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1

[Antiviral action of sulfated polysaccharides].  

PubMed

The literature data on the structure and biological spectrum of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidans) from the sea brown algae are presented. The review includes the data on the experimental studies and the results of the author's researches on the sulfated polysaccharides inhibitory action on virus adsorption on eukaryotic cells. Mechanisms of the antiviral action of the fucoidans from the sea brown algae are discussed. PMID:19499720

Makarenkova, I D; Besednova, N N; Zaporozhets, T S

2009-01-01

2

Inhibition of Anti-V3 Domain Antibody Binding to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type1Infected Cells by Sulfated Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third variable domain (V3 domain) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 is an immunodominant region. Anti-V3 domain antibodies neutralize both HTV-1 infection and syncytium formation. The V3 domain has a high density of positive charge which is a potential binding site for anti-HTV-1 sulfated polysaccharides. To investigate the inhibitory effect of sulfated polysaccharides on

T. Okada; B. K. Patterson; M. E. Gurney

1995-01-01

3

Novel Sulfated Polysaccharides Disrupt Cathelicidins, Inhibit RAGE and Reduce Cutaneous Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Background Rosacea is a common disfiguring skin disease of primarily Caucasians characterized by central erythema of the face, with telangiectatic blood vessels, papules and pustules, and can produce skin thickening, especially on the nose of men, creating rhinophyma. Rosacea can also produce dry, itchy eyes with irritation of the lids, keratitis and corneal scarring. The cause of rosacea has been proposed as over-production of the cationic cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested a new class of non-anticoagulant sulfated anionic polysaccharides, semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan ethers (SAGEs) on key elements of the pathogenic pathway leading to rosacea. SAGEs were anti-inflammatory at ng/ml, including inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) proteases, P-selectin, and interaction of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) with four representative ligands. SAGEs bound LL-37 and inhibited interleukin-8 production induced by LL-37 in cultured human keratinocytes. When mixed with LL-37 before injection, SAGEs prevented the erythema and PMN infiltration produced by direct intradermal injection of LL-37 into mouse skin. Topical application of a 1% (w/w) SAGE emollient to overlying injected skin also reduced erythema and PMN infiltration from intradermal LL-37. Conclusions Anionic polysaccharides, exemplified by SAGEs, offer potential as novel mechanism-based therapies for rosacea and by extension other LL-37-mediated and RAGE-ligand driven skin diseases.

Zhang, Jianxing; Xu, Xiaoyu; Rao, Narayanam V.; Argyle, Brian; McCoard, Lindsi; Rusho, William J.; Kennedy, Thomas P.; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Krueger, Gerald

2011-01-01

4

Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

2009-08-01

5

Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 In Vitro Infection by Sulfated Derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide?  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 are neurotropic viruses and common human pathogens causing major public health problems such as genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease also correlated with increased transmission and replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Therefore, compounds capable of blocking HIV-1, HSV-1, and HSV-2 transmission represent candidate microbicides with a potential added value over that of molecules acting selectively against either infection. We report here that sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide, structurally highly similar to heparin and previously shown to inhibit HIV-1 entry and replication in vitro, also exert suppressive activities against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. In particular, the N,O-sulfated [K5-N,OS(H)] and O-sulfated epimerized [Epi-K5-OS(H)] forms inhibited the infection of Vero cells by HSV-1 and -2, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) between 3 ± 0.05 and 48 ± 27 nM, and were not toxic to the cells at concentrations as high as 5 ?M. These compounds impaired the early steps of HSV-1 and HSV-2 virion attachment and entry into host cells and reduced the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-2. Since K5-N,OS(H) and Epi-K5-OS(H) also inhibit HIV-1 infection, they may represent valid candidates for development as topical microbicides preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1, HSV-1, and HSV-2.

Pinna, Debora; Oreste, Pasqua; Coradin, Tiziana; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Ghezzi, Silvia; Zoppetti, Giorgio; Rotola, Antonella; Argnani, Rafaela; Poli, Guido; Manservigi, Roberto; Vicenzi, Elisa

2008-01-01

6

Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants  

PubMed Central

High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops.

Aquino, Rafael S.; Grativol, Clicia; Mourao, Paulo A. S.

2011-01-01

7

In vitro activity of mannan sulfate, a novel sulfated polysaccharide, against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other enveloped viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannan sulfate, a novel sulfated polysaccharide, was prepared and investigated for its activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. Mannan sulfate completely inhibited HIV-1-induced cell destruction and viral antigen expression in HIV-1-infected Molt-4 (clone 8) cells at a concentration of 4 µg\\/ml. The 50 % antiviral effective doses obtained with mannan sulfate in Molt-4 (clone 8) cells

M. Ito; M. Baba; K. Hirabayashi; T. Matsumoto; M. Suzuki; S. Suzuki; S. Shigeta; E. De Clercq

1989-01-01

8

Astragalus polysaccharide and sulfated epimedium polysaccharide synergistically resist the immunosuppression.  

PubMed

The immunoenhancement of compound polysaccharides, APS-sEPS composed with astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and sulfated epimedium polysaccharide (sEPS), was observed in immunosuppressed model chicken induced by cyclophosphamide (Cy). 11-day-old chickens were injected with Cy once a day for three successive days except vaccine control group. At day-14-old, all chickens were vaccinated with ND vaccine, and in experimental groups simultaneously administrated with APS-sEPS at three dosages, APS and sEPS once a day for three successive days. On days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the administration, the peripheral T-lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titers, IFN-?, IL-2, IgG and IgM were determined. The results displayed that APS-sEPS could overcome Cy-induced immunosuppression, significantly promote T-lymphocyte proliferation and raised serum antibody titers, IFN-?, IL-2, IgG and IgM levels, its high and medium doses were superior to single APS or sEPS. This demonstrated that APS and sEPS could synergistically resist the immunosuppression and APS-sEPS was an effective immunopotentiator. PMID:22840039

Guo, Liwei; Liu, Jiaguo; Hu, Yuanliang; Wang, Deyun; Li, Zhizhong; Zhang, Jing; Qin, Tao; Liu, Xu; Liu, Cui; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Fan, Yun Peng; Han, Guocai; Nguyen, The Luong

2012-06-19

9

Biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from tropical seaweeds.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides from 11 species of tropical marine algae (one edible specie of Rhodophyta, six species of Phaeophyta and four species of Chlorophyta) collected from Natal city coast (Northeast of Brazil) were evaluated for their anticoagulant, antioxidant and antiproliverative in vitro activities. In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, which evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, seven seaweeds presented anticoagulant activity. Dictyota cervicornis showed the highest activity, prolonging the coagulation time to double the baseline value in the APTT with only 0.01 mg/100 microl of plasma, 1.4-fold lesser than Clexane, a low molecular weight heparin. In the protrombin time (PT) test, which evaluates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, only Caulerpa cupresoides showed anticoagulant activity. All species collected showed antioxidant activities. This screening emphasized the great antioxidant potential (total capacity antioxidant, power reducing and ferrous chelating) of four species: C. sertularioide; Dictyota cervicornis; Sargassum filipendula and Dictyopteris delicatula. After 72 h incubation, HeLa cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) between 33.0 and 67.5% by S. filipendula; 31.4 and 65.7% by D. delicatula; 36.3 and 58.4% by Caulerpa prolifera and 40.2 and 61.0% by Dictyota menstrualis at 0.01-2mg/mL algal polysaccharides. The antiproliferative efficacy of these algal polysaccharides were positively correlated with the sulfate content (r=0.934). Several polysaccharides demonstrated promising antioxidant, antiproliferative an/or anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation, isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from these species as well as in vivo experiments are needed and are already in progress. PMID:19766438

Costa, L S; Fidelis, G P; Cordeiro, S L; Oliveira, R M; Sabry, D A; Câmara, R B G; Nobre, L T D B; Costa, M S S P; Almeida-Lima, J; Farias, E H C; Leite, E L; Rocha, H A O

2009-09-08

10

Sulfated modification and cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides.  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (POP1) was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Four sulfated derivatives of POP1 (POP1-s1, POP1-s2, POP1-s3 and POP1-s4) were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid method with N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a dehydration-condensation agent. FT-IR spectra and 13C NMR spectra indicated the sulfated groups had been introduced at the C-6 and C-2 positions of POP1. Sulfated derivatives had different degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 1.01 to 1.81, and different weight-average molecular mass (Mw) ranging from 41.4 to 48.5 KDa. Sulfated derivatives except POP1-s5 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells and Hela cells in vitro significantly, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance cytotoxicity of POP1 on tumor cells. Flow cytometric studies revealed that sulfated derivatives could mediate the cell-cycle arrest of Hela cells in the S phase. PMID:20820911

Chen, Tong; Wang, Jin; Li, Yuanyuan; Shen, Jianmin; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Haixia

2010-09-04

11

Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans), ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H. Stephen

2011-01-01

12

Sulfated modification of the polysaccharide from Cordyceps_gunnii mycelia and its biological activities.  

PubMed

A chemically new sulfated polysaccharide (SPS50) was prepared from the water soluble polysaccharide (PS50), isolated from Cordyceps_gunnii mycelia, by concentrated sulfuric acid method. The yield of crude SPS50 was 62.34% and its specific rotation was [?](D)(20)=-36.75°. The structural characteristics of this chemically sulfated polysaccharide were determined based on the infrared analysis (IR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE). Its biological properties including anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities were also investigated. The results showed that the anti-oxidant capacity of SPS50 was not as good as SP50 and the anti-tumor activity of SPS50 was much better than PS50. SPS50 showed evident growth inhibition on K562 cells. The tumor inhibition ratio of SPS50 against K562 cells was 69.92%. PMID:23218378

Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Si, Chuan-Ling; Yuan, Jing; Lv, Qiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Dong, Guo-Ling; Liu, An-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Min

2012-10-12

13

[Neuroprotective effects of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed].  

PubMed

Currently, neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) occupy a significant place in the structure of disease of the elderly, which dictates the need to find new and effective treatment and prevention of this pathology. At the heart of NDD development is a violation of the metabolism and the conformational change of cellular proteins with subsequent accumulation and aggregation of their in certain groups of neurons. The immediate cause of the death of the affected neurons in NDD is initiated by intracellular proteins apoptosis, during which a large number ofneurotransmitter glutamate is released. The consequence of an imbalance in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters are related the memory impairment, motor coordination and cognitive abilities of human. Based on the analysis of the extensive literature domestic and predominantly foreign authors of the last decade the modern data on the effect of sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) of algae in vivo and in vitro in degenerative processes of the nervous system. Found that due to its multi-point impact, SPS have on the body antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-toxic effects. Consequently, SPS can arrest a number of secondary pathological effects observed in neurodegenerative diseases (oxidative stress, inflammation, the phenomenon of increased neuronal apoptosis, toxic effects etc.). Varieties of pathogenic mechanisms underlying NDD makes possible the combined use of neuroprotective compounds acting sequentially in different stages of a pathological process. Accumulated a lot of experimental evidence to assume that the SPS may be the basis for the creation of next-generation drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24000668

Besednova, N N; Somova, L M; Guliaev, S A; Zaporozhets, T S

2013-01-01

14

Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide derivatives inhibit dengue virus infection of human microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope protein E domain III.  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes cytokine-mediated alterations in the barrier function of the microvascular endothelium, leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We observed that DENV (serotype 2) productively infects primary (HMVEC-d) and immortalized (HMEC-1) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, despite the absence of well-described DENV receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or the mannose receptor on the cell surface. However, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were highly expressed on these cells and pre-treatment of HMEC-1 cells with heparinase II or with glycosaminoglycans reduced DENV infectivity up to 90%, suggesting that DENV uses HSPGs as attachment receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 derivatives, which are structurally similar to heparin/heparan sulfate but lack anticoagulant activity, were able to block DENV infection of HMEC-1 and HMVEC-d cells in the nanomolar range. The highly sulfated K5-OS(H) and K5-N,OS(H) inhibited virus attachment and subsequent entry into microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope (E) protein, as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis using the receptor-binding domain III of the E protein. PMID:24015314

Vervaeke, Peter; Alen, Marijke; Noppen, Sam; Schols, Dominique; Oreste, Pasqua; Liekens, Sandra

2013-08-28

15

Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides from brown and red seaweeds  

PubMed Central

The in vitro antioxidant activities of the following six sulfated polysaccharides were investigated: iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, which are widely used in the food industry, fucoidan (homofucan) from the edible seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and fucans (heterofucans) F0.5 and F1.1 from the seaweed Padina gymnospora. With respect to the inhibition of superoxide radical formation, fucoidan had an IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.058 mg·mL?1, while the IC50 for the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans were 0.112, 0.332 and 0.046 mg·mL?1, respectively. All of the samples had an inhibitory effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The results of peroxidation tests showed that fucoidan had an IC50 of 1.250 mg·mL?1 and that the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans had an IC50 of 2.753 and 2.338 and 0.323 mg·mL?1, respectively. Fucan fractions showed low antioxidant activity relative to fucoidan. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of algal polysaccharides as antioxidants.

Rocha de Souza, Micheline Cristiane; Marques, Cybelle Teixeira; Guerra Dore, Celina Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Fernando Roberto; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre

2006-01-01

16

Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Porphyra haitanesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated from Porphyra haitanesis, an important economic alga in China, through anion-exchange column chromatography and their in vitro antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Galactose was the main sugar unit of the three fractions. The analytical results indicated that polysaccharide fractions from P. haitanesis had similar chemical components to porphyran

Quanbin Zhang; Pengzhan Yu; Zhien Li; Hong Zhang; Zuhong Xu; Pengcheng Li

2003-01-01

17

Isolation of Polysaccharides Sulfated during Early Embryogenesis in Fucus1  

PubMed Central

Beginning 10 hours after fertilization, zygotes of Fucus distichus L. Powell incorporate 35S into polysaccharides as a sulfate ester of fucose. These sulfated polysaccharides are sequestered in only the rhizoid cell of the two-celled embryo and can serve as a marker of cellular differentiation. Zygotes were pulsed at different times after fertilization with Na235SO4 to identify and isolate the fucans localized within the region of cytoplasm destined to become the rhizoid cell. Low molecular weight pools of 35S were saturated within 60 minutes, with the greatest incorporation into ethanol-soluble and insoluble fractions occurring with 0.1 mm Na2SO4 in the artificial sea water medium. At the time of rhizoid formation, four fucose-containing polysaccharide fractions incorporated 35S. When each fraction was subjected to diethylaminoethyl chromatography, two components were eluted with KCl that contained over 84% of the fucose and 93% of the 35S of the particular fraction. Highvoltage paper electrophoresis of each fraction also resulted in the separation of these two major components. Both components from each of the four fractions behaved identically when separated by diethylaminoethyl chromatography and paper electrophoresis. By comparing the incorporation of 35S into the polysaccharide fractions at 4 and 16 hours after fertilization, the fucan-sulfate components that are localized in the cytoplasm at the time of rhizoid formation were isolated. Although sulfated polysaccharides in brown algae are reported to be very heterogeneous in terms of their sugar composition and complexes with other heteropolymers, we propose that there are two major components that are sulfated during early embryogenesis in Fucus. The location of these two sulfated polysaccharides in different chemical fractions may reflect their subcellular localization (e.g., cytoplasmic vesicles or cell walls), or their association with other heteropolymers.

Hogsett, William E.; Quatrano, Ralph S.

1975-01-01

18

Sulfated modification and cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (POP1) was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Four sulfated derivatives of POP1 (POP1-s1, POP1-s2, POP1-s3 and POP1-s4) were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid method\\u000a with N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a dehydration-condensation agent. FT-IR spectra and 13C NMR spectra indicated the sulfated groups had been introduced at the C-6 and C-2 positions of POP1. Sulfated derivatives\\u000a had different degree of

Tong Chen; Jin Wang; Yuanyuan Li; Jianmin Shen; Ting Zhao; Haixia Zhang

2010-01-01

19

Anticoagulant sulfated polysaccharides: Part I. Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of new pullulan sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop new anticoagulants as potential heparin alternatives, two pullulans with different molecular weight (MW) were used as starting polymers for the partial synthesis of a structurally new class of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of these linear ?-1,4-\\/1,6-glucans was carried out by a method with a SO3–pyridine complex in DMF, which had been optimized for the modification of ?-1,3-glucans.

S Alban; A Schauerte; G Franz

2002-01-01

20

Fucans, but Not Fucomannoglucuronans, Determine the Biological Activities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina Brown Seaweed  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima) brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a) L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b) L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P) and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice. Finally, L.s.-1.25 markedly inhibited breast cancer cell adhesion to human platelet-coated surfaces. Thus, sulfated fucans are mainly responsible for the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina brown seaweed.

Ushakova, Natalia A.; Preobrazhenskaya, Marina E.; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Bilan, Maria I.; Usov, Anatolii I.; Grachev, Alexey A.; Morozevich, Galina E.; Berman, Albert E.; Sanderson, Craig J.; Kelly, Maeve; Di Gregorio, Patrizia; Rossi, Cosmo; Tinari, Nicola; Iacobelli, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Nifantiev, Nikolay E.

2011-01-01

21

A wide diversity of sulfated polysaccharides are synthesized by different species of marine sponges.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from four species of marine sponges by exhaustive papain digestion. These compounds were purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Analysis of the purified polysaccharides revealed a species-specific variation in their chemical composition and also in their molecular masses. In the species Aplysina fulva we found a sulfated glucan with a glycogen-like structure. The other three species contained sulfated polysaccharides with variable proportions of galactose, fucose, arabinose and hexuronic acid and also with different degrees of sulfation. Although the complex nature of these polysaccharides did not allow complete structure determination, we detected the occurrence of 4-sulfated residues of fucose and arabinose in the species Dysidea fragilis. The biological role of these sulfated polysaccharides requires further investigation. They may be involved in the species-specific aggregation of sponge cells and/or in the structural integrity of sponge, resembling the proteoglycans of mammalian connective tissues. PMID:11028788

Zierer, M S; Mourão, P A

2000-09-01

22

Overview of anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds in relation to their structures, focusing on those of green seaweeds.  

PubMed

The anticoagulant behavior of sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds is reviewed based on their chemical structures. Analysis of the literature suggested that the driving force for the formation of the sulfated polysaccharide/protein complex is the non-specific polar interaction between the negatively and positively charged groups in the polysaccharide and protein, respectively and that the complex is further stabilized by short-range interactions. The polysaccharide binding site should be able to go through the following conformational steps in the formation of the complex: random coil-->ordered conformation--> low distortion of this conformation to form a complementary fitting structure with the protein backbone. The sulfated monosaccharide units with the highest potential for anticoagulant activity should have two sulfate groups and a glycosidic linkage on the pyranose ring with C-2, C-3 and C-4 in 2S, 3R, 4R or 2R, 3S, 4S configurations for galactose, fucose and arabinose and 2S, 3S, 4R, for rhamnose. Three distributions of these substituents appear: 3-linked 2,4-disulfated units, 4-linked 2,3-disulfated units and 2-linked 3,4-disulfated residues. These types of units have the possibility, through the equilibrium of the chair conformations, to place their sulfate groups in adequate special positions to interact with basic groups of the protein. The anticoagulant activity is mainly attributed to thrombin inhibition mediated by antithrombin and/or heparin cofactor II, with different effectivenesses depending of the compound. Other mechanisms are also proposed and these differences could be attributed to the diversity of structures of the polysaccharides evaluated and to the fact that one compound may have more than one target protease. PMID:20491645

Ciancia, M; Quintana, I; Cerezo, A S

2010-01-01

23

Enhancement of antitumor activities in sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum.  

PubMed

Two water-soluble derivatives, sulfated and carboxymethylated Ganoderma lucidem polysaccharides, coded as S-GL and CM-GL, were prepared using derivatization of water-insoluble polysaccharides (GL-IV-I) extracted from the fruit body of G. lucidem . The degree of substitution (DS) of S-GL and CM-GL was 0.94 and 1.09, respectively. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of GL-IV-I, S-GL, and CM-GL was determined with light scattering to be 13.3x10(4), 10.1x10(4), and 6.3x10(4), respectively. S-GL and CM-GL inhibited the in vitro proliferation of Sarcoma 180 (S-180) tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 26 and 38 microg/mL, respectively. They also inhibited the growth of S-180 solid tumors implanted in BALB/c mice, with low toxicity to the animals. Flow cytometric studies revealed that treatment of S-GL and CM-GL with S-180 tumor cells could mediate the cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of Bax increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically, as shown by immuno-histochemical staining of S-180 tumor tissue excised from the animals. The sulfated and carboxmethylated groups in the polysaccharides played an important part in enhancing their antitumor activities, leading to the potential to be developed into antitumor drugs. PMID:19863048

Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Yonghui; Cheung, Peter C K

2009-11-25

24

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (F1, F2) from seaweed Corallina officinalis were isolated through anion-exchange column chromatography. Their chemical characteristics were determined by GC, HPLC, FT-IR and UV spectra. F1 and F2 contained only two monosaccharides, namely galactose and xylose. The antioxidant activities of F1, F2 and the de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2) in vitro were investigated, including hydroxyl radicals scavenging effect, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical activity and reducing power. As expected, antioxidant assay showed that the two sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2) possessed considerable antioxidant properties and had more excellent abilities than de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2). PMID:21896282

Yang, Yuling; Liu, Dan; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shusheng

2011-09-01

25

Isolation and characterization of soluble sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, structure and rheological properties of a soluble sulfated polysaccharide from Gracilaria cornea (Brazilian red marine alga) were investigated. Agarocolloid yield, intrinsic viscosity, monosaccharide composition, sulfate and cation content as well as molecular weight were determined. The main polysaccharide components were 3,6-anhydrogalactose (24.7%) and galactose (64.6%). In addition, minor components such as 6-O-methyl-galactose (8.5%), glucose (1.5%), xylose (0.7%) and

M. R. S Melo; J. P. A Feitosa; A. L. P Freitas; R. C. M de Paula

2002-01-01

26

Antiherpetic activity of an Agaricus brasiliensis polysaccharide, its sulfated derivative and fractions.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis is an edible mushroom, traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases. In this paper, a polysaccharide (PLS) from A. brasiliensis, its carboxymethylated (CPLS) and sulfated (SPLS) derivatives, as well as, fractions (F1-F3) obtained from the PLS were investigated for their effect in the replication of herpes simplex virus and bovine herpes virus in HEp-2 cell cultures. The PLS, SPLS and F3 inhibited both virus strains similarly, in a dose-dependent curve. F1, F2 and CPLS did not show significant effect even at higher concentrations. All the compounds showed neither virucidal or viral adsorption inhibition activities nor effect when cells were treated prior to infection. Our study demonstrated that the extracts of A. brasiliensis, can be promising for future antiviral drug design and its biotechnological production is economically feasible. PMID:23043759

Yamamoto, Kristie Aimi; Galhardi, Lígia Carla Faccin; Rincão, Vinícius Pires; Soares, Sandra de Aguiar; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Nozawa, Carlos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2012-10-05

27

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major barrier to regenerating axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but the structural diversity of their polysaccharides has hampered efforts to dissect the structure-activity relationships underlying their physiological activity. By taking advantage of our ability to chemically synthesize specific oligosaccharides, we demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth. Removal of the CS-E motif significantly attenuates the inhibitory activity of CSPGs on axon growth. Furthermore, CS-E functions as a protein recognition element to engage receptors including the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP?, thereby triggering downstream pathways that inhibit axon growth. Finally, masking the CS-E motif using a CS-E-specific antibody reversed the inhibitory activity of CSPGs and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic strategies to regenerate axons after CNS injury.

Brown, Joshua M.; Xia, Jiang; Zhuang, BinQuan; Cho, Kin-Sang; Rogers, Claude J.; Gama, Cristal I.; Rawat, Manish; Tully, Sarah E.; Uetani, Noriko; Mason, Daniel E.; Tremblay, Michel L.; Peters, Eric C.; Habuchi, Osami; Chen, Dong F.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

2012-01-01

28

A sulfated carbohydrate epitope inhibits axon regeneration after injury.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major barrier to regenerating axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but the structural diversity of their polysaccharides has hampered efforts to dissect the structure-activity relationships underlying their physiological activity. By taking advantage of our ability to chemically synthesize specific oligosaccharides, we demonstrate that a sugar epitope on CSPGs, chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E), potently inhibits axon growth. Removal of the CS-E motif significantly attenuates the inhibitory activity of CSPGs on axon growth. Furthermore, CS-E functions as a protein recognition element to engage receptors including the transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP?, thereby triggering downstream pathways that inhibit axon growth. Finally, masking the CS-E motif using a CS-E-specific antibody reversed the inhibitory activity of CSPGs and stimulated axon regeneration in vivo. These results demonstrate that a specific sugar epitope within chondroitin sulfate polysaccharides can direct important physiological processes and provide new therapeutic strategies to regenerate axons after CNS injury. PMID:22411830

Brown, Joshua M; Xia, Jiang; Zhuang, BinQuan; Cho, Kin-Sang; Rogers, Claude J; Gama, Cristal I; Rawat, Manish; Tully, Sarah E; Uetani, Noriko; Mason, Daniel E; Tremblay, Michel L; Peters, Eric C; Habuchi, Osami; Chen, Dong F; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

2012-03-12

29

Seminal fluid from sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) contains complex sulfated polysaccharides linked to protein.  

PubMed

The eggs of sea urchins are covered by a jelly coat, which contains high concentrations of sulfated polysaccharides. These carbohydrates show species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction. Several studies about the egg jelly of sea urchins have been published, but there is no information about the composition of the seminal fluid of these echinoderms. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of complex sulfated polysaccharides in the seminal fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. These polysaccharides occur as three fractions that differ mostly in their carbohydrate/protein ratios. The native molecular masses of the polymers are very high (> or = 200 kDa) but, after digestion with papain the size decreases to approximately 8 kDa. All fractions have a similar carbohydrate composition, containing mostly galactose, glucosamine and mannose. The heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides differ from vertebrate glycosaminoglycans and also from all previously described polysaccharides from invertebrates. The physiological role of the sulfated carbohydrates from seminal fluid is not yet determined. However, by analogy with the effects proposed for some glycoproteins found in vertebrate seminal fluid, it may be possible that the sulfated polysaccharides from invertebrate are also involved in fertilization process. PMID:19446650

Cinelli, Leonardo P; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S

2009-05-14

30

Sulfated Derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 Capsular Polysaccharide Are Potent Inhibitors of Human Cytomegalovirus?  

PubMed Central

To date, there are few drugs licensed for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, most of which target the viral DNA polymerase and suffer from many drawbacks. Thus, there is still a strong need for new anti-HCMV compounds with novel mechanisms of action. In this study, we investigated the anti-HCMV activity of chemically sulfated derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide. These compounds are structurally related to cellular heparan sulfate and have been previously shown to be effective against some enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. We demonstrated that two derivatives, i.e., K5-N,OS(H) and K5-N,OS(L), are able to prevent cell infection by different strains of HCMV at concentrations in the nanomolar range while having no significant cytotoxicity. Studies performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of their anti-HCMV activity revealed that these compounds do not interact with either the host cell or the viral particle but need a virus-cell interaction to exert antiviral effects. Furthermore, these K5 derivatives were able to inhibit the attachment step of HCMV infection, as well as the viral cell-to-cell spread. Since the mode of inhibition of these compounds appears to differ from that of the available anti-HCMV drugs, sulfated K5 derivatives could represent the basis for the development of a novel class of potent anti-HCMV compounds. Interestingly, our studies highlight that small variations of the K5 derivatives structure can modulate the selectivity and potency of their activities against different viruses, including viruses belonging to the same family.

Mercorelli, Beatrice; Oreste, Pasqua; Sinigalia, Elisa; Muratore, Giulia; Lembo, David; Palu, Giorgio; Loregian, Arianna

2010-01-01

31

Antiviral activity against dengue virus of diverse classes of algal sulfated polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Diverse classes of sulfated polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) Grateloupia indica, Scinaia hatei and Gracilaria corticata, the brown seaweeds (Phaeophyta) Stoechospermum marginatum and Cystoseira indica and the green seaweed (Chlorophyta) Caulerpa racemosa were assayed for antiviral activity against the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). DENV-2 was the most susceptible serotype to all polysulfates, with inhibitory concentration 50% values in the range 0.12-20 ?g/mL. The antiviral potency of the sulfated polysaccharides depended on the sulfate content, the position of sulfate group, the sugar composition, and the molar mass. Independently of the sugar composition, the antiviral effect was mainly exerted during DENV-2 adsorption and internalization. PMID:22652218

Pujol, Carlos A; Ray, Sayani; Ray, Bimalendu; Damonte, Elsa B

2012-05-28

32

Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives as Wide-Range Inhibitors of Genital Types of Human Papillomavirus?  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that O-sulfated K5 with a high degree of sulfation [K5-OS(H)] and N,O-sulfated K5 with a high [K5-N,OS(H)] or low [K5-N,OS(L)] sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with low levels of sulfation, prevented the interaction between HPV-16 pseudovirions and immobilized heparin. In cell-based assays, K5-OS(H), K5-N,OS(H), and K5-N,OS(L) inhibited HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-6 pseudovirion infection. Their 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.1 and 0.9 ?g/ml, without evidence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insights into the design of novel, safe, and broad-spectrum microbicides against genital HPV infections.

Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Cornaglia, Maura; Cappello, Paola; Giovarelli, Mirella; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo

2008-01-01

33

Natural history of interstitial cystitis in 274 patients receiving sulfated polysaccharide therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the natural history of interstitial cystitis in the presence of sulfated polysaccharide treatment.Methods. This was a longitudinal study of 274 patients. Questionnaires were administered at first visit to obtain information on demographic characteristics, medical history, other risk factors, and type and severity of symptoms. Follow-up questionnaires were administered at subsequent visits to measure symptom progress. Patient status

Ngoc J Ho; James A Koziol; C. Lowell Parsons; William Barlow; Noel S Weiss

1999-01-01

34

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of low molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (LMWF) was prepared from Laminaria japonica by mild acid hydrolysis. The antioxidant activity of LMWF in vitro was studied using three kinds of oxygen free radical systems. LMWF had effective scavenging abilities on superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid directly in vitro. The hepatoprotective effect of LMWF was studied using two acute liver

Xue Zhao; Chang-Hu Xue; Zhao-Jie Li; Yue-Piao Cai; Hong-Ying Liu; Hong-Tao Qi

2004-01-01

35

Antiviral activity of sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharide against Newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of Paramyxovirinae subfamily and can infect most species of birds causing severe economic losses. The current control measure is vaccination, but infections cannot be completely prevented. It remains a constant threat to the poultry industry and new control measures are urgently needed. This study demonstrates that sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharides (sCVPSs) were potent inhibitors of NDV, with 50?% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from 62.55 to 76.31 µg ml(-1) in Baby hamster kidney fibroblasts clone 21 (BHK-21) and from 101.57 to 125.90 µg ml(-1) in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). sCVPS is more effective than heparan sulfate (HS; as a positive control) with IC50 values of 99.28 µg ml(-1) in BHK-21 and 118.79 µg ml(-1) in CEF. sCVPSs and HS exhibit anti-NDV activity by prevention of the early stages of viral life. The mechanism of action study indicated that virus adsorption in BHK-21, and both virus adsorption and penetration in CEF were inhibited by sCVPSs. When the number of viruses was increased to an m.o.i. of 0.1 in the immunofluorescence study and to an m.o.i. of 1 in the fluorescent quantitative PCR study, viral infection was also significantly suppressed; the antiviral activity of sCVPSs was independent of the m.o.i. sCVPSs also prevented the cell-to-cell spread of NDV. In vivo tests carried out on specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens showed that sCVPSs also inhibited virus multiplication in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. These results indicated that sCVPSs perform more effectively than HS as antiviral agents against NDV, and can be further examined for their potential as an alternative control measure for NDV infection. PMID:23884364

Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhao, Xinghong; Cheng, Anchun; Jia, Renyong; Yuan, Guiping; Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiaojia; Dai, Shujun; Lu, Hongke; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

2013-07-24

36

Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurring during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14% sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm(-1) in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1?6)-(1?3)-?-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1?3)-?-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1?3)-?-D-gluco-(1?2)-?-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC??=605.6 ?g/mL) and MI-S (EC??=342.1 ?g/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC??>1500 ?g/mL). PMID:23511057

Cardozo, F T G S; Camelini, C M; Cordeiro, M N S; Mascarello, A; Malagoli, B G; Larsen, I V; Rossi, M J; Nunes, R J; Braga, F C; Brandt, C R; Simões, C M O

2013-03-17

37

Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes).  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2012-01-17

38

Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway.

Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Celia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Katia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

2012-01-01

39

Sulfated modification of the water-soluble polysaccharides from Polyporus albicans mycelia and its potential biological activities.  

PubMed

In this study, three chemically sulfated polysaccharides (SPAPs) were derived from one water-soluble polysaccharide (PAP) of Polyporus albicans mycelia by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. The effects of polysaccharides on the immune function were examined after the mice were intragastrical administrated with polysaccharides at three doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 7 days. The results showed that both the lymphocytes proliferation and macrophage function were significantly enhanced by SPAP in all groups along with the increase of the substitution degree and dose (P<0.01). It indicated that SPAP could be a potential immunostimulants used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:18951914

Sun, Yongxu; Liang, Haitao; Cai, Guangzhi; Guan, Shuwen; Tong, Haibin; Yang, Xiudong; Liu, Jicheng

2008-09-30

40

Purification and Structural Characterization of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum and its Efficacy in Scavenging Free Radicals  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae are one of the commercially beneficial compounds with a range of pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. They are testified to be effective against free radicals and related health complications. This study aims to determine the antioxidant potential of the sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum, followed by its purification and structural characterization. Amount of extract obtained was 5% from 10 g of plant material. The carbohydrate and sulfate content were found to be 31 and 0.34 mg/10 g of plant material, respectively. Total sulfated polysaccharide extract showed a good radical scavenging activity at lower concentrations. The active principle from the total sulfated polysaccharide was fractionated in anion exchange and gel filtration columns followed by structural characterization using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fraction 12 closely matched with the Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of fucoidan. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that sulfated polysaccharide from Sargassum myriocystum is identified as Fucoidan with potential radical scavenging activity compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene.

Badrinathan, S.; Shiju, T. M.; Sharon Christa, A. Suneeva; Arya, R.; Pragasam, V.

2012-01-01

41

Sulfation modification and anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharides obtained from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits.  

