crucial information towards developing new therapies for suppressing the disease in its early stages. This is the first report of potential glycosaminoglycan biomarkers for RA found in human sera, while acknowledging the obvious fact that a larger population set, and more stringent collection parameters, will need to be investigated in the future. PMID:25217862

Sabol, Jenny K; Wei, Wei; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Seo, Youjin; Andaya, Armann; Leary, Julie A

2014-11-01

325

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging  

PubMed Central

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

326

Abdominal aortic aneurysms targeted by functionalized polysaccharide microparticles: a new tool for SPECT imaging.  

PubMed

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

327

Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system plays a critical role in the defense of areas exposed to microorganisms. There is an increasing body of evidence indicating that antimicrobial peptides and proteins (APs) are one of the most important weapons of this system and that they make up the protective front for the respiratory tract. On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). Klebsiella pneumoniae CPS mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to human neutrophil defensin 1, ?-defensin 1, lactoferrin, protamine sulfate, and polymyxin B. K. pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O antigen did not play an important role in AP resistance, and CPS was the only factor conferring protection against polymyxin B in strains lacking O antigen. In addition, we found a significant correlation between the amount of CPS expressed by a given strain and the resistance to polymyxin B. We also showed that K. pneumoniae CPS mutant bound more polymyxin B than the wild-type strain with a concomitant increased in the self-promoted pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that CPS protects bacteria by limiting the interaction of APs with the surface. Finally, we report that K. pneumoniae increased the amount of CPS and upregulated cps transcription when grown in the presence of polymyxin B and lactoferrin. PMID:15557634

Campos, Miguel A.; Vargas, Miguel A.; Regueiro, Verónica; Llompart, Catalina M.; Albertí, Sebastián; Bengoechea, José A.

2004-01-01

328

Modified apple polysaccharides could induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multiple studies have pointed out that dietary components could inhibit cancer progression and metastasis, and it has been proven that many ingredients of apple have benefits for cancer prevention. We, therefore, extracted modified apple polysaccharides (MAP) from apple and hypothesized that MAP have a cancer-preventive effect as do other ingredients of apple. Three human colorectal cancer cell lines: SW-1116, HT-29, and Caco-2 were exposed to different concentrations of MAP (0% to 0.1%). Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. DNA fragmentation was visualized by agarose-gel electrophoresis. The amount of apoptotic cells was assessed by flow cytometry, and protein level of caspase 3, 8, 9, Bax, and Bcl-2 was evaluated by Western blot. At the concentrations of 0.01% to 0.1%, MAP showed growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects on cancer cells. It increased the expression of caspase 3, 8, 9, and Bax, while decreased of Bcl-2, which denoted that MAP may induce apoptosis through both the mitochondrial-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptotic ways. These data indicate that MAP has the potential for clinical prevention and treatment for colon cancer. PMID:21535499

Li, Yuhua; Niu, Yinbo; Wu, Huanjie; Sun, Yang; Li, Qian; Kong, Xianghe; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing

2010-10-01

329

Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans. PMID:23707734

Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

2013-09-01

330

Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane. PMID:24052236

Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

2013-12-01

331

The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushroom polysaccharides such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) have been commonly hypothesized to suppress tumor cells proliferation through immune effects. To verify this hypothesis through investigating comprehensive miRNA expression in polysaccharide treated cancer cells, an anticancer mycelia GLP was employed to disclose miRNA differential expression of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), by using a miRNA microarray assay based on Sanger miR-Base Release 16. The experiment and the analysis result indicates that among the 61 differential expressed miRNAs (p ? 0.01), 17 of them were regulated significantly. GLP can inhibit HepG2 cells directly through regulation of hepatocarcinoma genes. A newly found miR-3131 exhibited the strongest upregulation (92-folds, Log2 = 6.53, p = 0.000016). The miRNAs responded synergistically in both hepatocarcinoma and immune-related aspects. PMID:24528735

Shen, Jie; Park, Hyeon-soo; Xia, Yong-mei; Kim, Gon-sup; Cui, Steve W

2014-03-15

332

Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Chondroitin Sulfate Solution: A Molecular Modeling Investigation  

PubMed Central

The osmotic pressure of chondroitin sulfate (CS) solution in contact with an aqueous 1:1 salt reservoir of fixed ionic strength is studied using a recently developed coarse-grained molecular model. The effects of sulfation type (4- vs. 6-sulfation), sulfation pattern (statistical distribution of sulfate groups along a chain), ionic strength, CS intrinsic stiffness, and steric interactions on CS osmotic pressure are investigated. At physiological ionic strength (0.15 M NaCl), the sulfation type and pattern, as measured by a standard statistical description of copolymerization, are found to have a negligible influence on CS osmotic pressure, which depends principally on the mean volumetric fixed charge density. The intrinsic backbone stiffness characteristic of polysaccharides such as CS, however, is demonstrated to contribute significantly to its osmotic pressure behavior, which is similar to that of a solution of charged rods for the 20-disaccharide chains considered. Steric excluded volume is found to play a negligible role in determining CS osmotic pressure at physiological ionic strength due to the dominance of repulsive intermolecular electrostatic interactions that maintain chains maximally spaced in that regime, whereas at high ionic-strength steric interactions become dominant due to electrostatic screening. Osmotic pressure predictions are compared to experimental data and to well-established theoretical models including the Donnan theory and the Poisson-Boltzmann cylindrical cell model. PMID:16055525

Bathe, Mark; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Tidor, Bruce

2005-01-01

333

Observation of an Organic-Inorganic Lattice Match during Biomimetic Growth of (001)-Oriented Calcite Crystals under Floating Sulfate Monolayers  

SciTech Connect

Macromolecular layers rich in amino acids and with some sulfated polysaccharides appear to control oriented calcite growth in living organisms. Calcite crystals nucleating under floating acid monolayers have been found to be unoriented on average. We have now observed directly, using in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, that there is a 1:1 match between the monolayer unit cell and the unit cell of the (001) plane of calcite. Thus, sulfate head groups appear to act as templates for the growth of (001)-oriented calcite crystals, which is the orientation commonly found in biominerals.

Kewalramani, S.; Kim, K; Stripe, B; Evmenenko, G; Dommett, G; Dutta, P

2008-01-01

334

Polysaccharide-based strategies for heart tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are abundant biomolecules in nature presenting important roles in a wide variety of living systems processes. Considering the structural and biological functions of polysaccharides, their properties have raised interest for tissue engineering. Herein, we described the latest advances in cardiac tissue engineering mediated by polysaccharides. We reviewed the data already obtained in vitro and in vivo in this field with several types of polysaccharides. Cardiac injection, intramyocardial in situ polymerization strategies, and scaffold-based approaches involving polysaccharides for heart tissue engineering are thus discussed. PMID:25458300

Silva, Amanda K A; Juenet, Maya; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne; Letourneur, Didier

2015-02-13

335

Structural and anti-inflammatory characterization of a novel neutral polysaccharide from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius).  