PubMed

The optimal conditions for sulfation of polysaccharides from persimmon fruits (PFP) with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine (CSA-Pyr) method were determined by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables (volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time) on the degree of substitution (DS), molecular weight (MW) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of sulfated polysaccharides (PFP-S). The APTT activity of PFP-S could be improved by application of various volume ratio of Pyr to CSA, volume ratio of PFP to SO(3)Pyr and reaction time, which was possible due to the degradation of polysaccharides to different extent and increasing of DS. The optimal conditions to obtain the strongest APTT of PFP-S were the volume ratio of CSA to Pyr of 1:8, the volume ratio of SO(3)Pyr to PFP of 1:3.6 and the reaction time of 3 h, respectively. PMID:22960188

Lu, Xiaoyun; Mo, Xiaoyan; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Yali

2012-08-30

42

Production of N-sulfated polysaccharides using yeast-expressed N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1).  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate/heparin N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1) is a critical enzyme involved in heparan sulfate/heparin biosynthesis. This dual-function enzyme modifies the GlcNAc-GlcA disaccharide repeating sugar backbone to make N-sulfated heparosan. N-sulfation is an absolute requirement for the subsequent epimerization and O-sulfation steps in heparan sulfate/heparin biosynthesis. We have expressed rat liver (r) NDST-1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a soluble protein. The yeast-expressed enzyme has both N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase activities. N-acetyl heparosan, isolated from Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharide, de-N-sulfated heparin (DNSH) and completely desulfated N-acetylated heparan sulfate (CDSNAcHS) are all good substrates for the rNDST-1. However, N-desulfated, N-acetylated heparin (NDSNAcH) is a poor substrate. The rNDST-1 was partially purified on heparin Sepharose CL-6B. Purified rNDST-1 requires Mn(2+) for its enzymatic activity, can utilize PAPS regenerated in vitro by the PAPS cycle (PAP plus para-nitrophenylsulfate in the presence of arylsulfotransferase IV), and with the addition of exogenous PAPS is capable of producing 60-65% N-sulfated heparosan from E. coli K5 polysaccharide or Pasteurella multocida polysaccharide. PMID:15253930

Sariba?, A Sami; Mobasseri, Ali; Pristatsky, Pavlo; Chen, Xi; Barthelson, Roger; Hakes, David; Wang, Jin

2004-07-14

43

Sulfated polysaccharides of brown seaweed Cystoseira canariensis bind to serum myostatin protein.  

PubMed

Natural sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) derived from brown seaweed comprise a complex group of macromolecules with a wide range of important physiological properties. SPs have been shown to bind and directly regulate the bioactivity of growth factors and cytokines such as basic fibroblast growth factor, interferon, various enzymes and transforming growth factor. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family that acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. In this work we demonstrated that SPs isolated from the brown seaweed Cystoseira canariensis bind to the myostatin protein in serum. PMID:14570155

Ramazanov, Zakir; Jimenez del Rio, Miguel; Ziegenfuss, Tim

2003-01-01

44

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum.  

PubMed

Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan from Ascophyllum nodosum was investigated in vitro by various assays, and compared with those of fucoidan. A chemiluminescence (CL) analysis using a luminol analog, L-012, showed that ascophyllan scavenges superoxide, and the activity is greater than fucoidan. However, in the presence of 10?g/ml of ascophyllan or 10?g/ml and 100?g/ml of fucoidan, slightly enhanced CL-responses were observed. Since EDTA-treatment resulted in disappearance of the enhancement effects, it was suggested that metal ions especially iron ions in the polysaccharides might be involved in this phenomenon. In fact, metal element analysis revealed that ascophyllan and fucoidan inherently contain iron and other metal elements. EDTA-treatment resulted in significant increase in Fe(2+)-chelating activities of these polysaccharides. In an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping analysis in which direct UV-radiation to hydrogen peroxide was used as a source of hydroxyl radical, ascophyllan and fucoidan showed potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity with similar extent. Reducing power of ascophyllan was stronger than that of fucoidan. Our results indicate that ascophyllan can exhibit direct and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:23643974

Abu, Ryogo; Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

2013-05-02

45

Sulfated Astragalus polysaccharide can regulate the inflammatory reaction induced by LPS in Caco2 cells.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of sulfated Astragalus polysaccharide (SAPS) on inflammatory reaction induced by LPS in Caco2 cells. Sulfated modification was conducted using the chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. Caco2 cells were cultured with 25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL SAPS or 100 ?g/mL Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) for 24 h. Then, 1 ?g/mL LPS was added for the next 24 h to trigger an inflammatory response. DMEM culture medium was used as a blank control. In present study, LPS stimulation significantly increased the mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TLR4, and reduced the expression of ZO-1 and occludin. Compared with the LPS control group, APS (100 ?g/mL) or SAPS (100 ?g/mL) administration decreased the expression of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-8. Moreover, 25 ?g/mL and 50 ?g/mL SAPS down-regulated TNF-? and IL-1? expression. APS administration (100 ?g/mL) up-regulated occludin expression, but did not affect ZO-1 expression. However, the expression of ZO-1 and occludin was up-regulated by lower dose SAPS administration (25 ?g/mL and 50 ?g/mL). Compared with the other groups, the expression of TLR4 was lower in the SAPS group at all concentrations of SAPS. These results suggest that SAPS was to be a more effective anti-inflammatory agent than APS in vitro. PMID:23751319

Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Siyu; Li, Yulong; Wang, Fei; Yang, Xiaojun; Yao, Junhu

2013-06-07

46

A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group—vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation.

Silva, Renan O.; Santana, Ana Paula M.; Carvalho, Nathalia S.; Bezerra, Talita S.; Oliveira, Camila B.; Damasceno, Samara R. B.; Chaves, Luciano S.; Freitas, Ana Lucia P.; Soares, Pedro M. G.; Souza, Marcellus H. L. P.; Barbosa, Andre Luiz R.; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R.

2012-01-01

47

Structure and antioxidant activity study of sulfated acetamido-polysaccharide from Radix Hedysari.  

PubMed

A new sulfated acetamido-heteropolysaccharide, HPS4-2A, was obtained by aqueous extraction followed by precipitation with ethanol and fractionation with DEAE column chromatography from Radix Hedysari. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, galactose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose in the molar ratio of 10.09%:25.90%:25.90%:25.0%:12.30%. Elemental analysis indicated that HPS4-2A was a sulfated polysaccharide containing small amount of sulfate groups (1.87%). Partial acid hydrolysis, GC, GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis of the HPS4-2A revealed a predominance of glucose, galactose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose linked in a highly-branched structure. The molecular weight of HPS4-2A was determined by HPSEC and HPSEC-MALLS. AFM study indicated that HPS4-2A took a highly branched conformation, which in consistent with the result studied by SEC-MALLS. Structural features of HPS4-2A were also investigated by SEM and TEM. Antioxidant assays demonstrated that HPS4-2A possessed of strong DPPH and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, suggesting that HPS4-2A could potentially be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:23685046

Dang, Zilong; Feng, Demei; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Tao; Guo, Long; Liang, Jin; Liang, Jiandi; Hu, Fangdi; Cui, Fang; Feng, Shilan

2013-05-16

48

Pharmacological profiles of animal- and nonanimal-derived sulfated polysaccharides - comparison of unfractionated heparin, the semisynthetic glucan sulfate PS3, and the sulfated polysaccharide fraction isolated from Delesseria sanguinea  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) such as heparin are known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, e.g., anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastastic effects. However, since the anticoagulant activity of heparin is dominating, its therapeutic use for other medical indications is limited due to an associated risk of bleeding. Further disadvantages of heparin are its animal origin, the shortage of resources, and its complex and variable composition. However, SP without these limitations may represent a substance class with good prospects for applications other than anticoagulation. In this study, the in vitro pharmacological profiles of two nonanimal-derived SP were investigated in comparison with unfractionated heparin. One is the natural SP fraction from the red algae Delesseria sanguinea (D.s.-SP). The other one is the chemically defined PS3, a semisynthetic ?-1,3-glucan sulfate with proven in vivo anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic activities. All three polysaccharides were examined in vitro for their inhibitory effects on the coagulation and complement system, polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase, hyaluronidase, matrix metalloproteinase-1, heparanase, and p-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. Compared with heparin, the nonanimal-derived polysaccharides have a four times weaker anticoagulant activity, but mostly exhibit stronger (1.4–224 times) effects on test systems investigating targets of inflammation or metastasis. According to their different structures, PS3 and D.s.-SP differ in their pharmacological profile with PS3 being the strongest inhibitor of heparanase and cell adhesion and D.s.-SP being the strongest inhibitor of hyaluronidase and complement activation. Considering both pharmacological profile and pharmaceutical quality parameters, PS3 represents a candidate for further development as an anti-inflammatory or antimetastatic drug whereas D.s.-SP might have perspectives for cosmetic applications.

Groth, Inken; Grunewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

2009-01-01

49

METHOD OF INHIBITING CORROSION IN URANYL SULFATE SOLUTIONS  

DOEpatents

A method is given for treating a uranyl sulfate solution to inhibit the corrosiveness of the solution and elevate the phase separation temperature of the solution. Lithium sulfate is added to the solution in an amount ranging from 0.25 to 1.3 times the uranyl sulfate concentration. The corrosiveness of the solution with respect to stainless steel is substantially decreased by this means. This treatment also serves to raise the phase separation temperature of the solution (above 250 deg C), at which time the uranyl sulfate solution separates into two liquid phases of unequal uranium concentration and thus becomes unsuitable as nuclear reactor fuel.

Bohlmann, E.G.; Griess, J.C. Jr.

1960-08-23

50

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway.

Jaulneau, Valerie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerre-Tugaye, Marie-Therese; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

51

Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration. PMID:15269123

Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

2004-07-01

52

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Sargassum wightii and Halophila ovalis Sulfated Polysaccharides in Experimental Animal Models.  

PubMed

Abstract The present study investigated the effects of sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (Sw-SP) and seagrass Halophila ovalis (Ho-SP) in nociceptive and inflammatory models. In the formalin test, Sw-SP and Ho-SP significantly reduced licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 10?mg/kg. In the hot plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 10?mg/kg of Sw-SP and 5, 10?mg/kg of Ho-SP, suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism at the higher dose. Sw-SP and Ho-SP (10?mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3?h after treatment and potentially decreased neutrophil migration by 53% and 52%, respectively. In Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, there was a significant increase in the rat paw volume and decrease in body weight, but in Sw-SP- and Ho-SP-treated groups (10?mg/kg), a significant reduction in paw volume and a normal gain in body weight were observed. The present results indicate that Sw-SP and Ho-SP possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and have potential usefulness for development as therapeutic agents. PMID:23957357

Yuvaraj, Neelakandan; Kanmani, Paulraj; Satishkumar, Ramraj; Paari, Alagesan; Pattukumar, Vellaiyan; Arul, Venkatesan

2013-08-01

53

Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum Growth In Vitro and Adhesion to Chondroitin-4-Sulfate by the Heparan Sulfate Mimetic PI-88 and Other Sulfated Oligosaccharides  

PubMed Central

A panel of sulfated oligosaccharides was tested for antimalarial activity and inhibition of adhesion to the placental malaria receptor chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA). The heparan sulfate mimetic PI-88, currently undergoing phase II anticancer trials, displayed the greatest in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (50% inhibitory concentration of 7.4 ?M) and demonstrated modest adhesion inhibition to cell surface CSA.

Adams, Yvonne; Freeman, Craig; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Ferro, Vito; Parish, Christopher R.; Andrews, Katherine T.

2006-01-01

54

Antitumor and antimetastatic activity of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the Okhotsk sea Fucus evanescens brown alga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Fucus evanescens (brown alga in Okhotsk sea), was studied in C57Bl\\/6 mice with transplanted Lewis lung adenocarcinoma. Fucoidan after single\\u000a and repeated administration in a dose of 10 mg\\/kg produced moderate antitumor and antimetastatic effects and potentiated the\\u000a antimetastatic, but not antitumor activities of cyclophosphamide. Fucoidan in a dose

T. V. Alekseyenko; S. Ya. Zhanayeva; A. A. Venediktova; T. N. Zvyagintseva; T. A. Kuznetsova; N. N. Besednova; T. A. Korolenko

2007-01-01

55

An in vitro study of the structure-activity relationships of sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae to its antioxidant effect.  

PubMed

In this paper, the structure-activity relationships of chemically modified uronic acid polymer fragments from brown algae with regard to their antioxidant effects on H2O2-damaged lymphocyte were studied. The results indicated that the most potent antioxidant activity was obtained from the sulfated polysaccharide with ratio of mannuronate blocks (M-blocks) to guluronate blocks (G-blocks) of 3 to 1 and carboxyl residue unesterified. The sulfated G-blocks with esterified carboxyl residue also prevented lymphocyte from injury. However, the sulfated G-blocks bearing unesterified carboxyl residue hardly exerted antioxidant activity. These findings suggested that both M-blocks and esterified carboxyl residue were determinant structures in preventing lymphocyte from being oxidized by H202, indicating that the existence of M-blocks was more important in scavenging free radicals. PMID:11783590

Hu, J F; Gen, M Y; Zhang, J T; Jiang, H D

2001-01-01

56

In vivo anti-herpes simplex virus activity of a sulfated derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis mycelial polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. subrufescens), a basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest in Brazil, contains cell walls rich in glucomannan polysaccharides. The ?-(1 ? 2)-gluco-?-(1 ? 3)-mannan was isolated from A. brasiliensis mycelium, chemically modified by sulfation, and named MI-S. MI-S has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) attachment, entry, and cell-to-cell spread (F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. M. Camelini, A. Mascarello, M. J. Rossi, R. J. Nunes, C. R. Barardi, M. M. de Mendonça, and C. M. O. Simões, Antiviral Res. 92:108-114, 2011). The antiherpetic efficacy of MI-S was assessed in murine ocular, cutaneous, and genital infection models of HSV. Groups of 10 mice were infected with HSV-1 (strain KOS) or HSV-2 (strain 333). MI-S was given either topically or by oral gavage under various pre- and posttreatment regimens, and the severity of disease and viral titers in ocular and vaginal samples were determined. No toxicity was observed in the uninfected groups treated with MI-S. The topical and oral treatments with MI-S were not effective in reducing ocular disease. Topical application of MI-S on skin lesions was also not effective, but cutaneously infected mice treated orally with MI-S had significantly reduced disease scores (P < 0.05) after day 9, suggesting that healing was accelerated. Vaginal administration of MI-S 20 min before viral challenge reduced the mean disease scores on days 5 to 9 (P < 0.05), viral titers on day 1 (P < 0.05), and mortality (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the control groups (untreated and vehicle treated). These results show that MI-S may be useful as an oral agent to reduce the severity of HSV cutaneous and mucosal lesions and, more importantly, as a microbicide to block sexual transmission of HSV-2 genital infections. PMID:23507287

Cardozo, F T G S; Larsen, I V; Carballo, E V; Jose, G; Stern, R A; Brummel, R C; Camelini, C M; Rossi, M J; Simões, C M O; Brandt, C R

2013-03-18

57

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide inhibits the infectivity of Newcastle disease virus to chicken embryo fibroblast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBPS) was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. After purification, four sulfated lycium barbarum polysaccharides (sLBPSs), sLBPS0.7, sLBPS1.1, sLBPS1.5 and sLBPS1.9, were prepared by chlorosulfonic acid–pyridine method respectively at four designed modification conditions. Four sLBPSs at 5 concentrations, within the safety concentration scope, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were added into cultivating system of chick embryo

Junmin Wang; Yuanliang Hu; Deyun Wang; Fan Zhang; Xiaona Zhao; Saifuding Abula; Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo

2010-01-01

58

Inhibition of the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in oat coleoptile segments by jasmonic acid: Relevance to its growth inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory mode of action of jasmonic acid (JA) on the growth of etiolated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) coleoptile segments was studied in relation to the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides using [14C]glucose. Exogenously applied JA significantly inhibited indoleacetic acid (IAA)-induced elongation of oat coleoptile segments\\u000a and prevented the increase of the total amounts of cell wall polysaccharides

Junichi Ueda; Kensuke Miyamoto; Seiichiro Kamisaka

1995-01-01

59

Acidic polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits melanoma cell metastasis by blocking cell adhesion and invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidic polysaccharide (PL) from Phellinus linteus is an immunostimulator that has therapeutic activity against cancers. Here, we show that PL markedly inhibits melanoma cell metastasis in mice, and report that PL directly inhibits cancer cell adhesion to and invasion through the extracellular matrix, but that it has no direct effect on cancer cell growth. In addition, we found that

Sang-Bae Han; Chang Woo Lee; Jong Soon Kang; Yeo Dae Yoon; Ki Hoon Lee; Kiho Lee; Song-Kyu Park; Hwan Mook Kim

2006-01-01

60

Expression of Vibrio vulnificus Capsular Polysaccharide Inhibits Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is a human pathogen that produces lethal septicemia in susceptible persons, and the primary virulence factor for this organism is capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The role of the capsule in V. vulnificus biofilms was examined under a variety of conditions, by using either defined CPS mutants or spontaneous CPS expression phase variants derived from multiple strains. CPS expression was

Lavin A. Joseph; Anita C. Wright

2004-01-01

61

Inhibition of oxidative stress by low-molecular-weight polysaccharides with various functional groups in skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS' functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent. PMID:24071940

Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Chu-Hsi; Tsai, Min-Lang; Chen, Rong-Huei; Drummen, Gregor P C

2013-09-25

62

Polysaccharides isolated from Phellinus gilvus inhibit melanoma growth in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no information about the effect of polysaccharides from fungus, Phellinus gilvus (PG) on melanoma. The effect of PG on the proliferation and apoptosis of the B16F10 melanoma cell line was determined by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) and a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The in vivo effect of PG on B16F10 melanoma cells allografted in athymic nude mice was

Jae-sung Bae; Kwang-ho Jang; Hyunee Yim; Hee-kyung Jin

2005-01-01

63

Broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition by a secreted bacterial polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

The development of surface-attached biofilm bacterial communities is considered an important source of nosocomial infections. Recently, bacterial interference via signaling molecules and surface active compounds was shown to antagonize biofilm formation, suggesting that nonantibiotic molecules produced during competitive interactions between bacteria could be used for biofilm reduction. Hence, a better understanding of commensal/pathogen interactions within bacterial community could lead to an improved control of exogenous pathogens. To reveal adhesion or growth-related bacterial interference, we investigated interactions between uropathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli in mixed in vitro biofilms. We demonstrate here that the uropathogenic strain CFT073 and all E. coli expressing group II capsules release into their environment a soluble polysaccharide that induces physicochemical surface alterations, which prevent biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We show that the treatment of abiotic surfaces with group II capsular polysaccharides drastically reduces both initial adhesion and biofilm development by important nosocomial pathogens. These findings identify capsular polymers as antiadhesion bacterial interference molecules, which may prove to be of significance in the design of new strategies to limit biofilm formation on medical in dwelling devices.

Valle, Jaione; Da Re, Sandra; Henry, Nelly; Fontaine, Thierry; Balestrino, Damien; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

2006-01-01

64

Anti-Kaposi's Sarcoma and Antiangiogenic Activities of Sulfated Dextrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivery of the sulfated polysaccharide dextrin 2-sulfate by the intraperitoneal route to the lymphatic circulation resulted in a clinically significant improvement in Kaposi's sarcoma in three patients. Our in vitro studies show that although sulfated dextrins do not interfere with the growth of isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, they do inhibit the morphological differentiation of endothelial cells into tubes

MARK THORNTON; LAURA BARKLEY; JUSTIN C. MASON; SUNIL SHAUNAK

65

Structural revision of sulfated polysaccharide B-1 isolated from a marine Pseudomonas species and its cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The structure of a sulfated polysaccharide (B-1) isolated and purified from the culture filtrate of marine Pseudomonas sp. WAK-1 was revised to have a repeating unit as follows: -2)-beta-D-Galp(4SO4)(1-4)[beta-D-Glcp(1-6)]-beta-D-Galp(3SO4)(1-. B-1 was evaluated for anticancer activity using a human cancer cell line panel coupled with a drug sensitivity database. The average B-1 concentration required for 50% growth inhibition against the panel of 39 cell lines was 63.2 micro g/ml. Among the cancer cell lines tested, high sensitivities to B-1 were observed in central nervous system cancer and lung cancer cell lines. The COMPARE analysis revealed that the differential growth inhibition pattern of B-1 had no significant correlation with those of more than 200 standard compounds, most of which were anticancer drugs and different types of inhibitors. This lack of similarities in the cytotoxic patterns appears to reflect previously unrecognized biological properties of B-1. It was revealed that B-1 induced apoptosis in U937 cells, as shown by cell morphology and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. PMID:12925914

Matsuda, Masahiro; Yamori, Takao; Naitoh, Mikihiko; Okutani, Koichi

66

Sulfated cyclodextrins inhibit the entry of Plasmodium into red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sulfated cyclodextrins on Plasmodium falciparum cultures was determined. ?-, ?-, and ?-Cyclodextrins having equal degrees of sulfation inhibited parasite viability to a similar degree, a result suggesting that the ring size of the cyclodextrin is not a critical factor for inhibitory activity. ?-Cyclodextrins containing fewer than two sulfate groups had no inhibitory activity, however, compounds containing 7–17

Ian E. Crandall; Walter A. Szarek; Jason Z. Vlahakis; Yiming Xu; Rahul Vohra; Jie Sui; Robert Kisilevsky

2007-01-01

67

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans inhibit oligodendrocyte myelination through PTP?.  

PubMed

CNS damage often results in demyelination of spared axons due to oligodendroglial cell death and dysfunction near the injury site. Although new oligodendroglia are generated following CNS injury and disease, the process of remyelination is typically incomplete resulting in long-term functional deficits. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in CNS grey and white matter following injury and disease and are a major component of the inhibitory scar that suppresses axon regeneration. CSPG inhibition of axonal regeneration is mediated, at least in part, by the protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTP?) receptor. Recent evidence demonstrates that CSPGs inhibit OL process outgrowth, however, the means by which their effects are mediated remains unclear. Here we investigate the role of PTP? in CSPG inhibition of OL function. We found that the CSPGs, aggrecan, neurocan and NG2 all imposed an inhibitory effect on OL process outgrowth and myelination. These inhibitory effects were reversed by degradation of CSPGs with Chondroitinase ABC prior to OL exposure. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of PTP? reversed the inhibitory effect of CSPGs on OL process outgrowth and myelination. Likewise, CSPG inhibition of process outgrowth and myelination was significantly reduced in cultures containing PTP?(-/-) OLs. Finally, inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) increased OL process outgrowth and myelination during exposure to CSPGs. These results suggest that in addition to their inhibitory effects on axon regeneration, CSPGs have multiple inhibitory actions on OLs that result in incomplete remyelination following CNS injury. The identification of PTP? as a receptor for CSPGs, and the participation of ROCK downstream of CSPG exposure, reveal potential therapeutic targets to enhance white matter repair in the damaged CNS. PMID:23588220

Pendleton, James C; Shamblott, Michael J; Gary, Devin S; Belegu, Visar; Hurtado, Andres; Malone, Misti L; McDonald, John W

2013-04-12

68

Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization  

SciTech Connect

Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

1988-01-01

69

Maleic acid based scale inhibitors for calcium sulfate scale inhibition in high temperature application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In anhydrite rich reservoir rock, calcium sulfate is one of the dominant scale components which unlike carbonate scale are not easily removable by acid or dissolver treatment. To inhibit calcium sulfate scale formation in high temperature producing brine water systems, maleic acid–acrylic acid and maleic acid–acrylamide copolymers of appropriate molecular weight were synthesized and characterized and inhibition efficiency of the

B. Senthilmurugan; B. Ghosh; S. S. Kundu; M. Haroun; B. Kameshwari

2010-01-01

70

Inactivation of thrombin by a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide extracted from the sea cucumber body wall has the same backbone structure as the mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. These branches confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide. Since the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate has analogy in structure with mammalian glycosaminoglycans and sulfated fucans from brown algae, we compared its anticoagulant action with that of heparin and of a homopolymeric sulfated fucan with approximately the same level of sulfation as the sulfated fucose branches found in the sea cucumber polysaccharide. These various compounds differ not only in their anticoagulant potencies but also in the mechanisms of thrombin inhibition. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, like heparin, requires antithrombin or heparin cofactor II for thrombin inhibition. Sulfated fucans from brown algae have an antithrombin effect mediated by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, plus a direct antithrombin effect more pronounced for some fractions. But even in the case of these two polysaccharides, we observed some differences. In contrast with heparin, total inhibition of thrombin in the presence of antithrombin is not achieved with fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, possibly reflecting a less specific interaction. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is able to inhibit thrombin generation after stimulation by both contact-activated and thromboplastin-activated systems. It delayed only the contact-induced thrombin generation, as expected for an anticoagulant without direct thrombin inhibition. Overall, the specific spatial array of the sulfated fucose branches in the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate not only confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide but also determine differences in the way it inhibits thrombin. PMID:11323028

Mourão, P A; Boisson-Vidal, C; Tapon-Bretaudière, J; Drouet, B; Bros, A; Fischer, A

2001-04-15

71

PI-88 and novel heparan sulfate mimetics inhibit angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The heparan sulfate (HS) mimetic PI-88 is a promising inhibitor of tumor growth and metastasis expected to commence phase III clinical evaluation in 2007 as an adjuvant therapy for postresection hepatocellular carcinoma. Its anticancer properties are attributed to inhibition of angiogenesis via antagonism of the interactions of angiogenic growth factors and their receptors with HS. It is also a potent inhibitor of heparanase, an enzyme that plays a key role in both metastasis and angiogenesis. A series of PI-88 analogs have been prepared with enhanced chemical and biological properties. The new compounds consist of single, defined oligosaccharides with specific modifications designed to improve their pharmacokinetic properties. These analogs all inhibit heparanase and bind to the angiogenic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), FGF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor with similar affinity to PI-88. However, compared with PI-88, some of the newly designed compounds are more potent inhibitors of growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation and of endothelial tube formation on Matrigel. Representative compounds were also tested for antiangiogenic activity in vivo and were found to reduce significantly blood vessel formation. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic profile of several analogs was also improved, as evidenced primarily by lower clearance in comparison with PI-88. The current data support the development of HS mimetics as potent antiangiogenic anticancer agents. PMID:17629854

Ferro, Vito; Dredge, Keith; Liu, Ligong; Hammond, Edward; Bytheway, Ian; Li, Caiping; Johnstone, Ken; Karoli, Tomislav; Davis, Kat; Copeman, Elizabeth; Gautam, Anand

2007-07-01

72

Inhibition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative injury induced by ?-irradiation in rat liver mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum and Ganoderma lucidum, the two precious traditional Chinese medicines, possesses the antitumor activity, antioxidant activity and the capability of modulating the immune system. In the present study, the possible antioxidant effects of L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) isolated from dried L. barbarum fruits and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) isolated from dried G. lucidum against membrane damage induced by the

X. L. Li; A. G. Zhou; X. M. Li

2007-01-01

73

Sulfation of the extracellular polysaccharide produced by the edible mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju alters its antioxidant, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extracellular polysaccharide (PN) composed of mannose:3-O-methyl-galactose:galactose:glucose (44.9:16.3:19.8:19) was obtained from Pleurotus sajor-caju. This polymer showed specific antioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging, reducing power and ferric chelating, but it did not possess anticoagulant or antiproliferative activities. Through chemical modification of PN, the hydroxyl radical scavenging and reducing power activities of PN increased. A derived sulfated

Cinthia B. S. Telles; Diego A. Sabry; Jailma Almeida-Lima; Mariana S. S. P. Costa; Raniere F. Melo-Silveira; Edvaldo S. Trindade; Guilherme L. Sassaki; Elisabeth Wisbeck; Sandra A. Furlan; Edda L. Leite; Hugo A. O. Rocha

2011-01-01

74

Performance of a non-phosphorus antiscalant on inhibition of calcium-sulfate precipitation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to report on the performance of a novel non-phosphorus antiscalant, acrylic acid (AA)-allylpolyethoxy carboxylate (APEC), being developed for calcium-sulfate scale inhibition in industrial water systems. The performance of AA-APEC on calcium-sulfate scale inhibition was compared with that of the two commercial inhibitors, polyamino polyether methylene phosphonates (PAPEMP) and polyacrylic acid (PAA), containing the same polyethylene glycol segments or carboxyl functional groups as AA-APEC. The study indicated that AA-APEC could act as a highly effective calcium sulfate inhibitor, having strong ability to inhibit the precipitation of calcium sulfate at a dosage of 2 mg L(-1), showing approximately 83.6% inhibition. The results also showed that AA-APEC dosage, the solution pH, inhibiting temperature, concentration of Ca(2+), and SO(4)(2-) all play important roles in inhibiting calcium-sulfate precipitation. The precipitation thermodynamics and kinetics at different temperatures were also discussed. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed that AA-APEC strongly affected the texture and the morphology of the deposited calcium sulfate. Calcium sulfate has been inhibited through stabilization by adsorption onto crystal growth sites of nascent crystals altering their morphology. PMID:22678218

Xue, Xiaoxu; Fu, Change; Li, Na; Zheng, Fangfang; Yang, Weiben; Yang, Xiaodi

2012-01-01

75

Adrenal Androgen Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Inhibits Vascular Remodeling Following Arterial Injury  

PubMed Central

Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have a significant inverse correlation with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. However, direct evidence for the association with DHEAS and vascular disorders has not yet been explored. DHEAS significantly reduced neointima formation 28 days after surgery without altering other serum metabolite levels in a rabbit carotid balloon injury model. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and increase of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) index, expressing differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers in the media 7 days after surgery. In vitro, DHEAS exhibited inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation and migration activities, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest with upregulation of one of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16INK4a and apoptosis with activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? in VSMCs. DHEAS inhibits vascular remodeling reducing neointima formation after vascular injury via its effects on VSMC phenotypic modulation, functions and apoptosis upregulating p16INK4a/activating PPAR?. DHEAS may play a pathophysiological role for vascular remodeling in cardiovascular disease.

Ii, Masaaki; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Negoro, Nobuyuki; Fukui, Ryosuke; Nakakoji, Takahiro; Kohbayashi, Eiko; Shibata, Nobuhiko; Furutama, Daisuke; Ishihara, Tadashi; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Losordo, Douglas W.; Ohsawa, Nakaaki

2009-01-01

76

Sulfated-polysaccharide fraction from red algae Gracilaria caudata protects mice gut against ethanol-induced damage.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg(-1), p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g(-1), p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg(-1), i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg(-1), p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg(-1), i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg(-1), p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25 g(-1), p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/K(ATP) pathway. PMID:22163181

Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; Chaves, Luciano de Souza; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2011-11-02

77

Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Red Algae Gracilaria caudata Protects Mice Gut Against Ethanol-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the gastroprotective activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide (PLS) fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata and the mechanism underlying the gastroprotective activity. Male Swiss mice were treated with PLS (3, 10, 30 and 90 mg·kg?1, p.o.), and after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g?1, p.o.). One hour later, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. Samples of the stomach tissue were also obtained for histopathological assessment and for assays of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Other groups were pretreated with l-NAME (10 mg·kg?1, i.p.), dl-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg·kg?1, p.o.) or glibenclamide (5 mg·kg?1, i.p.). After 1 h, PLS (30 mg·kg?1, p.o.) was administered. After 30 min, ethanol 50% was administered (0.5 mL/25g?1, p.o.), followed by sacrifice after 60 min. PLS prevented-ethanol-induced macroscopic and microscopic gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with l-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of propargylglycine did not influence the effect of PLS. Our results suggest that PLS has a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice via activation of the NO/KATP pathway.

Silva, Renan Oliveira; dos Santos, Geice Maria Pereira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Lucetti, Larisse Tavares; Santana, Ana Paula Macedo; de Souza Chaves, Luciano; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lucia Ponte; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

2011-01-01

78

Pharmacologic approaches to butterfly wing patterning: sulfated polysaccharides mimic or antagonize cold shock and alter the interpretation of gradients of positional information.  

PubMed

Butterflies produce complex and diverse wing patterns by mechanisms that are generally unknown. We have employed a pharmacological approach to explore the molecular mechanisms of pattern formation. In a screen of over 200 compounds injected into developing Junonia coenia pupae, we identified several specific sulfated polysaccharides that caused widespread, dose-dependent effects on adult wing patterns. These compounds were well tolerated and permitted butterflies to eclose normally and take flight at moderate levels of effect. Heparin and closely related chondroitin sulfates caused stage-specific expansion of distal and proximal band systems and reduction and repatterning of eyespots. Dextran sulfate and fucoidan, whose structures are widely divergent from heparin and one another, caused contraction of distal and proximal systems, but had no effect on eyespots. Nonsulfated or nonpolymeric saccharides were without effect. Pattern alterations were indistinguishable from those reported for extreme cold shock and exposure to sodium tungstate and "molsin". When administered after cold shock or coinjected with heparin, dextran sulfate reversed all patterning effects. We suggest that the primary effect of polysaccharide treatments is to alter the interpretation of gradients of positional information along the proximodistal axis of the pupal wing. PMID:16216238

Serfas, Michael S; Carroll, Sean B

2005-10-10

79

Optimal conditions for the production of sulfated polysaccharide by marine microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03.  

PubMed

A marine microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03 produced sulfated exopolysaccharide designated as p-KG03, which showed a strong antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). To optimize culture conditions for the production of p-KG03, mineral salts, vitamins, plant growth hormones, temperature, pH and light conditions were examined. From this study, M-KG03 medium for the maximum production of p-KG03 was suggested as follows; NH(4)Cl 75 microM, NaH(3)PO(4) 200 microM, NaHCO(3) 50 microM, Na(2)SO(4) 10 microM, FeCl(2) x 6H(2)O 10 microM, MnCl(2) x 4H(2)O 0.1 microM, vitamin B(12) 0.75 microg, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) 7.5 microg and myo-inositol 200 mg per liter of aged sea water. The optimal temperature and pH were 22.5 degrees C and 8.0, respectively. The optimal light conditions of intensity and period were 150 microE m(-2) s(-1) and 16:8 h light:dark cycle. Finally, the cell growth and p-KG03 production were measured in one liter of M-KG03 medium with 1% CO(2) and 50 ml min(-1) of airflow using two liters airlift balloon type photobioreactor (ABTPR). At these optimal conditions, p-KG03 production and cell growth were 134.6+/-5.9 mg l(-1) and 123,076+/-1,597 cells ml(-1), respectively, representing a 7.7 and 5.1 times compared with f/2 medium with Erlenmeyer flask culture (p-KG03 production 17.5+/-1.3 mg l(-1) and cell growth 24,311+/-1,291 cells ml(-1)). PMID:12919808

Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Sung Jin; Ahn, Se Hoon; Lee, Hong Kum

2003-07-01

80

Targeted downregulation of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase significantly mitigates chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-mediated inhibition.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate-4,6 (CS-E) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) upregulation in astroglial scars is a major contributor to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-mediated inhibition [Gilbert et al. (2005) Mol Cell Neurosci 29:545–558]. However, the role of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S6ST) catalyzed sulfation of CS-E, and its contribution to CSPG-mediated inhibition of CNS regeneration remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we used in situ hybridization to show localized upregulation of GalNAc4S6ST mRNA after CNS injury. Using in vitro spot assays with immobilized CS-E, we demonstrate dose-dependent inhibition of rat embryonic day 18 (E18) cortical neurons. To determine whether selective downregulation of CS-E affected the overall inhibitory character of extracellular matrix produced by reactive astrocytes, single [against (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (C4ST1) or GalNAc4S6ST mRNA] or double [against C4ST1 and GalNAc4S6ST mRNA] siRNA treatments were conducted and assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography to confirm the specific downregulation of CS-4S GAG (CS-A) and CS-E. Spot and Bonhoeffer stripe assays using astrocyte-conditioned media from siRNA-treated rat astrocytes showed a significant decrease in inhibition of neuronal attachment and neurite extensions when compared with untreated and TGF-treated astrocytes. These findings reveal that selective attenuation of CS-E via siRNA targeting of GalNAc4S6ST significantly mitigates CSPG-mediated inhibition of neurons, potentially offering a novel intervention strategy for CNS injury. PMID:21456043

Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Anand, Sanjay; Thazhath, Rupal; Zhong, Yinghui; McKeon, Robert J; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

2011-03-31

81

Biosynthesis of heparin/heparan sulfate: kinetic studies of the glucuronyl C5-epimerase with N-sulfated derivatives of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide as substrates.  

PubMed

The D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase involved in the biosynthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate was investigated with focus on its substrate specificity, its kinetic properties, and a comparison of epimerase preparations from the Furth mastocytoma and bovine liver, which synthesize heparin and heparan sulfate, respectively. New substrates for the epimerase were prepared from the capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli K5, which had been labeled at C5 of its D-glucuronic and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine moieties by growing the bacteria in the presence of D-[5-(3)H]glucose. Following complete or partial ( approximately 50%) N-deacetylation of the polysaccharide by hydrazinolysis, the free amino groups were sulfated by treatment with trimethylamine.SO(3)complex, which yielded products that were recognized as substrates by the epimerase and released tritium from C5 of the D-glucuronyl residues upon incubation with the enzyme. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the two substrates showed that the fully N-sulfated derivative was the best substrate in terms of its K(m)value, which was significantly lower than that of its partially N-acetylated counterpart. The V(max)values for the E.coli polysaccharide derivatives were essentially the same but were both lower than that of the O-desulfated [(3)H]heparin used in our previous studies. Surprisingly, the apparent K(m)values for all three substrates increased with increasing enzyme concentration. The reason for this phenomenon is not entirely clear at present. Partially purified C5-epimerase preparations from the Furth mastocytoma and bovine liver, respectively, behaved similarly in terms of their reactivity towards the various substrates, but the variation in apparent K(m)values with enzyme concentration precluded a detailed comparison of their kinetic properties. PMID:10642607

Hagner-McWhirter, A; Hannesson, H H; Campbell, P; Westley, J; Rodén, L; Lindahl, U; Li, J P

2000-02-01

82

[Polysaccharides from Scurrula parasitica L. inhibit sarcoma S180 growth in mice].  

PubMed

To study the anti-tumor activity of Scurrula parasitica polysaccharides (SP). Water extraction and ethanol precipitation were used to isolate SP from S. parasitica leaf. S180, K562 and HL-60 cell lines proliferation inhibition by SP were detected by MTT assay. The expressions of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, Bax and Bcl-2 protein in the sarcoma S180 tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique to approach the anti-tumor mechanism of SP+ SP could not inhibit cancer cell proliferation. SP ip could inhibit the growth of sarcoma S180 in mice, 100 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). SP ip was the optimal dose on inhibiting S180 growth, with the tumor inhibition rate of 54%. The expression of Ki-67, Cyclin D1, Bax and Bcl-2 protein in the sarcoma S180 tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry technique to approach the anti-tumor mechanism of SP. The result showed that SP could down-regulate the expression of Ki-67, CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulate the expression of Bax protein. It indicted that inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell apoptosis in vivo maybe one of the anti-cancer mechanisms of SP. PMID:20423011

Xiao, Yijun; Fan, Yanli; Chen, Binghua; Zhang, Qiujin; Zeng, Hong

2010-02-01

83

Inhibition of Sulfate Respiration by 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone and Other Anthraquinone Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Derivatives of 9,10-anthracenedione, or anthraquinone, were shown to inhibit respiratory sulfate reduction by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria, as well as by crude enrichment cultures. Structure-activity studies showed that an increasing degree of substitution of the anthraquinone nucleus resulted in increasing 50% inhibition (I(inf50)) values for sulfate respiration. Addition of charged ring substituents also resulted in an increase in the I(inf50) concentration. Experiments carried out with 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone demonstrated inhibition of hydrogen-dependent sulfate respiration but not hydrogen-dependent sulfite or thiosulfate respiration. Addition of pyruvate resulted in stimulation of sulfate-dependent hydrogen oxidation in the presence of the anthraquinone. These observations, together with a direct demonstration of uncoupling in French press vesicle preparations, suggest that the underlying mechanism of inhibition is uncoupling of ATP synthesis from electron transfer reactions. The low I(inf50) values for inhibition (0.5 to 10 (mu)M) and the relatively low general toxicity of anthraquinones suggest that these compounds may be useful for inhibition of sulfide generation in situations which are incompatible with the use of broadly toxic biocides.

Cooling, FB I.; Maloney, C. L.; Nagel, E.; Tabinowski, J.; Odom, J. M.

1996-01-01

84

Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

85

Polysaccharide Isolated from Angelica sinensis Inhibits Hepcidin Expression in Rats with Iron Deficiency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Abstract A novel polysaccharide named Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) was obtained from the powdered and defatted roots of A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. The molecular weight of ASP was determined to be 78?kDa and was 95.0% sugars consisting of mostly arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 1:5.68:3.91. A previous study indicated that ASP may increase plasma iron levels by suppressing the expression of hepcidin, a negative regulator of body iron metabolism, in the liver. The present study aims to clarify the inhibitory effect of ASP on hepcidin expression in rat models of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and clarify the mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that ASP significantly reduced hepcidin expression by inhibiting the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4) in liver and stimulating the secretion of erythropoietin, which further downregulated hepcidin by repressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/5. The results indicate that ASP can suppress the expression of hepcidin in rats with IDA, and may be useful for the treatment of IDA.

Liu, Jin-Yu; Zhang, Yu; You, Ru-Xu; Zeng, Fang; Guo, Dan

2012-01-01

86

Genetic alteration of endothelial heparan sulfate selectively inhibits tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

To examine the role of endothelial heparan sulfate during angiogenesis, we generated mice bearing an endothelial-targeted deletion in the biosynthetic enzyme N-acetylglucosamine N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (Ndst1). Physiological angiogenesis during cutaneous wound repair was unaffected, as was growth and reproductive capacity of the mice. In contrast, pathological angiogenesis in experimental tumors was altered, resulting in smaller tumors and reduced microvascular density and branching. To simulate the angiogenic environment of the tumor, endothelial cells were isolated and propagated in vitro with proangiogenic growth factors. Binding of FGF-2 and VEGF164 to cells and to purified heparan sulfate was dramatically reduced. Mutant endothelial cells also exhibited altered sprouting responses to FGF-2 and VEGF164, reduced Erk phosphorylation, and an increase in apoptosis in branching assays. Corresponding changes in growth factor binding to tumor endothelium and apoptosis were also observed in vivo. These findings demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of heparan sulfate on endothelial cell growth in the context of tumor angiogenesis.

Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun; Castagnola, Janice; Sikora, Lyudmila; Reddi, Krisanavane; Lee, Phillip H.A.; Radek, Katherine A.; Schuksz, Manuela; Bishop, Joseph R.; Gallo, Richard L.; Sriramarao, P.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2007-01-01

87

Important determinants for fucoidan bioactivity: a critical review of structure-function relations and extraction methods for fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds.  

PubMed

Seaweeds--or marine macroalgae--notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1?3)-linked ?-L-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1?3)- and (1?4)-linked ?-L-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1?6)-?-D-galacto- and/or (1?2)-?-D-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups. PMID:22073012

Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

2011-10-24

88

Pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate inhibit GABA-gated chloride currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing picrotoxin-insensitive GABA A receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of picrotoxinin, pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) responses in Xenopus oocytes injected with wild type ?1, ?2 and ?2 GABAA receptor subunits and in oocytes injected with wild type ?1 and ?2 subunits and a mutated ?2 subunit that eliminates picrotoxin sensitivity. All three agents inhibited GABA currents in oocytes

Weixing Shen; Steven Mennerick; Erik C Zorumski; Douglas F Covey; Charles F Zorumski

1999-01-01

89

Competitive Mechanisms for Inhibition of Sulfate Reduction and Methane Production in the Zone of Ferric Iron Reduction in Sediments  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of Fe(III) reduction in sediments were investigated. Addition of amorphic iron(III) oxyhydroxide to sediments in which sulfate reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process inhibited sulfate reduction 86 to 100%. The decrease in electron flow to sulfate reduction was accompanied by a corresponding increase in electron flow to Fe(III) reduction. In a similar manner, Fe(III) additions also inhibited methane production in sulfate-depleted sediments. The inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production was the result of substrate limitation, because the sediments retained the potential for sulfate reduction and methane production in the presence of excess hydrogen and acetate. Sediments in which Fe(III) reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process had much lower concentrations of hydrogen and acetate than sediments in which sulfate reduction or methane production was the predominant terminal process. The low concentrations of hydrogen and acetate in the Fe(III)-reducing sediments were the result of metabolism by Fe(III)-reducing organisms of hydrogen and acetate at concentrations lower than sulfate reducers or methanogens could metabolize them. The results indicate that when Fe(III) is in a form that Fe(III)-reducing organisms can readily reduce, Fe(III)-reducing organisms can inhibit sulfate reduction and methane production by outcompeting sulfate reducers and methanogens for electron donors.

Lovley, Derek R.; Phillips, Elizabeth J. P.

1987-01-01

90

Effect of sulfate ions on corrosion inhibition of AA 7075 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the addition of sulfate ions on corrosion inhibition of Aluminum Association (AA) 7075 aluminum (Al) alloy (UNS A97075) in aqueous solution was studied. Corrosion behavior was affected significantly by the addition of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. The corrosion morphology and corrosion rate changed with various thermomechanical treatment sand with the relative amount of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the immersion test solutions. However, the inhibitive effect of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} was evident with the increasing relative amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Corrosion data and morphologies obtained were illustrated by a competitive anion adsorption mechanism.

Wu, T.I. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Wu, J.K. [National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Marine Materials Engineering

1995-03-01

91

Neisseria meningitidis type C capsular polysaccharide inhibits lipooligosaccharide-induced cell activation by binding to CD14.  

PubMed

Encapsulated Neisseria meningitidis can invade mucosal barriers and cause systemic diseases. Activation of the innate immune system by conserved meningococcal molecules such as lipooligosaccharides (LOS) is essential for the generation of an effective host immune response. Here we show that the type C capsular polysaccharide of N. meningitidis (MCPS) inhibited LOS-induced interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha secretion from monocytes, and blocked the maturation of dendritic cells induced by LOS, while the capsular polysaccharide from group B streptococcus type III and t(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP)-Ficoll had no such effect. MCPS also inhibited the LOS-induced NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation of signalling molecules such as ERK1/2, p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase. In a direct binding assay, MCPS manifested a concentration-dependent binding to recombinant lipoprotein binding protein and CD14, the two members of the LOS receptor complex. In addition, the binding of LOS to CD14 and lipopolysaccharide binding protein was inhibited by MCPS. We established that MCPS binding to CD14 is responsible for the inhibition of LOS-mediated cell activation because MCPS inhibition of LOS was reversed when access amounts of CD14 were added to culture media of HEK293 cells expressing TLR4 and MD-2, and the magnitude of recovery in LOS stimulation correlated with the increase in CD14 concentration. These results suggest a new virulence property of meningococcal capsular polysaccharides. PMID:17250593

Kocabas, Can; Katsenelson, Nora; Kanswal, Sunita; Kennedy, Margaret N; Cui, Xinle; Blake, Milan S; Segal, David M; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa

2007-01-22

92

Synthetic Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides Inhibit Endothelial Cell Functions Essential for Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important regulator of the assembly and activity of various angiogenic signalling complexes. However, the significance of precisely defined HS structures in regulating cytokine-dependent angiogenic cellular functions and signalling through receptors regulating angiogenic responses remains unclear. Understanding such structure-activity relationships is important for the rational design of HS fragments that inhibit HS-dependent angiogenic signalling complexes. Methodology/Principal Findings We synthesized a series of HS oligosaccharides ranging from 7 to 12 saccharide residues that contained a repeating disaccharide unit consisting of iduronate 2-O-sulfate linked to glucosamine with or without N-sulfate. The ability of oligosaccharides to compete with HS for FGF2 and VEGF165 binding significantly increased with oligosaccharide length and sulfation. Correspondingly, the inhibitory potential of oligosaccharides against FGF2- and VEGF165-induced endothelial cell responses was greater in longer oligosaccharide species that were comprised of disaccharides bearing both 2-O- and N-sulfation (2SNS). FGF2- and VEGF165-induced endothelial cell migration were inhibited by longer 2SNS oligosaccharide species with 2SNS dodecasaccharide activity being comparable to that of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting FGFR or VEGFR-2. Moreover, the 2SNS dodecasaccharide ablated FGF2- or VEGF165-induced phosphorylation of FAK and assembly of F-actin in peripheral lamellipodia-like structures. In contrast, FGF2-induced endothelial cell proliferation was only moderately inhibited by longer 2SNS oligosaccharides. Inhibition of FGF2- and VEGF165-dependent endothelial tube formation strongly correlated with oligosaccharide length and sulfation with 10-mer and 12-mer 2SNS oligosaccharides being the most potent species. FGF2- and VEGF165-induced activation of MAPK pathway was inhibited by biologically active oligosaccharides correlating with the specific phosphorylation events in FRS2 and VEGFR-2, respectively. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate structure-function relationships for synthetic HS saccharides that suppress endothelial cell migration, tube formation and signalling induced by key angiogenic cytokines.

Cole, Claire L.; Hansen, Steen U.; Barath, Marek; Rushton, Graham; Gardiner, John M.

2010-01-01

93

Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae Growth and Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis by Fructus mume.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscess of diabetic patients in Asian countries. With the spread of multiple-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae, there is an increasing need for the development of alternative bactericides and approaches to block the production of bacterial virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), especially from the K1 and K2 serotypes, is considered the major determinant for K. pneumoniae virulence. We found that extracts of the traditional Chinese medicine Fructus mume inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae strains of both serotypes. Furthermore, Fructus mume decreased the mucoviscosity, and the CPS produced in a dose-dependent manner, thus reducing bacterial resistance to serum killing. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that Fructus mume downregulated the mRNA levels of cps biosynthesis genes in both serotypes, possibly by increasing the intracellular iron concentration in K. pneumoniae. Moreover, citric acid, a major organic acid in Fructus mume extracts, was found to have an inhibitory effect on growth and CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae. Taken together, our results indicate that Fructus mume not only possesses antibacterial activity against highly virulent K. pneumoniae strains but also inhibits bacterial CPS biosynthesis, thereby facilitating pathogen clearance by the host immune system. PMID:24062785

Lin, Tien-Huang; Huang, Su-Hua; Wu, Chien-Chen; Liu, Hsin-Ho; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ching-Ting

2013-08-26

94

Inhibition of Klebsiella pneumoniae Growth and Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis by Fructus mume  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscess of diabetic patients in Asian countries. With the spread of multiple-drug-resistant K. pneumoniae, there is an increasing need for the development of alternative bactericides and approaches to block the production of bacterial virulence factors. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), especially from the K1 and K2 serotypes, is considered the major determinant for K. pneumoniae virulence. We found that extracts of the traditional Chinese medicine Fructus mume inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae strains of both serotypes. Furthermore, Fructus mume decreased the mucoviscosity, and the CPS produced in a dose-dependent manner, thus reducing bacterial resistance to serum killing. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that Fructus mume downregulated the mRNA levels of cps biosynthesis genes in both serotypes, possibly by increasing the intracellular iron concentration in K. pneumoniae. Moreover, citric acid, a major organic acid in Fructus mume extracts, was found to have an inhibitory effect on growth and CPS biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae. Taken together, our results indicate that Fructus mume not only possesses antibacterial activity against highly virulent K. pneumoniae strains but also inhibits bacterial CPS biosynthesis, thereby facilitating pathogen clearance by the host immune system.

Lin, Tien-Huang; Huang, Su-Hua; Wu, Chien-Chen; Liu, Hsin-Ho; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Chen, Yeh; Lin, Ching-Ting

2013-01-01

95

Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-? and interleukin-8  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore the effect of Astragalus mongholicus polysaccharide (APS) on gene expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transcriptional activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). METHODS: IEC were divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, LPS+ 50 ?g/mL APS group, LPS+ 100 ?g/mL APS group, LPS+ 200 ?g/mL APS group, and LPS+ 500 ?g/mL APS group. Levels of mRNAs in LPS-induced inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8, were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. MAPK protein level was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-? and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly higher in IEC with LPS-induced damage than in control cells. APS significantly abrogated the LPS-induced expression of the TNF-? and IL-8 genes. APS did not block the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or c Jun amino-terminal kinase, but inhibited the activation of p38, suggesting that APS inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF-? and IL-8 mRNAs, possibly by suppressing the p38 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: APS-modulated bacterial product-mediated p38 signaling represents an attractive strategy for prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation.

Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Mei; Li, Ke-Shen

2009-01-01

96

Competitive Inhibition Flow Analysis Assay for the Non-Culture-Based Detection and Serotyping of Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide ?  

PubMed Central

Traditional confirmation procedures for the identification of a pneumococcal serotype require an isolate. Non-culture-based confirmation protocols are available. Some of these confirm only the presence of pneumococci, and others are capable of identifying a limited number of serotypes. The increased use of pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines, especially in high-risk patient groups, and the likely increase in the number of serotypes included in future versions of the conjugate vaccines have necessitated the need for improved enhanced surveillance in order to assess their impact on public health. Since 2006, a multiplexed assay has been used at the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom for the detection of 14 pneumococcal serotypes which requires pneumococcal serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We have developed a microsphere competitive inhibition method capable of detecting 23 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotypes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine and serotyping pneumococcal suspensions, utilizing an international reference serum, 89-SF. The assay was shown to be reproducible and specific for homologous polysaccharide. Validation of the assay was performed with a selection of MAbs specific for pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotypes, which confirmed the specificity of the assay. Analysis of pneumolysin PCR-positive CSF samples in the competitive inhibition assay determined a serotype for 89% of the samples. The assay developed here is well suited to large-scale epidemiologic studies because the assay is simple, robust, and rapid and utilizes readily available resources.

Findlow, H.; Laher, G.; Balmer, P.; Broughton, C.; Carrol, E. D.; Borrow, R.

2009-01-01

97

Optimized and standardized isolation and structural characterization of anti-inflammatory sulfated polysaccharides from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (Hudson) Lamouroux (Ceramiales, Delesseriaceae).  

PubMed

The red seaweed Delesseria sanguinea dominantly populates a large artificial reef in the southwestern Baltic Sea. It contains sulfated polysaccharides (SPs), which exhibit a pharmacological profile indicating anti-inflammatory and anti-skin aging potencies. To establish and optimize an extraction procedure for these SPs and to evaluate the influence of several parameters on their quality, 23 algae batches were harvested over the period of four years and extracted by different methods, resulting in 56 SP batches. Extraction with water at 85 degrees C proved to be superior and led to highly reproducible products with average yields of 11.6 +/- 3.9%, reaching 18% in spring. Their quality was independent of generation form and vitality of the algae. The SPs were identified as sulfated branched xylogalactans (degree of sulfation 0.50 +/- 0.08, mean M(r) 142000). The coextraction of floridean starch turned out to be the only parameter causing any seasonal variability. However, by using water, this concerns solely the yields of the isolated products. Compared to NaOH extracts, the antielastase activity of H(2)O extracted SPs was about twice as strong (IC(50) 0.204 +/- 0.024 microg/mL) and the batch to batch variability was much lower (CV 11.8 vs 28.6%). In conclusion, SPs from Delesseria sanguinea can be isolated in reproducibly high quality by using a specific extraction procedure. Thus, an important prerequisite for a potential economical utilization is fulfilled. PMID:19795906

Grünewald, Niels; Alban, Susanne

2009-11-01

98

Sulfation of a polysaccharide produced by a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108 alters its antioxidant properties in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by all aerobic cells and are widely believed to play a significant role in aging as well as a number of degenerative or pathological diseases. This study compared the free radical-scavenging properties and antioxidant activity of YCP, a polysaccharide from the mycelium of a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS

X. B. Yang; X. D. Gao; F. Han; R. X. Tan

2005-01-01

99

Inhibition of leukemia proliferation by a novel polysaccharide identified from Monascus-fermented dioscorea via inducing differentiation.  

PubMed

Monascus-fermented products offer valuable therapeutic benefits and have been extensively used in East Asia. However, the polysaccharide obtained from Monascus-fermented products has never been investigated. This study evaluated the effects of dioscorea polysaccharide (DPS) and red mold dioscorea polysaccharide (RMDPS) on differentiation of leukemic THP-1 cells. DPS and RMDPS inhibited THP-1 cells proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners. The differentiation induction (macrophage-like cells) was observed when THP-1 cells were treated with DPS and RMDPS for 5 days. Superoxide anion production, phagocytic capacity, and cytokine secretion confirmed activity for differentiating THP-1 cells. Results indicated that RMDPS elevated reactive oxygen species production and immune activity, including phagocytosis, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) productions in THP-1 cells, which was greater than that seen with DPS. These results may be attributed to Monascus-fermentation altering the carbohydrate components and polysaccharide structure. RMDPS may serve as a novel material and functional ingredient to exert anticancer capacity. PMID:22584829

Lee, Bao-Hong; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Liao, Te-Han; Pan, Tzu-Ming

2012-05-14

100

Inhibition of tumor growth and leukocyte alterations in splenectomized mice treated with a PCj3 polysaccharide.  

PubMed

The effect of a polysaccharide (PCj3), isolated from the ascomycete "Cyttaria johowii" was studied on the growth of the ascitic Sarcoma 180 (S180) inoculated subcutaneously in BALB/c mice which had been previously splenectomized. The leukocyte alterations in peripheral blood were analyzed simultaneously, and the percentage of cells with C3b receptors in the population of peritoneal cavity was evaluated through the E (IgM)C rosette technique. A significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in the splenectomized mice treated with PCj3 with respect to the untreated splenectomized and to the control group, which had not been splenectomized. It was also found that the first group acquired relative resistance to the later inocula of the ascitic S180 via i.p. On the day 8 after the tumor inoculation a marked lymphocytosis increased up to 224% in PCj3 treated mice and only to 59% in untreated splenectomized mice. The increase in the controls, that had not been splenectomized was 18%. With regard to the number of neutrophils a significant difference was found between both splenectomized groups on the 8 day, corresponding the highest values to the group treated with PCj3. No differences were observed on the 25 day even though the neutrophilia was maintained. The percentage of cells with C3b receptors in population of peritoneal cavity was significantly lower in mice treated with PCj3, although an increase in the number of E (IgM)C attached per cell and ingestion of system were observed. PMID:3843456

Rumi, L S; Chasseing, N A; Couto, A; de Lederkremer, R M

1985-01-01

101

Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of sulfate transport in human red blood cells by isothiocyanates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A kinetic analysis of anion self-exchange in human red blood cells, in the presence of an irreversible inhibitor, is presented and applied to the study of the inactivation of sulfate transport by three isothiocyanates: 3-isothiocyano-1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (INDS), 1-isothiocyano-4-naphthalene sulfonic acid, sodium salt, monohydrate (INS), and 1-isothiocyano-4-benzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt, monohydrate (IBS). The time dependence of the inhibition

Emmanuel T. Rakitzis; Paul J. Gilligan; Joseph F. Hoffman

1978-01-01

102

Inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria in biofilms by expressing the antimicrobial peptides indolicidin and bactenecin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  To identify novel, less-toxic compounds capable of inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Desulfovibrio gigas in suspension cultures were exposed to several antimicrobial peptides. The bacterial peptide antimicrobials gramicidin S,\\u000a gramicidin D, and polymyxin B as well as the cationic peptides indolicidin and bactenecin from bovine neutrophils decreased\\u000a the viability of both SRB by 90% after a 1-h exposure

A Jayaraman; F B Mansfeld; T K Wood

1999-01-01

103

EGFR Activation Mediates Inhibition of Axon Regeneration by Myelin and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in inhibiting neurite outgrowth. In addition, regeneration inhibitors trigger the phosphorylation of EGFR in a calcium-dependent manner. Local administration of EGFR inhibitors promotes significant regeneration of injured optic nerve fibers, pointing to a promising therapeutic avenue for enhancing axon regeneration after CNS injury.

Koprivica, Vuk; Cho, Kin-Sang; Park, Jong Bae; Yiu, Glenn; Atwal, Jasvinder; Gore, Bryan; Kim, Jieun A.; Lin, Estelle; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Chen, Dong Feng; He, Zhigang

2005-10-01

104

Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene

Eric Barrey; Elodie Mucher; Nicolas Jeansoule; Thibaut Larcher; Lydie Guigand; Bérénice Herszberg; Stéphane Chaffaux; Gérard Guérin; Xavier Mata; Philippe Benech; Marielle Canale; Olivier Alibert; Péguy Maltere; Xavier Gidrol

2009-01-01

105

Evaluation of seasonal variations of the structure and anti-inflammatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the red alga Delesseria sanguinea (Hudson) Lamouroux (Ceramiales, Delesseriaceae).  

PubMed

Delesseria sanguinea (Hudson) Lamouroux was shown to contain sulfated polysaccharides (D.s.-SP) with anti-inflammatory effects. This red macroalga turned out to dominantly populate an artificial reef in the southwestern Baltic Sea. An important aspect for its economical utilization is to obtain D.s.-SP in a reproducible quality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of D.s.-SP; for this, algae batches were harvested monthly over the period of one year. Structural and pharmacological characterization of the isolated D.s.-SP showed that an optimized and standardized aqueous extraction (85 degrees C) leads to reproducible products without any significant seasonal variations of their elastase and hyaluronidase inhibitory activities. Besides the yields (from 17.9% in April to 6.12% in September), only the glucose content of the D.s.-SP batches seasonally varied (April, 7.48% +/- 1.00%, September, 22.8% +/- 1.2%) due to certain coextraction of starch-like glucans. In principle, algae material can be harvested throughout the year, but the optimum harvesting time is in spring. PMID:19354213

Grünewald, Niels; Groth, Inken; Alban, Susanne

2009-05-11

106

Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth  

PubMed Central

Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function.

Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

2008-01-01

107

The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial product (ORC) was evaluated as a means of inhibiting SRB in laboratory batch columns. Different concentrations of MgO2 were added in the columns when black sulfide sediment had appeared in the columns. The experimental results showed that MgO2 is able to inhibit biogenic sulfide. The number of SRB, the sulfide concentration and the sulfate reducing rate (SRR) were decreased. ORCtrade mark as an additive was able to decrease more effectively the concentration of sulfide in water and the SRB-control effect was maintained over a longer time period when ORCtrade mark was used. The level of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), which has a linear relationship to the sulfide/sulfate ratio, is a good indicator of SRB activity. As determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), most SRB growth was inhibited under increasing amounts of added MgO2. The concentration of sulfide reflected the abundance of the SRB. Utilization of organic matter greater than the theoretical SRB utilization rate indicated that facultative heterotrophs became dominant after MgO2 was added. The results of this study could supply the useful information for further study on evaluating the solution to biocorrosion problems in practical situations. PMID:18712535

Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Hung, Chun-Hsiung

2008-08-20

108

Multiple carbohydrate receptors on lymphocytes revealed by adhesion to immobilized polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphomannan polysaccharides and fucoidan, a polymer of fucose 4-sulfate, have been demonstrated to inhibit adhesion of lymphocytes to tis- sue sections that contain high endothelial venules (Stoolman, L. M., T. S. Tenforde, and S. D. Rosen, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:1535-1540). We have inves- tigated the potential cell surface carbohydrate receptors involved by quantitating adhesion of rat cervical lymph node

Brian K. Brandley; Theodora S. Ross; Ronald L. Schnaar

1987-01-01

109

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

1984-07-01

110

Sulfated Hexasaccharides Attenuate Metastasis by Inhibition of P-selectin and Heparanase1  

PubMed Central

Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs) endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation.

Borsig, Lubor; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

2011-01-01

111

Sulfated hexasaccharides attenuate metastasis by inhibition of P-selectin and heparanase.  

PubMed

Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs) endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation. PMID:21532885

Borsig, Lubor; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ishai-Michaeli, Rivka; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

2011-05-01

112

Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) Inhibits the Expression of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: Implications for Membrane Microfiltration  

SciTech Connect

A 2:1 molar ratio preparation of bismuth with a lipophilic dithiol (3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total polysaccharides and proteins secreted by B. diminuta decreased by approximately 95% over a 5-day period when exposed to the bismuth-BAL chelate (BisBAL) at near MIC (12 ?M). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested that a possible mechanism of biofilm disruption by BisBAL is the inhibition of carbohydrate Oacetylation. FTIR also revealed extensive homology between EPS samples with and without BisBAL treatment, with proteins, polysaccharides, and peptides varying predominantly only in the amount expressed. EPS secretion decreased following BisBAL treatment as verified by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes.

Badireddy, Appala R.; Chellam, Shankararaman; Yanina, Svetlana; Gassman, Paul L.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2008-02-15

113

Inhibition of UV-induced immune suppression and interleukin-10 production by plant oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Application of Aloe barbadensis poly/oligosaccharides to UV-irradiated skin prevents photosuppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in mice. We tested the hypothesis that these carbohydrates belong to a family of biologically active, plant-derived polysaccharides that can regulate responses to injury in animal tissues. C3H mice were exposed to 5 kJ/m2 UVB from unfiltered FS40 sunlamps and treated with between 1 pg and 10 micrograms tamarind xyloglucans or control polysaccharides methylcellulose or dextran in saline. The mice were sensitized 3 days later with Candida albicans. Tamarind xyloglucans and purified Aloe poly/oligosaccharides prevented suppression of DTH responses in vivo and reduced the amount of interleukin (IL)-10 observed in UV-irradiated murine epidermis. Tamarind xyloglucans were immunoprotective at low picogram doses. In contrast, the control polysaccharides methylcellulose and dextran had no effect on immune suppression or cutaneous IL-10 at any dose. Tamarind xyloglucans and Aloe poly/oligosaccharides also prevented suppression of immune responses to alloantigen in mice exposed to 30 kJ/m2 UVB radiation. To assess the effect of the carbohydrates on keratinocytes, murine Pam212 cells were exposed to 300 J/m2 UVB radiation and treated for 1 h with tamarind xyloglucans or Aloe poly/oligosaccharides. Treatment of keratinocytes with immunoprotective carbohydrates reduced IL-10 production by approximately 50% compared with the cells treated with UV radiation alone and completely blocked suppressive activity of the culture supernatants in vivo. The tamarind xyloglucans also blocked UV-activated phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK protein but had no effect on p38 phosphorylation. These results indicate that animals, like plants, may use carbohydrates to regulate responses to environmental stimuli. PMID:10048309

Strickland, F M; Darvill, A; Albersheim, P; Eberhard, S; Pauly, M; Pelley, R P

1999-02-01

114

Possible mechanism for lead inhibition of vascular endothelial cell proliferation: a lower response to basic fibroblast growth factor through inhibition of heparan sulfate synthesis.  

PubMed

Although lead inhibits the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, the mechanism has been incompletely understood. A lower response to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) of growing bovine aortic endothelial cells after exposure to lead was investigated using a cell culture system in the present study. It was shown that lead significantly decreased the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the acid-insoluble fraction of the cells but the inhibition disappeared in the presence of bFGF neutralizing antibody. Pretreatment with lead resulted in a reduction of the stimulation by exogenous bFGF on the [3H]thymidine incorporation. Lead decreased endogenous bFGF bound to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans in a concentration-dependent manner but not the high affinity FGF receptor without a change of the accumulation within the cells. In spite of such a change in the endogenous bFGF distribution, the total amount of the growth factor synthesized was not significantly changed by lead. Although the binding of [125I]bFGF to heparan sulfate proteoglycans can be directly inhibited by lead, the inhibition was not so marked. On the other hand, lead markedly suppressed the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into heparan sulfate accumulated in the cell layer and the conditioned medium, suggesting that the metal inhibited the synthesis of the glycosaminoglycan in growing endothelial cells. Inhibition of the [3H]thymidine incorporation by lead was significantly restored by heparin. Since the binding of bFGF to its receptor is strongly promoted by heparan sulfate, the present data suggest that lead inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation by induction of a lower response to endogenous bFGF through a suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis. PMID:10378481

Fujiwara, Y; Kaji, T

1999-04-15

115

Neuronal cell adhesion, mediated by the heparin-binding neuroregulatory factor midkine, is specifically inhibited by chondroitin sulfate E. Structural ans functional implications of the over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate.  

PubMed

The heparin-binding neurotrophic factor midkine (MK) has been proposed to mediate neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth promotion by interacting with cell-surface heparan sulfate. We have observed that over-sulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS) D and CS-E show neurite outgrowth-promoting activity in embryonic day (E) 18 rat hippocampal neurons (Nadanaka, S., Clement, A., Masayama, K., Faissner, A., and Sugahara, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 3296-3307). In the present study, various CS isoforms were examined for their ability to inhibit the MK-mediated cell adhesion of cortical neuronal cells in comparison with heparin from porcine intestine and heparan sulfate from bovine kidney. E17-18 rat cortical neuronal cells were cultured on plates coated with recombinant MK in a grid pattern. The cells attached to and extended their neurites along the MK substratum. Cell adhesion was inhibited by squid cartilage over-sulfated CS-E as well as by heparin, but not by heparan sulfate or other CS isoforms. Direct interactions of MK with various glycosaminoglycans were then evaluated using surface plasmon resonance, showing that CS-E bound MK as strongly as heparin, followed by other over-sulfated CS isoforms, CS-H and CS-K. Furthermore, E18 rat brain extracts showed an E disaccharide unit, GlcUAbeta1-3GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate). These findings indicate that CS chains containing the E unit as well as heparin-like glycosaminoglycans may be involved in the expression and/or modulation of the multiple neuroregulatory functions of MK such as neuronal adhesion and migration and promotion of neurite outgrowth. PMID:10978312

Ueoka, C; Kaneda, N; Okazaki, I; Nadanaka, S; Muramatsu, T; Sugahara, K

2000-12-01

116

Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.  