PubMed

Neutral polysaccharides are one of the active components in the American ginseng roots. Recently, the studies about American ginseng polysaccharides are mainly centered on acidic polysaccharides, while there is relatively limited research that explores neutral polysaccharides. In this study a novel neutral polysaccharide (PPQN) was isolated from American ginseng roots and its structure and anti-inflammatory activity were investigated. The average molecular weight (Mw) of PPQN was 3.1kDa. Monosaccharide components' analysis indicated that PPQN was composed of glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) in a molar ratio of 1:1.15. Secretions of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were detected in PPQN pre-treatment RAW264.7 macrophages. PPQN (150?g/mL) exhibited more effective inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 secretions, followed by NO production with respective values of 40.5%, 41.1%, 34.4%, and 11.1% suppression. These results indicated that PPQN may have therapeutic implications in treatment of inflammation and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:25434805

Wang, Lijun; Yu, Xiaona; Yang, Xiushi; Yao, Yang; Lui, Edmund Man King; Ren, Guixing

2014-11-27

336

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii and Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii (PEPS) and exopolysaccharides from Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST1275 EPS) were sulphated, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of sulphated and crude polysaccharides were determined. Degree of sulphonation of PEPS and ST1275 EPS was 0.69 and 0.31, respectively. Characteristic bands in FT-IR spectra indicated that the sulphate group was at the C6 position of the galactose skeleton. Antioxidant activities of PEPS and ST1275 EPS were significantly (P<0.05) improved after sulphonation. For tested crude and sulphated polysaccharides, sulphated PEPS had the largest inhibition zone against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC 26003 while sulphated ST1275 EPS had the largest inhibition zone against Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 54001. Furthermore, sulphated PEPS had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli ATCC 25922, and both sulphated PEPS and sulphated ST1275 EPS had the lowest MICs on S. aureus CMCC 26003 and L. monocytogenes CMCC 54001. PMID:25038675

Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-12-15

337

Isolation and identification of anti-tumor polysaccharide LSP21 from Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze.  

PubMed

Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze is a traditional Chinese folk medicine used for the treatment of fever, hemorrhage, hepatitis and other disorders. Recently, it was found that the crude polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSP) has significant anti-tumor activity. However, research on the isolation and identification of anti-tumor polysaccharide fractions from LSP has not yet been reported. In this study, three polysaccharides LSP11, LSP21, LSP31 were isolated and purified from LSP by using DEAE-52 cellulose column and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. It was found that LSP21 exhibited the most significant inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro. Further research showed that LSP21 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and could induce cell body shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and reduction in the number of tumor cells with normal morphology which suggested that its cytotoxicity on tumor cell might be related to both inhibition on cell proliferation and inducement of cell death. Finally, the structural characteristics of LSP21 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that LSP21 is a heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 1.31×10(6) Da and consists of glucose, galactose and mannose in the ratio of 1.77:1:2.38. PMID:24991730

Tang, Xin-Hui; Yu, Fan; Liu, Jia; Gao, Jing; Yan, Li-Fang; Dong, Meng-Meng

2014-09-01

338

Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

339

Aldehyde-containing urea-absorbing polysaccharides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel aldehyde containing polymer (ACP) is prepared by reaction of a polysaccharide with periodate to introduce aldehyde groups onto the C2 - C3 carbon atoms. By introduction of ether and ester groups onto the pendant primary hydroxyl solubility characteristics are modified. The ACP is utilized to absorb nitrogen bases such as urea in vitro or in vivo.

Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventors)

1977-01-01

340

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides  

E-print Network

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides Clara S. Chan a Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from

341

Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

Beauregard, Pascale B.; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2013-01-01

342

Polysaccharides Chiral Stationary Phases in Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiral resolution has achieved an independent identity in the separation sciences and polysaccharide CSPs are viewed as effective and efficient CSPs due to their many unique advantages. The present review article highlights the separations of chiral pharmaceuticals and drugs by liquid chromatographic modalities (high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electro?chromatography, sub? and super critical fluid chromatography and thin layer chromatography) utilizing

Imran Ali; Kishwar Saleem; Iqbal Hussain; Vinay D. Gaitonde

2009-01-01

343

Anticorrosive Microbial Polysaccharides: Structure-Function Relationships  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-soluble microbial polysaccharides are often implicated in biofilm formation and are believed to mediate cell-cell aggregation and adhesion to surfaces. Generally, biofilm formation is considered harmful or undesirable, as it leads to increased drag, plugging of pores, dimished heat transfer, ...

344

Gel beads from novel ionic polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable gelling systems were obtained by mixing polyanion solutions with solutions containing suitable polycations. Carboxymethyl cellulose was chosen as the polyanion, whilst a number of polycations, with different molecular weights and charge densities, were tested. In particular, both low molecular weight polyamines and new synthetically aminated polysaccharides, derived from pullulan and scleroglucan, were used. Stable gels, in the absence of

M Miani; R Gianni; G Liut; R Rizzo; R Toffanin; F Delben

2004-01-01

345

Heparan Sulfate: A Ubiquitous Glycosaminoglycan with Multiple Roles in Immunity  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a highly acidic linear polysaccharide with a very variable structure. It is ubiquitously expressed on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix and basement membrane of mammalian tissues. Synthesized attached to various core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans, HS is capable of interacting with various polypeptides and exerting diverse functions. In fact, a bioinformatics analysis of mammalian proteins that express a heparin/HS-binding motif and are associated with the immune system identified 235 candidate proteins, the majority having an intracellular location. This simple analysis suggests that HS may, in fact, interact with many more components of the immune system than previously realized. Numerous studies have also directly demonstrated that HS plays multiple prominent functional roles in the immune system that are briefly reviewed in this article. In particular, the molecule has been shown to regulate leukocyte development, leukocyte migration, immune activation, and inflammatory processes. PMID:24391644

Simon Davis, David Anak; Parish, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

346

Homologous overexpression of rfaH in E. coli K4 improves the production of chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Background Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate, are among the top ranked products in industrial biotechnology for biomedical applications, with a growing world market of billion dollars per year. Recently a remarkable progress has been made in the development of tailor-made strains as sources for the manufacturing of such products. The genetic modification of E. coli K4, a natural producer of chondroitin sulfate precursor, is challenging considering the lack of detailed information on its genome, as well as its mobilome. Chondroitin sulfate is currently used as nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and several new therapeutic applications, spanning from the development of skin substitutes to live attenuated vaccines, are under evaluation. Results E. coli K4 was used as host for the overexpression of RfaH, a positive regulator that controls expression of the polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and other genes necessary for the virulence of E. coli K4. Various engineering strategies were compared to investigate different types of expression systems (plasmid vs integrative cassettes) and integration sites (genome vs endogenous mobile element). All strains analysed in shake flasks on different media showed a capsular polysaccharide production improved by 40 to 140%, compared to the wild type, with respect to the final product titer. A DO-stat fed-batch process on the 2L scale was also developed for the best performing integrative strain, EcK4r3, yielding 5.3 g?L-1 of K4 polysaccharide. The effect of rfaH overexpression in EcK4r3 affected the production of lipopolysaccharide and the expression of genes involved in the polysaccharide biosynthesis pathway (kfoC and kfoA), as expected. An alteration of cellular metabolism was revealed by changes of intracellular pools of UDP-sugars which are used as precursors for polysaccharide biosynthesis. Conclusions The present study describes the identification of a gene target and the application of a successful metabolic engineering strategy to the unconventional host E. coli K4 demonstrating the feasibility of using the recombinant strain as stable cell factory for further process implementations. PMID:23659469

2013-01-01

347

Structural features and antitumor activity of a purified polysaccharide extracted from Sargassum horneri.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide fraction (SHPSA) was obtained from Sargassum horneri by hot-water extraction and sequential purification of anion-exchange chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. SHPSA was found to be a neutral polysaccharide fraction with an average molecular weight of 5.78×10(5)Da and composed of T-d-Glcp, 1,3-d-Glcp, 1,6-d-Glcp and 1,3,6-d-Glcp in a molar percentage of 1.00:4.17:1.17:0.89, respectively. Based on the results from chemical analysis, NMR, and SHPSA was determined to be a glucan with ?-(1?6) side chains linked to a ?-(1?3) backbone with relatively few branch points. Moreover, SHPSA could inhibit the growth of human colon cancer DLD cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing the apoptosis of DLD cells. So, SHPSA was promising for future use as a natural antitumor agent. PMID:25450044

Shao, Ping; Liu, Jia; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Zhongxiang; Sun, Peilong

2015-02-01

348

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracellular polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta.  

PubMed

Morchella esculenta, an edible medicinal mushroom native to China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. This study firstly investigated the antioxidant activity of Morchella esculenta extracellular polysaccharides (MEEP). An in vitro antioxidant assay showed that MEEP exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reductive power. For antioxidant testing in vivo, MEEP were orally administered over a period of 60 days in a d-galactose induced aged mice model. Administration of the polysaccharides inhibited significantly the formation of malondialdehyde livers and serums, and raised the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we also observed that MEEPs markedly enhanced the body's immune system by measuring macrophage phagocytosis and splenocyte proliferation in d-galactose induced mice. These findings suggest that EPs from Morchella esculenta are a promising source of natural antioxidants and immunoenhancing drugs. PMID:23598461

Fu, Lihong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jinju; Yang, Yanrui; Hao, Limin

2013-06-01

349

Polysaccharide antigens of the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans.  

PubMed Central

The major significance of the capsular polysaccharide of C. neoformans is its role in potentiating opportunistic infections by the yeast. It has the ability to exert a broad spectrum of influences on the immune response, from activation of phagocytic cells and complement components of the alternative pathway, to the induction of specific antibody, T-suppressor cells, DTH responses, and cytokines (51). These biological properties along with the serotype specificities are all determined by the physical properties and chemical structures of the polysaccharide antigens that compose the capsule. There is evidence not only for an association of lethal infections with serotype A in patients with advanced AIDS (34, 56), but also for a role for the capsule in directly influencing the infection of CD4+ cells by HIV (57). Together, these phenomena raise intriguing questions about the possible connection between the chemistry of these capsular antigens and cryptococcal infections in AIDS patients. One speculation is that AIDS creates the optimal physiological conditions for the establishment and spread of cryptococcosis. It has been observed that during the progression of AIDS there is a shift towards a T-2 response (14). This could lead to conditions that would inhibit the cellular immune responses that block dissemination of cryptococcal infections. Thus, an important consideration in the application of vaccine or immune modulation therapies in the treatment of cryptococcosis in AIDS victims would be the design of vaccines that could boost the T-1 immune response. It has been shown that the form and dose of an antigenic challenge can influence the induction of a T-1 or T-2 immune response (61). Recently, Murphy has reported that gamma interferon and interleukin 2 are up-regulated in the spleens of mice that produce anticryptococcal TDH and TAMP cells in response to immunogenic doses of cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen given with Freund's complete adjuvant (49). Perhaps purified cryptococcal antigens (e.g., MP) conjugated to an appropriate carrier or adjuvant could be used in therapeutic strategies to limit cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. Future investigations of virulence and pathogenicity in the context of defined polysaccharide antigens from encapsulated strains of C. neoformans will contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of cryptococcal infection and immunity at the cellular and molecular levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8168912

Cherniak, R; Sundstrom, J B

1994-01-01

350

A simple method for determining specificity of carbohydrate-binding modules for purified and crude insoluble polysaccharide substrates.  

PubMed

Experimental identification of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) and determination of ligand specificity of each CBM are complementary and compulsory steps for their characterization. Some CBMs are very specific for their primary substrate (e.g., cellulose), whereas others are relatively promiscuous or nonspecific in their substrate preference. Here we describe a simple procedure based on in-tube adsorption of a CBM to various insoluble polysaccharides, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) for determining the distribution of the CBM between the bound and unbound fractions. This technique enables qualitative assessment of the binding strength and ligand specificity for each CBM. PMID:22843393

Yaniv, Oren; Jindou, Sadanari; Frolow, Felix; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

2012-01-01

351

Preparation of free-standing films of natural polysaccharides using hot press technique and their surface functionalization with biomimetic apatite.  

PubMed

This study demonstrated that gel-like polyion complexes obtained by mixing of aqueous solution of chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and hyaluronic acid with that of chitosan were able to form their free-standing films using hot press treatments. These films, having thicknesses ca. 50 and 100 ?m, depending on the spacer thickness, were homogeneous and non-porous at the microscopic level, and were not water-soluble. The present fabrication process required neither cross-coupling agents nor introduction of other functional groups to the polysaccharides. Hydroxyapatite deposition on the film surfaces under body fluid conditions was also achieved. PMID:21839621

Hashizume, Mineo; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Ohashi, Masafumi

2011-11-01

352

Antitumor activity of polysaccharides isolated from Patrinia heterophylla.  

PubMed

The research investigated the effect of Patrinia heterophylla Bunge (Valerianaceae) polysaccharides (PHB-P1) on U14-bearing mice. The tumor weight of mice treated with PHB-P1 (30, 60 mg/kg body weight) was significantly lower than that of the control group, a decrease of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was observed, and the serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) level was increased slightly. The number of apoptotic tumor cells was significantly increased in the mice by treatment of PHB-P1 (30, 60 mg/kgbw). Cell cycle analysis showed the accumulation of tumor cells in the G2/M phase and a relative decrease of the S phase. By the immunohistochemical analysis, PHB-P1 (30, 60 mg/kgbw) might up-regulate the expression of p53 and Bax, and significantly inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 in tumor tissues. In conclusion, PHB-P1 could inhibit tumor growth and induce tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:20731553

Lu, Wen-Zong; Geng, Guo-Xia; Li, Qing-Wang; Li, Jian; Liu, Fu-Zhu; Han, Zeng-Sheng

2010-09-01

353

Antitumor activity of Pleurotus ostreatus polysaccharide fractions on Ehrlich tumor and Sarcoma 180.  

PubMed

The medicinal properties of fungi of the genus Pleurotus have attracted great interest due to their therapeutic properties. Polysaccharides synthesized by Pleurotus, including the ?-glucans are considered the main responsible for its therapeutic properties. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of polysaccharidic fractions extracted from mycelial biomass of Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 in inhibiting the development of Ehrlich Tumor (ET) and Sarcoma 180 (S-180). FC, FI and FII fractions provided 60.6, 76.5 and 73.6% of ET inhibition, respectively (mean value of about 70%) while FS, FIII-1 and FIII-2 showed no inhibition against ET. FII and FIII-2 resulted in 85.6 and 93.6% (mean value of about 90%) while FIII-1, FC and FS resulted in 54.1 and 0%, respectively, of S-180 inhibition. The yields of the fractions FS, FI, FII, FIII-1 and FIII-2 obtained from P. ostreatus mycelial biomass were 11.6, 1.3, 0.4, 0.65 and 0.35%, respectively. FII fraction (30mg/kg) apparently had no toxic effect on healthy animals, since no difference between the body weights of animals in substance control (SC) and negative control (NC) groups was observed. PMID:24768967

Facchini, Jean Mary; Alves, Endi Pricila; Aguilera, Charlise; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Silveira, Marcia Luciane Lange; Wisbeck, Elisabeth; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida

2014-07-01

354

Effects of polysaccharides from Morchella conica on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages.  