PubMed

Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin, TGF-?1, TGF-?1 receptor (T?R)-I, T?R-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-?1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression. PMID:23918878

Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

2013-06-01

117

EDTA Inhibits Biofilm Formation, Extracellular Vesicular Secretion, and Shedding of the Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan by Cryptococcus neoformans  

PubMed Central

The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can grow as a biofilm on a range of synthetic and prosthetic materials. Cryptococcal biofilm formation can complicate the placement of shunts used to relieve increased intracranial pressure in cryptococcal meningitis and can serve as a nidus for chronic infection. Biofilms are generally advantageous to pathogens in vivo, as they can confer resistance to antimicrobial compounds, including fluconazole and voriconazole in the case of C. neoformans. EDTA can inhibit biofilm formation by several microbes and enhances the susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sublethal concentrations of EDTA on the growth of cryptococcal biofilms. EDTA inhibited biofilm growth by C. neoformans, and the inhibition could be reversed by the addition of magnesium or calcium, implying that the inhibitory effect was by divalent cation starvation. EDTA also reduced the amount of the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan shed into the biofilm matrix and decreased vesicular secretion from the cell, thus providing a potential mechanism for the inhibitory effect of this cation-chelating compound. Our data imply that the growth of C. neoformans biofilms requires the presence of divalent metals in the growth medium and suggest that cations are required for the export of materials needed for biofilm formation, possibly including extracellular vesicles.

Robertson, Emma J.; Wolf, Julie M.

2012-01-01

118

Heavy metals mercury, cadmium, and chromium inhibit the activity of the mammalian liver and kidney sulfate transporter sat-1.  

PubMed

Heavy metal intoxication leads to defects in cellular uptake mechanisms in the mammalian liver and kidney. We have studied the effects of several heavy metals, including mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium (at concentrations of 1 to 1000 microM), on the activity of the mammalian sulfate transporter sat-1(2) in Xenopus oocytes. sat-1 encodes a sulfate/bicarbonate anion exchanger expressed in the rat liver and kidney. Mercury (10 microM) strongly inhibited sat-1 transport by reducing Vmax by eightfold but not its Km for inorganic sulfate (Si). Lead (up to 1 mM) was unable to significantly inhibit sat-1 transporter activity. Cadmium (500 microM) showed weak inhibition of sat-1 transport by decreasing only sat-1 Vmax. Chromium (100 microM) strongly inhibited sat-1 transport by reducing Km for Si by sevenfold, most probably by binding to the Si site, due to the strong structural similarity between the CrO2-4 and SO2-4 substrates. This study presents the first characterization of heavy metal inhibition of the hepatic and renal sulfate/bicarbonate transporter sat-1, through various mechanisms, which may lead to sulfaturia following heavy metal intoxication. PMID:9925802

Markovich, D; James, K M

1999-01-15

119

Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA) inhibited heparan sulfate binding to various extents. Heat treatment (80 degrees C for 10 min) and treatment of the bacteria with pronase E, proteinase K, pepsin, and chymotrypsin considerably reduced their ability to bind 125I-heparan sulfate, but treatment with trypsin and neuraminidase did not affect binding. Scatchard plot analysis indicated the presence of cell surface components with low affinity (Kd = 3 x 10(-5) M) for heparan sulfate. Cell surface components were released by stirring bacteria with 1 M LiCl at 37 degrees C for 2 h. Proteins of this extract that competitively inhibited binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus were isolated by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. Two proteins having molecular masses of approximately 66 and 60 kDa and the ability to bind 125I-heparan sulfate were obtained. The first 9 amino-terminal amino acid residues of the 66-kDa protein are Asp-Trp-Thr-Gly-Trp-Leu-Ala-Ala-Ala, and the first 4 amino-terminal amino acid residues of the 60-kDa protein are Met-Leu-Val-Thr. Images

Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadstrom, T

1992-01-01

120

Inhibition of catalytic activities of botulinum neurotoxin light chains of serotypes A, B and E by acetate, sulfate and calcium  

PubMed Central

The catalytic domain, known as light chain (Lc), of the most poisonous botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), possesses endoprotease activity that triggers the ultimate poisonous effect to animals and humans. X-ray crystallographic structure of Lc of several BoNT serotypes has identified at least four small ligands at or near the respective active sites. They are sulfate ions in LcA, LcB, and LcE; an acetate ion in LcA; a calcium ion in LcB; and a potassium ion in LcD. Roles of these ligands on the structure and function of the proteins are not known. We have investigated the roles of sulfate, acetate, and calcium on the catalytic activities of LcA, LcB, and LcE using 17-35-residue synthetic peptide substrates. All three ligands inhibited all Lc activities. For LcA and LcB, the order of inhibition effectiveness was calcium>sulfate>acetate. The inhibition effectiveness expressed as IC50, did not correlate with the occurrence or proximity of the ions to the active site. Moreover, addition of acetate or sulfate to LcA did not affect the near-UV circular dichroism spectra, tryptophan, and tyrosine fluorescence spectra, and mid points of thermal denaturation of LcA. Our results suggest that acetate, sulfate, and calcium nonspecifically interact with BoNT Lc, and their occurrence in the crystal structures could have been due to opportunistic binding to complementary pockets.

Mizanur, Rahman M; Gorbet, John; Swaminathan, S; Ahmed, S Ashraf

2012-01-01

121

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 ?M regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

2013-01-01

122

An in vitro assessment of titanium functionalized with polysaccharides conjugated with vascular endothelial growth factor for enhanced osseointegration and inhibition of bacterial adhesion.  

PubMed

The long-term success of orthopedic implants may be compromised by defective osseointegration and bacterial infection. An effective approach to minimize implant failure would be to modify the surface of the implant to make it habitable for bone-forming cells and anti-infective at the same time. In this in vitro study, the surfaces of titanium (Ti) substrates were functionalized by first covalently grafting either dopamine followed by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) or hyaluronic acid-catechol (HAC). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was then conjugated to the polysaccharide-grafted surface. Antibacterial assay with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) showed that the polysaccharide-modified substrates significantly decrease bacterial adhesion. The CMCS-functionalized Ti demonstrated better antibacterial property than the HAC-functionalized Ti since CMCS is bactericidal while HA only inhibits the adhesion of bacteria without killing them. Osteoblast attachment, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were enhanced by the immobilized VEGF on the polysaccharide-grafted Ti. Thus, Ti substrates modified with polysaccharides conjugated with VEGF can promote osteoblast functions and concurrently reduce bacterial adhesion. Since VEGF is also known to enhance angiogenesis, the VEGF-polysaccharide functionalized substrates will have promising applications in the orthopedic field. PMID:20800276

Hu, Xuefeng; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Shi, Zhilong; Kang, En-Tang; Poh, Chyekhoon; Wang, Wilson

2010-08-30

123

Discovery of a TNF-alpha antagonist using chondroitin sulfate microarrays.  

PubMed

We report the first example of synthetic chondroitin sulfate (CS) microarrays to rapidly identify glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions and probe the specificity of proteins for distinct sulfation sequences. Using the microarrays, we identify a novel interaction between CS and TNF-alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis. Moreover, we demonstrate that CS-E tetrasaccharides and polysaccharides enriched in the CS-E sulfation motif can inhibit the activity of this therapeutically important cytokine. We anticipate that carbohydrate microarrays will accelerate our understanding of glycosaminoglycan-protein interactions and the role of sulfation in modulating physiological and disease states. PMID:16771479

Tully, Sarah E; Rawat, Manish; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

2006-06-21

124

Synergistic Effects Between Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Zinc Sulfate in Corrosion Inhibition for Copper in Neutral Tap Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (NaâPâOââ, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and

Y. Feng; K.-L. Tan; A.-K. Hsieh; W.-K. Teo; K.-S. Siow

1997-01-01

125

The Human Host Defense Peptide LL-37 Interacts with Neisseria meningitidis Capsular Polysaccharides and Inhibits Inflammatory Mediators Release  

PubMed Central

Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are a major virulence factor in meningococcal infections and form the basis for serogroup designation and protective vaccines. Our work has identified meningococcal CPS as a pro-inflammatory ligand that functions through TLR2 and TLR4-MD2-dependent activation. We hypothesized that human cationic host defense peptides interact with CPS and influence its biologic activity. Accordingly, the interaction of meningococcal CPS with the human-derived cationic peptide LL-37, which is expressed by phagocytic and epithelial cells that interface with meningococci during infection, was investigated. LL-37 neutralized the pro-inflammatory activity of endotoxin-free CPS as assessed by TLR2 and TLR4-MD-2-dependent release of TNF?, IL-6 and IL-8 from human and murine macrophages. The cationic and hydrophobic properties of LL-37 were crucial for this inhibition, which was due to binding of LL-37 to CPS. LL-37 also inhibited the ability of meningococcal CPS to induce nitric oxide release, as well as TNF? and CXCL10 (IP-10) release from TLR4-sufficient and TLR4-deficient murine macrophages. Truncated LL-37 analogs, especially those that retained the antibacterial domain, inhibited vaccine grade CPS and meningococcal CPS prepared from the major serogroups (A, B C, Y and W135). Thus, LL-37 interaction with CPS was independent of specific glucan structure. We conclude that the capacity of meningococcal CPS to activate macrophages via TLR2 and TLR4-MD-2 can be inhibited by the human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 and propose that this impacts CPS-based vaccine responses.

Zughaier, Susu M.; Svoboda, Pavel; Pohl, Jan; Stephens, David S.; Shafer, William M.

2010-01-01

126

Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by aqueous extract of sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus fries and polyporus polysaccharide.  

PubMed

The study aimed to evaluate inhibition effect of sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus Fries aqueous extract (SPUE) and polyporus polysaccharide (PPS) on bladder cancer, then to measure their effect on mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase ? (GSTPi) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in female Fischer-344 rats model. The model rats were induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN) for a period of 8 weeks and saccharin for 12 weeks. SPUE (50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg) and PPS (28 mg/kg) were orally administrated to the model rats during the whole study. Compared to the control group, a more preventive effect of SPUE and PPS treatment on bladder cancer was discovered, higher mRNA upregulation of GSTpi and NQO1 was seen in the treatment group. Furthermore, the GSTPi and NQO1 mRNA upregulated level in the low-dose group (SPUE 50 mg/kg) was at maximum. In brief, SPUE and PPS are highly effective in inhibiting bladder carcinogenesis in rats, which may be associated with upregulation of GSTPi and NQO1 in the bladder. PMID:21213404

Zhang, Guowei; Zeng, Xing; Li, Caixia; Li, Jijun; Huang, Yu; Han, Ling; Wei, Jian-An; Huang, Haiding

2011-01-01

127

A Purified Capsular Polysaccharide Markedly Inhibits Inflammatory Response during Endotoxic Shock  

PubMed Central

Capsular material of the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is composed mainly of a polysaccharide named glucuronoxylomannan (GXM). In this study, the effects of GXM were analyzed in an in vivo experimental system of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock. Endotoxic shock was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS from Escherichia coli. GXM treatment reduced the mortality of mice at early stages. Mice treated with LPS alone showed markedly increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6, whereas mice that were also treated with GXM showed significantly lower plasma levels of these cytokines. This effect was related to a marked suppression of Akt and I?B? activation. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of GXM on proinflammatory cytokine secretion was reproduced by treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of the Akt transcription pathway. Our results indicate that GXM has a beneficial effect on endotoxic shock, resulting in a significant increase in the rate of survival by dampening the hyperinflammatory response.

Piccioni, M.; Monari, C.; Kenno, S.; Pericolini, E.; Gabrielli, E.; Pietrella, D.; Perito, S.; Bistoni, F.; Kozel, T. R.

2013-01-01

128

Synthesis of 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides that inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 host-cell interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell surface carbohydrates play significant roles in a number of biologically important processes. Heparan sulfate, for instance, is a ubiquitously distributed polysulfated polysaccharide that is involved, among other things, in the initial step of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The virus interacts with cell-surface heparan sulfate to facilitate host-cell attachment and entry. 3-O-Sulfonated heparan sulfate has been found to function as an HSV-1 entry receptor. Achieving a complete understanding of these interactions requires the chemical synthesis of such oligosaccharides, but this remains challenging. Here, we present a convenient approach for the synthesis of two irregular 3-O-sulfonated heparan sulfate octasaccharides, making use of a key disaccharide intermediate to acquire different building blocks for the oligosaccharide chain assembly. Despite substantial structural differences, the prepared 3-O-sulfonated sugars blocked viral infection in a dosage-dependent manner with remarkable similarity to one another.

Hu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Shu-Yi; Huang, Cheng-Yen; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L.; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Wen; Hung, Shang-Cheng

2011-07-01

129

Streptococcus suis Capsular Polysaccharide Inhibits Phagocytosis through Destabilization of Lipid Microdomains and Prevents Lactosylceramide-Dependent Recognition  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus suis type 2 is a major swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent, causing meningitis in both swine and humans. S. suis infects the host through the respiratory route, reaches the bloodstream, and persists until breaching into the central nervous system. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis type 2 is considered a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Though CPS allows S. suis to adhere to the membrane of cells of the immune system, it provides protection against phagocytosis. In fact, nonencapsulated mutants are easily internalized and killed by macrophages and dendritic cells. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms by which the CPS of S. suis prevents phagocytosis. By using latex beads covalently linked with purified CPS, it was shown that CPS itself was sufficient to inhibit entry of both latex beads and bystander fluorescent beads into macrophages. Upon contact with macrophages, encapsulated S. suis was shown to destabilize lipid microdomains at the cell surface, to block nitric oxide (NO) production during infection, and to prevent lactosylceramide accumulation at the phagocytic cup during infection. In contrast, the nonencapsulated mutant was easily internalized via lipid rafts, in a filipin-sensitive manner, leading to lactosylceramide recruitment and strong NO production. This is the first report to identify a role for CPS in lipid microdomain stability and to recognize an interaction between S. suis and lactosylceramide in phagocytes.

Houde, Mathieu; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Fleur; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose

2012-01-01

130

Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels.

Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

2012-01-01

131

Microbial polysaccharides and their derivatives as current and prospective pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

The ability to produce polysaccharides is widely found among microbial species. The structural diversity of the microbial polysaccharides (MPS) leads to a wide diversity of their applications. This review focuses pharmacological properties of MPS and their derivatives. They have been reported to possess many biological activities, such as antiviral, antitumor, antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. So, the MPS of the type beta-1,3-D-glucans, including curdlan and scleroglucan, show antitumor and antiviral activity. A number of biological and synthetic sulfated polysaccharides, including sulfated polysaccharides from marine microalgae, inhibit viral infections. Many of MPS demonstrate a series of attractive properties as carrier materials in drug delivery systems and nonviral gene delivery. Furthermore, MPS have found an application as wound-healing agents, blood plasma expanders and vaccines. Some MPS, like chitin, chitosan and alginate have an unusual combination of biological activities and physicochemical properties leading to the development of novel or improved pharmaceuticals. They have become of a great interest not only as drug and cell carriers but also as new functional materials of high biological activity, and recent progress in MPS chemistry is quite noteworthy. This review also examines the advances in the application of MPS in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:19075698

Smelcerovic, Andrija; Knezevic-Jugovic, Zorica; Petronijevic, Zivomir

2008-01-01

132

Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials  

PubMed Central

This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications.

Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

2010-01-01

133

Sulfated polymannuroguluronate inhibits Tat-induced SLK cell adhesion via a novel binding site, a KKR spatial triad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG), a candidate anti-AIDS drug, inhibited HIV replication and interfered with HIV entry into host T lymphocytes. SPMG has high binding affinity for the transactivating factor of the HIV-1 virus (Tat) via its basic domain. However, deletion or substitution of the basic domain affected, but did not completely eliminated Tat-SPMG interactions. Here, we sought to identify other SPMG

Yan-lin Wu; Jing Ai; Jing-ming Zhao; Bing Xiong; Xiao-jie Xin; Mei-yu Geng; Xian-liang Xin; Han-dong Jiang

2011-01-01

134

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more

Rongjun Zuo; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

135

Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

2000-02-01

136

Sulfated colominic acid: an antiviral agent that inhibits the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colominic acid is a homopolymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), which has an ?-2,8 ketosidic linkage between its polymer units. In this study, colominic acids were sulfated under different conditions and their antiviral activities against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were examined. Sulfated colominic acids, containing 6–12% sulfur, blocked the expression of HIV-1 antigen in MT-4 cells or C8166 cells

Da-Wei Yang; Yasuhiro Ohta; Shinya Yamaguchi; Yoji Tsukada; Yuji Haraguchi; Hiroo Hoshino; Hatsuo Amagai; Isao Kobayashi

1996-01-01

137

Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Raw Fruit and/or Vegetable Juice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the inhibition of enzymatic browning of raw fruit juice and/or raw vegetable juice by treating juice with an effective anti-browning amount of at least one sulfated polysaccharide to inhibit browning. A promoter selected from the ...

C. B. S. Tong K. B. Hicks

1991-01-01

138

Development and characterization of new insulin containing polysaccharide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nanoparticle insulin delivery system was prepared by complexation of dextran sulfate and chitosan in aqueous solution. Parameters of the formulation such as the final mass of polysaccharides, the mass ratio of the two polysaccharides, pH of polysaccharides solution, and insulin theorical loading were identified as the modulating factors of nanoparticle physical properties. Particles with a mean diameter of 500nm

Bruno Sarmento; Ant ´ onio Ribeiro; Francisco Veiga; Domingos Ferreira

2006-01-01

139

Structure-Based Identification and Neutralization Mechanism of Tyrosine-Sulfate Mimetics that Inhibit HIV-1 Entry  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine sulfate-mediated interactions play an important role in HIV-1 entry. After engaging the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein binds to the CCR5 co-receptor via an interaction that requires two tyrosine-sulfates, at positions 10 and 14 in the CCR5-N terminus. Building on previous structure determinations of this interaction, here we report the targeting of these tyrosine sulfate-binding sites for drug design through in silico screening of small molecule libraries, identification of lead compounds, and characterization of biological activity. A class of tyrosine sulfate-mimicking small molecules containing a “phenyl sulfonate-linker-aromatic” motif was identified that specifically inhibited binding of gp120 to the CCR5-N terminus as well as to antibodies that recognize the co-receptor-binding region on gp120. The most potent of these compounds bound gp120 with low ?M affinity and its CD4-induced conformation with KDs as tight as ?50 nM. Neutralization experiments suggested the targeted site to be conformationally inaccessible prior to CD4 engagement. Primary HIV-1 isolates were weakly neutralized, pre-incubation with soluble CD4 enhanced neutralization, and engineered isolates with increased dependence on the N terminus of CCR5 or with reduced conformational barriers were neutralized with IC50 value as low as ? 1 ?M. These results reveal the potential of targeting the tyrosine-sulfate interactions of HIV-1 and provide insight into how mechanistic barriers, evolved by HIV-1 to evade antibody recognition, also restrict small molecule-mediated neutralization.

Acharya, Priyamvada; Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan; Lalonde, Judith M.; Lam, Son N.; Leslie, George J.; Louder, Mark K.; Frye, Leah L.; Debnath, Asim K.; Greenwood, Jeremy R.; Luongo, Timothy S.; Martin, Loic; Watts, K. Shawn; Hoxie, James A.; Mascola, John R.; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

2011-01-01

140

Interaction of Antithrombin with Sulfated, Low Molecular Weight Lignins  

PubMed Central

Antithrombin, a major regulator of coagulation and angiogenesis, is known to interact with several natural sulfated polysaccharides. Previously, we prepared sulfated low molecular weight variants of natural lignins, called sulfated dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs) (Henry, B. L., Monien, B. H., Bock, P. E., and Desai, U. R. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 31891–31899), which have now been found to exhibit interesting antithrombin binding properties. Sulfated DHPs represent a library of diverse noncarbohydrate aromatic scaffolds that possess structures completely different from heparin and heparan sulfate. Fluorescence binding studies indicate that sulfated DHPs bind to antithrombin with micromolar affinity under physiological conditions. Salt dependence of binding affinity indicates that the antithrombin-sulfated DHP interaction involves a massive 80–87% non-ionic component to the free energy of binding. Competitive binding studies with heparin pentasaccharide, epicatechin sulfate, and full-length heparin indicate that sulfated DHPs bind to both the pentasaccharide-binding site and extended heparin-binding site of antithrombin. Affinity capillary electrophoresis resolves a limited number of peaks of antithrombin co-complexes suggesting preferential binding of selected DHP structures to the serpin. Computational genetic algorithm-based virtual screening study shows that only one sulfated DHP structure, out of the 11 present in a library of plausible sequences, bound in the heparin-binding site with a high calculated score supporting selectivity of recognition. Enzyme inhibition studies indicate that only one of the three sulfated DHPs studied is a potent inhibitor of free factor VIIa in the presence of antithrombin. Overall, the chemo-enzymatic origin and antithrombin binding properties of sulfated DHPs present novel opportunities for potent and selective modulation of the serpin function, especially for inhibiting the initiation phase of hemostasis.

Henry, Brian L.; Connell, Justin; Liang, Aiye; Krishnasamy, Chandravel; Desai, Umesh R.

2009-01-01

141

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits plasma thrombin generation via targeting of the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite  

PubMed Central

Depolymerized holothurian glycosaminoglycan (DHG) is a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate with antithrombin-independent antithrombotic properties. Heparin cofactor II (HCII)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for DHG inhibition of plasma thrombin generation were evaluated. When thrombin generation was initiated with 0.2 pM tissue factor (TF), the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for DHG inhibition was identical in mock- or HCII-depleted plasma, suggesting a serpin-independent mechanism. In the presence of excess TF, the EC50 for DHG was increased 13- to 27-fold, suggesting inhibition was dependent on intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) components. In factor VIII–deficient plasma supplemented with 700 pM factor VIII or VIIIa, and factor IX–deficient plasma supplemented with plasma-derived factor IX or 100 pM factor IXa, the EC50 for DHG was similar. Thus, cofactor and zymogen activation did not contribute to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation. Factor IX–deficient plasma supplemented with mutant factor IX(a) proteins demonstrated resistance to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation [factor IX(a) R233A > R170A > WT] that inversely correlated with protease-heparin affinity. These results replicate the effect of these mutations with purified intrinsic tenase components, and establish the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite as the relevant molecular target for inhibition by DHG. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated intrinsic tenase inhibition is a novel antithrombotic mechanism with physiologic and therapeutic applications.

Buyue, Yang

2009-01-01

142

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus infection by negatively charged and neutral carbohydrate polymers.  

PubMed

Different natural and semisynthetic polysaccharides were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. Some neutral and negatively charged carbohydrates were able to inhibit viral infection by interfering mainly with the adsorption process showing a dose-dependent relationship. Their effect was shown within the concentration range of 200-0.8 micrograms/ml, and the inhibiting compounds were in order of action: dextran sulfate = scleroglucan = lambda carrageenan > glyloid sulfate 4324 > locust beam gum towards HSV-1 and dextran sulfate = glyloid sulfate 4324 = lambda carrageenan > scleroglucan > glycogen sulfate 4435 towards HSV-2. The data obtained indicate that the antiviral activity of polysaccharides was not only related to their electric charge. Other characteristics of the molecules such as the polymeric backbone, the carbohydrate moieties and the degree of polymerization could play a role in influencing their antiviral properties. PMID:7666126

Marchetti, M; Pisani, S; Pietropaolo, V; Seganti, L; Nicoletti, R; Orsi, N

1995-04-01

143

Astragalus Polysaccharides Attenuate Postburn Sepsis via Inhibiting Negative Immunoregulation of CD4+CD25high T Cells  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus, are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. However, it is not yet clear whether APS can exert an effect on the immune functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). This study was carried out to investigate the effect of APS on the immune function of peripheral blood Tregs in postburn sepsis. Methodology/Principal Findings BalB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham burn group, burn control(burn without infection animals) group, burn plus P. aeruginosa group, burn plus P. aeruginosa with APS (50 mg/kg) treatment group, burn plus P. aeruginosa with APS (100 mg/kg) treatment group, and burn plus P. aeruginosa with APS (200 mg/kg) treatment group, and they were sacrificed on postburn day 1, 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with seven animals at each time point. Magnetic microbeads were used to isolate peripheral blood Tregs and CD4+ T cells. Phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were determined with ELISA. In the burn plus P. aeruginosa group, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) expression on CD4+CD25+Tregs were strongly enhanced in comparison to the sham group, and the capacity of CD4+CD25+Tregs to produce interleukin (IL)-10 was markedly increased. Administration of APS to inhibit CD4+CD25+Tregs could significantly decrease expression of Foxp3 on CD4+CD25+Tregs, and IL-10 production in burned mice with P. aeruginosa infection. At the same time, proliferative activity and expression of IL-2 and IL-2R? on CD4+ T cells were restored. In contrast, anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibody could block the effect of APS on Tregs immune function. Conclusion APS might suppress CD4+CD25+Treg activity, at least in part, via binding TLR4 on Tregs and trigger a shift of Th2 to Th1 with activation of CD4+ T cells in burned mice with P. aeruginosa infection.

Liu, Qing-yang; Yao, Yong-ming; Yu, Yan; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-yong

2011-01-01

144

Polysaccharide lyases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide lyases (or eliminases) are a class of enzymes (EC 4.2.2.-) that act to cleave certain activated glycosidic\\u000a linkages present in acidic polysaccharides. These enzymes act through an eliminase mechanism, rather than through hydrolysis,\\u000a resulting in unsaturated oligosaccharide products. Acidic polysaccharides are ubiquitous and so are the lyases that degrade\\u000a them. This review article examines lyases that act on acidic

R. J. Linhardt; P. M. Galliher; C. L. Cooney

1987-01-01

145

Astragalus Polysaccharides Attenuate Postburn Sepsis via Inhibiting Negative Immunoregulation of CD4+CD25high T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroudAstragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus, are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. However, it is not yet clear whether APS can exert an effect on the immune functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). This study was carried out to investigate the effect of APS on the immune function of peripheral blood

Qing-yang Liu; Yong-ming Yao; Yan Yu; Ning Dong; Zhi-yong Sheng

2011-01-01

146

Effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on human hepatoma QGY7703 cells: Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), extracted from Lycium barbarum that is a kind of traditional Chinese herb, is found to have anticancer activity. In this study, the effect of LBP on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in the human hepatoma QGY7703 cell line were investigated. The effects of this compound were also tested on the concentration of calcium

Min Zhang; Haixia Chen; Jin Huang; Zhong Li; Caiping Zhu; Shenghua Zhang

2005-01-01

147

Effect of antiscalants for inhibition of calcium sulfate deposition in thermal desalination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiscalants are used in desalination and water treatment plants to reduce or prevent scale formation on heat transfer equipments surfaces. For this purpose, an experimental apparatus has been designed to study the effect of various types of antiscalants on the deposition of calcium sulfate on the surface of stainless steel tubes. Three antiscalants are used in this study, sodium hexametaphosphate

Nawaf N. Al-Mutairi; Farag Abdul Aleem; Malik I. Al-Ahmad

2009-01-01

148

Inhibition by Hydrazine Sulfate and Various Hydrazides, of in vivo Growth of Walker 256 Intramuscular Carcinoma, B16 Melanoma, Murphy-Sturm Lymphosarcoma and L-1210 Solid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuing study of the effects of inhibition of gluconeogenesis at the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP CK reaction on in vivo growth of tumors, it has been shown that hydrazine sulfate, a known inhibitor of PEP CK, not only inhibits the Walker 256 intramuscular carcioma, the Murphy-Sturm lymphosarcoma and the B-16 melanoma, but also has an effect on the solid

J. Gold

1973-01-01

149

Tumor cell surface heparan sulfate as cryptic promoters or inhibitors of tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, present at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix that surrounds cells, are important mediators of complex biological processes. Furthermore, it is now apparent that cells dynamically regulate the structure of their heparan sulfate “coat” to differentially regulate extracellular signals. In the present study, the importance of sequence information contained within tumor cell-surface heparan sulfate was investigated. Herein, we demonstrate that the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan coat present on tumor cells contains bioactive sequences that impinge on tumor-cell growth and metastasis. Importantly, we find that growth promoting as well as growth inhibiting sequences are contained within the polysaccharide coat. Furthermore, we find that the dynamic balance between these distinct polysaccharide populations regulates specific intracellular signal-transduction pathways. This study not only provides a framework for the development of polysaccharide-based anti-cancer molecules but also underscores the importance of understanding a cell's polysaccharide array in addition to its protein complement, to understand how genotype translates to phenotype in this postgenomic age.

Liu, Dongfang; Shriver, Zachary; Venkataraman, Ganesh; El Shabrawi, Yosuf; Sasisekharan, Ram

2002-01-01

150

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidin-S-producing biofilms.  

PubMed

A gramicidin-S-producing Bacillus brevis 18-3 biofilm was shown to reduce corrosion rates of mild steel by inhibiting both the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfosporosinus orientis and the iron-oxidizing bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP-6. When L. discophora SP-6 was introduced along with D. orientis to a non-antimicrobial-producing biofilm control, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 10401, a corrosive synergy was created and mild steel coupons underwent more severe corrosion than when only D. orientis was present, showing a 2.3-fold increase via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and a 1.8-fold difference via mass-loss measurements. However, when a gramicidin-S-producing, protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm was established on mild steel, the metal coupons were protected against the simultaneous attack of D. orientis and L. discophora SP-6. EIS data showed that the protective B. brevis 18-3 biofilm decreased the corrosion rate about 20-fold compared with the non-gramicidin-producing P. polymyxa ATCC 10401 biofilm control. The mass loss for the protected mild steel coupons was also significantly lower than that for the unprotected ones (4-fold decrease). Scanning electron microscope images corroborated the corrosion inhibition by the gramicidin-S-producing B. brevis biofilm on mild steel by showing that the metal surface remained untarnished, i.e., the polishing grooves were still visible after exposure to the simultaneous attack of the sulfate-reducing bacterium and the iron-oxidizing bacterium. PMID:15278311

Zuo, Rongjun; Wood, Thomas K

2004-07-23

151

The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form\\u000a one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed\\u000a at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial

Yu-Jie Chang; Yi-Tang Chang; Chun-Hsiung Hung

2008-01-01

152

Dermatan sulfate inhibits osteoclast formation by binding to receptor activator of NF-?B ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a major component of extracellular matrices in mammalian tissues. In the present study, DS demonstrated a high level of binding activity to receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and obstructed the binding of RANK to RANKL, determined using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. Further, when mouse bone marrow cells were cultured with RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating

Kouhei Shinmyouzu; Tetsu Takahashi; Wataru Ariyoshi; Hisashi Ichimiya; Shin Kanzaki; Tatsuji Nishihara

2007-01-01

153

Characterization of uniformly and atom-specifically (13)C-labeled heparin and heparan sulfate polysaccharide precursors using (13)C NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The biological actions of heparin and heparan sulfate, two structurally related glycosaminoglycans, depend on the organization of the complex heparanome. Due to the structural complexity of the heparanome, the sequence of variably sulfonated uronic acid and glucosamine residues is usually characterized by the analysis of smaller oligosaccharide and disaccharide fragments. Even characterization of smaller heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharide or disaccharide fragments using simple 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the extensive signal overlap. (13)C NMR signals, on the other hand, overlap less and therefore, (13)C NMR spectroscopy can greatly facilitate the structural elucidation of the complex heparanome and provide finer insights into the structural basis for biological functions. This is the first report of the preparation of anomeric carbon-specific (13)C-labeled heparin and heparan sulfate precursors from the Escherichia coli K5 strain. Uniformly (13)C- and (15)N-labeled precursors were also produced and characterized by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically fragmented disaccharides revealed that anomeric carbon-specific labeling efforts resulted in a minor loss/scrambling of (13)C in the precursor backbone, whereas uniform labeling efforts resulted in greater than 95% (13)C isotope enrichment in the precursor backbone. These labeled precursors provided high-resolution NMR signals with great sensitivity and set the stage for studying the heparanome-proteome interactions. PMID:20832774

Nguyen, Thao K N; Tran, Vy M; Victor, Xylophone V; Skalicky, Jack J; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

2010-08-21

154

Characterization of uniformly and atom-specifically 13C-labeled heparin and heparan sulfate polysaccharide precursors using 13C NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The biological actions of heparin and heparan sulfate, two structurally related glycosaminoglycans, depend on the organization of the complex heparanome. Due to the structural complexity of the heparanome, the sequence of variably sulfonated uronic acid and glucosamine residues is usually characterized by the analysis of smaller oligosaccharide and disaccharide fragments. Even characterization of smaller heparin/heparan sulfate oligosaccharide or disaccharide fragments using simple 1D 1H NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the extensive signal overlap. 13C NMR signals, on the other hand, overlap less and therefore, 13C NMR spectroscopy can greatly facilitate the structural elucidation of the complex heparanome and provide finer insights into the structural basis for biological functions. This is the first report of the preparation of anomeric carbon-specific 13C-labeled heparin/heparan sulfate precursors from the Escherichia coli K5 strain. Uniformly 13C- and 15N-labeled precursors were also produced and characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically fragmented disaccharides revealed that anomeric carbon-specific labeling efforts resulted in a minor loss/scrambling of 13C in the precursor backbone, whereas uniform labeling efforts resulted in greater than 95% 13C isotope enrichment in the precursor backbone. These labeled precursors provided high-resolution NMR signals with great sensitivity and set the stage for studying the heparanome–proteome interactions.

Nguyen, Thao K. N.; Tran, Vy M.; Victor, Xylophone V.; Skalicky, Jack J.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

2010-01-01

155

24-Hydroxycholesterol Sulfation by Human Cytosolic Sulfotransferases: Formation of Monosulfates and Disulfates, Molecular Modeling, Sulfatase Sensitivity, and Inhibition of Liver X Receptor Activation  

PubMed Central

24-Hydroxycholesterol (24-OHChol) is a major cholesterol metabolite and the form in which cholesterol is secreted from the brain. 24-OHChol is transported by apolipoprotein E to the liver and converted into bile acids or excreted. In both brain and liver, 24-OHChol is a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist and has an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. 24-OHChol sulfation was examined to understand its role in 24-OHChol metabolism and its effect on LXR activation. 24-OHChol was conjugated by three isoforms of human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT). SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 sulfated both the 3- and 24-hydroxyls to form the 24-OHChol-3, 24-disulfate. SULT2B1b formed only 24-OHChol-3-sulfate. The 3-sulfate as a monosulfate or as the disulfate was hydrolyzed by human placental steroid sulfatase, whereas the 24-sulfate was resistant. At physiological 24-OHChol concentrations, SULT2A1 formed the 3-monosulfate and the 3, 24-disulfate as a result of a high affinity for sulfation of the 3-OH in 24-OHChol-24-sulfate. Molecular docking simulations indicate that 24-OHChol-24-sulfate binds in an active configuration in the SULT2A1 substrate binding site with high affinity only when the SULT2A1 homodimer structure was used. 24-OHChol is an LXR activator. In contrast, the 24-OHChol monosulfates were not LXR agonists in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer coactivator recruitment assay. However, both the 24-OHChol-3-sulfate and 24-sulfate were antagonists of LXR activation by N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trif-luoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) with an IC50 of 0.15 and 0.31 ?M, respectively. Inhibition of LXR activation by the 24-OHChol monosulfates at low nanomolar concentrations indicates that sulfation has a role in LXR regulation by oxysterols.