PubMed

Morchella conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. However, reports barely mention the mechanisms of these functions. In this study, the effects of two polysaccharides from M. conica (PMCs) on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages were investigated. The results showed that 50-200 ?g/ml of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPMC) and 25-200 ?g/ml of the intracellular polysaccharide (IPMC) significantly inhibited NO production. Accordingly, the signal mechanisms were also explored. It was found that 100 ?g/ml of EPMC and 25 ?g/ml of IPMC could efficiently down-regulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA-binding activity and up-regulate heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. Moreover, by using a HO-1 inhibitor NaPP to treat the cells, the PMC-inhibited NO production and iNOS expression, rather than NF-?B activation, were released partially, indicating that HO-1 probably medicates the inhibition of PMCs on iNOS and NO. Besides, EPMC also significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-jun N-terminal kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, and expression of NF-?B inducing kinase, while IPMC seemed to show no regular effect on p38. In conclusion, PMCs inhibited NO production in LPS-induced macrophages through regulating a series of signal pathways, suggesting that PMCs play a potential role on immunomodulation and treating related diseases. PMID:22159604

Huang, Mian; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Minglong; Ou, Shangkang; Pan, Zhifu

2012-05-01

355

A heteropolysaccharide, L-fuco-D-manno-1,6-?-D-galactan extracted from Grifola frondosa and antiangiogenic activity of its sulfated derivative.  

PubMed

The tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis dependent, thus blockade of angiogenesis is a promising approach for treatment of cancer. Herein we reported the structural and biological features of a novel water-soluble polysaccharide named GFPW from the fruit body of Grifola frondosa. Chemical and spectral analysis revealed that GFPW with an average molecular weight of 15.7 kDa, possessed a backbone consisting of ?-1,6-linked galactopyranosyl residues, with branches attached to O-2 of ?-1,3-linked fucose residues and ?-terminal mannose. By the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method, we prepared a sulfated derivative of GFPW, Sul-GFPW, with a substitution degree of 0.33. According to the (13)C NMR spectrum, the substitution position was deduced at C-2 and C-3. The angiogenesis assays in vitro showed that Sul-GFPW significantly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and reduced endothelial cell migration and tube formation as well. PMID:24299820

Wang, Ying; Shen, Xiaokun; Liao, Wenfeng; Fang, Jianping; Chen, Xia; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

2014-01-30

356

Biosynthesis of heparin. Availability of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfation sites  

SciTech Connect

Heparin preparations isolated from pig intestinal mucosa and from bovine lung were fractionated with regard to affinity for antithrombin. The resulting fractions, with high (HA) or low (LA) affinity for the proteinase inhibitor, were analyzed by 13C NMR or by identification of di- and tetrasaccharides obtained through deaminative cleavage with nitrous acid. Structural differences between corresponding HA and LA fractions were essentially restricted to minor constituents, in particular 3-O-sulfated glucosamine units that occurred (1 or 2 residues/chain) in all HA preparations but were scarce or absent in LA heparin. The HA fractions also consistently showed higher contents of nonsulfated iduronic acid and, to a lesser extent, N-acetylated glucosamine units than the LA fractions. The two tetrasaccharide sequences, -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3- and -IdoA-GlcNAc(6-OSO3)-GlcA-GlcNSO3(6-OSO3)- , recently implicated as part of the acceptor site for glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfate groups were identified in mucosal LA heparin; it was calculated that the preparation contained approximately one potential acceptor site/polysaccharide chain. Yet this material did not yield any labeled HA components on incubation with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phospho-(35S)sulfate in the presence of glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase, solubilized from a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. The failure to incorporate any 3-O-sulfate groups could conceivably be explained by the occurrence of a D-glucuronic rather than L-iduronic acid unit linked at the reducing ends of the above tetrasaccharide sequences. Alternatively, 3-O-sulfation may be restricted by other, as yet unidentified, inhibitory structural elements that are preferentially expressed in polysaccharide sequences selected for the generation of LA heparin.Au

Kusche, M.; Torri, G.; Casu, B.; Lindahl, U. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

1990-05-05

357

Inhibition of HIV1 infectivity by low molecular weight heparin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-HIV activity in vitro. However, many of these compounds are\\u000a not suited for use in vivo because they present an increased risk of bleeding or cannot be administered chronically. We tested\\u000a the anti-HIV effects of low molecular weight heparin (LMW-heparin) (Enoxaparin) in vitro using a model system of HIV infectivity\\u000a because LMW-heparin

A. L. Howell; T. H. Taylor; J. D. Miller; D. S. Groveman; E. H. Eccles; L. R. Zacharski

1996-01-01

358

[Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris].  

PubMed

Callus and suspension cultures of campion (Silene vulgaris) produced pectin polysaccharides, similar in structure to the polysaccharides of intact plants. The major components of the pectins were D-galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose residues. The maximum content of pectins was found in callus. The monosaccharide composition of arabinogalactans isolated from cells and a culture medium of callus cultures were similar, with the ratio between arabinose and galactose of 1: (2.3-6.5) being retained. The arabinogalactans from the cells and culture medium of the suspension cultures also had a similar structure, and the arabinose to galactose ratio was 1: (1.5-1.8). In contrast to the callus cultures, the suspension cultures produced arabinogalactans with an increased content of arabinose residues and a decreased content of galactose residues. The greatest content of arabinogalactan was detected in the culture medium of the suspension cultures. PMID:17345866

Giunter, E A; Ovodov, Iu S

2007-01-01

359

Microbial polysaccharides template assembly of nanocrystal fibers.  

PubMed

Biological systems can produce extraordinary inorganic structures and morphologies. The mechanisms of synthesis are poorly understood but are of great interest for engineering novel materials. We use spectromicroscopy to show that microbially generated submicrometer-diameter iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) filaments contain polysaccharides, providing an explanation for the formation of akaganeite pseudo-single crystals with aspect ratios of approximately 1000:1. We infer that the cells extrude the polysaccharide strands to localize FeOOH precipitation in proximity to the cell membrane to harness the proton gradient for energy generation. Characterization of organic compounds with high spatial resolution, correlated with mineralogical information, should improve our understanding of biomineralization mechanisms. PMID:15016997

Chan, Clara S; De Stasio, Gelsomina; Welch, Susan A; Girasole, Marco; Frazer, Bradley H; Nesterova, Maria V; Fakra, Sirine; Banfield, Jillian F

2004-03-12

360

POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

KELLY, ROBERT M.

2008-12-22

361

[Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides from Tansy].  

PubMed

Using extraction with 0.75% aqueous ammonium oxalate, the following polysaccharide fractions were isolated: tanacetans TVF, TVS, and TVR from floscules, sprouts, and roots, respectively, of Tanacetum vulgare L., spread throughout the European North of Russia. The sugar chain of tanacetan TVF consists of D-galacturonic acid (61.4%), arabinose (14.7%), galactose (10.2%), and rhamnose (3.7%) as the main constituents as well as xylose, glucose, mannose, apiose, and 2-O-methylxylose in trace amounts. Tanacetans TVS and TVR were shown to differ in the sugar quantitative composition. They contain 67 and 28% galacturonic acid, respectively. A partial acid hydrolysis of the tanacetan TVF gave a polysaccharide fragment TVF1, alpha-1,4-D-galacturonan (GalA 98.2%). Digestion with pectinase (alpha-1,4-D-polygalacturonase) resulted in fragment TVF3, containing residues of arabinose (27.1%) and galactose (17.3%). NMR spectroscopy allowed detection of the terminal residues of alpha-Araf and beta-Galp as well as of the residues of alpha-Araf substituted in 3,5- and 5-positions. Thus, tanacetan TVF was proved to be a pectic polysaccharide. PMID:11255643

Polle, A Ia; Ovodova, R G; Shashkov, A S; Ovodov, Iu S

2001-01-01

362

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides  

SciTech Connect

Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

2010-06-22

363

Removal of sulfate from high-strength wastewater by crystallisation.  

PubMed

Sulfate causes considerable problems in anaerobic digesters, related to generation of sulfides, loss of electrons (and hence methane), and contamination of gas streams. Removal of sulfides is generally expensive, and still results in methane losses. In this paper, we evaluate the use of precipitation for low-cost sulfate removal, in highly contaminated streams (>1 gS L(-1)). The main precipitate assessed is calcium sulfate (gypsum), though the formation of complex precipitates such as jarosite and ettringite to remove residual sulfate is also evaluated. The four main concerns in contaminated wastewater are:- high solubility, caused by high ion activity and ion pairing; slow kinetics; inhibition of nucleation; and poisoning of crystals by impurities, rendering product unsuitable for reuse as seed. These concerns were addressed through batch experiments on a landfill wastewater with a similar composition to other sulfate rich industrial wastewaters (high levels of organic and inorganic contaminants). Crystallisation rates were rapid and comparable to what is observed by others for pure solutions (2-5 h). The kinetics of crystallisation showed a 2nd order dependence on supersaturation, which have implications for crystalliser design, as discussed in the paper. No spontaneous nucleation was observed (seed was required). Seed poisoning did not occur, and product crystals were as effective as pure seed. Solubility was increased by an order of magnitude compared to a pure solution (2.6x10(-3) M2 vs. 0.22x10(-3) M2). As evaluated using equilibrium modelling, this was caused equally by non-specific ion activity, and specific ion pairing. Jarosite and ettringite could not be formed at reasonable pH and temperature levels. Given the lack of complex precipitates, and relatively high solubility, gypsum crystallisation cannot practically be used to remove sulfate to very low levels, and gas-sulfide treatment will likely still be required. It can however, be used for low-cost bulk removal of sulfate. PMID:19059623

Tait, Stephan; Clarke, William P; Keller, Jurg; Batstone, Damien J

2009-02-01

364

Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

1997-01-01

365

Application of polysaccharides for surface modification of nanomedicines.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides have been used in various biomedical applications due to availability and biocompatibility. In particular, polysaccharides have gained increasing interest in the development of functional nanomedicines as a component to provide a stealth function, improve interactions with target tissues or enable environment-responsive drug release. This review discusses recent advances in nanomedicine engineering based on polysaccharides with a specific emphasis on the rationale, applications and the remaining challenges. PMID:23323561

Doh, Kyung-Oh; Yeo, Yoon

2012-12-01

366

Medium optimization for polysaccharide production of Cordyceps sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a potential anticarcinogenic agent, polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to possess strong antioxidation activity. The aim of the present research was to study the optimal\\u000a medium to produce polysaccharides of C. sinensis by using response surface methodology (RSM). The composition of optimized medium for polysaccharide production calculated\\u000a from the regression model of RSM was 6.17% sucrose, 0.53%

Chienyan Hsieh; Ming-Jin Tsai; Tai-Hao Hsu; Der-Ming Chang; Chaur-Tsuen Lo

2005-01-01

367

Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

2011-10-01

368

Glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide biosynthesis and production: today and tomorrow.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans [GAGs] are essential heteropolysaccharides in vertebrate tissues that are also, in certain cases, employed as virulence factors by microbes. Hyaluronan [HA], heparin, and chondroitin sulfate [CS] are GAGs currently used in various medical applications and together are multi-billion dollar products thus targets for production by animal-free manufacture. By using bacteria as the source of GAGs, the pathogen's sword may be converted into a plowshare to help avoid potential liabilities springing from the use of animal-derived GAGs including adventitious agents (e.g., prions, pathogens), antigenicity, degradation of the environment, and depletion of endangered species. HA from microbes, which have a chemical structure identical to human HA, has already been commercialized and sold at the ton-scale. Substantial progress towards microbial heparin and CS has been made, but these vertebrate polymers are more complicated structurally than the unsulfated bacterial polysaccharide precursors thus require additional processing steps. This review provides an overview of GAG structure, medical applications, microbial biosynthesis, and the state of bacterial GAG production systems. Representatives of all glycosyltransferase enzymes that polymerize the sugar chains of the three main GAGs have been identified and serve as the core technology to harness, but the proteins involved in sugar precursor formation and chain export steps of biosynthesis are also essential to the GAG production process. In addition, this review discusses future directions and potential important issues. Overall, this area is poised to make great headway to produce safer (both increased purity and more secure supply chains) non-animal GAG-based therapeutics. PMID:22391966

DeAngelis, Paul L

2012-04-01

369

Cytoprotective effect of polysaccharide isolated from different mushrooms against 7-ketocholesterol induced damage in mouse liver cell line (BNL CL. 2).  

PubMed

Cytoprotective ability of polysaccharides isolated from different edible mushrooms was investigated on the 7-ketocholesterol-induced damaged cell line. Polysaccharide extracts from six different edible mushrooms-Flammulina velutipes, Peurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus blazei, and Cordyceps militaris- were prepared by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Cytoprotective ability was evaluated by measuring the viable cells of the normal embryonic liver cell line (BNL CL. 2) in the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. At 80 microg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, cytotoxicity was very high with a loss of 98% of viable cells after 20 h of incubation. With the addition of 200 microg/mL of each polysaccharide isolate to the cell line containing 80 microg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, polysaccharide isolates from both Flammulina velutipes and Peurotus ostreatus could significantly inhibit the 7-ketochoelsterol-induced cytotoxicity in the cells. But other polysaccharide isolates were not effective in inhibiting cell damage caused by the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:20368935

Kim, Joo-Shin; Chung, Hau Yin; Na, Keun

2007-01-01

370

Cytoprotective effect of polysaccharide isolated from different mushrooms against 7-ketocholesterol induced damage in mouse liver cell line (BNL CL. 2)  

PubMed Central

Cytoprotective ability of polysaccharides isolated from different edible mushrooms was investigated on the 7-ketocholesterol-induced damaged cell line. Polysaccharide extracts from six different edible mushrooms-Flammulina velutipes, Peurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus blazei, and Cordyceps militaris- were prepared by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Cytoprotective ability was evaluated by measuring the viable cells of the normal embryonic liver cell line (BNL CL. 2) in the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. At 80 µg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, cytotoxicity was very high with a loss of 98% of viable cells after 20 h of incubation. With the addition of 200 µg/mL of each polysaccharide isolate to the cell line containing 80 µg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, polysaccharide isolates from both Flammulina velutipes and Peurotus ostreatus could significantly inhibit the 7-ketochoelsterol-induced cytotoxicity in the cells. But other polysaccharide isolates were not effective in inhibiting cell damage caused by the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:20368935

Chung, Hau Yin; Na, Keun

2007-01-01

371

Profiling sulfation/epimerization pattern of full-length heparan sulfate by NMR following cell culture 13C-glucose metabolic labeling.  