Cook, Ian T.; Duniec-Dmuchowski, Zofia; Kocarek, Thomas A.; Runge-Morris, Melissa

2009-01-01

156

Competitive Inhibition Flow Analysis Assay for the Non-Culture-Based Detection and Serotyping of Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional confirmation procedures for the identification of a pneumococcal serotype require an isolate. Non-culture-based confirmation protocols are available. Some of these confirm only the presence of pneumo- cocci, and others are capable of identifying a limited number of serotypes. The increased use of pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines, especially in high-risk patient groups, and the likely increase in the number

H. Findlow; G. Laher; P. Balmer; C. Broughton; E. D. Carrol; R. Borrow

2009-01-01

157

Antiviral Activities of Marine Pseudomonas Polysaccharides and Their Oversulfated Derivatives.  

PubMed

: A marine Pseudomonas species WAK-1 strain simultaneously produces extracellular glycosaminoglycan and sulfated polysaccharide. Among the antiviral activities tested for these polysaccharides, the latter showed anti-HSV-1 activity in RPMI 8226 cells (50% effective concentration is 1.4 µg/ml). Oversulfated derivatives of these polysaccharides prepared by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-mediated reaction for both polysaccharides showed antiviral activities against influenza virus type A (for glycosaminoglycan, 50% effective concentration is 11.0 µg/ml; for another, 2.9 µg/ml). Glycosaminoglycan, sulfated polysaccharide, and their chemically synthesized oversulfated derivatives did not show antiviral activities against influenza virus type B and human immunodeficiency virus type 1. No cytotoxicity of these products was noted against host cells at the 50% cytotoxic concentration of 100 µg/ml, except that naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide had 50% cytotoxicity against MT-4 cells at 8-21 µg/ml. PMID:10373612

Matsuda; Shigeta; Okutani

1999-01-01

158

The depolymerized fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber potently inhibits HIV replication via interfering with virus entry.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS-1) is a nontoxic and water-soluble depolymerized glycosaminoglycan obtained from the sea cucumber Thelenota ananas. Anti-HIV activities of FuCS-1 were evaluated in the present study. FuCS-1 was effective in blocking laboratory strain HIV-1IIIB entry and replication (4.26?g/mL and 0.73?g/mL, respectively), and inhibiting infection by clinic isolate HIV-1KM018 and HIV-1TC-2 (23.75?g/mL and 31.86?g/mL, respectively) as well as suppressing HIV-1 drug-resistant virus. It also inhibited HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20 replication (100?g/mL). Notably, FuCS-1 showed highly effective antiviral activity against T-20-resistant strains (EC50 values ranging from 0.76?g/mL to 1.13?g/mL). Further studies indicated that FuCS-1 can potently bind the recombinant HIV-1 gp120 protein, but no inhibition of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was observed. In conclusion, FuCS-1 inhibited several strains of HIV-1 replication with different potencies. These results suggest that FuCS-1 may possess great potential to be further developed as novel HIV-1 entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly for those infected by T-20-resistant variants. PMID:23962762

Huang, Ning; Wu, Ming-Yi; Zheng, Chang-Bo; Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2013-07-31

159

Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides derivatives.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides extracted from the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum were sulfated and carboxymethylated as reported. Free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory effects of sulfated and carboxymethylated polysaccharides were studied. Generally, sulfated polysaccharides showed better bioactivities than that of carboxymethylated polysaccharides. The two derivatives were injected intraperitoneally with or without 5-fluorouracil over a period of 7 days in BALB/c female mice. The polysaccharide derivatives increased mouse thymus and spleen index, an indication of improved immunity in mice. At the same time, they improved superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase contents in the mice body. PMID:23044102

Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

2012-08-15

160

Axinelloside A, an unprecedented highly sulfated lipopolysaccharide inhibiting telomerase, from the marine sponge, Axinella infundibula.  

PubMed

Axinelloside A was isolated from the lipophilic extract of the Japanese marine sponge Axinella infundibula as a strong human telomerase inhibitor (IC(50) 2.0 microg/mL). It has the molecular weight of 4780.4 as the monoisotopic mass of the 19 sodium salt. The chemical structure was elucidated mainly by spectroscopic methods (2D NMR and MS). Axinelloside A consists of twelve sugars, e.g., a scyllo-inositol, a D-arabinose, 5 D-galactoses, and 5 L-fucoses, together with an (R)-3-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid, 3 (E)-2-hexadecenoic acids, and 19 sulfates. PMID:16173756

Warabi, Kaoru; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Nakao, Yoichi; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Hirota, Hiroshi; van Soest, Rob W M; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

2005-09-28

161

Hexavalent chromium reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough causes transitory inhibition of sulfate reduction and cellgrowth  

SciTech Connect

Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a well-studiedsulfate reducer that can reduce heavy metals and radionuclides [e.g.,Cr(VI) and U(VI)]. Cultures grown in a defined medium had a lag period ofapproximately 30 h when exposed to 0.05 mM Cr(VI). Substrate analysesrevealed that although Cr(VI) was reduced within the first 5 h, growthwas not observed for an additional 20 h. The growth lag could beexplained by a decline in cell viability; however, during this time smallamounts of lactate were still utilized without sulfate reduction oracetate formation. Approximately 40 h after Cr exposure (0.05 mM),sulfate reduction occurred concurrently with the accumulation of acetate.Similar amounts of hydrogen were produced by Cr-exposed cells compared tocontrol cells, and lactate was not converted to glycogen duringnon-growth conditions. D. vulgaris cells treated with a reducing agentand then exposed to Cr(VI) still experienced a growth lag, but theaddition of ascorbate at the time of Cr(VI) addition prevented the lagperiod. In addition, cells grown on pyruvate displayed more tolerance toCr(VI) compared to lactate-grown cells. These results indicated that D.vulgaris utilized lactate during Cr(VI) exposure without the reduction ofsulfate or production of acetate, and that ascorbate and pyruvate couldprotect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(VI)/Cr(III) toxicity.

Klonowska, A.; Clark, M.E.; Thieman, S.B.; Giles, B.J.; Wall,J.D.; Fields, M.W.

2008-01-07

162

Dextran Sulfate Suppression of Viruses in the HIV Family: Inhibition of Virion Binding to CD4+ Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in the infection of human T lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is attachment to the target cell receptor, the CD4 antigen. This step may be vulnerable to attack by antibodies, chemicals, or small peptides. Dextran sulfate (molecular weight approximately 8000), which has been given to patients as an anticoagulant or antilipemic agent for more than two decades, was found to block the binding of virions to various target T lymphocytes, inhibit syncytia formation, and exert a potent inhibitory effect against HIV-1 in vitro at concentrations that may be clinically attainable in human beings. This drug also suppressed the replication of HIV-2 in vitro. These observations could have theoretical and clinical implications in the strategy to develop drugs against HIV types 1 and 2.

Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Looney, David J.; Kuno, Sachiko; Ueno, Ryuji; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Broder, Samuel

1988-04-01

163

ROCK inhibition with Y27632 activates astrocytes and increases their expression of neurite growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) with Y27632 stimulates sprouting by injured corticospinal tract and dorsal column tract axons, and accelerates functional recovery. However, regeneration of these axons across the glial scar was not observed. Here we examined the effects of Y27632 treatment on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression by astrocytes, which are a key component of the reactive gliosis inhibiting axonal regeneration. In vivo, rats underwent a dorsal column transection and were treated with Y27632 via intrathecal pump infusion. Compared with controls, Y27632-treated injury sites displayed exaggerated upregulation of glial fibrillary acid protein and neurocan immunoreactivity along the lesion edge. In vitro, astrocytes assumed a reactive morphology (stellate shape) and increased their expression of CSPGs after Y27632 treatment. Neurite growth by dissociated cortical neurons decreased when cultured on the extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from Y27632-treated astrocytes. This decrease in neurite growth was reversed with chondroitinase-ABC (ChABC) digestion, indicating that the inhibition was due to CSPG depositions within the ECM. Interestingly, conditioned medium (CM) from untreated astrocytes was inhibitory to neurite growth, which was overcome by ChABC digestion. Such inhibitory activity was not found in the CM of Y27632-treated astrocytes. Taken together, these data support a model where ROCK inhibition by Y27632 modifies astrocytic processing of CSPGs, and increases the presence of CSPGs within the ECM while reduces CSPGs in the CM (cerebrospinal fluid in vivo). This increased expression of inhibitory CSPGs in the ECM of the glial scar may counteract the growth promoting effects of ROCK inhibition on axonal growth cones. PMID:17136770

Chan, Carmen C M; Wong, Angel K; Liu, Jie; Steeves, John D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2007-03-01

164

Fibronectin-mediated adhesion of fibroblasts: inhibition by dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and evidence for a cryptic glycosaminoglycan- binding domain  

PubMed Central

Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (DS-PGs) isolated from bovine articular cartilage have been examined for their effects on the adhesive responses of BALB/c 3T3 cells and bovine dermal fibroblasts on plasma fibronectin (pFN) and/or type I collagen matrices, and compared to the effects of the chondroitin sulfate/keratan sulfate proteoglycan monomers (CS/KS-PGs) from cartilage. DS-PGs inhibited the attachment and spreading of 3T3 cells on pFN-coated tissue culture substrata much more effectively than the cartilage CS/KS-PGs reported previously; in contrast, dermal fibroblasts were much less sensitive to either proteoglycan class unless they were pretreated with cycloheximide. Both cell types failed to adhere to substrata coated only with the proteoglycans; binding of the proteoglycans to various substrata has also been quantitated. While a strong inhibitory effect was obtained with the native intact DS-PGs, little inhibitory effect was obtained with isolated DS chains (liberated by alkaline-borohydride cleavage) or with core protein preparations (liberated by chondroitinase ABC digestion). In marked contrast, DS-PGs did not inhibit attachment or spreading responses of either 3T3 or dermal fibroblasts on type I collagen-coated substrata when the collagen was absorbed with pFN alone, DS-PGs alone, or the two in combination. These results support evidence for (a) collagen-dependent, fibronectin-independent mechanisms of adhesion of fibroblasts, and (b) different sites on the collagen fibrils where DS-PGs bind and where cell surface "receptors" for collagen bind. Experiments were developed to determine the mechanism(s) of inhibition. All evidence indicated that the mechanism using the intact pFN molecule involved the binding of the DS-PGs to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding sites of substratum-bound pFN, thereby inhibiting the interaction of the fibronectin with receptors on the cell surface. This was supported by affinity chromatography studies demonstrating that DS-PGs bind completely and effectively to pFN- Sepharose columns whereas only a subset of the cartilage CS/KS-PG binds weakly to these columns. In contrast, when a 120-kD chymotrypsin- generated cell-binding fragment of pFN (CBF which has no detectable GAG- binding activity as a soluble ligand) was tested in adhesion assays, DS- PGs inhibited 3T3 adherence on CBF more effectively than on intact pFN. A variety of experiments indicated that the mechanism of this inhibition also involved the binding of DS-PGs to only substratum-bound CBF due to the presence of a cryptic GAG-binding domain not observed in the soluble CBF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

1987-01-01

165

Astragalus polysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the humoral immunization of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) infection in chickens. The effects of APS treatment on H9N2 infection was evaluated by an MTT [3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and analysis of MHC and cytokine mRNA expression. The effect on lymphocyte and serum antibody titers in vivo was also investigated. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, LITAF, IL-12 and antibody titers to H9N2 AIV were enhanced in the first week after APS treatment. The results indicated that APS treatment reduces H9N2 AIV replication and promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens.

2013-01-01

166

Presentation of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide (GXM) on activated antigen-presenting cells inhibits the T-suppressor response and enhances delayed-type hypersensitivity and survival.  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans is depression of the immune system characterized by poor inflammatory responses and loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses. T-suppressor cell (Ts) responses, elicited by the capsular polysaccharide (GXM) of the organism, are known to develop during infection. This study was undertaken to develop a method to inhibit the anti-GXM Ts response and thereby study the influence of the Ts response on immune responsiveness and survival in cryptococcosis. Antigen-presenting cells (APC), elicited with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), were treated in vitro with GXM (GXM-APC). The GXM-APC were injected intravenously into normal mice. These mice were resistant to induction of anti-GXM Ts cells when soluble GXM was administered in tolerogenic doses or when animals were infected with C. neoformans. Inhibition of the anti-GXM Ts response was specific to GXM as levan-APC did not inhibit induction of anti-GXM Ts cells. Inhibition of the anti-GXM Ts response could not be attributed to increased clearance of GXM due to induction of anti-GXM antibodies or other mechanisms. Anti-cryptococcal DTH responses were lost in mice by the second week of infection. However, treatment with GXM-APC, but not levan-APC, allowed mice to maintain their DTH response. GXM-APC pretreatment enhanced survival of infected mice compared with mice pretreated with levan-APC. These results show that GXM-APC induces immune responses that inhibit the induction of Ts responses and enhances DTH responses in infected mice. These responses correlate with enhanced survival after cryptococcal infection.

Blackstock, R; Casadevall, A

1997-01-01

167

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell’s microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt’s imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis. The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin. In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?v?3 was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site. These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo.

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva

2012-01-01

168

An easily accessible sulfated saccharide mimetic inhibits in vitro human tumor cell adhesion and angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Oligosaccharides aberrantly expressed on tumor cells influence processes such as cell adhesion and modulation of the cell's microenvironment resulting in an increased malignancy. Schmidt's imidate strategy offers an effective method to synthesize libraries of various oligosaccharide mimetics. With the aim to perturb interactions of tumor cells with extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, molecules with 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan as core structure were synthesized and screened in biological assays for their abilities to interfere in cell adhesion and other steps of the metastatic cascade, such as tumor-induced angiogenesis.The most active compound, (4-{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan-3-yl)methyl hydrogen sulfate (GSF), inhibited the activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) as well as migration of the human melanoma cells of the lines WM-115 and WM-266-4 in a two-dimensional migration assay. GSF inhibited completely the adhesion of WM-115 cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibrinogen and fibronectin.In an in vitro angiogenesis assay with human endothelial cells, GSF very effectively inhibited endothelial tubule formation and sprouting of blood vessels, as well as the adhesion of endothelial cells to ECM proteins. GSF was not cytotoxic at biologically active concentrations; neither were 3,4-bis{[(?-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]methyl}furan (BGF) nor methyl ?-D-galactopyranoside nor 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan, which were used as controls, eliciting comparable biological activity. In silico modeling experiments, in which binding of GSF to the extracellular domain of the integrin ?(v)?(3) was determined, revealed specific docking of GSF to the same binding site as the natural peptidic ligands of this integrin. The sulfate in the molecule coordinated with one manganese ion in the binding site.These studies show that this chemically easily accessible molecule GSF, synthesized in three steps from 3,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)furan and benzoylated galactose imidate, is nontoxic and antagonizes cell physiological processes in vitro that are important for the dissemination and growth of tumor cells in vivo. PMID:23015827

Marano, Grazia; Gronewold, Claas; Frank, Martin; Merling, Anette; Kliem, Christian; Sauer, Sandra; Wiessler, Manfred; Frei, Eva; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

2012-05-29

169

Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1997-07-01

170

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.

1984-07-01

171

Combinatorial enzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli K5 heparosan was enzymatically modified by Chen and colleagues to construct a library of heparan sulfate polysaccharides for evaluation, leading to the discovery that a 2-O-sulfoiduronic acid residue is not essential for antithrombin-mediated anticoagulant activity in larger oligosaccharide and polysaccharide structures. PMID:17884627

Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Jin-Hwan

2007-09-01

172

The roles of neuronal and glial precursors in overcoming chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan inhibition  

PubMed Central

The extension of axons through the major inhibitory component of the glial scar, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG), remains a key obstacle for regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously shown that transplants composed of neuronal and glial restricted precursors (NRP and GRP respectively) promote regeneration and connectivity in the injured spinal cord (Bonner et al., 2010; 2011), however, little is known about the properties of these precursors at a cellular level. We now report that NRP-derived neurons, in contrast to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, have the ability to extend axons and cross over from a permissive substratum (laminin) onto inhibitory CSPG in vitro. Growth cones of neurons derived from NRP, compared to DRG, exhibit significantly lower levels of the CSPG receptors protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTP?) and leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase (LAR). GRP-conditioned medium prepared from the same cell densities did not affect the response of primary sensory neurons to CSPG confirming that the ability of NRP-derived neurons to cross onto CSPG is determined intrinsically. However, GRP-conditioned medium collected from high density cultures increased the probability of DRG axons to cross from LN onto CSPG and increased the length of DRG axons extending on CSPG. Collectively, these results suggest that (1) neurons derived from NRPs are intrinsically insensitive to CSPGs due to low levels of receptor expression, and (2) high levels of factors secreted by GRP can reduce the inhibitory effects of CSPG and promote axonal growth. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the specific roles of NRPs and GRPs in promoting regeneration and repair following SCI.

Ketschek, AR; Haas, C; Gallo, G; Fischer, I

2012-01-01

173

Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.  

PubMed

Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p?0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest?L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry. PMID:21535855

Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

2011-04-01

174

THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDE ON MUMPS VIRUS MULTIPLICATION  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides derived from type-specific Friedländer bacilli cause inhibition of the multiplication of mumps virus in the allantoic sac of the chick embryo. As little as 5 µg. of polysaccharide is effective as an inhibitor. Inhibition of multiplication is obtained when polysaccharide is injected as long as 4 days after inoculation of virus. Chemical studies have shown that the structural configurations of the polysaccharide responsible for specific serological activity are not identical with those which determine the inhibitory effect relative to mumps virus. The possible mechanisms of the inhibition of viral multiplication by means of polysaccharides are discussed.

Ginsberg, Harold S.; Goebel, Walther F.; Horsfall, Frank L.

1948-01-01

175

Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/?-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. Methods The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. Results PL (125-1000 ?g/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased ?-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of ?-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in ?-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased. Conclusions These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells.

2011-01-01

176

Synthetic Polymer Nanoparticle-Polysaccharide Interactions: A Systematic Study  

PubMed Central

The interaction between synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) and biomacromolecules (e.g. proteins, lipids and polysaccharides) can profoundly influence the NPs fate and function. Polysaccharides (e.g. heparin/heparin sulfate) are a key component of cell surfaces and the extracelluar matrix and play critical roles in many biological processes. We report a systematic investigation of the interaction between synthetic polymer nanoparticles and polysaccharides by ITC, SPR and an anticoagulant assay to provide guidelines to engineer nanoparticles for biomedical applications. The interaction between acrylamide nanoparticles (~30 nm) and heparin is mainly enthalpy driven with submicromolar affinity. Hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions and dehydration of polar groups are identified to be key contributions to the affinity. It has been found that high charge density and cross linking of the NP can contribute to high affinity. The affinity and binding capacity of heparin can be significantly diminished by an increase in salt concentration while only slightly decreased with an increase of temperature. A striking difference in binding thermodynamics has been observed when polymer nanoparticle’s main component is changed from acrylamide (enthalpy driven) to N-isopropylacryalmide (entropy driven). This change in thermodynamics leads to different responses of these two types of polymer NPs to salt concentration and temperature. Select synthetic polymer nanoparticles have also been shown to inhibit protein-heparin interactions and thus offer the potential for therapeutic applications.

Zeng, Zhiyang; Patel, Jiten; Lee, Shih-Hui; McCallum, Monica; Tyagi, Anuradha; Yan, Mingdi; Shea, Kenneth J.

2012-01-01

177

Sulphoevernan, a polyanionic polysaccharide, and the narcissus lectin potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection by binding to viral envelope protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphoevernan is a sulphated ~-1 --, 3, 1 -, 4 polyglucan (Mr 20000) with a helical structure. This compound effectively inhibits both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 infection of cells in vitro at concentrations around 0-5 ~tg\\/ml. Moreover, the compound completely inhibits HIV-l-induced syncy- tium formation at a concentration of 1 ~tg\\/ml. Competi- tion experiments with

Barbara E. Weiler; H. C. Schroder; Vladimir Stefanovich; Derek Stewart; John M. S. Forrest; Lois B. Allen; Bonnie J. Bowden; Matthias H. Kreuter; Rita Voth; W. E. G. Muller

1990-01-01

178

Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Potently Inhibit Invasion and Serve as a Central Organizer of the Brain Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most pervasive and lethal of all brain malignancies. One factor that contributes to this poor prognosis is the highly invasive character of the tumor. GBM is characterized by microscopic infiltration of tumor cells throughout the brain, whereas non-neural metastases, as well as select lower grade gliomas, develop as self-contained and clearly delineated lesions. Illustrated by rodent xenograft tumor models as well as pathological human patient specimens, we present evidence that one fundamental switch between these two distinct pathologies–invasion and noninvasion–is mediated through the tumor extracellular matrix. Specifically, noninvasive lesions are associated with a rich matrix containing substantial amounts of glycosylated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), whereas glycosylated CSPGs are essentially absent from diffusely infiltrating tumors. CSPGs, acting as central organizers of the tumor microenvironment, dramatically influence resident reactive astrocytes, inducing their exodus from the tumor mass and the resultant encapsulation of noninvasive lesions. Additionally, CSPGs induce activation of tumor-associated microglia. We demonstrate that the astrogliotic capsule can directly inhibit tumor invasion, and its absence from GBM presents an environment favorable to diffuse infiltration. We also identify the leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase receptor (PTPRF) as a putative intermediary between extracellular glycosylated CSPGs and noninvasive tumor cells. In all, we present CSPGs as critical regulators of brain tumor histopathology and help to clarify the role of the tumor microenvironment in brain tumor invasion.

Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Schildts, Michela J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Smith, George M.; Smith, Amy A.; Scheffler, Bjorn; Reynolds, Brent A.; Silver, Jerry; Steindler, Dennis A.

2013-01-01

179

Inhibition by chondroitin sulfate E can specify functional Wnt/?-catenin signaling thresholds in NIH3T3 fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Aberrant activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is frequently associated with human disease, including cancer, and thus represents a key therapeutic target. However, Wnt/?-catenin signaling also plays critical roles in many aspects of normal adult tissue homeostasis. The identification of mechanisms and strategies to selectively inhibit the disease-related functions of Wnt signaling, while preserving normal physiological functions, is in its infancy. Here, we report the identification of exogenous chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E) as an inhibitor of specific molecular and biological outcomes of Wnt3a signaling in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We demonstrate that CS-E can decrease Wnt3a signaling through the negative regulation of LRP6 receptor activation. However, this inhibitory effect of CS-E only affected Wnt3a-mediated induction, but not repression, of target gene expression. We went on to identify a critical Wnt3a signaling threshold that differentially affects target gene induction versus repression. This signaling threshold also controlled the effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Limiting Wnt3a signaling to this critical threshold, either by CS-E treatment or by ligand dilution, interfered with Wnt3a-mediated stimulation of proliferation but did not impair Wnt3a-mediated reduction of serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Treatment with pharmacological inhibitors demonstrated that both induction and repression of Wnt3a target genes in NIH3T3 cells require the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascade. Our data establish the feasibility of selective inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin transcriptional programs and biological outcomes through the exploitation of intrinsic signaling thresholds. PMID:22915582

Willis, Catherine M; Klüppel, Michael

2012-08-22

180

Chondroitin sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. But as far as we ... containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. ...

181

Glucosamine sulfate  

MedlinePLUS

... Glucosamine Potassium Sulfate, Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl, Glucosamine Sulfate-Potassium Chloride, Glucosamine Sulphate, Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N- ...

182

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris)

R. Zuo; D. Örnek; B. C. Syrett; R. M. Green; C.-H. Hsu; F. B. Mansfeld; T. K. Wood

2004-01-01

183

Polysaccharide Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of current and potential enzymes used to degrade polysaccharides is presented. Such depolymerases are comprised of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, phosphorylases and lyases, and their classification, active sites and action patterns are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms that these enzymes use to cleave glycosidic linkages is reviewed as are inhibitors of depolymerase activity; reagents which react with amino acid residues, glycoside derivatives, transition state inhibitors and proteinaceous inhibitors. The characterization of various enzymes of microbial, animal or plant origin has led to their widespread use in the production of important oligosaccharides which can be incorporated into food stuffs. Sources of polysaccharides of particular interest in this chapter are those from plants and include inulin, dextran, xylan and pectin, as their hydrolysis products are purported to be functional foods in the context of gastrointestinal health. An alternative use of degraded polysaccharides is in the treatment of disease. The possibility exists to treat bacterial exopolysaccharide with lyases from bacteriophage to produce oligosaccharides exhibiting bioactive sequences. Although this area is currently in its infancy the knowledge is available to investigate further.

Stone, Bruce A.; Svensson, Birte; Collins, Michelle E.; Rastall, Robert A.

184

Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. Methods In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female ApcMin/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. Results In the ApcMin/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In ApcMin/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E2 and nuclear ?-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. Conclusion These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant ?-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism.

Ju, Jihyeung; Nolan, Bonnie; Cheh, Michelle; Bose, Mousumi; Lin, Yong; Wagner, George C; Yang, Chung S

2008-01-01

185

?-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR? Pathway  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Maira; Pereira Leite, Daniela Ferraz; Calixto, Joao B.

2011-01-01

186

?-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPAR? pathway.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21356367

Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Maíra; Leite, Daniela Ferraz Pereira; Calixto, João B

2011-03-01

187

Fluorescent and radiolabeling of polysaccharides: binding and internalization experiments on vascular cells.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparan sulfates are complex carbohydrate polymers. These structural components of the extracellular matrix are essential for the adhesion, migration, and regulation of cellular growth. To understand the physiological role of GAGs and GAG analogues, a practical approach consists of labeling and detecting them in cell extracts, or analyzing binding domains and their distributions into the cells. We propose a convenient and reliable method for preparing and labeling amino-enriched, polysaccharides with the fluorescent derivative 5-[(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)amino]-fluorescein (DTAF). Radioiodination is then performed on the DTAF moiety. This method was applied to polysaccharides known to inhibit vascular smooth-muscle cell (SMC) proliferation such as functionalized dextrans derived from poly(alpha 1-6 glucose) and fucan, poly(L-fucose 4-sulfate) extracted from brown seaweed. Using autoradiography and confocal microscopy, we observed the fixation and internalization of labeled antiproliferative products in SMCs from rat aorta. These probes can be useful for the understanding of polysaccharide-cell interactions. In addition, the method presented here can be applied to various synthetic or natural biomedical materials. PMID:9549622

Prigent-Richard, S; Cansell, M; Vassy, J; Viron, A; Puvion, E; Jozefonvicz, J; Letourneur, D

1998-05-01

188

Interaction of antithrombin with sulfated, low molecular weight lignins: opportunities for potent, selective modulation of antithrombin function.  

PubMed

Antithrombin, a major regulator of coagulation and angiogenesis, is known to interact with several natural sulfated polysaccharides. Previously, we prepared sulfated low molecular weight variants of natural lignins, called sulfated dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs) (Henry, B. L., Monien, B. H., Bock, P. E., and Desai, U. R. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 31891-31899), which have now been found to exhibit interesting antithrombin binding properties. Sulfated DHPs represent a library of diverse noncarbohydrate aromatic scaffolds that possess structures completely different from heparin and heparan sulfate. Fluorescence binding studies indicate that sulfated DHPs bind to antithrombin with micromolar affinity under physiological conditions. Salt dependence of binding affinity indicates that the antithrombin-sulfated DHP interaction involves a massive 80-87% non-ionic component to the free energy of binding. Competitive binding studies with heparin pentasaccharide, epicatechin sulfate, and full-length heparin indicate that sulfated DHPs bind to both the pentasaccharide-binding site and extended heparin-binding site of antithrombin. Affinity capillary electrophoresis resolves a limited number of peaks of antithrombin co-complexes suggesting preferential binding of selected DHP structures to the serpin. Computational genetic algorithm-based virtual screening study shows that only one sulfated DHP structure, out of the 11 present in a library of plausible sequences, bound in the heparin-binding site with a high calculated score supporting selectivity of recognition. Enzyme inhibition studies indicate that only one of the three sulfated DHPs studied is a potent inhibitor of free factor VIIa in the presence of antithrombin. Overall, the chemo-enzymatic origin and antithrombin binding properties of sulfated DHPs present novel opportunities for potent and selective modulation of the serpin function, especially for inhibiting the initiation phase of hemostasis. PMID:19497853

Henry, Brian L; Connell, Justin; Liang, Aiye; Krishnasamy, Chandravel; Desai, Umesh R

2009-06-04

189

Anticoagulant Heparan Sulfate: Structural Specificity and Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Heparan sulfate (HS) is present on the surface of endothelial and surrounding tissues in large quantities. It plays important roles in regulating numerous functions of the blood vessel wall, including blood coagulation, inflammation response and cell differentiation. HS is a highly sulfated polysaccharide containing glucosamine and glucuronic/iduronic acid repeating disaccharide units. The unique sulfated saccharide sequences of HS determine its specific functions. Heparin, an analogue of heparan sulfate, is the most commonly used anticoagulant drug. Because of its wide range of biological functions, HS has become an interesting molecule to biochemists, medicinal chemists and developmental biologists. Here, we summarize recent progress towards understanding the interaction between heparan sulfate and blood coagulating factors, the biosynthesis of anticoagulant heparan sulfate and the mechanism of action of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes. Further, knowledge of the biosynthesis of HS facilitates the development of novel enzymatic approaches to synthesize HS from bacterial capsular polysaccharides and to produce polysaccharide end products with high specificity for the biological target. These advancements provide the foundation for the development of polysaccharide-based therapeutic agents.

Liu, Jian; Pedersen, Lars C.

2007-01-01

190

Inhibition of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase by beta-D-4-O-sulfo-N-acetylgalactosaminides bearing various hydrophobic aglycons.  

PubMed

N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S-6ST) transfers sulfate to position 6 of GalNAc(4SO4) residues of chondroitin sulfate to yield chondroitin sulfate E (CS-E). We have previously demonstrated that phenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) could serve as an acceptor for GalNAc4S-6ST, thereby inhibiting GalNAc4S-6ST competitively. In this paper we compared the inhibitory effects of various glycosides in which various hydrophobic aglycons were attached to D-GalNAc(4SO4) via ss anomeric configuration. p-Nitrophenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) and p-chlorophenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) were stronger inhibitors than phenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4). Among inhibitors examined here, 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) was the strongest inhibitor; the Ki of 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) for the competitive inhibition was 0.008 mM, which was much lower than the Ki of phenyl-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4), 0.98 mM. In contrast, 7-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) showed only weak inhibition to GalNAc4S-6ST. 3-Estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) did not inhibit chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase under the concentration where GalNAc4S-6ST was inhibited by 90%. When 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) was added to the culture medium of chondrosarcoma cells expressing human GalNAc4S-6ST, a significant, albeit small, reduction in the cellular synthesis of CS-E was observed. These results suggest that estradiol group of 3-estradiol-beta-D-GalNAc(4SO4) may enhance the inhibitory activity of the glycoside through increasing the affinity to the enzyme and may allow the glycosides to diffuse at a low efficiency into the cells to inhibit cellular synthesis of CS-E. PMID:20016933

Nozaki, Hiroko; Tomoyama, Yuri; Takagi, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Koutaro; Yamada, Chika; Kaio, Ken-ichi; Tsukimori, Masaki; Nagao, Kazuya; Itakura, Yuya; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Nakano, Hirofumi; Habuchi, Osami

2009-12-18

191

Interactions between Brucella melitensis and Human Phagocytes: Bacterial Surface O-Polysaccharide Inhibits Phagocytosis, Bacterial Killing, and Subsequent Host Cell Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within host phagocytic cells. Smooth organisms present O-polysaccharides (OPS) on their surface. The wboA gene, which codes for the enzyme glycosyl transferase, is essential for the assembly of O-chain in Brucella. Deletion of wboA in smooth, virulent B. melitensis 16M results in a rough mutant designated WRR51. Unlike B. abortus, both smooth and rough strains of B. melitensis are resistant to complement-mediated killing. To determine the role of surface OPS in the interactions of B. melitensis with monocytes/macrophages (M/M), 16M and WRR51 were transformed with the plasmid pBBR1MCS-6y encoding green fluorescent protein, and the transformants were used to infect human mononuclear phagocytes with and without fresh human serum as a source of complement. Human monocytes were cultured in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to allow their differentiation into macrophages during the course of infection. Intracellular bacteria were easily visualized using fluorescence microscopy. Infection in M/M, identified by surface staining and fate of infected phagocytes, was quantitated by flow cytometry. Rough bacteria were internalized, with no requirement for opsonization by serum, at a higher rate than smooth organisms. Smooth B. melitensis survived and multiplied for at least 6 days inside M/M, but rough organisms were eliminated by death of the infected cells. In human monocytes cultured for 1 day without serum in order to trigger the apoptotic pathway, infection by rough brucellae accelerated phagocyte death; smooth brucellae inhibited apoptosis. This study suggests that the presence of surface OPS on live B. melitensis benefits the bacterium by preventing the death of macrophages, Brucella's preferred target for intracellular replication.

Fernandez-Prada, Carmen M.; Zelazowska, Elzbieta B.; Nikolich, Mikeljon; Hadfield, Ted L.; Roop II, R. Martin; Robertson, Gregory L.; Hoover, David L.

2003-01-01

192

Sulfated glycosaminoglycan deposition and processing at the basal epithelial surface in branching and beta-D-xyloside-inhibited embryonic salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated whether the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis and salivary branching morphogenesis by beta-D-xyloside was related to the deposition and processing of newly synthesized glycosaminoglycans at the basal epithelial surface that correlates with normal branching activity. Forty eight-hour cultures of control and 0.5 mM beta-xyloside-treated submandibular rudiments were labeled for 2 hr with (/sup 35/S)sulfate and fixed and processed for autoradiography, immediately or after 2, 4, 6, or 8 hr of postlabeling chase in nonradioactive medium. The data demonstrated that deposition of chondroitin sulfate-rich material at the basal epithelial surface was strikingly reduced in beta-xyloside-treated rudiments, while patterns of label loss during postlabeling chase were not altered.

Spooner, B.S.; Bassett, K.; Stokes, B.