PubMed

Through its ability to interact with proteins, heparan sulfate (HS) fulfills a large variety of functions. Protein binding depends on the level of HS sulfation and epimerization which are cell specific and dynamically regulated. Characterization of this molecule, however, has been restricted to oligosaccharide fragments available in large amount for structural investigation or to sulfate distribution through compositional analysis. Here we developed a (1)H-(13)C 2D NMR-based approach, directly performed on HS isolated from (13)C-labeled cells. By integrating the peak volumes measured at different chemical shifts, this non-destructive analysis allows us to determine both the sulfation and the iduronic/glucuronic profiles of the polysaccharide. Applied to wild-type and N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-deficient fibroblasts as well as to epithelial cells differentiation, it also gives insights into the functional relationships existing between HS biosynthetic enzymes. This approach should be of significant interest to better understand HS changes that occur through physiologic regulations or during pathological development. PMID:25335974

Pegeot, Mathieu; Sadir, Rabia; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellen, Lena; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Gans, Pierre; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

2015-02-01

372

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in healthy and diseased systems.  

PubMed

Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that are synthesized in the tissues and organs of mammals. They are synthesized and attached to a core protein as proteoglycans through serine-glycine concensus motifs along the core protein. These GAGs are linear polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide saccharide units that are variously modified along their length. As a consequence of these modifications naturally occurring heparin and HS are extremely heterogeneous in their structures. A diverse range of proteins bind heparin and HS. The types of proteins that bind are dictated by the structure of the HS or heparin chains with which they are interacting. Heparan sulfates play major roles in tissue development and in maintaining homeostasis within healthy individuals. Recent genetic studies illustrate that alterations in their structural organization can have important consequences often giving rise to, or directly causing, a disease situation. A greater understanding of the repertoire of proteins with which heparin and HS interact and the diseases that can be caused by perturbations in the structures of heparin and HS proteoglycan may provide insights into possible therapeutic interventions. These issues are discussed with a focus on musculoskeletal phenotypes and diseases. PMID:21462353

Whitelock, John; Melrose, James

2011-01-01

373

Hydrodynamic investigation of polysaccharides and their interaction with casein.  

E-print Network

??Polysaccharide systems (pectin, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, xanthan and xylan) have been characterised using a variety of hydrodynamic techniques including sedimentation velocity, sedimentation equilibrium,… (more)

Morris, Gordon Alistair

2001-01-01

374

Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression.  

E-print Network

Nicotine Regulates Streptococcus mutans Extracellular Polysaccharide and Related Protein Expression of Dentistry; 2 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, IU School of Medicine Streptococcus mutans

Zhou, Yaoqi

375

[Effects of abiotic factors on algal extracellular polysaccharides content].  

PubMed

To get insight of the phenotypic variation mechanisms of Microcystis aeruginosa, this paper reviewed the research results on the effects of various abiotic factors on the content of algal extracellular polysaccharides. Many published papers demonstrated that there exists a definite responsive relationship between the content of algal extracellular polysaccharides and the ratios of main nutritive elements in the environment. Under the condition of high C:N or C:P ratio, i.e., under nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency, the organic substances fixed by the photosynthesis of algae are mainly existed in the forms of carbohydrates that do not contain nitrogen and phosphorus. The excessive accumulation of polysaccharides in algal cell induces their gradual release to the outside, resulting in a significant increase in the content of extracellular polysaccharides. Under the unbalanced condition of C or N metabolism, the extracellular polysaccharides can serve as a sink of excessively fixed carbon. For several kinds of algae, different light quality, light intensity and photoperiod can affect their synthesis and secretion of extracellular polysaccharides, and temperature can also affect the production of their extracellular polysaccharides to a certain extent. As the extracellular polysaccharides play a very important role in cementing cells together to form colonies, it's speculated that the increase of extracellular polysaccharides production by M. aeruginosa via the regulation of relevant abotic factors could be helpful to simultate the colony formation of M. aeruginosa in laboratory. PMID:18419095

Yang, Zhou; Li, Jia-jia

2008-01-01

376

Preparation and characterization of polysaccharide-based nanoparticles with anticoagulant activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to produce and characterize nanoparticles (NPs), combining chondroitin sulfate (CS) and fucoidan (FC) with chitosan for therapeutic purposes. These NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential determination, and transmission electronic microscopy. The anticoagulant activity was determined for FC NPs and compared with FC solution at the same concentration. FC NPs showed regular shapes and better anticoagulant activity than free polysaccharide solution. FC solution did not affect coagulation compared to FC NPs, which increased up to two-fold, even at a lower concentration. Cytotoxicity and permeability tests were conducted using Caco-2 cell monolayer, exhibiting no toxic effect in this cell line and higher permeability for NP2 samples than FC solution at the same concentration. PMID:22787393

da Silva, Luiz Cláudio; Garcia, Thiago; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Finotelli, Priscila V; Cinelli, Leonardo P; Caramella, Carla; Cabral, Lúcio M

2012-01-01

377

Mixed layers of sodium caseinate + dextran sulfate: influence of order of addition to oil-water interface.  

PubMed

We report on the interfacial properties of electrostatic complexes of protein (sodium caseinate) with a highly sulfated polysaccharide (dextran sulfate). Two routes were investigated for preparation of adsorbed layers at the n-tetradecane-water interface at pH = 6. Bilayers were made by the layer-by-layer deposition technique whereby polysaccharide was added to a previously established protein-stabilized interface. Mixed layers were made by the conventional one-step method in which soluble protein-polysaccharide complexes were adsorbed directly at the interface. Protein + polysaccharide systems gave a slower decay of interfacial tension and stronger dilatational viscoelastic properties than the protein alone, but there was no significant difference in dilatational properties between mixed layers and bilayers. Conversely, shear rheology experiments exhibited significant differences between the two kinds of interfacial layers, with the mixed system giving much stronger interfacial films than the bilayer system, i.e., shear viscosities and moduli at least an order of magnitude higher. The film shear viscoelasticity was further enhanced by acidification of the biopolymer mixture to pH = 2 prior to interface formation. Taken together, these measurements provide insight into the origin of previously reported differences in stability properties of oil-in-water emulsions made by the bilayer and mixed layer approaches. Addition of a proteolytic enzyme (trypsin) to both types of interfaces led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus of the film, suggesting that the enzyme was adsorbed at the interface via complexation with dextran sulfate. Overall, this study has confirmed the potential of shear rheology as a highly sensitive probe of associative electrostatic interactions and interfacial structure in mixed biopolymer layers. PMID:19459686

Jourdain, Laureline S; Schmitt, Christophe; Leser, Martin E; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

2009-09-01

378

Water-soluble polysaccharides from agro-industrial by-products: functional and biological properties.  