1985-05-01

193

Unique Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate from the Bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Safely Inhibits Arterial Thrombosis after Photochemically Induced Endothelial Lesion*  

PubMed Central

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing ?4.6 mg g?1 of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional 1H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg?1, 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg?1), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC50 = 0.835 ?g ml?1) and thrombin (IC50 = 9.3 ?g ml?1) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg?1, the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose.

Gomes, Angelica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, Jose L.; Pavao, Mauro S. G.

2010-01-01

194

Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Functions as Receptor for Specific Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, and Anti-RAGE Antibody or Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Delivered in Vivo Inhibit Pulmonary Metastasis of Tumor Cells*  

PubMed Central

Altered expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) at the surfaces of tumor cells plays a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived tumor cell line with high metastatic potential had a higher proportion of E-disaccharide units, GlcUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate), in CS chains than low metastatic LLC cells and that such CS chains are involved in the metastatic process. The metastasis was markedly inhibited by the pre-administration of CS-E from squid cartilage rich in E units or by preincubation with a phage display antibody specific for CS-E. However, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition remains to be investigated. In this study the receptor molecule for CS chains containing E-disaccharides expressed on LLC cells was revealed to be receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predominantly expressed in the lung. Interestingly, RAGE bound strongly to not only E-disaccharide, but also HS-expressing LLC cells. Furthermore, the colonization of the lungs by LLC cells was effectively inhibited by the blocking of CS or HS chains at the tumor cell surface with an anti-RAGE antibody through intravenous injections in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide the clear evidence that RAGE is at least one of the critical receptors for CS and HS chains expressed at the tumor cell surface and involved in experimental lung metastasis and that CS/HS and RAGE are potential molecular targets in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis.

Mizumoto, Shuji; Takahashi, Jun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

2012-01-01

195

Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) functions as receptor for specific sulfated glycosaminoglycans, and anti-RAGE antibody or sulfated glycosaminoglycans delivered in vivo inhibit pulmonary metastasis of tumor cells.  

PubMed

Altered expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) at the surfaces of tumor cells plays a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-derived tumor cell line with high metastatic potential had a higher proportion of E-disaccharide units, GlcUA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate), in CS chains than low metastatic LLC cells and that such CS chains are involved in the metastatic process. The metastasis was markedly inhibited by the pre-administration of CS-E from squid cartilage rich in E units or by preincubation with a phage display antibody specific for CS-E. However, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition remains to be investigated. In this study the receptor molecule for CS chains containing E-disaccharides expressed on LLC cells was revealed to be receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily predominantly expressed in the lung. Interestingly, RAGE bound strongly to not only E-disaccharide, but also HS-expressing LLC cells. Furthermore, the colonization of the lungs by LLC cells was effectively inhibited by the blocking of CS or HS chains at the tumor cell surface with an anti-RAGE antibody through intravenous injections in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide the clear evidence that RAGE is at least one of the critical receptors for CS and HS chains expressed at the tumor cell surface and involved in experimental lung metastasis and that CS/HS and RAGE are potential molecular targets in the treatment of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:22493510

Mizumoto, Shuji; Takahashi, Jun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

2012-04-09

196

Modulation of vascular human endothelial and rat smooth muscle cell growth by a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan extracted from the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea. This polysaccharide has the same structure as a mammalian chondroitin sulfate but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate have already been described. In order to further investigate its potential therapeutic use as an antithrombotic agent, we studied its effect on vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and endothelial cell proliferation, migration and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI) release. The experiments were performed on SMC from rat thoracic aorta and on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in culture with or without added fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1 and FGF-2). Our results showed that: (i) fucosylated chondroitin sulfate had a strong inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation (IC50 =10 +/- 5 microg/ml) and (ii) no effect on HUVEC proliferation and migration assays, in the absence of exogenous FGF, while heparin had inhibitory effects; (iii) fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (10 microg/ml) enhanced FGF-1 and FGF-2 induced HUVEC proliferation by 45% (145.4 +/- 7.2%) and 27% (126.9 +/- 4.2%), respectively; (iv) on FGF-induced HUVEC migration, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (10 microg/ml) had a strong enhancing effect with FGF-1, +122% (222.2 +/- 15.8%), three times higher than that of heparin, and a lower enhancing effect with FGF-2, +43% (142.7 +/- 4.6%), whereas heparin had no effect; (v) fucosylated chondroitin sulfate stimulated TFPI release, mainly on the free form. +98% (198.2 +/- 25%). In addition, the structural features of the polysaccharide associated with its biological activity were resolved using chemically modified fucosylated chondroitin sulfates. Sulfated fucose branches groups are essential to the potentiating effect of the polysaccharide on HUVEC proliferation and migration. Surprisingly, removal of fucose branches from the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate did not abolish TFPI release. Finally, partial reduction of the glucuronic acid carboxyl groups limited the potentiating effect on HUVEC proliferation and migration but did not affect TFPI release. In conclusion, this fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from invertebrate origin reveals useful properties for an antithrombotic agent: inhibition of SMC proliferation, enhancement of endothelium wound repair and TFPI release. These properties on vascular cells, associated with a low bleeding tendency and an antithrombotic activity, strongly suggest its potential use as a new therapeutic agent in arterial thrombosis and restenosis, with a more favorable effect than heparin. PMID:10959709

Tapon-Bretaudière, J; Drouet, B; Matou, S; Mourão, P A; Bros, A; Letourneur, D; Fischer, A M

2000-08-01

197

Morphine Sulfate  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Contains Nonbinding Recommendations Draft Guidance on Morphine Sulfate This ... Drugs. Active ingredient: Morphine Sulfate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

198

Sulfated alpha-L-galactans from the sea urchin ovary: selective 6-desulfation as eggs are spawned.  

PubMed

The sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a jelly coat, which contains sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. These molecules are responsible for inducing the species-specific acrosome reaction, an obligatory event for the binding of sperm and fusion with the egg. The mechanism of biosynthesis of these sulfated polysaccharides is virtually unknown. The egg jelly of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a simple 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan. Here, we pulse labeled the sea urchin ovary in vitro with (35)S-sulfate to follow the biosynthesis of the sulfated alpha-L-galactan. We found that the ovary contains a 2,6-disulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan, which incorporates (35)S-sulfate more avidly than the 2-sulfated isoform. The 2,6-disulfated alpha-L-galactan was purified by anion exchange chromatography, analyzed by electrophoresis and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We also investigated the location of the sulfated polysaccharides on the oocytes using histochemical procedures. The stain revealed high amounts of sulfated polysaccharide in mature oocytes and accessory cells. The amount of intracellular sulfated polysaccharides decreased as oocytes are spawned. We speculate that 2,6-disulfated galactan is initially synthesized in the ovary and that 6-sulfate ester is removed when the polysaccharide is secreted into the egg jelly. Similar events related to remodeling of sulfated polysaccharides have been reported in other biological systems. PMID:20147451

Cinelli, Leonardo P; Andrade, Leonardo; Valente, Ana Paula; Mourão, Paulo A S

2010-02-10

199

Protection against group B Neisseria meningitidis disease: preparation of soluble protein and protein-polysaccharide immunogens.  

PubMed Central

Although effective polysaccharide vaccines have been developed for meningococcal groups A, C, Y, and W135, the purified group B polysaccharide has proven to be nonimmunogenic. Earlier studies indicated that serotype 2 outer membrane protein vaccines induced bactericidal antibodies in animals and protected them from meningococcal challenge. However, a similar vaccine induced only low levels of antiprotein antibodies in both adults and children (C.E. Frasch et al., in J.B. Robbins et al., ed., Seminars in Infectious Disease vol. 4, p. 263-267, 1982). Methods were therefore developed to produce more immunogenic serotype 2 protein vaccines. We found that, by growing the organism for 65 to 72 h at 32 degrees C, three to four times more outer membrane protein was released into the culture medium than could be extracted from overnight-grown cells. The outer membranes were therefore purified directly from the broth by ultrafiltration followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Most of the lipopolysaccharide was selectively removed from the membranes by treatment with the nonionic detergent Brij-96. The Brij-96 was then removed and the resulting vaccine was filter sterilized. Some vaccines were prepared by combining equal parts of detergent-treated membrane protein and high-molecular-weight group B polysaccharide producing highly soluble vaccines. These new vaccines were compared by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assay to an insoluble vaccine (E-06) found to be poorly immunogenic in humans. A human serum with serotype 2 specificity was used in the inhibition assay, and 5 microgram of E-06 was required for 50% inhibition, whereas less than 1 microgram of the soluble vaccines was required. Addition of group B polysaccharide slightly increased the inhibitory capacity of the protein component. Images

Frasch, C E; Peppler, M S

1982-01-01

200

Anticoagulant activity of a unique sulfated pyranosic (1->3)-?-L-arabinan through direct interaction with thrombin.  

PubMed

A highly sulfated 3-linked ?-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

Fernández, Paula V; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S; Caramelo, Julio J; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M; Ciancia, Marina

2012-11-16

201

Chronic steroid sulfatase inhibition by (p-O-sulfamoyl)-N-tetradecanoyl tyramine increases dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in whole brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a neurosteroid which functions as a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor-gated chloride channel. Steroid sulfatase inhibitors including (p-O-sulfamoyl)-N-tetradecanoyl tyramine (DU-14), can potentiate the blockade of the amnestic effects of scopolamine by exogenously administered DHEAS. Moreover, when administered over a 15 day period, DU-14 can block scopolamine amnesia without the concurrent administration of DHEAS. Since

David A. Johnson; Michael E. Rhodes; Riccardo L. Boni; Pui-Kai Li

1997-01-01

202

Regulation of Pathologic Retinal Angiogenesis in Mice and Inhibition of VEGF-VEGFR2 Binding by Soluble Heparan Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the retinal vascular network is strictly confined within the neuronal retina, allowing the intraocular media to be optically transparent. However, in retinal ischemia, pro-angiogenic factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor-A, VEGF-A) induce aberrant guidance of retinal vessels into the vitreous. Here, we show that the soluble heparan sulfate level in murine intraocular fluid is high particularly during ocular

Koji M. Nishiguchi; Keiko Kataoka; Shu Kachi; Keiichi Komeima; Hiroko Terasaki; Rory Edward Morty

2010-01-01

203

Modulations of glypican-1 heparan sulfate structure by inhibition of endogenous polyamine synthesis. Mapping of spermine-binding sites and heparanase, heparin lyase, and nitric oxide/nitrite cleavage sites.  

PubMed

Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans facilitate uptake of growth-promoting polyamines (Belting, M., Persson, S., and Fransson, L.-A. (1999) Biochem. J. 338, 317-323; Belting, M., Borsig, L., Fuster, M. M., Brown, J. R., Persson, L., Fransson, L.-A., and Esko, J. D. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., in press). Here, we have analyzed the effect of polyamine deprivation on the structure and polyamine affinity of the heparan sulfate chains in various glypican-1 glycoforms synthesized by a transformed cell line (ECV 304). Heparan sulfate chains of glypican-1 were either cleaved with heparanase at sites embracing the highly modified regions or with nitrite at N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues. The products were separated and further degraded by heparin lyase to identify sulfated iduronic acid. Polyamine affinity was assessed by chromatography on agarose substituted with the polyamine spermine. In heparan sulfate made by cells with undisturbed endogenous polyamine synthesis, free amino groups were restricted to the unmodified, unsulfated segments, especially near the core protein. Spermine high affinity binding sites were located to the modified and highly sulfated segments that were released by heparanase. In cells with up-regulated polyamine uptake, heparan sulfate contained an increased number of clustered N-unsubstituted glucosamines and sulfated iduronic acid residues. This resulted in a greater number of NO/nitrite-sensitive cleavage sites near the potential spermine-binding sites. Endogenous degradation by heparanase and NO-derived nitrite in polyamine-deprived cells generated a separate pool of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with an exceptionally high affinity for spermine. Spermine uptake in polyamine-deprived cells was reduced when NO/nitrite-generated degradation of heparan sulfate was inhibited. The results suggest a functional interplay between glypican recycling, NO/nitrite-generated heparan sulfate degradation, and polyamine uptake. PMID:11577085

Ding, K; Sandgren, S; Mani, K; Belting, M; Fransson, L A

2001-09-27

204

Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... of the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria, ...

205

Polysaccharide Production by Microalgae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing ov...

J. R. Benemann J. C. Weissman

1980-01-01

206

Polysaccharide-Producing Microalgae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by cen...

C. Gudin C. Thepenier D. Chaumont J. P. Braud P. Chassin

1982-01-01

207

Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.  

PubMed

The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 ?g/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 ?g/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups. PMID:23544648

Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-01-25

208

Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.  

PubMed

The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health. PMID:22909979

Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, So?a; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

209

Polysaccharide-protein conjugates  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Vi capsular polysaccharides conjugated to toxin-dependent proteins can be used to enhance antibody response and to convert T-dependent properties to the Vi capsular polysaccharide. A heterobifunctional crosslinking agent can be used to bind thiol derivatives of the Vi capsular polysaccharides to the proteins, such as diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, cholera toxin and Haemophilus influenzae.

1993-04-20

210

Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase\\/Akt signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a remedy to promote health and longevity in China. The polysaccharide component with a branched (133)--D-glucan moiety from G. luci- dum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor ef- fects. In this study, we investigated the effect of PS-G on neutrophil viability, which is manifested by spontaneous

Ming-Jen Hsu; Shiuh-Sheng Lee; Wan-Wan Lin

211

Interactions between Brucella melitensis and Human Phagocytes: Bacterial Surface O-Polysaccharide Inhibits Phagocytosis, Bacterial Killing, and Subsequent Host Cell Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within host phagocytic cells. Smooth organisms present O-polysaccharides (OPS) on their surface. The wboA gene, which codes for the enzyme glycosyl transferase, is essential for the assembly of O-chain in Brucella. Deletion of wboA in smooth, virulent B. melitensis 16M results in a rough mutant designated WRR51. Unlike B. abortus, both

Carmen M. Fernandez-Prada; Elzbieta B. Zelazowska; Mikeljon Nikolich; Ted L. Hadfield; R. Martin Roop; Gregory L. Robertson; David L. Hoover

2003-01-01

212

A new procedure for the separation of water-soluble polysaccharides from brown seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the separation and isolation of the water-soluble polysaccharides of brown algae (i.e., laminarans, fucoidans and alginates, respectively) based on hydrophobic chromatography has been developed. In addition, the fractions containing unusually low-sulfated polysaccharides have been isolated by the new procedure.

Tatiana N Zvyagintseva; Nataliya M Shevchenko; Irina B Popivnich; Vladimir V Isakov; Andrey S Scobun; Elena V Sundukova; Lyudmila A Elyakova

1999-01-01

213

Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island process water.  

PubMed

Biofilms were used to produce gramicidin S (a cyclic decapeptide) to inhibit corrosion-causing, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In laboratory studies these biofilms protected mild steel 1010 continuously from corrosion in the aggressive, cooling service water of the AmerGen Three-Mile-Island (TMI) nuclear plant, which was augmented with reference SRB. The growth of both reference SRB (Gram-positive Desulfosporosinus orientis and Gram-negative Desulfovibrio vulgaris) was shown to be inhibited by supernatants of the gramicidin-S-producing bacteria as well as by purified gramicidin S. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and mass loss measurements showed that the protective biofilms decreased the corrosion rate of mild steel by 2- to 10-fold when challenged with the natural SRB of the TMI process water supplemented with D. orientis or D. vulgaris. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency was 50-90% in continuous reactors, compared to a biofilm control which did not produce the antimicrobial gramicidin S. Scanning electron microscope and reactor images also revealed that SRB attack was thwarted by protective biofilms that secrete gramicidin S. A consortium of beneficial bacteria (GGPST consortium, producing gramicidin S and other antimicrobials) also protected the mild steel. PMID:12898064

Zuo, R; Ornek, D; Syrett, B C; Green, R M; Hsu, C-H; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

2003-08-01

214

Arvelexin Inhibits Colonic Inflammation by Suppression of NF-?B Activation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mice and TNF-?-Induced Colonic Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the anti-inflammatory effects of arvelexin isolated from Brassica rapa in macrophages. In the present study, the effects of arvelexin were investigated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model and in a cellular model. In the DSS-induced colitis model, arvelexin significantly reduced the severity of colitis, as assessed by disease activity, colonic damage, neutrophil infiltration, and levels of colonic iNOS. Moreover, arvelexin inhibited the expressions of IL-8, IP-10, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. Arvelexin also inhibited the TNF-?-induced adhesion of U937 monocytic cells to HT-29 cells. Furthermore, arvelexin reduced p65 NF-?B subunit translocation to the nucleus and I?B? degradation in the colonic tissues and in TNF-?-induced HT-29 cells. These results demonstrate that the ameliorative effects of arvelexin on colonic injury are mainly related to its ability to inhibit the inflammatory responses via NF-?B inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic role in colitis. PMID:22794033

Cho, Eu-Jin; Shin, Ji-Sun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Yong Sup; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2012-07-23

215

Antioxidant acitivity in vitro and in vivo of the capsule polysaccharides from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude capsule polysaccharides (CCP) were prepared from the culture of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus C55129 and were partially purified through an anion-exchange column chromatography to afford partially purified capsule polysaccharides (PCP). The main component of CCP and PCP was hyaluronic acid. In vitro antioxidant assay, the capsule polysaccharides showed strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and

Chunlin Ke; Deliang Qiao; Dan Gan; Yi Sun; Hong Ye; Xiaoxiong Zeng

2009-01-01

216

An Inhibitor-Based Method to Measure Initial Decomposition of Naturally Occurring Polysaccharides in Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method that can be used to measure the initial decomposition rates of polysaccharides in sediment samples was developed. It uses toluene to specifically inhibit microbial uptake of carbohydrates without affecting extracellular hydrolysis of polysaccharides. Accumulating carbohydrates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Field-sampled litter from the common reed (Phragmites australis), which contains cellulose and arabinoxylan as its main polysaccharides,

H. T. S. Boschker; S. A. Bertilsson

1995-01-01

217

Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt\\/?-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties\\u000a of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix\\u000a metallo-proteinase

Kyoung-Sub Song; Ge Li; Jong-Seok Kim; Kaipeng Jing; Tae-Dong Kim; Jin-Pyo Kim; Seung-Bo Seo; Jae-Kuk Yoo; Hae-Duck Park; Byung-Doo Hwang; Kyu Lim; Wan-Hee Yoon

2011-01-01

218

The Role of Chondroitin Sulfate Chains of Urinary Trypsin Inhibitor in Inhibition of LPS-Induced Increase of Cytosolic Free Ca 2+in HL60 Cells and HUVEC Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preincubation of HL60 cells and HUVEC cells with urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) inhibited increase of cytosolic free Ca2+induced by LPS. In contrast, an increase of cytosolic free Ca2+induced by LPS was not inhibited by deglycosylated UTI, UTI treated with monoclonal antibody of chondroitin sulfate.45Ca2+binding showed that UTI binds45Ca2+dose-dependently. Scatchard plot analysis showed that UTI has two binding sites for Ca2+,

Naohiro Kanayama; Kayoko Maehara; Masako Suzuki; Yutaka Fujise; Toshihiko Terao

1997-01-01

219

Substrate-Dependent Inhibition of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B1: Comparative Analysis with Prototypical Probe Substrates Estradiol-17?-Glucuronide, Estrone-3-Sulfate, and Sulfobromophthalein.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 plays an important role in the hepatic uptake of many drugs, and the evaluation of OATP1B1-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is emphasized in the latest DDI (draft) guidance documents from U.S. and E.U. regulatory agencies. It has been suggested that some OATP1B1 inhibitors show a discrepancy in their inhibitory potential, depending on the substrates used in the cell-based assay. In this study, inhibitory effects of 14 compounds on the OATP1B1-mediated uptake of the prototypical substrates [(3)H]estradiol-17?-glucuronide (E2G), [(3)H]estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), and [(3)H]sulfobromophthalein (BSP) were studied in OATP1B1-transfected cells. Inhibitory potencies of tested compounds varied depending on the substrates. Ritonavir, gemfibrozil, and erythromycin caused remarkable substrate-dependent inhibition with up to 117-, 14-, and 13-fold difference in their IC50 values, respectively. Also, the clinically relevant OATP inhibitors rifampin and cyclosporin A exhibited up to 12- and 6-fold variation in their IC50 values, respectively. Regardless of the inhibitors tested, the most potent OATP1B1 inhibition was observed when [(3)H]E2G was used as a substrate. Mutual inhibition studies of OATP1B1 indicated that E2G and E1S competitively inhibited each other, whereas BSP noncompetitively inhibited E2G uptake. In addition, BSP inhibited E1S in a competitive manner, but E1S caused an atypical kinetics on BSP uptake. This study showed substrate-dependent inhibition of OATP1B1 and demonstrated that E2G was the most sensitive in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrate among three substrates tested. This will give us an insight into the assessment of clinically relevant OATP1B1-mediated DDI in vitro with minimum potential of false-negative prediction. PMID:23920221

Izumi, Saki; Nozaki, Yoshitane; Komori, Takafumi; Maeda, Kazuya; Takenaka, Osamu; Kusano, Kazutomi; Yoshimura, Tsutomu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

2013-08-06

220

Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

This review covers methods for modifying the structures of polysaccharides. The introduction of hydrophobic, acidic, basic, or other functionality into polysaccharide structures can alter the properties of materials based on these substances. The development of chemical methods to achieve this aim is an ongoing area of research that is expected to become more important as the emphasis on using renewable starting materials and sustainable processes increases in the future. The methods covered in this review include ester and ether formation using saccharide oxygen nucleophiles, including enzymatic reactions and aspects of regioselectivity; the introduction of heteroatomic nucleophiles into polysaccharide chains; the oxidation of polysaccharides, including oxidative glycol cleavage, chemical oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids, and enzymatic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes; reactions of uronic-acid-based polysaccharides; nucleophilic reactions of the amines of chitosan; and the formation of unsaturated polysaccharide derivatives.

Cumpstey, Ian

2013-01-01

221

Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Eleven polysaccharides have been isolated from the leaves of Arctium lappa var. herkules, Aloe barbadensis, Althaea officinalis var. robusta, Plantago lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts and roots of Rudbeckia fulgida var. sullivantii, stems of Mahonia aquifolium, and peach-tree (Prunus persica) gum exudates. The polysaccharides were investigated for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of soyabean lecithin liposomes by OH radicals. The highest inhibition was found with glucuronoxylans of A. officinalis var. robusta and P. lanceolata var. libor, aerial parts. Their antioxidant activity accounted for approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol. The activity of eight polysaccharides ranged from 20 to 45%, while the fructofuranan from P. lanceolata var. libor roots was practically inactive. PMID:16797146

Kardosová, A; Machová, E

2006-05-24

222

Renal heparan sulfate proteoglycans modulate fibroblast growth factor 2 signaling in experimental chronic transplant dysfunction.  

PubMed

Depending on the glycan structure, proteoglycans can act as coreceptors for growth factors. We hypothesized that proteoglycans and their growth factor ligands orchestrate tissue remodeling in chronic transplant dysfunction. We have previously shown perlecan to be selectively up-regulated in the glomeruli and arteries in a rat renal transplantation model. Using the same model, here we present quantitative RT-PCR profiling data on proteoglycans and growth factors from laser-microdissected glomeruli, arterial tunicae mediae, and neointimae at 12 weeks after transplantation. In glomeruli and neointimae of allografts, selective induction of the matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was observed, along with massive accumulation of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Profiling the heparan sulfate polysaccharide side chains revealed conversion from a non-FGF2-binding heparan sulfate phenotype in control and isografted kidneys toward a FGF2-binding phenotype in allografts. In vitro experiments with perlecan-positive rat mesangial cells showed that FGF2-induced proliferation is dependent on sulfation and can be inhibited by exogenously added heparan sulfate. These findings indicate that matrix proteoglycans such as perlecan serve as functional docking platforms for FGF2 in chronic transplant dysfunction. We speculate that heparin-like glycomimetics could be a promising intervention to retard development of glomerulosclerosis and neointima formation in chronic transplant dysfunction. PMID:24035513

Katta, Kirankumar; Boersema, Miriam; Adepu, Saritha; Rienstra, Heleen; Celie, Johanna W A M; Mencke, Rik; Molema, Grietje; van Goor, Harry; Berden, Jo H M; Navis, Gerjan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van den Born, Jacob

2013-09-11

223

SPECIFIC POLYSACCHARIDES FROM FUNGI  

PubMed Central

From each of five yeast-like fungi and a trichophyton there has been prepared a fraction which appears to be essentially a polysaccharide. Tested by direct precipitation against the corresponding antisera the polysaccharides from the yeast-like fungi exhibit only partial specificity. Cross-precipitin reactions are frequent. By absorption of precipitin on the intact mycotic bodies, however, a relatively high degree of specific precipitability can be demonstrated for the polysaccharides.

Kesten, H. D.; Cook, D. H.; Mott, E.; Jobling, J. W.

1930-01-01

224

Anti-viral activity of red microalgal polysaccharides against retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Red microalgal polysaccharides significantly inhibited the production of retroviruses (murine leukemia virus- MuLV) and cell transformation by murine sarcoma virus(MuSV-124) in cell culture. The most effective inhibitory effect of these polysaccharides against both cell transformation and virus production was obtained when the polysaccharide was added 2 h before or at the time of infection. Although, addition of the polysaccharide post-infection significantly reduced the number of transformed cells, but its effect was less marked than that obtained when the polysaccharide was added before or at the time of infection.The finding that the inhibition of cell transformation by MuSV-124 was reversible after removal of the polysaccharide suggested that microalgal polysaccharides inhibited a late step after provirus integration into the host genome. In conclusion, our findings could support the possibility that the polysaccharide may affect early steps in the virus replication cycle, such as virus absorption into the host cells, in addition to its effect on a late step after provirus integration.

Talyshinsky, Marina M; Souprun, Yelena Y; Huleihel, Mahmoud M

2002-01-01

225

Humic-rich peat extracts inhibit sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and anaerobic respiration but not acetogenesis in peat soils of a temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand why anaerobic ombrotrophic peats can be very low in methane after drainage related afforestation, we analyzed the competition of sulfate reducing, humus reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms by incubating ombrotrophic peats of the Mer Bleue bog, Ontario. Sulfate, sulfide, and sulfate containing peat dissolved organic matter (DOM) from an afforested site were added in reduced and oxidized redox state.

Stefanie Minderlein; Christian Blodau

2010-01-01

226

Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP)-targeted delivery of soluble TRAIL potently inhibits melanoma outgrowth in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Advanced melanoma is characterized by a pronounced resistance to therapy leading to a limited patient survival of ~6 - 9 months. Here, we report on a novel bifunctional therapeutic fusion protein, designated anti-MCSP:TRAIL, that is comprised of a melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP)-specific antibody fragment (scFv) fused to soluble human TRAIL. MCSP is a well-established target for melanoma immunotherapy and has recently been shown to provide important tumorigenic signals to melanoma cells. TRAIL is a highly promising tumoricidal cytokine with no or minimal toxicity towards normal cells. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL was designed to 1. selectively accrete at the cell surface of MCSP-positive melanoma cells and inhibit MCSP tumorigenic signaling and 2. activate apoptotic TRAIL-signaling. Results Treatment of a panel of MCSP-positive melanoma cell lines with anti-MCSP:TRAIL induced TRAIL-mediated apoptotic cell death within 16 h. Of note, treatment with anti-MCSP:sTRAIL was also characterized by a rapid dephosphorylation of key proteins, such as FAK, implicated in MCSP-mediated malignant behavior. Importantly, anti-MCSP:TRAIL treatment already inhibited anchorage-independent growth by 50% at low picomolar concentrations, whereas > 100 fold higher concentrations of non-targeted TRAIL failed to reduce colony formation. Daily i.v. treatment with a low dose of anti-MCSP:TRAIL (0.14 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth retardation of established A375 M xenografts. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL activity was further synergized by co-treatment with rimcazole, a ?-ligand currently in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Conclusions Anti-MCSP:TRAIL has promising pre-clinical anti-melanoma activity that appears to result from combined inhibition of tumorigenic MCSP-signaling and concordant activation of TRAIL-apoptotic signaling. Anti-MCSP:TRAIL alone, or in combination with rimcazole, may be of potential value for the treatment of malignant melanoma.

2010-01-01

227

Chemical composition and moisture-absorption/retention ability of polysaccharides extracted from five algae.  

PubMed

In this study, we prepared seven polysaccharides extracted from five algae including one brown alga Saccharina japonica, one red alga Porphyra haitanensis and three green algae Codium fragile, Enteromorpha linza and Bryopsis plumose. The chemical composition and capability of moisture-absorption and moisture-retention were investigated in comparison with those of hyaluronic acid (HA). The low molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed exhibited the highest moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities of all of the polysaccharides studied and performed better than HA. The relationships between chemical composition (including sulfated groups, monosaccharide, and molecular weight) and the functions of polysaccharides were also studied. We found the sulfated group was a main active site for moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities. These abilities were also related to molecular weight; with the exception of the low molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed, lower molecular weight improved moisture-absorption and moisture-retention abilities. PMID:23500437

Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Hou, Yun; Niu, Xizhen; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

2013-03-13

228

Modulation of the exocellular serine-thiol proteinase activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by neutral polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Our group characterized an exocellular serine-thiol proteinase activity in the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (PbST), a dimorphic human pathogen. The fungal proteinase is able to cleave in vitro, at pH 7.4, proteins associated with the basal membrane, such as human laminin and fibronectin, type IV collagen and proteoglycans. In the present study, we investigated the influence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and neutral polysaccharides upon the serine-thiol proteinase activity by means of kinetic analysis monitored with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides using the substrate Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp (Abz=ortho-aminobenzoic acid; EDDnp=ethylenediaminedinitrophenyl). Only neutral polysaccharides exhibited patterns of interaction with the proteinase, while sulfated GAGs had no effect. Incubation with neutral polysaccharides resulted in a powerful modulation of the enzyme activity, intensely changing the enzyme kinetic parameters of catalysis and affinity for the substrate. Commercial dextran at the highest concentration of 20 microM increased 6.8-fold the enzyme affinity for the substrate. In the presence of 8 microM of purified baker's yeast mannan, the apparent KM of the enzyme increased about 5.5-fold, reflecting a significant inhibition in binding to the peptide substrate. When an exocellular galactomannan (GalMan) complex isolated from P. brasiliensis was added to the reaction mixture at 400 nM, the apparent KM and VMAX decreased about threefold. Moreover, GalMan was able to protect the enzymatic activity at high temperatures, but it caused no effect on the optimum cleavage pH. Our results show a novel modulation mechanism in P. brasiliensis, where a fungal polysaccharide-rich component can stabilize a serine-thiol proteolytic activity, which is possibly involved in fungal dissemination. PMID:16153872

Matsuo, Alisson L; Tersariol, Ivarne I L; Kobata, Silvia I; Travassos, Luiz R; Carmona, Adriana K; Puccia, Rosana

2005-08-08

229

Antibiofilm Activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Serotype 5 Capsular Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

Karwacki, Michael T.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A.; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.

2013-01-01

230

Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications. PMID:23691104

Karwacki, Michael T; Kadouri, Daniel E; Bendaoud, Meriem; Izano, Era A; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Inzana, Thomas J; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

2013-05-14

231

Separation of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activities and specificity of antisera to sodium dodecyl sulfate-derived polypeptides of polyoma virions.  

PubMed Central

Antisera to the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel-derived polyoma virion polypeptides were used in immunoprecipitation experiments with ethylene glycol-bis-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-dissociated polyoma virions and capsids to determine the specificity of the antipolyoma polypeptide sera. Additionally, a technique for applying 125I-labeled immunoglobulins to SDS-polyacrylamide gels was used to explore the antigenic specificities of the antisera. The results demonstrated that antisera directed against the SDS-gel-derived VP1, VP2, and VP3 did not react with native polyoma proteins, but would react with the appropriate antigens on denatured polyoma proteins. Antisera against the histone region of such gels reacted with native and denatured polyoma VP1. Separation of neutralizing antibodies from hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies to polyoma in antisera directed against the histone region of polyacrylamide gels was done by using a polyoma capsid affinity column. The antibodies eluted from this column which did not react with capsids possessed only neutralizing activity, whereas antibodies which bound to capsids possessed only HAI activity. These isolated immunoglobulin G fractions were then used in immunoprecipitation experiments to demonstrate that the antigenic determinants responsible for the HAI activity of the serum were contained on a 16,000-dalton polypeptide, whereas those antigenic determinants responsible for neutralizing activity were contained on a 14,000-dalton polypeptide. Both of these polypeptides present in the histone region of the SDS-gels appeared to be derived from the major virion protein VP1.

Bolen, J B; Consigli, R A

1980-01-01

232

Nutritionally and chemically induced impairment of sulfate activation and sulfation of xenobiotics in vivo.  

PubMed

Sulfation requires 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as the sulfate donor. In the search for methods to inhibit sulfation reactions via impairment of PAPS synthesis, two experimental conditions have been tested in rats. A low-sulfur diet, which does not deplete hepatic glutathione, reduced inorganic sulfate but not PAPS levels in the liver and moderately decreased sulfation of acetaminophen. Administration of molybdate, which is an alternative substrate for intestinal and renal sulfate transport as well as for ATP-sulfurylase, depleted both sulfate and PAPS in liver and markedly inhibited sulfation of acetaminophen. Therefore, administration of molybdate may be used as an experimental tool to study the role of sulfation in the fate and effect of xenobiotics. PMID:8033252

Gregus, Z; Oguro, T; Klaassen, C D

1994-06-01

233

Anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan through inhibition of NF-?B, MAPK and Akt activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fucoidan’s anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoidan on production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced pro-inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglia. Our data indicated that fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited excessive production of

Hye Young Park; Min Ho Han; Cheol Park; Cheng-Yun Jin; Gi-Young Kim; Il-Whan Choi; Nam Deuk Kim; Taek-Jeong Nam; Taeg Kyu Kwon; Yung Hyun Choi

2011-01-01

234

[Modulation of polysaccharide extracted from Laminaria on phase compositions of urinary crystal calcium oxalate].  

PubMed

The influence of sulfate polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from marine algae Laminaria japonica aresch on the growth of urinary crystal calcium oxalate (CaO(xa)) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. SPS can stabilize thermodynamic metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. As the concentration of SPS increases from 0 to 0.60 mg x mL(-1), the mass percentage of COD crystals increases from 0 to 100%, and the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate increases from 1.0 to 19.6. The ability of SPS to stabilize the existence of COD in aqueous solution and to increase the concentration of soluble calcium ions is favorable to the inhibition of CaO(xa) stone. Indicating that SPS is a potential green drug for prevention and cure of CaO(xa) urinary stones. PMID:18260434

Deng, Sui-Ping; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2007-11-01

235

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides counteract inhibition on CD71 and FasL expression by culture supernatant of B16F10 cells upon lymphocyte activation.  

PubMed

Immune responses to tumor-associated antigens are often detectable in tumor-bearing hosts, but they fail to eliminate malignant cells or prevent development of metastases. Tumor cells produce factors such as interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-?1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that suppress the function of immune cells or induce apoptosis of immune cells. Culture supernatant of tumor cells may contain these immunosuppressive factors which suppress lymphocyte activation. CD71 and FasL are two important molecules that are expressed upon lymphocyte activation. Counteraction against suppression CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation may benefit tumor control. A potential component with this effect is Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS). In this study, Gl-PS was used on lymphocytes incubating with culture supernatant of B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10-CS) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin. Following induction with phytohemagglutinin, B16F10-CS suppressed CD71 expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry), proliferation in lymphocytes (as detected by MTT assay), and FasL expression in lymphocytes (as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis), while Gl-PS fully or partially counteracted these suppressions. Gl-PS showed counteractive effects against suppression induced by B16F10-CS on CD71 and FasL expression upon lymphocyte activation, suggesting the potential of Gl-PS to facilitate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23596479

Sun, Li-Xin; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Duan, Xin-Suo; Lu, Jie; Ge, Zhi-Hua; Li, Min; Xing, En-Hong; Lan, Tian-Fei; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Yang, Ning; Li, Wei-Dong

2013-01-29

236

The effect of some divalent cations on extracellular polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus salivarius.  

PubMed

The amount of extracellular insoluble polysaccharide produced by Streptococcus salivarius can be effected by some divalent cations. Calcium at concentrations of 1 X 10(-3) and 10(-4) M caused a reduction in polysaccharide synthesis. Magnesium at 1 X 10(-3) M inhibited extracellular polysaccharide production but at 1 X 10(-4) M had little effect. Manganese was without effect on polysaccharide synthesis. Zinc at 1 X 10(-3) and 1 X 10(-4) M caused a substantial increase in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis. PMID:277538

Boyd, R F

1978-02-01

237

Sulfation in dog.  

PubMed

Sulfation has been thoroughly studied in several species including e.g. man and rat. However, one important species often used for pharmacological drug studies is the dog. Here we describe recent advances as well as older data in the field of dog sulfation. Species differences in sulfation have been reported. Stereoselectivity, inhibition by pentachlorophenol, bioactivation of DNA binding species, and gender differences have also been observed for canine sulfotransferases (SULTs). Several drugs are being sulfated in vivo in dog, e.g. xamoterol, 4'-hydroxypropanolol, paracetamol and salicylamide. However, studies have shown that also e.g. canine hepatocytes and liverslices will sulfate substrates e.g. paracetamol and 7-hydroxycoumarin in in vitro experiments. Recently, three different enzymes have been cloned and characterized from canine liver, cSULT1A1, cSULT1B1 and cSULT1D1. cSULT1A1 being very similar to the human ortholog in terms of substrate specificity and is also ubiquitously expressed in canine tissues. The cSULT1B1 enzyme is also very similar in both distribution pattern as well as substrate preference compared to the human ortholog. The third enzyme, cSULT1D1, sulfates dopamine with high efficiency and it has no counterpart in man since it is found as a pseudogene. The importance of amino acid residue 247 in cSULT1D1 will be discussed since it can alter the ratio of sulfation of dopamine versus para-nitrophenol. In addition, the phenomenon of the high expression of the canine enzymes in colon is discussed. PMID:15975044

Tsoi, C; Swedmark, S

2005-06-01

238

Polysaccharide biological response modifiers.  

PubMed

Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances which augment immune response. BRMs can be cytokines which are produced endogenously in our body by immune cells or derivatives of bacteria, fungi, brown algae, Aloe vera and photosynthetic plants. Such exogeneous derivatives (exogeneous BRMs) can be nucleic acid (CpG), lipid (lipotechoic acid), protein or polysaccharide in nature. The receptors for these exogeneous BRMs are pattern recognition receptors. The binding of exogeneous BRMs to pattern recognition receptors triggers immune response. Exogenous BRMs have been reported to have anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, and anti-tumor activities. Among different exogeneous BRMs, polysaccharide BRMs have the widest occurrence in nature. Some polysaccharide BRMs have been tested for their therapeutic properties in human clinical trials. An overview of current understandings of polysaccharide BRMs is summarized in this review. PMID:16554097

Leung, M Y K; Liu, C; Koon, J C M; Fung, K P

2006-03-03

239

Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Extracellular polysaccharides are as structurally and functionally diverse as the bacteria that synthesise them. They can\\u000a be present in many forms, including cell-bound capsular polysaccharides, unbound “slime”, and as O-antigen component of lipopolysaccharide,\\u000a with an equally wide range of biological functions. These include resistance to desiccation, protection against nonspecific\\u000a and specific host immunity, and adherence. Unsurprisingly then, much effort has

Kateryna Bazaka; Russell J. Crawford; Evgeny L. Nazarenko; Elena P. Ivanova

240

Complement Activation by Core–Shell Poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate)–Polysaccharide Nanoparticles: Influences of Surface Morphology, Length, and Type of Polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Purpose  Biodistribution of intravenously administered nanoparticles depends on opsonization. The aim of this study was the evaluation\\u000a of complement activation induced by nanoparticles coated with different polysaccharides. Influences of size and configuration\\u000a of dextran, dextran sulfate, or chitosan bound onto nanoparticles were investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by redox radical or anionic polymerization of isobutylcyanoacrylate in the presence\\u000a of polysaccharides. Conversion

Isabelle Bertholon; Christine Vauthier; Denis Labarre

2006-01-01

241

Mechanism of the inhibitory effect of curdlan sulfate on HIV-1 infection in vitro.  

PubMed

To study the mechanism by which sulfated polysaccharides with 1,3-beta-D-glucan as a main chain exert anti-HIV-1 activity, we analyzed the effects of curdlan sulfate (CRDS) on HIV-1 infection of SupT-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CRDS had no effect on virions inhibited weakly HIV-1 attachment to cells, and had to be present for 24 hr to achieve protection. Lack of HIV-1 DNA corresponding to the gag region in cells incubated with the virus and CRDS and inhibition of infection after addition of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine to cells treated with CRDS and HIV-1 for less than 24 hr suggest that CRDS delays events that precede and/or include reverse transcription. Analysis of the effect of CRDS on binding of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies to gp 120 demonstrated that both the continuous epitopes on the V3 loop and the discontinuous CD4 binding site of gp 120 represent targets for CDRS. This interaction of CRDS with functional gp 120 domains suggests that CRDS interferes with the membrane fusion process during HIV-1 infection. Concentrations of CRDS that were protective against infection with T cell- and macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates had less suppressive effects on T cell function in comparison with the related compound, dextran sulfate. PMID:7913276

Jagodzinski, P P; Wiaderkiewicz, R; Kurzawski, G; Kloczewiak, M; Nakashima, H; Hyjek, E; Yamamoto, N; Uryu, T; Kaneko, Y; Posner, M R

1994-08-01

242

Structure and antioxidant activities of sulfated guar gum: homogeneous reaction using DMAP/DCC catalyst.  

PubMed

It was essential to understand the chemical structure of polysaccharides for further research and biochemical or medical application of this natural biopolymer. In the present study, sulfated derivatives of guar gum with high degree of sulfation (DS) were synthesized using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)/dimethylcyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as catalyst in homogeneous conditions. The effects of the ratio of chlorosulfuric acid to pyridine, the content of catalyst and reaction temperature were investigated. Results of FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in sulfated polysaccharide. In the sulfation reaction, a sharp decrease in M(W) was observed. The enhanced antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides were not a function of a single factor but a combination of high DS and low molecule weight. PMID:22484325

Wang, Junlong; Zhao, Baotang; Wang, Xiaofang; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji

2012-03-29

243

Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Extracellular polysaccharides are as structurally and functionally diverse as the bacteria that synthesise them. They can be present in many forms, including cell-bound capsular polysaccharides, unbound "slime", and as O-antigen component of lipopolysaccharide, with an equally wide range of biological functions. These include resistance to desiccation, protection against nonspecific and specific host immunity, and adherence. Unsurprisingly then, much effort has been made to catalogue the enormous structural complexity of the extracellular polysaccharides made possible by the wide assortment of available monosaccharide combinations, non-carbohydrate residues, and linkage types, and to elucidate their biosynthesis and export. In addition, the work is driven by the commercial potential of these microbial substances in food, pharmaceutics and biomedical industries. Most recently, bacteria-mediated environmental restoration and bioleaching have been attracting much attention owing to their potential to remediate environmental effluents produced by the mining and metallurgy industries. In spite of technological advances in chemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques that allowed for considerable expansion of knowledge pertaining to the bacterial surface polysaccharides, current understanding of the mechanisms of synthesis and regulation of extracellular polysaccharides is yet to fully explain their structural intricacy and functional variability. PMID:21557066

Bazaka, Kateryna; Crawford, Russell J; Nazarenko, Evgeny L; Ivanova, Elena P

2011-01-01

244

In vitro inhibition of the replication of haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) by extracts from marine microalgae.  

PubMed

We have screened for in vitro inhibition of viral replication with extracts from the following marine microalgae: Porphyridium cruentum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Tetraselmis suecica, Chlorella autotrophica, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Dunaliella bardawil, Isochrysis galbana, Isochrysis galbana var Tiso, Ellipsoidon sp. and Tetraselmis tetrathele. We have used as viral models two enveloped viruses of significant economic importance, the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) of salmonid fish and the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The aqueous extracts from P. cruentum, C. autotrophica and Ellipsoidon sp., produced a significant inhibition of the in vitro replication of both viruses in a dose-dependent manner. That this inhibition could be due to sulfated polysaccharides was suggested because the same pattern of viral inhibition was obtained by using exocellular extracts from microalgae enriched in these compounds and/or dextran sulfate of high molecular weight. However, the inhibition of viral replication did not correlate with the percentage of sulfatation of the exocellular polysaccharides. Extracts from marine microalgae may have prophylactic utility against fish and mammalian viral diseases. PMID:10588334

Fabregas, J; García, D; Fernandez-Alonso, M; Rocha, A I; Gómez-Puertas, P; Escribano, J M; Otero, A; Coll, J M

1999-11-01

245

Separation of lacquer polysaccharides and interaction with poly-l-lysine.  

PubMed

A naturally occurring acidic lacquer polysaccharide with glucuronic acid at the terminals of the complex branches has specific biological activities including promotion of blood coagulation and antitumor activities. The polysaccharide has two molecular weight fractions M¯n=10×10(4) and M¯n=3.0×10(4). In the present work, two pure fractions were isolated for the first time by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Then, each fraction was treated with diluted alkaline solution to decrease the molecular weights to M¯n=3.0×10(4) and M¯n=1.4×10(4), respectively. The NMR and IR spectra and specific rotations of the fractionated and original lacquer polysaccharides were almost identical, suggesting that the lacquer polysaccharides are an associated structure with several low molecular weight polysaccharides of M¯n=1.4×10(4). Interactions between each lacquer polysaccharide and poly-l-lysine, a model compound of proteins and peptides with positively-charged amino groups, were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to elucidate the biological mechanism. The apparent dissociation-rate (kd), association-rate (ka), and dissociation constant (KD) obtained by SPR indicate that the lacquer polysaccharides had weaker interactions with poly-l-lysine than sulfated polysaccharides and that the interaction depended on the molecular weight. These SPR results suggest that the specific biological activities of lacquer polysaccharides originate from electrostatic interaction. PMID:23987344

Bai, Yuting; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-05-25

246

Structural determinants of the capacity of heparin to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. II. Evidence for a pentasaccharide sequence that contains a 3-O-sulfate group  

PubMed Central

Earlier work from our laboratory demonstrated that heparin inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. Both anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant heparin species were equally effective as antiproliferative agents. Previous structure-function studies indicated that hexasaccharide and larger fragments retained antiproliferative activity, whereas tetra- and disaccharides were inactive. These experiments also suggested that both N- and O-sulfates of heparin were necessary for growth inhibitory capacity. In this paper, we have further analyzed the structural determinants of the antiproliferative activity of heparin. These experiments were done using synthetically prepared and therefore chemically defined heparin oligosaccharides. We present evidence that a pentasaccharide fragment retains antiproliferative activity, and that the 3-O-sulfate on the internal glucosamine residue is critical for growth inhibitory capacity of the pentasaccharide. We also show that heparins obtained from different manufacturers differ significantly in their ability to suppress smooth muscle cell proliferation.

1986-01-01

247

Inhibition of Amyloid A Amyloidogenesis in Vivo and in Tissue Culture by 4-Deoxy Analogues of Peracetylated 2-Acetamido-2-Deoxy-?- and ?-d-Glucose  

PubMed Central

Two novel sugars, 2-acetamido-1,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-?- and ?-d-xylo-hexopyranoses, have been synthesized and their effects on heparan sulfate biosynthesis using primary mouse hepatocytes in tissue culture have been assessed. At concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/L a mixture of both anomers significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate by 60% and 99%, respectively. At 1.0 mmol/L the average molecular weight of the heparan sulfate synthesized is reduced from 77 kd to 40 kd. The biosynthetic inhibition is apparent within 1 hour (the earliest time point examined) of exposure of the hepatocytes to the analogues and appears virtually complete throughout a 24-hour incubation period. Using a radiolabeled version of the ?-anomer we demonstrate that the analogue is incorporated into growing heparan sulfate chains. The nature of the analogue, the quantity of analogue isotope incorporated, and the reduction in the size of the heparan sulfate polysaccharide are consistent with UDP activation and incorporation of the analogue and truncation of the growing heparan sulfate chain. At 0.1 mmol/L, and in the presence of a constant concentration of serum amyloid A (the precursor to AA amyloid), each analogue inhibited amyloid deposition (by 95 to 99%) in a tissue culture model of AA amyloidogenesis. At 6 mg/dose twice daily each analogue inhibited in vivo splenic AA amyloid deposition by 65 to 70% when using a rapid induction model of mouse AA amyloidogenesis. These data indicate that polysaccharides, such as heparan sulfate, play an integral part in the pathogenesis of AA amyloid deposition, and potentially other forms of amyloid. These data support our previous work that demonstrated that agents that mimic aspects of heparan sulfate structure and that interfere with heparan sulfate:amyloid protein binding inhibit AA amyloid deposition. They emphasize that heparan sulfate likely plays a critical role in amyloidogenesis, and compounds that interfere with heparan sulfate biosynthesis may provide leads for the development of anti-amyloid therapeutic agents.

Kisilevsky, Robert; Szarek, Walter A.; Ancsin, John B.; Elimova, Elena; Marone, Sandra; Bhat, Shridhar; Berkin, Ali

2004-01-01

248

Brefeldin A: a specific inhibitor of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in oat coleoptile segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of brefeldin A (BFA) on the synthesis and incorporation of polysaccharides, proteins and glycoproteins into the cell wall of subapical coleoptile segments isolated from etiolated oat seedlings (Avena sativa L. cv. Angelica) has been investigated. In the presence of D-[U-14C]-glucose, the incorporation of radioactive glycosyl residues into buffer-soluble, membrane (matrix polysaccharides) and cell wall polysaccharides was drastically inhibited

Gabriella Piro; Anna Montefusco; Daniela Pacoda; Giuseppe Dalessandro

1999-01-01

249

Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions extracted from Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching.  

PubMed

Crude polysaccharides were extracted from Athyrium multidentatum (Doll.) Ching (AMC) rhizome and fractionated by DEAE-Cellulose 52 ion-exchange column chromatography. Two polysaccharide fractions (F1 and F2) were obtained and had their antioxidant activities investigated employing various established in vitro systems. All fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity. Chemical analysis suggested that F1 and F2 were neutral heteropolysaccharide in which glucose was the major component. Available data suggested that the molecular weight and sulfate content played very important roles on antioxidant activity. Our results indicated that the polysaccharides may contribute to the medicinal functions of AMC. PMID:23357796

Liu, Dongmei; Sheng, Jiwen; Li, Zhijian; Qi, Huimin; Sun, Yanlong; Duan, Yu; Zhang, Weifen

2013-01-25

250

Monosaccharide precursors for boosting chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide production.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate is a well-known bioactive molecule, widely used as an anti-osteoarthritis drug, that is nowadays mainly produced by animal tissue sources with unsafe extraction procedures. Recent studies have explored an integrated biotechnological-chemical strategy to obtain a chondroitin sulfate precursor from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide, demonstrating the influence of environmental and growth conditions on capsule synthesis. In this research work, the flexibility of the strain biosynthetic machinery was investigated to enhance the K4 capsular polysaccharide production by supplementing the growth medium with the monosaccharides (glucuronic acid, galactosamine and fructose) that constitute the chain. Shake flask experiments were performed by adding the sugars singularly or together, by testing monosaccharide different concentrations and times of addition and by observing the bacterial sugar consumption. A K4 capsular polysaccharide production enhancement, compared to the control, was observed in all cases of supplementation and, in particular, significant 68 and 57 % increases were observed when adding 0.385 mM glucuronic acid plus galactosamine or 0.385 mM fructose, respectively. Increased expression levels of the gene kfoC, coding for a K4 polymerase, evaluated in different growth conditions, confirmed the results at the molecular level. Furthermore, batch fermentations, performed in lab-scale reactors (2 L), allowed to double the K4 capsular polysaccharide production values obtained in shake flask conditions, by means of a strict control of the growth parameters. PMID:23053067

Restaino, Odile Francesca; di Lauro, Irene; Cimini, Donatella; Carlino, Elisabetta; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

2012-10-10

251

A critical role for lymphatic endothelial heparan sulfate in lymph node metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis constitutes a key event in tumor progression. The molecular control of this process is poorly understood. Heparan sulfate is a linear polysaccharide consisting of unique sulfate-modified disaccharide repeats that allow the glycan to bind a variety of proteins, including chemokines. While some chemokines may drive lymphatic trafficking of tumor cells, the functional and genetic importance of

Xin Yin; Jadwiga Truty; Roger Lawrence; Scott C Johns; R Sathish Srinivasan; Tracy M Handel; Mark M Fuster

2010-01-01

252

Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation\\u000a self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the\\u000a nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein\\u000a drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of

Shujun ShuLei; Lei Sun; Xinge Zhang; Zhongming Wu; Zhen Wang; Chaoxing Li

253

Partial characterization of extracellular polysaccharides produced by cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the physico-chemical characteristics of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by Arthrospira platensis were evaluated. Elemental analysis and a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reaction indicated that the EPS were heteropolysaccharides\\u000a that contain carbohydrate (13%) and protein (55%) moieties. Analysis of the infrared spectrum and elemental analysis revealed\\u000a the presence of a sulfate group (0.5%). The UV-visible spectrum showed high UV

Lamia Trabelsi; Nour Houda M’sakni; Hatem Ben Ouada; Hassen Bacha; Sadok Roudesli

2009-01-01

254

A single protein catalyzes both N-deacetylation and N-sulfation during the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate is a highly sulfated carbohydrate polymer that binds to and modulates the activities of numerous proteins. The formation of these protein-binding domains in heparan sulfate is dependent on a series of biosynthetic reactions that modify the polysaccharide backbone; the initiating and rate-limiting steps of this process are the N-deacetylation and N-sulfation of N-acetylglucosamine residues in the polymer. We now report that in the rat liver, biosynthesis of heparan sulfate utilizes a single protein that possesses both N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase activities. This was accomplished by demonstrating that both activities resided in a purified soluble fusion protein containing the Golgi-lumenal portion of the enzyme. We propose that this protein be renamed the rat liver Golgi heparan sulfate N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase. Images Fig. 1

Wei, Z; Swiedler, S J; Ishihara, M; Orellana, A; Hirschberg, C B

1993-01-01

255

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world. For this reason and because of the increasingly frequent isolation of multiply resistant pneumococci of the serotypes most often causing infection in childhood, prophylactic immunization offers the best prospect of reducing the incidence of such infections in the future. Studies of the immune system of humans have shown that immunologic maturation continues throughout the first decade of life and that responsiveness to some purified bacterial polysaccharides may be delayed until several years after birth. Vaccines of such capsular polysaccharides conjugated chemically to protein have been found to be immunogenic at an earlier age and to stimulate the development of IgM and IgG antibodies and of "immunologic memory." Current investigations suggest that administration of polyvalent vaccines of polysaccharide-protein conjugates in infancy followed by the administration of vaccines of purified polysaccharides after the age of 10 years offers the prospect of reducing significantly the incidence of pneumococcal infections. PMID:2669103

Austrian, R

256

Heparin-inhibitable basement membrane-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed Central

Solubilized surface proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M6 were found by indirect immunofluorescence assays to bind selectively to proteoglycan-containing regions of basement membranes of kidney and cardiac muscle in vitro. Epithelial, endothelial, and interstitial cells were unstained. Binding of streptococcal protein to basement membranes was competitively inhibited by heparin and, to a lesser extent, by heparan sulfate. Weak inhibition was also observed with other glycosaminoglycans, including dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. Type IV collagen, gelatin, serum fibronectin, glucuronic acid, and a selection of monosaccharides had no significant effects on binding. The heparin-inhibitable basement membrane-binding protein was purified by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose 6-B. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea dissociated the affinity-purified protein into two polypeptides of 9,000 and 15,000 mrs. Chemical analyses revealed that the purified protein was devoid of cysteine, amino and neutral sugars, and phosphate. Thus, the polypeptides are not glycosylated or complexed with trace amounts of lipoteichoic acid or polysaccharide. Binding of purified protein to tissue was determined by direct radioassay and indirect immunofluorescence and was inhibitable by heparin. Although the in vivo effects of this streptococcal component remain to be determined, its deposition on basement membranes in vitro supports the hypothesis that it contributes to the pathogenesis of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis or acute rheumatic fever. Images

Bergey, E J; Stinson, M W

1988-01-01

257

Sulfation of fucoidin in focus embryos: III. Required for localization in the rhizoid wall  

PubMed Central

Zygotes of the brown alga Fucus distichus L. Powell accumulate a sulfated polysaccharide (fucoidin) in the cell wall at the site of rhizoid formation. Previous work indicated that zygotes grown in seawater minus sulfate do not sulfate the preformed fucan (an unsulfated fucoidin) but form rhizoids. Under these conditions, we determined whether sulfation of the fucan is required for its localization in the rhizoid wall. This was accomplished by developing a specific stain for both the fucan and fucoidin. Using a precipitin assay, we demonstrated in vitro that the lectin ricin (RCA(I)) specifically complexes with both the sulfated and desulfated polysaccharide. No precipitate is observed when either is incubated in 0.1 M D-galactose or when RCA(I) is mixed with laminarin or alginic acid, the other major polysaccharides in Fucus. RCA(I) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is also shown to bind specifically to fucoidin using a filter paper (DE81) assay. When added to zygotes, RCA(I)-FITC binds only to the site of fucoidin localization, i.e., the rhizoid cell wall. However, RCA(I)-FITC is not observed in the rhizoid wall of zygotes grown in the absence of sulfate. This observation is not due to inability of RCA(I)-FITC to bind to the fucan in vivo. Chemically desulfated cell walls that contained fucoidin in the rhizoid wall bind RCA(I)-FITC only in the rhizoid region. Also, the concentration of fucose-containing polymers and polysaccharides that form precipitates with RCA(I) is the same in embryos grown in the presence or absence of sulfate. If sulfate is added back to cultures of zygotes grown without sulfate, fucoidin is detected at the rhizoid tip by RCA(I)-FITC several hours later. These results support the conclusion that the enzymatic sulfation of the fucan is a modification of the polysaccharide required for its localization and/or assembly into a specific region of the cell wall.

Hogsett, WE; Quatrano, RS

1978-01-01

258

Interaction of Pseudomonas solanacearum Lipopolysaccharide and Extracellular Polysaccharide with Agglutinin from Potato Tubers  

PubMed Central

In vitro binding assays were used to study the possible role of a cell wall agglutinin in the attachment to plant cell walls of avirulent strains of the wilt pathogen, Pseudomonas solanacearum. In a nitrocellulose filter assay, radioactively labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the virulent strain, K60, and the avirulent strain, B1, and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from K60 were bound quantitatively by the agglutinin extracted from Katahdin potato tubers. The LPS from B1 had significantly greater agglutinin-binding affinity than that from K60 but not after treatment with deoxycholate, which improved solubility. Highly purified chitotetraose did not inhibit binding of K60 LPS to agglutinin, but binding was inhibited by EPS as well as by diverse anionic polymers (DNA, dextran sulfate, xanthan). Binding of agglutinin to EPS and LPS was inhibited at ionic strengths greater than 0.03 and 0.15 M, respectively. It was concluded that electrostatic charge-charge interactions could account for binding of LPS and EPS to potato agglutinin.

Duvick, Jonathan P.; Sequeira, Luis

1984-01-01

259

Phosphorylcholine determinants in six pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides detected by monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

The presence of phosphorylcholine in pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides was examined by using monoclonal antiphosphorylcholine antibody. Of the 83 known capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 6 types, viz., 24A, 27, 28F, 28A, 32F, and 32A, gave a positive capsular reaction (quellung) which could be inhibited by phosphorylcholine. The capsular polysaccharides of these six types, therefore, contain phosphorylcholine. Images

S?rensen, U B; Agger, R; Bennedsen, J; Henrichsen, J

1984-01-01

260

Regioselectively modified sulfated cellulose as prospective drug for treatment of malaria tropica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) to placental chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) has been linked to the severe disease outcome of pregnancy-associated\\u000a malaria. Consequently, sulfated polysaccharides with inhibitory capacity may be considered for therapeutic strategies as anti-adhesive\\u000a drugs. During in vitro screening a regioselectively modified cellulose sulfate (CS10) was selected as prime candidate for further investigations\\u000a because it was able to

Reinhard Schwartz-Albiez; Yvonne Adams; Claus-W. von der Lieth; Petra Mischnick; Katherine T. Andrews; Michael Kirschfink

2007-01-01

261

Detection and quantification of the sulfated disaccharides in chondroitin sulfate by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of identifying and quantifying the disaccharide building blocks of glycosaminoglycans is introduced. The polysaccharides\\u000a are subjected to an enzymatic digestion that releases the sulfated disaccharides. The disaccharides are then identified using\\u000a a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Quantification of the isomeric disaccharides\\u000a is also achieved by tandem mass spectrometry, using a recently

Heather Desaire; Julie A. Leary

2000-01-01

262

A fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm modulates in vitro fibroblast growth factor 2-dependent angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a glycosaminoglycan obtained from sea cucumber, has the same structure as mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. This new polysaccharide has a more favorable effect than heparin on vascular cell growth. It inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation as heparin, and it has a potent enhancing effect on endothelial cell proliferation and migration in the presence of heparin-binding growth factors. We now extend our studies to the effect of this glycosaminoglycan on endothelial cells to an in vitro angiogenesis model on Matrigel. FucCS, in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), strongly increases the capacity of endothelial cells to form vascular tubes on Matrigel with a well-organized capillary-like network and typical closed structures. Comparison between the activity of native and chemically modified chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber reveals that the sulfated fucose branches are the structural motif for the proangiogenic activity. Heparin does not induce angiogenesis in this experimental model. We also have evidence for the proposition that endothelial cell proliferation is not the sole event involved in the in vitro FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. It implies a variety of other modifications of the endothelial cells and of their interaction with the extracellular matrix, such as integrin expression and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Finally, the proangiogenic effect of FucCS, concomitant with its capacity to prevent venous and arterial thrombosis, in animal models makes this new glycosaminoglycan a promising molecule with possible beneficial effects in pathological conditions affecting blood vessels such as the neovascularization of ischemic areas. PMID:12496356

Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Chabut, Delphine; Zierer, Maximiliano; Matou, Sabine; Helley, Dominique; Bros, Andrée; Mourão, Paulo A S; Fischer, Anne-Marie

2002-12-01

263

Antitumor, genotoxicity and anticlastogenic activities of polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria.  

PubMed

The antitumor effect of the partially purified polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria was studied in mice transplanted with sarcoma 180 cells. The polysaccharide fraction, CZ-1-III, at dose of 6.25 mg/kg/d showed 50% inhibition in solid tumor growth. When mice were injected with fractions, CZ-1 and CZ-1-III, at the dose of 100.0 mg/kg, 91.6% and 97.1% of tumor growth were inhibited, respectively, indicating that the cytotoxic effect of polysaccharide on sarcoma 180 cells increases upon increasing the amount of polysaccharide administered. To assess the genotoxicity of CZ-1-III fraction, several classical toxicological tests were performed. In Ames test, CZ-1-III did not show any transformation of revertant with or without S-9 metabolic activating system, indicating the lack of mutagenic effect of the compound. To assess clastogenic effect, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays were performed using Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblast cells. However, up to 259.0 microg/ml concentration of CZ-1-III, neither micronucleus formation nor chromosomal aberration was induced regardless of the presence of S-9 metabolic activating system. Inhibition of CZ-1-III on micronucleus formation induced by mitomycin C was exhibited in a dose-dependent manner, maximally up to 52.0%. These results strongly suggest that CZ-1-III, the polysaccharide fraction from C. Zedoaria, decreases tumor size of mouse and prevents chromosomal mutation. PMID:10987135

Kim, K I; Kim, J W; Hong, B S; Shin, D H; Cho, H Y; Kim, H K; Yang, H C

2000-08-31

264

Microbial extracellular polysaccharides and plagioclase dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Bytownite feldspar was dissolved in batch reactors in solutions of starch (glucose polymer), gum xanthan (glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid), pectin (poly-galacturonic acid), and four alginates (mannuronic and guluronic acid) with a range of molecular weights (low, medium, high and uncharacterized) to evaluate the effect of extracellular microbial polymers on mineral dissolution rates. Solutions were analyzed for dissolved Si and Al as an indicator of feldspar dissolution. At neutral pH, feldspar dissolution was inhibited by five of the acid polysaccharides, gum xanthan, pectin, alginate low, alginate medium, alginate high, compared to an organic-free control. An uncharacterized alginate substantially enhanced both Si and Al release from the feldspar. Starch, a neutral polysaccharide, had no apparent effect. Under mildly acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 4, all of the polymers enhanced feldspar dissolution compared to the inorganic controls. Si release from feldspar in starch solution exceeded the control by a factor of three. Pectin and gum xanthan increased feldspar dissolution by a factor of 10, and the alginates enhanced feldspar dissolution by a factor of 50 to 100. Si and Al concentrations increased with time, even though solutions were supersaturated with respect to several possible secondary phases. Under acidic conditions, initial pH {approx} 3, below the pK{sub a} of the carboxylic acid groups, dissolution rates increased, but the relative increase due to the polysaccharides is lower, approximately a factor of two to ten. Microbial extracellular polymers play a complex role in mineral weathering. Polymers appear to inhibit dissolution under some conditions, possibly by irreversibly binding to the mineral surfaces. The extracellular polysaccharides can also enhance dissolution by providing protons and complexing with ions in solution.

Welch, S.A.; Barker, W.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Banfield, J.F. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Mineralogical Inst.

1999-05-01

265

Adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants inhibits polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a weathered creosote-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two anionic surfactants was assessed during biodegradation of 13 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (PAH) in a wood-preserving soil contaminated with creosote and pentacholorophenol for a period of at least 20\\u000a years. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 were utilized at concentrations of 10, 100 and 500 ?g\\/g soil. Because

L. Deschênes; P. Lafrance; J.-P. Villeneuve; R. Samson

1996-01-01

266

Clopidogrel Effectively Suppresses Endothelial Microparticle Generation Induced by Indoxyl Sulfate via Inhibition of the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are closely associated with vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of several drugs on EMP generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in EMP generation. Methods: CD31+CD42-EMP counts were measured by flow cytometry in supernatants of HUVECs incubated with indoxyl sulfate. The EMP responses to losartan,

Jung-Hwa Ryu; Seung-Jung Kim

2011-01-01

267

Immunomodulatory Properties of Highly Viscous Polysaccharide Extract from the Gagome Alga (Kjellmaniella crassifolia).  

PubMed

Marine brown algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, which have the ability to form gels and viscous solution. Sulfated polysaccharides exhibit many biological activities; however, little is known whether the viscoelastic property in the polysaccharide extract is correlated with biological activities. We examined the immunomodulatory properties of highly viscous polysaccharide extract (HVPE) from Gagome Kjellmaniella crassifolia in a murine model, and the effects were compared with those of a less viscous polysaccharide extract (LVPE). HVPE or LVPE (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day) were orally administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days. Secretions of cytokine and IgA in Con A-stimulated spleen and Peyer's patch (PP) cells and phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was determined. IFN-?, IL-12, IL-6, and IgA secretions showed high levels in spleen cell cultures from mice administered HVPE, whereas these effects were diminished in the LVPE-administered mice. The phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced by the continuous oral administration of HVPE, and these effects were higher than those of LVPE. Furthermore, an increase in IgA secretion by administration of HVPE was observed in Con A-stimulated PP cells. These results suggest that the polysaccharide extract from K. crassifolia has immunomodulatory activities, which depend on the viscosity. PMID:22290429

Katayama, Shigeru; Nishio, Toshihiro; Kishimura, Hideki; Saeki, Hiroki

2012-01-31

268

Sulfated Polysaccharides Extracted from Sea Algae as Potential Antiviral Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of polyanionic substances on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other viruses were reported almost four decades ago. However, these observations did not generate much interest, because the antiviral action of the compounds was considered to be largely nonspecific. Shortly after the identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of the acquired

M Witvrouw; E De Clercq

1997-01-01

269

In vivo antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fraction from Porphyra haitanesis (Rhodephyta) in aging mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polysaccharide fraction F2 from Porphyra haitanesis (Rhodephyta) showed inhibitory effect on the in vitro lipid peroxidation. In the present study, the age-related changes in the antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in different organs in mice were investigated and the in vivo antioxidant effect of F2 in aging mice was checked. Increased endogenous lipid peroxidation

Quanbin Zhang; Ning Li; Gefei Zhou; Xiaolan Lu; Zuhong Xu; Zhien Li

2003-01-01

270

Diacetamidinium sulfate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, 2C2H7N2 +·SO4 2?, which contains four cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit, the ions are inter­connected by an extensive hydrogen-bonding system whereby two of the O atoms of sulfate ion are hydrogen-bonded to the amidinium H atoms of two cations, leading to the formation of two eight-membered rings. The two remaining O atoms inter­connect two H atoms of acetamidinium cations, forming an infinite chain. The C?N separations within the H2N?C?NH2 moieties are similar, with an average value of 1.305?(2)?Å, which is in good agreement with a delocalization model.

Jalovy, Zdenek; Ruzicka, Ales

2010-01-01

271

Selectin blocking activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber. Effect on tumor metastasis and neutrophil recruitment.  