PubMed

Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from almond (AWSP) and pistachio (PWSP) juice processing by-products. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using NMR and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The complexities of the spectra reflected the heterogeneity of these polysaccharides. The ACE inhibitory activities (IC50 AWSP=2.81mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=2.59mgmL(-1)) and antioxidant properties of AWSP and PWSP were investigated based on the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay (IC50 AWSP=2.87mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=1.61mgmL(-1)). Reducing power, ?-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50AWSP=4.46mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=3.39mgmL(-1)), and ferrous chelating assays (IC50 AWSP=0.22mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=0.19mgmL(-1)) were also performed. The findings revealed that water-soluble polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. AWSP and PWSP showed excellent interfacial concentration-dependent properties. Overall, the results suggested that both AWSP and PWSP are promising sources of natural antioxidants and ACE inhibitory agents and could, therefore, be used as alternative additives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:24875325

Sila, Assaâd; Bayar, Nadia; Ghazala, Imen; Bougatef, Ali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

2014-08-01

379

Biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycan and polysaccharide antigens by protoplasts of type III group B Streptococcus.  

PubMed Central

The formation of a nascent peptidoglycan-group-specific antigen of type III group B Streptococcus at the cell membrane level was demonstrated with an M-1 mutanolysin-prepared protoplast system. Protoplasts of group B streptococci in suitably stabilized medium (20% sucrose) readily incorporated [3H]acetate into cell surface macromolecules. Four major polysaccharides were isolated from the protoplast cultural supernatant fluid: the peptidoglycan group-specific antigen polymer, the group B-specific antigen, and the low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight forms of the type III polysaccharide antigen. Biosynthesis of all four polymers was not affected by the action of chloramphenicol, indicating protein synthesis was not required for the production of polysaccharide in this system. However, all but the low-molecular-weight type III antigen were inhibited by the action of bacitracin, suggesting that three of the polymers share a common synthesis-assembly site in the membrane. Attachment of the high-molecular-weight antigen to the nascent peptidoglycan-group B antigen complex did not occur in the protoplast system, suggesting that a more complex cell wall matrix may be necessary before linkage of the high-molecular-weight antigen takes place. Images PMID:6339471

Yeung, M K; Mattingly, S J

1983-01-01

380

Polysaccharides from Angelica and Astragalus exert hepatoprotective effects against carbon-tetrachloride-induced intoxication in mice.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of polysaccharide from Angelica and Astragalus (AAP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in mice. A total of 120 Kunming mice were randomly distributed among 6 groups comprising (i) the normal control mice, (ii) the CCl4 treatment group, (iii) the bifendate treatment group, (iv) the AAP treatment group, (v) the Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) treatment group, and (vi) the Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AMP) treatment group. AAP, ASP and AMP were administered to mice treated with CCl4. The activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the serum, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissues were quantified, as well as the liver index. Hepatic histological changes were observed by staining liver sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Our results show that bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP significantly decreased the activities of MDA, AST, and ALT, and enhanced the activity of SOD in CCl4-treated mice. Bifendate, AAP, ASP, and AMP consistently ameliorated the liver injuries induced with CCl4. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of AAP was stronger than that of bifendate, ASP, or AMP. In addition, AAP alleviated liver inflammation and decreased the liver indexes of mice induced with CCl4. These effects were at least partly due to the antioxidant properties of AAP in scavenging free radicals to ameliorate oxidative stress and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:25415237

Pu, Xiuying; Fan, Wenbo; Yu, Shuang; Li, Yan; Ma, Xiaolong; Liu, Lu; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Weijie

2015-01-01

381

A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells  

PubMed Central

A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named “dipterose”, with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

2014-01-01

382

A Novel Polysaccharide in Insects Activates the Innate Immune System in Mouse Macrophage RAW264 Cells.  

PubMed

A novel water-soluble polysaccharide was identified in the pupae of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to purify this innate immune activator using nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264 macrophages as an indicator of immunostimulatory activity. A novel acidic polysaccharide was identified, which we named "dipterose", with a molecular weight of 1.01×106 and comprising nine monosaccharides. Dipterose was synthesized in the melon fly itself at the pupal stage. The NO-producing activity of dipterose was approximately equal to that of lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulator. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) led to the suppression of NO production by dipterose. Furthermore, dipterose induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon ? (IFN?) and promoted the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in macrophages, indicating that it stimulates the induction of various cytokines in RAW264 cells via the TLR4 signaling pathway. Our results thus suggest that dipterose activates the innate immune response against various pathogenic microorganisms and viral infections. This is the first identification of an innate immune-activating polysaccharide from an animal. PMID:25490773

Ohta, Takashi; Ido, Atsushi; Kusano, Kie; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

2014-01-01

383

Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum  

PubMed Central

The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3?M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4?h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1?mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

2014-01-01

384

Vitrification of high sulfate wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is investigating the application of vitrification technology to mixed wastes within the DOE system This work involves identifying waste streams, laboratory testing to identify glass formulations and characterize the vitrified product, and demonstration testing with the actual waste in a pilot-scale system. Part of this program is investigating process limits for various waste components, specifically those components that typically create problems for the application of vitrification, such as sulfate, chloride, and phosphate. This work describes results from vitrification testing for a high-sulfate waste, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste at Hanford. A low melting phosphate glass formulation has been developed for a waste stream high in sodium and sulfate. At melt temperatures in the range of 1,000 C to 1,200 C, sulfate in the waste is decomposed to gaseous oxides and driven off during melting, while the remainder of the oxides stay in the melt. Decomposition of the sulfates eliminates the processing problems typically encountered in vitrification of sulfate-containing wastes, resulting in separation of the sulfate from the remainder of the waste and allowing the sulfate to be collected in the off-gas system and treated as a secondary waste stream. Both the vitreous product and intentionally devitrified samples are durable when compared to reference glasses by TCLP and DI water leach tests. Simple, short tests to evaluate the compatibility of the glasses with potential melter materials found minimal corrosion with most materials.

Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

1994-09-01

385

Separation, preliminary characterization, and moisture-preserving activity of polysaccharides from Ulva fasciata.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharide (UFP31) extracted from the marine algae Ulva fasciata (UFP) was a heteropolysaccharide, and consisted of rhamnose, xylose, and glucose in a ratio of 1:0.46:0.27 with a (1?4)-linked glycosyl backbone. The rheology of UFP31 solution has been investigated by steady shear and small amplitude oscillatory experiments. The effects of concentration, temperature, and time were systematically investigated. Steady-shear rheological measurement in a range of shear rate (1-1000s(-1)) exhibited that UFP31 has a Newtonian behavior in diluted solutions (1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%, w/v), dilatant flow behavior at higher concentrations (7.0% and 9.0%, w/v). Speci?cally, UFP31 solution (7%, w/v) exhibited antithixotropic behavior. In small amplitude oscillatory experiments, both the storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G") of UFP31 solution (7%, w/v) increased with frequency swept but G' increased more quickly. As a consequence, G' tends to overcome G" at 2.7Hz. The capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention of the polysaccharide was also respectively examined gravimetrically in comparison with those of glycerol. It revealed that UFP31 exhibited a higher ability both in the moisture-absorption and moisture-retention test throughout the entire experiment. These results clearly establish the possibility that UFP31 could be employed as a new material of nature moisturizer. PMID:25451747

Shao, Ping; Shao, Jiamei; Han, Longfei; Lv, Ruiling; Sun, Peilong

2015-01-01

386

Immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Caulerpa lentillifera on macrophage cells.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides were extracted from Caulerpa lentillifera by treating with water and then purified by size-exclusion chromatography. The purified polysaccharides, termed SP1, were found to be sulfated xylogalactans with a molecular mass of more than 100 kDa. Adding SP1 to murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner. NO was found by immunoblotting and RT-PCR analyses to be synthesized by an inducible NO synthase. SP1 caused the degradation of I?B-? and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B subunit p65 in macrophage cells. SP1 also increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). These results demonstrate that SP1 activated macrophage cells via both the NF-?B and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, SP1 increased the expression of various genes encoding cytokines, and the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells. These combined results show that SP1 immunostimulated the activity of macrophage cells. PMID:22451391

Maeda, Reiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Ihara, Hideshi; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

2012-01-01

387

Complex cooperative functions of heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape nervous system development in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein-protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate-dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bülow, Hannes E

2014-10-01

388

Complex Cooperative Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Shape Nervous System Development in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The development of the nervous system is a complex process requiring the integration of numerous molecular cues to form functional circuits. Many cues are regulated by heparan sulfates, a class of linear glycosaminoglycan polysaccharides. These sugars contain distinct modification patterns that regulate protein–protein interactions. Misexpressing the homolog of KAL-1/anosmin-1, a neural cell adhesion molecule mutant in Kallmann syndrome, in Caenorhabditis elegans causes a highly penetrant, heparan sulfate–dependent axonal branching phenotype in AIY interneurons. In an extended forward genetic screen for modifiers of this phenotype, we identified alleles in new as well as previously identified genes involved in HS biosynthesis and modification, namely the xylosyltransferase sqv-6, the HS-6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6, and the HS-3-O-sulfotransferase hst-3.2. Cell-specific rescue experiments showed that different HS biosynthetic and modification enzymes can be provided cell-nonautonomously by different tissues to allow kal-1-dependent branching of AIY. In addition, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins that carry the heparan sulfate chains act genetically in a highly redundant fashion to mediate kal-1-dependent branching in AIY neurons. Specifically, lon-2/glypican and unc-52/perlecan act in parallel genetic pathways and display synergistic interactions with sdn-1/syndecan to mediate kal-1 function. Because all of these heparan sulfate core proteins have been shown to act in different tissues, these studies indicate that KAL-1/anosmin-1 requires heparan sulfate with distinct modification patterns of different cellular origin for function. Our results support a model in which a three-dimensional scaffold of heparan sulfate mediates KAL-1/anosmin-1 and intercellular communication through complex and cooperative interactions. In addition, the genes we have identified could contribute to the etiology of Kallmann syndrome in humans. PMID:25098771

Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Tecle, Eillen; Gomez, Nathali; Bülow, Hannes E.

2014-01-01

389

Extraction, chemical analysis of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides in ischemia-reperfusion rats.  

PubMed

Angelica sinensis polysaccharides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The major sugar of the polysaccharide was saccharose (18.55%); and the sugar constituted about 83% of the monomer content. Glucose and fructose were found as minor components of the polysaccharides. The FT-IR spectra of A. sinensis polysaccharides are used for determination of their structural features. The FT-IR spectrum of A. sinensis polysaccharides showed bands at 1641 cm(-1), 1415 cm(-1), 1050 cm(-1) and 926 cm(-1) characteristic for the carboxylic group. Absorptions at 2920-2930 cm(-1) are attributed to asymmetrical stretching vibration of CH(2)-group. Medium stretch observed in the range 1650-1400 cm(-1) is assigned to C-C stretching of polysaccharides. Cardioprotective effects of A. sinensis polysaccharides were evaluated by using myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) rats. A. sinensis polysaccharides treatment significantly reduced myocardial infarction size, enhanced CT-1 and antioxidant enzymes activity, downregulated caspase-12 mRNA expression in rats. The study strongly suggests the cardioprotective activity of A. sinensis polysaccharides in limiting ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial injury. PMID:20691723

Zhang, Song; He, Ben; Ge, Junbo; Li, Huibin; Luo, Xiuying; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yuhui; Zhai, Changlin; Liu, Pingang; Liu, Xin; Fei, Xuetao

2010-11-01

390

Dextran sulfate-resistant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 influenza virus is associated with the emergence of specific mutations in the neuraminidase glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Dextran sulfate (DS) is a negatively charged sulfated polysaccharide that suppresses the replication of influenza A viruses. The suppression was thought to be associated with inhibition of the hemagglutinin-dependent fusion activity. However, we previously showed that suppression by DS was observed not only at the initial stage of viral infection, but also later when virus is released from infected cells due to inhibition of neuraminidase (NA) activity. In the present study, we isolated DS-resistant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) influenza viruses and analyzed the inhibition by DS. We found six mutations in NA genes of five independent resistant PR8 viruses and each resistant NA gene had two mutations. All mutations were from basic to acidic or neutral amino acids. In addition, R430L, K432E or K435E in the 430-435 region was a common mutation in all resistant NA genes. To determine which amino acid(s) are responsible for this resistance, a panel of recombinant viruses containing a PR8 and A/WSN/33(WSN) chimeric NA gene or an NA gene with different mutation(s) was generated using reverse genetics. Using recombinant viruses containing a PR8/WSN chimeric NA, we showed that one third of the C-terminal region of PR8 NA was responsible for DS-sensitivity. Recombinant viruses with a single mutation in NA replicated better than wild-type PR8 in the presence of DS, but were still DS-sensitive. However, replication of recombinant viruses with double mutations from the resistant viruses was not affected by the presence or absence of DS. In addition, resistant recombinant viruses were found to be sensitive to the NA inhibitor, oseltamivir and the oseltamivir-resistant recombinant virus was sensitive to DS. These results suggested that DS is an NA inhibitor with a different mechanism of action from the currently used NA inhibitors and that DS could be used in combination with these inhibitors to treat influenza virus infections. PMID:25234090

Yamada, Hiroshi; Nagao, Chioko; Haredy, Ahmad M; Mori, Yasuko; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Yamanishi, Koichi; Okamoto, Shigefumi

2014-11-01

391

Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

2013-01-01

392

The cough suppressive activity of sulfated glucuronoxylan from Fagus sylvatica L.  

PubMed

Hemicellulose polysaccharides represent a large group of natural renewable polymers, however, their application potency is still low. In our study a hardwood 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan was isolated by alkali peroxide extraction of Fagus sylvatica sawdust and modified into sulfated water soluble derivative (MGXS). Highly sulfated MGXS was characterized by HPLC, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and tested in vivo on chemically induced cough reflex and smooth muscles reactivity. Farmacological tests revealed an interesting antitussive activity of MGXS. Comparative tests with drug commonly used in a clinical practice revealed that antitussive activity of MGXS was lower than that of opioid receptor agonist codeine, the strongest antitussive drug. Furthermore, the specific reactivity of airways smooth muscle was not significantly affected by MGXS, indicating thus that the polymer is not involved in the bronchodilation process. PMID:24680903

Nosá?ova, G; Jure?ek, L; Turjan, J; Capek, P; Prisenž?áková, L; Fra?ová, S

2014-06-01

393

Size-controlled synthesis of dextran sulfate coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the generation of nanoparticles for biological applications, the control over synthetic parameters influencing the particles' physicochemical properties are of great interest due to the strong influence of particle size and surface properties on cellular uptake and biodistribution. We have synthesized dextran sulfate coated particles and systematically evaluated synthetic parameters that may influence the properties of these nanoparticles as potential magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The amount of base, polysaccharide content, ratio of iron salts, and reaction time were optimized to yield approximately 30 nm particles as determined by dynamic light scattering with good MR properties (r1 = 14.46 mM-1 s-1 and r2 = 72.55 mM-1 s-1) and in good yield (50%). Particle sizes and relaxivities are compared with clinically available dextran coated particle