PubMed

Heparin is an excellent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to the carbohydrate determinant, sialyl Lewis(x). As a consequence of its anti-selectin activity, heparin attenuates metastasis and inflammation. Here we show that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS), a polysaccharide isolated from sea cucumber composed of a chondroitin sulfate backbone substituted at the 3-position of the beta-D-glucuronic acid residues with 2,4-disulfated alpha-L-fucopyranosyl branches, is a potent inhibitor of P- and L-selectin binding to immobilized sialyl Lewis(x) and LS180 carcinoma cell attachment to immobilized P- and L-selectins. Inhibition occurs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, FucCS was 4-8-fold more potent than heparin in the inhibition of the P- and L-selectin-sialyl Lewis(x) interactions. No inhibition of E-selectin was observed. FucCS also inhibited lung colonization by adenocarcinoma MC-38 cells in an experimental metastasis model in mice, as well as neutrophil recruitment in two models of inflammation (thioglycollate-induced peritonitis and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation). Inhibition occurred at a dose that produces no significant change in plasma activated partial thromboplastin time. Removal of the sulfated fucose branches on the FucCS abolished the inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. Overall, the results suggest that invertebrate FucCS may be a potential alternative to heparin for blocking metastasis and inflammatory reactions without the undesirable side effects of anticoagulant heparin. PMID:17371880

Borsig, Lubor; Wang, Lianchun; Cavalcante, Moises C M; Cardilo-Reis, Larissa; Ferreira, Paola L; Mourão, Paulo A S; Esko, Jeffrey D; Pavão, Mauro S G

2007-03-19

272

The neuronal chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan binds to the neural cell adhesion molecules Ng-CAM/L1/NILE and N-CAM, and inhibits neuronal adhesion and neurite outgrowth  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that aggregation of microbeads coated with N- CAM and Ng-CAM is inhibited by incubation with soluble neurocan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain, suggesting that neurocan binds to these cell adhesion molecules (Grumet, M., A. Flaccus, and R. U. Margolis. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:815). To investigate these interactions more directly, we have tested binding of soluble 125I- neurocan to microwells coated with different glycoproteins. Neurocan bound at high levels to Ng-CAM and N-CAM, but little or no binding was detected to myelin-associated glycoprotein, EGF receptor, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV. The binding to Ng-CAM and N-CAM was saturable and in each case Scatchard plots indicated a high affinity binding site with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 nM. Binding was significantly reduced after treatment of neurocan with chondroitinase, and free chondroitin sulfate inhibited binding of neurocan to Ng-CAM and N-CAM. These results indicate a role for chondroitin sulfate in this process, although the core glycoprotein also has binding activity. The COOH-terminal half of neurocan was shown to have binding properties essentially identical to those of the full-length proteoglycan. To study the potential biological functions of neurocan, its effects on neuronal adhesion and neurite growth were analyzed. When neurons were incubated on dishes coated with different combinations of neurocan and Ng-CAM, neuronal adhesion and neurite extension were inhibited. Experiments using anti-Ng-CAM antibodies as a substrate also indicate that neurocan has a direct inhibitory effect on neuronal adhesion and neurite growth. Immunoperoxidase staining of tissue sections showed that neurocan, Ng-CAM, and N-CAM are all present at highest concentration in the molecular layer and fiber tracts of developing cerebellum. The overlapping localization in vivo, the molecular binding studies, and the striking effects on neuronal adhesion and neurite growth support the view that neurocan may modulate neuronal adhesion and neurite growth during development by binding to neural cell adhesion molecules.

1994-01-01

273

Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in Mikawa Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolation and chemical elucidation of dissolved and particulate polysaccharides in seawater were conducted. The water samples were collected in Mikawa Bay, Japan during a red tide bloom of the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum . Dissolved polysaccharides were concentrated from 5-101 of seawater with dialysis followed by separation by gel flitration, and isolation by ethanol precipitation. A heteropolysaccharide consisting of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, fucose and rhamnose and a glucan were isolated from the polysaccharide component having a molecular weight more than 4,000 Dalton and were characterized by several chemical analyses. The heteropolysaccharide is a mucilaginous polysaccharide having a highly branched structure and a molecular weight of 10 4 -5 × 10 6 Daltons and probably contains a sulfate half ester: the glucan is a polysaccharide with -1,3- and 1,6-linkages (chrysolaminaran type). Concentrations of these were respectively ca . 20 and 67 g l -1 at 1 m, and 2 and 26 g l -1 at 6 m. A similar heteropolysaccharide was found in the boiling water extract of the particulate matter, while -glucan was isolated in a much less purified form than the seawater -glucan. In addition, a large amount of -1,4 glucan was found in the strong alkali extract of the particulate matter, indicating that this glucan must be a cell wall polysaccharide derived from phytoplankton. These results strongly suggest that the heteropolysaccharide and chrysolaminaran type polysaccharide dissolved in seawater were derived from water soluble carbohydrates of phytoplankton through extracellular release or cell lysis.

Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Handa, Nobuhiko

1985-05-01

274

Polysaccharide surface modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles for camptothecin loading and release.  

PubMed

Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were stabilized using different functional polysaccharides, such as chitosan (CS), O-carboxymethylchitosan (OCMCS) and (N-succinyl-O-carboxymethylchitosan (NSOCMCS) to improve their bioactivity. The release profile and the in vitro cancer cell inhibition activity of camptothecin (CPT) loaded polysaccharide modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were systematically studies. The particle size and size distribution of CPT-loaded polysaccharide modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were found to be strongly dependent on polysaccharide character. Such polysaccharide character could also affect CPT adsorption efficiency, CPT release behavior and bovine serum albumin (BSA) unspecific binding capacity. After 24 h incubation of 7721 cancer cells with CPT-loaded polysaccharide modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles, significant changes in cell morphology could be discernible from phase contrast microscopy. Cytotoxicity assay showed these polysaccharide modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles did not exhibit noteworthy cytotoxicity against 7721, however, the in vitro inhibition rate of CPT-loaded polysaccharide modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles against 7721 liver cancer cell increased significantly in comparison with that of CPT-free drug. PMID:19286431

Zhu, Aiping; Yuan, Lanhua; Jin, Wenjie; Dai, Sheng; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Zhengfeng; Qin, Aijian

2008-11-14

275

Heparin-derived heparan sulfate mimics that modulate inflammation and cancer  

PubMed Central

The heparan sulfate (HS) chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are “ubiquitous” components of the cell surface and the extracellular matrix (EC) and play important roles in the physiopathology of developmental and homeostatic processes. Most biological properties of HS are mediated by interactions with “heparin-binding proteins” and can be modulated by exogenous heparin species (unmodified heparin, low molecular weight heparins, shorter heparin oligosaccharides and various non-anticoagulant derivatives of different sizes). Heparin species can promote or inhibit HS activities to different extents depending, among other factors, on how closely their structure mimics the biologically active HS sequences. Heparin shares structural similarities with HS, but is richer in “fully sulfated” sequences (S domains) that are usually the strongest binders to heparin/HS-binding proteins. On the other hand, HS is usually richer in less sulfated, N-acetylated sequences (NA domains). Some of the functions of HS chains, such as that of activating proteins by favoring their dimerization, often require short S sequences separated by rather long NA sequences. The biological activities of these species cannot be simulated by heparin, unless this polysaccharide is appropriately chemically/enzymatically modified or biotechnologically engineered. This mini review covers some information and concepts concerning the interactions of HS chains with heparin-binding proteins and some of the approaches for modulating HS interactions relevant to inflammation and cancer. This is approached through a few illustrative examples, including the interaction of HS and heparin-derived species with the chemokine IL-8, the growth factors FGF1 and FGF2, and the modulation of the activity of the enzyme heparanase by these species. Progresses in sequencing HS chains and reproducing them either by chemical synthesis or semi-synthesis, and in the elucidation of the 3D structure of oligosaccharide–protein complexes, are paving the way for rational approaches to the development of HS-inspired drugs in the field of inflammation and cancer, as well in other therapeutic fields.

Casu, Benito; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo

2011-01-01

276

Sulfate Removal from Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate occurs naturally in groundwater. Concerns regarding the health effects from sulfate in drinking water have been raised because of reports that diarrhea may be associated with water that contains high levels of sulfate. In the live- stock production industry, there is a concern that high levels of sulfate in water can adversely affect productivity. Different methods can be used

ASHREF DARBI; THIRUVENKATACHARI VIRARAGHAVAN; YEE-CHUNG JIN; LARRY BRAUL; DARRELL CORKAL

277

Staphylococcus aureus Capsular Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Serotype 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides predominate among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. The results of experiments in animal models of infection have revealed that staphylococcal capsules are important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections. The capsule enhances staphylococcal virulence by impeding phagocytosis, resulting in bacterial persistence in the bloodstream of infected hosts. S. aureus capsules also promote abscess formation in rats. Although the capsule has been shown to modulate S. aureus adherence to endothelial surfaces in vitro, animal studies suggest that it also promotes bacterial colonization and persistence on mucosal surfaces. S. aureus capsular antigens are surface associated, limited in antigenic specificity, and highly conserved among clinical isolates. With the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus in the United States in 2002, new strategies are needed to combat staphylococcal infections. Purified serotype 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides offer promise as target antigens for a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections, although the inclusion of other antigens is likely to be essential in the development of an effective S. aureus vaccine. The genetics and mechanisms of capsule biosynthesis are complex, and much work remains to enhance our understanding of capsule biosynthesis and its regulation.

O'Riordan, Katherine; Lee, Jean C.

2004-01-01

278

Polysaccharides and bacterial plugging  

SciTech Connect

Before any successful application of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process can be realized, an understanding of the cells' transport and retentive mechanisms in porous media is needed. Cell transport differs from particle transport in their ability to produce polysaccharides, which are used by cells to adhere to surfaces. Cell injection experiments have been conducted using Leuconostoc cells to illustrate the importance of cellular polysaccharide production as a transport mechanism that hinders cell movement and plugs porous media. Kinetic studies of the Leuconostoc cells, carried out to further understand the plugging rates of porous media, have shown that the cells' growth rates are approximately equal when provided with monosaccharide (glucose and fructose) or sucrose. The only difference in cell metabolism is the production of dextran when sucrose is supplied as a carbon source. Experimentally it has also been shown that the cells' growth rate is weakly dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media, and strongly dependent upon the concentration of yeast extract. The synthesis of cellular dextran has been found to lag behind cell generation, thus indicating that the cells need to reach maturity before they are capable of expressing the detransucrase enzyme and synthesizing insoluble dextran. Dextran yields were found to be dependent upon the sucrose concentration in the media. 10 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Fogler, H.S.

1991-11-01

279

Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles is considered.

Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

2013-01-01

280

The bacteriophage kh receptor of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris KH is the rhamnose of the extracellular wall polysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

A receptor for bacteriophages of lactic acid bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris KH, was found on the cell wall and not on the cell membrane, as determined by a phage-binding assay of sodium dodecyl sulfate- and mutanolysin-treated cell walls. The cell wall carbohydrates of L. lactis subsp. cremoris KH were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and found to contain rhamnose, galactose, glucose and N-acetylglucosamine. Similar analysis of mutants that were reduced in the ability to bind phages kh, 643, c2, ml3, and 1 indicated that galactose was essential for binding all phages. In addition, rhamnose was required for binding phages kh and ml3. Inhibition studies of phage binding by using two different lectins with a specificity for galactose indicated that phage kh may not bind directly to galactose. Rather, galactose may be an essential structural component located in the vicinity of the receptor. Incubation of any of the five phages with rhamnose or of phage kh with purified cell walls inactivated the phages. Inactivation required divalent cations and was irreversible. Inactivation of phages was stereospecific for rhamnose, as neither L-(+)- nor D-(-)-fucose (the stereoisomers of rhamnose) inhibited the phage. Furthermore, phage infection of a culture was completely inhibited by the addition of rhamnose to the medium. Therefore, the receptor for phage kh appears to be a rhamnose component of the extracellular wall polysaccharide.

Valyasevi, R; Sandine, W E; Geller, B L

1990-01-01

281

Circulating heparan sulfate proteoglycan anticoagulant from a patient with a plasma cell disorder.  

PubMed Central

A woman, aged 68, with multiple myeloma (immunoglobulin[Ig]A kappa type) developed an anticoagulant with properties suggestive of heparin. The anticoagulant prolonged the thrombin time but not the reptilase time and was resistant to boiling, proteolytic enzyme digestion, and trichloracetic acid precipitation. The thrombin time was corrected by the addition (in vitro) of protamine sulfate or the addition of purified platelet Factor 4 (PF4) to the plasma. The anticoagulant was isolated by PF4-Sepharose affinity chromatography and analyzed in terms of its molecular weight, uronic acid, and amino acid composition. The proteoglycan isolated had a mol wt of 116,000 and appears to consist of two 38,000 dalton polysaccharide units interconnected by peptide material totaling 39,000 daltons. Electrophoretic analysis of the pronase digested peptidoglycan using the lithium acetate-agarose technique suggested the material was of the heparan sulfate type. The peptidoglycan had about one-tenth the specific activity of commercially available heparin on a weight basis. The isolated proteoglycan was indistinguishable from commercial heparin when analyzed in terms of its ability to act as a cofactor in the antithrombin III inhibition of thrombin. Images

Khoory, M S; Nesheim, M E; Bowie, E J; Mann, K G

1980-01-01

282

Antibodies to Escherichia coli-Expressed C-Terminal Domains of Plasmodium falciparum Variant Surface Antigen 2-Chondroitin Sulfate A (VAR2CSA) Inhibit Binding of CSA-Adherent Parasites to Placental Tissue  

PubMed Central

Placental malaria (PM) is characterized by infected erythrocytes (IEs) that selectively bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and sequester in placental tissue. Variant surface antigen 2-CSA (VAR2CSA), a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) protein family member, is expressed on the surface of placental IEs and mediates adherence to CSA on the surface of syncytiotrophoblasts. This transmembrane protein contains 6 Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains which might contribute to the specific adhesive properties of IEs. Here, we use laboratory isolate 3D7 VAR2CSA DBL domains expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies specific for this protein. Flow cytometry results showed that antibodies generated against DBL4?, DBL5?, DBL6?, and tandem double domains of DBL4-DBL5 and DBL5-DBL6 all bind to placental parasite isolates and to lab strains selected for CSA binding but do not bind to children's parasites. Antisera to DBL4? and to DBL5? inhibit maternal IE binding to placental tissue in a manner comparable to that for plasma collected from multigravid women. These antibodies also inhibit binding to CSA of several field isolates derived from pregnant women, while antibodies to double domains do not enhance the functional immune response. These data support DBL4? and DBL5? as vaccine candidates for pregnancy malaria and demonstrate that E. coli is a feasible tool for the large-scale manufacture of a vaccine based on these VAR2CSA domains.

Saveria, Tracy; Oleinikov, Andrew V.; Wiliamson, Kathryn; Chaturvedi, Richa; Lograsso, Joe; Keitany, Gladys J.; Fried, Michal

2013-01-01

283

Redirecting the substrate specificity of heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase by structurally guided mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide involved in essential physiological functions from regulating cell growth to blood coagulation. HS biosynthesis involves multiple specialized sulfotransferases such as 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST) that transfers the sulfo group to the 2-OH position of iduronic acid (IdoA) or glucuronic acid (GlcA) within HS. Here, we report the homotrimeric crystal structure of 2OST from chicken, in complex with 3?-phosphoadenosine 5?-phosphate. Structural based mutational analysis has identified amino acid residues that are responsible for substrate specificity. The mutant R189A only transferred sulfates to GlcA moieties within the polysaccharide whereas mutants Y94A and H106A preferentially transferred sulfates to IdoA units. Our results demonstrate the feasibility for manipulating the substrate specificity of 2OST to synthesize HS with unique sulfation patterns. This work will aid the development of an enzymatic approach to synthesize heparin-based therapeutics.

Bethea, Heather N.; Xu, Ding; Liu, Jian; Pedersen, Lars C.

2008-01-01

284

Nervous system-derived chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans regulate growth cone morphology and inhibit neurite outgrowth: a light, epifluorescence, and electron microscopy study.  

PubMed

Proteoglycans influence aging and plasticity in the nervous system. Particularly prominent are the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), which are generally inhibitory to neurite outgrowth. During development, CSPGs facilitate normal guidance, but following nervous system injury and in diseases of aging (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), they block successful regeneration, and are associated with axon devoid regions and degenerating nerve cells. Whereas previous studies used non-nervous system sources of CSPGs, this study analyzed the morphology and behavior of sensory (dorsal root ganglia) neurons, and a human nerve cell model (SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells) as they contacted nervous system-derived CSPGs, using a variety of microscopy techniques. The results of these qualitative analyses show that growth cones of both nerve cell types contact CSPGs via actin-based filopodia, sample the CSPGs repeatedly without collapse, and alter their trajectory to avoid nervous system-derived CSPGs. Turning and branching are correlated with increased filopodial sampling, and are common to both neurons and Schwann cells. We show that CSPG expression by rat CNS astrocytes in culture is correlated with sensory neuron avoidance. Further, we show for the first time the ultrastructure of sensory growth cones at a CSPG-laminin border and reveal details of growth cone and neurite organization at this choice point. This type of detailed analysis of the response of growth cones to nervous system-derived CSPGs may lead to an understanding of CSPG function following injury and in diseases of aging, where CSPGs are likely to contribute to aberrant neurite outgrowth, failed or reduced synaptic connectivity, and/or ineffective plasticity. PMID:11514984

Snow, D M; Mullins, N; Hynds, D L

2001-09-01

285

Polysaccharide covalently linked to the peptidoglycan of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6714.  

PubMed Central

A polysaccharide was found to be covalently linked to the peptidoglycan of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6714 via phosphodiester bonds. It could be cleaved from the peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) complex by hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment in the cold (48% HF, 0 degrees C, 48 h) yielding a pure, HF-insoluble peptidoglycan fraction and an HF-soluble polysaccharide fraction. The PG-PS complex was isolated from the Triton X-100-insoluble cell wall fraction by hot sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment and digestion with proteases. Digestion of the complex with N-acetylmuramidase released the glycopeptide-linked polysaccharide, which was further purified by dialysis and gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and G-200. The polysaccharide consisted of glucosamine, mannosamine, galactosamine, mannose, and glucose and had a molecular weight of 25,000 to 30,000. Muramic acid-6-phosphate was identified as the binding site of the covalently linked, nonphosphorylated polysaccharide as revealed by chemical analysis of linkage fragments of the PG-PS complex. Images

Jurgens, U J; Weckesser, J

1986-01-01

286

A sulfated galactan with antioxidant capacity from the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).  

PubMed

The water soluble polysaccharide produced by the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii was found to be composed of D-galactose and sulfate groups in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.65. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy studies of the desulfated polysaccharide showed a major backbone structure of alternating 3-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyl and 4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyl units, and minor signals ascribed to 3-O-methyl-substitution on the latter unit. Ethylation analysis of the polysaccharide indicated that the sulfate groups are mainly located at position O-2 of 4-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyl residue and partially located at positions O-6 of the same unit and at position O-2 of 3-linked ?-D-galactopyranosyl residue, and confirmed the presence of 3-O-methyl-galactose in minor amounts (4.4%). The sulfated d-galactan presents a similar structure to ? carrageenan but with much lower sulfation at position O-6 of the ?-residue and at position O-2 of ?-residue. The antioxidant capacity of the sulfated d-galactan was evaluated by the peroxyl radicals (ORAC method), hydroxyl radicals, chelating activity, and ABTS(+) assays. Kinetic results obtained in these assays were compared with those obtained for the commercial ? carrageenan. The antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals was higher for commercial ? carrageenan, this agrees with its higher content of sulfate group. The kinetics of the reaction of both polysaccharides with hydroxyl and ABTS(+) radicals showed a complex mechanism, but the antioxidant activity was higher for the polysaccharide from the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii. PMID:22169178

Barahona, Tamara; Encinas, María V; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Zúñiga, Elisa A

2011-11-19

287

Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus was evaluated. Polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, protein hydrolysis, dialysis, and fractionation with a DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column. A total of 4 fractions, including 1 neutral polysaccharide (LBPN) and 3 acidic polysaccharides were obtained, and compared with crude polysaccharide (CP), crude extract of polysaccharide (CE),

C. L. Lin; C. C. Wang; S. C. Chang; B. Stephen Inbaraj; B. H. Chen

2009-01-01

288

Interfering with UDP-GlcNAc Metabolism and Heparan Sulfate Expression Using a Sugar Analogue Reduces Angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS), a long linear polysaccharide, is implicated in various steps of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. We successfully interfered with HS biosynthesis using a peracetylated 4-deoxy analogue of the HS constituent GlcNAc and studied the compound's metabolic fate and its effect on angiogenesis. The 4-deoxy analogue was activated intracellularly into UDP-4-deoxy-GlcNAc, and HS expression was inhibited up to ?96% (IC50 = 16 ?M). HS chain size was reduced, without detectable incorporation of the 4-deoxy analogue, likely due to reduced levels of UDP-GlcNAc and/or inhibition of glycosyltransferase activity. Comprehensive gene expression analysis revealed reduced expression of genes regulated by HS binding growth factors such as FGF-2 and VEGF. Cellular binding and signaling of these angiogenic factors was inhibited. Microinjection in zebrafish embryos strongly reduced HS biosynthesis, and angiogenesis was inhibited in both zebrafish and chicken model systems. All of these data identify 4-deoxy-GlcNAc as a potent inhibitor of HS synthesis, which hampers pro-angiogenic signaling and neo-vessel formation. PMID:23972127

van Wijk, Xander M; Thijssen, Victor L; Lawrence, Roger; van den Broek, Sebastiaan A; Dona, Margo; Naidu, Natasha; Oosterhof, Arie; van de Westerlo, Els M; Kusters, Lisanne J; Khaled, Yasmine; Jokela, Tiina A; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Kremer, Hannie; Stringer, Sally E; Griffioen, Arjan W; van Wijk, Erwin; van Delft, Floris L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

2013-09-03

289

POLYSACCHARIDES: MOLECULES, CLUSTERS, NETWORKS AND INTERACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews the structural organization of polysaccharides with respect to molecules, clusters (aggregates), networks and interactions. As for proteins, different levels of structural organization exist for polysaccharides. The primary structure describes the covalent sequence of monosaccha...

290

Polysaccharides Elaborated by Polyporus Pinicola (Fr).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two polysaccharides have been isolated from the fruit bodies of Polyporus pinicola. One was a fucomammogalactan of essentially the same structure as a polysaccharide previously isolated from Armillaria mellea. The other was a highly branched fucoxylomanna...

R. N. Fraser S. Karacsonyi B. Lindberg

1967-01-01

291

Microbial polysaccharides with actual potential industrial applications.  

PubMed

The microbial polysaccharides reviewed include xanthan gum, scleroglucan, PS-10, PS-21 and PS-53 gums, polysaccharides from Alcaligenes sp., PS-7 gum, gellan gum, curdlan, bacterial alginate, dextran, pullulan, Baker's Yeast Glycan, 6-deoxy-hexose-containing polysaccharides and bacterial cellulose. Factors limiting the commercial potential of certain microbial polysaccharides such as availability, rheological properties, and polyvalency are outlined. The polysaccharides are classified according to their uses as viscosity-increasing agents and as gelling agents. A third category includes polysaccharides with specific applications such as tailor-made dextran and pullulan and polysaccharides used as substrates for the preparation of rare sugars. The difficulties encountered in development of a polysaccharide at the industrial level are pointed out. PMID:14542395

Paul, F; Morin, A; Monsan, P

1986-01-01

292

Studies on the Polysaccharide Antigens of Brucella.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report a polysaccharide fraction isolated from a smooth Brucella abortus B99 strain by the formamide technique (Fuller's technique) was analysed. Its properties and chemical constitution have been compared with those of the polysaccharide fraction...

M. A. Fuks C. A. Serpa

1965-01-01

293

Structure of polysaccharide from Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua and the antiherpetic activity of its hydrolyzed fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neutral polysaccharide named PD was isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Five fragments were isolated by Bio-Gel P4 chromatography from hydrolysates of PD. Using assays of cytopathic effect inhibition, neutral red dye uptake and plaque forming inhibition, it was proved that the fragments with degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 5 were the shortest

Fen Liu; Yinghua Liu; Yiwen Meng; Min Yang; Kaize He

2004-01-01

294

Bacterial cadherin domains as carbohydrate binding modules: determination of affinity constants to insoluble complex polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) doublet domains from the complex polysaccharide-degrading marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, demonstrated reversible calcium-dependent binding to different complex polysaccharides, which serve as growth substrates for the bacterium. Here we describe a procedure based on adsorption of CA and CADG doublet domains to different insoluble complex polysaccharides, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for visualizing and quantifying the distribution of cadherins between the bound and unbound fractions. Scatchard plots were employed to determine the kinetics of interactions of CA and CADG with several complex carbohydrates. On the basis of these binding studies, the CA and CADG doublet domains are proposed to form a new family of carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). PMID:22843394

Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

2012-01-01

295

Reduction of molybdate by sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molybdate is an essential trace element required by biological systems including the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB);\\u000a however, detrimental consequences may occur if molybdate is present in high concentrations in the environment. While molybdate\\u000a is a structural analog of sulfate and inhibits sulfate respiration of SRB, little information is available concerning the\\u000a effect of molybdate on pure cultures. We followed the

Keka C. Biswas; Nicole A. Woodards; Huifang Xu; Larry L. Barton

2009-01-01

296

In vitro antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Tricholoma lobayense.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of three polysaccharide components (TLH-1, TLH-2, TLH-3) extracted from Tricholoma lobayense were evaluated by three different in vitro methods, namely superoxide radical (O(2)(-)) scavenging activity, inhibition of mice erythrocyte hemolysis (MEH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and investigation of oxidative modification of human serum albumin (HSA) induced by 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) through fluorescence spectroscopy. The antioxidant experiments showed that the polysaccharides had a notable activity in scavenging O(2)(-) in a concentration-dependent manner; H(2)O(2)-induced MEH and formation of MDA were effectively inhibited; by fluorescence spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the polysaccharides could obviously inhibit AAPH-induced oxidative modification of HSA. The experimental data obtained from the in vitro models clearly revealed that TLH-3 had stronger antioxidant potency than TLH-1 and TLH-2, which indicated that TLH-3 might be exploited as effective natural antioxidant to alleviate oxidative stress. PMID:22305884

Wang, Cui; Chen, Yan; Hu, Meili; Ding, Jingna; Xu, Cunji; Wang, Ruijun

2012-01-25

297

Extracellular polysaccharide production by thraustochytrid protists.  

PubMed

Four strains of marine stramenopilan protists, the thraustochytrids, were studied for their ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). Observations by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the production of a matrix of EPS around groups of cells in stationary cultures. EPS in shake culture filtrates ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 g/L. EPS production, which was studied in greater detail in 2 isolates, SC-1 and CW1, increased with age of cultures, reaching a peak in the stationary phase. Anion exchange chromatography yielded a single fraction of the EPS of both species. The EPS contained 39% to 53% sugars, besides proteins, lipids, uronic acids, and sulfates. Molecular weight of the EPS produced by SC-1 was approximately 94 kDa, and that of CW1, 320 kDa. Glucose formed the major component in the EPS of both isolates-galactose, mannose, and arabinose being the other components. Cultures of both isolates survived air-drying up to a period of 96 hours, suggesting a role for EPS in preventing desiccation of cells. PMID:15909227

Jain, Ruchi; Raghukumar, Seshagiri; Tharanathan, R; Bhosle, N B

2005-05-26

298

Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Salicornia herbacea.  

PubMed

Several types of immunomodulatory polysaccharides originated from plants or mushrooms have been used as immunotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. Here, we describe an immunomodulatory polysaccharide that cannot only activate monocytic cells strongly, but also induce differentiation of monocytic cells into macrophages. High molecular weight substances, SHE, were isolated from Salicornia herbacea, which has been used to treat a variety of diseases including cancers in traditional oriental remedy. The immunomodulatory activities of SHE were examined on a mouse monocytic cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. We found that SHE activated RAW cells to produce cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta, and nitric oxide (NO) dose dependently. SHE also induced the expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1 and CD40, and increased phagocytic activity on opsonized sheep red blood cells. While increasing these parameters of macrophage activation, SHE inhibited the growth of RAW cells dose dependently inducing morphological changes from slightly adherent monocytic cells to strongly adherent macrophages. The active components of SHE appeared to be polysaccharides, and not an endotoxin. These results show that polysaccharides originated from S. herbacea possess potent immunomodulatory activity on monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. PMID:16846839

Im, Sun-A; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Chong-Kil

2006-05-22

299

Sulfated biopolymers for use in recovering petroleum from a subterranean formation  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a novel sulfated biopolymer, a method for synthesizing the sulfated biopolymer and an oil recovery method employing an aqueous fluid containing the material. The sulfated biopolymer is made by reacting polysaccharides with sulfuric acid in the presence of an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature of from 350 to 750 F, in order to avoid degradation of the polymer by the sulfuric acid. The polymer produces a viscous solution which is less prone to increasing viscosities as shear rate is decreased, which makes it especially suitable for use as a viscosifying polymer in a polymer flooding enhanced oil recovery process.

Tyler, T.N.

1982-03-09

300

A unique 2-sulfated {beta}-galactan from the egg jelly of the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis: conformation flexibility versus induction of the sperm acrosome reaction.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly of sea urchins act as species-specific inducers of the sperm acrosome reaction, which is a rare molecular mechanism of carbohydrate-induced signal-transduction event in animal cells. The sea urchin polysaccharides differ in monosaccharide composition (l-fucose or l-galactose), glycosylation, and sulfation sites, but they are always in the alpha-anomeric configuration. Herein, structural analysis of the polysaccharide from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis surprisingly revealed a unique sulfated beta-d-galactan composed by (3-beta-d-Galp-2(OSO(3))-1-->3-beta-d-Galp-1)(n) repeating units. Subsequently, we used the G. crenularis galactan to compare different 2-sulfated polysaccharides as inducers of the acrosome reaction using homologous and heterologous sperm. We also tested the effect of chemically over-sulfated galactans. Intriguingly, the anomeric configuration of the glycosidic linkage rather than the monosaccharide composition (galactose or fucose) is the preferential structural requirement for the effect of these polysaccharides on sea urchin fertilization. Nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics indicate that sulfated alpha-galactan or alpha-fucan have less dynamic structural behavior, exhibiting fewer conformational populations, with an almost exclusive conformational state with glycosidic dihedral angles Phi/Psi = -102 degrees /131 degrees . The preponderant conformer observed in the sulfated alpha-galactan or alpha-fucan is not observed among populations in the beta-form despite its more flexible structure in solution. Possibly, a proper spatial arrangement is required for interaction of the sea urchin-sulfated polysaccharides with the specific sperm receptor. PMID:19403528

Castro, Michelle O; Pomin, Vitor H; Santos, Livia L; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Pol-Fachin, Laércio; Verli, Hugo; Mourão, Paulo A S

2009-04-29

301

Relative toxicity of inhaled metal sulfate salts for pulmonary macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The effects of metal sulfate aerosols on respiratory defense mechanisms in hamsters were studied. Pulmonary macrophage phagocytic rates were measured by determining the in vivo uptake of radioactive colloidal gold (/sup 198/Au) 1, 24, or 48 h after a single 4-h exposure. The concentrations of sulfate aerosols causing a 50% inhibition in pulmonary macrophage endocytosis (EC/sub 50/) were determined. When hamsters were exposed for 4 h to cupric sulfate (greater than or equal to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/), zinc sulfate (greater than or equal to 3.1 mg/m/sup 3/), ferric sulfate (greater than or equal to 7.8 mg/m/sup 3/), or zinc ammonium sulfate (greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/m/sup 3/), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure compared with that in unexposed control animals. Although the response was variable, 24 h after exposures to the higher sulfate concentrations the percent of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained depressed. By 48 h, the rate of macrophage endocytosis in hamsters had returned to normal control values except in hamsters exposed to 4.8 mg/m/sup 3/ cupric sulfate or 9.8 mg/m/sup 3/ ferric sulfate. These hamsters showed significant increases in phagocytosis. The EC/sub 50/ values in milligrams of sulfate per cubic meter for cupric sulfate, zinc sulfate, ferric sulfate, and zinc ammonium sulfate were 2.7, 4.5, 7.5, and 17.9, respectively. These results are negatively correlated with the ranking of sulfates using the criteria of relative irritant potency, as measured by increases in pulmonary flow resistance. Thus, rankings of related chemical structures are not absolute. Their relative toxicities vary depending on the end point selected.

Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D.

1983-08-01

302

In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferation Activities of Polysaccharides from Various Extracts of Different Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharides were extracted from eight kinds of Chinese mushrooms using three solvents and were evaluated for their total carbohydrate, polyphenolic and protein contents, and antioxidant and anti-proliferation activities. The results suggested that all the polysaccharides had significant antioxidant capacities (EC50 ranged from 1.70 ± 0.42 to 65.98 ± 1.74 ?M TE/g crude polysaccharide inhibition of ABTS+, EC50 ranged from 5.06 ± 0.12 to 127.38 ± 1.58 mg VCE/g CP scavenging of OH· and EC50 ranged from 0.70 ± 0.04 to 33.54 ± 0.49 mg VCE/g CP inhibition of lipid peroxidation) (TE: trolox equivalent; VCE: VC equivalent; CP: crude polysaccharide). The acid extracts of Russula vinosa Lindblad had the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. Aqueous extracts of Dictyophora indusiata and Hohenbuehelia serotina possessed, respectively, the highest OH· scavenging capacity and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Mushroom extracts also inhibited proliferation of HeLa and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the mushroom polysaccharides might be potential antioxidant resources.

Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lu; Walid, Elfalleh; Zhang, Hua

2012-01-01

303

Mitochondrial Protection and Anti-aging Activity of Astragalus Polysaccharides and Their Potential Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The current study was performed to investigate mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and the potential underlying mechanism. Lipid peroxidation of liver and brain mitochondria was induced by Fe2+–Vit C in vitro. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetry was used to measure the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Mouse liver mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) was induced by calcium overload in vitro and spectrophotometry was used to measure it. The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O2•?) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)—N-Methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)–Fe2+ system respectively, were measured by 4-nitrobluetetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction and Fenton reaction colorimetry respectively. The Na2S2O3 titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H2O2. APS could inhibit TBARS production, protect mitochondria from PT, and scavenge O2•?, •OH and H2O2 significantly in a concentration-dependent manner respectively. The back of the neck of mice was injected subcutaneously with D-galactose to induce aging at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for seven weeks. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT), surperoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. According to this research, APS protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting mitochondrial PT and increasing the activities of antioxidases. Therefore, APS has the effect of promoting health.

Li, Xing-Tai; Zhang, Ya-Kui; Kuang, Hai-Xue; Jin, Feng-Xin; Liu, De-Wen; Gao, Ming-Bo; Liu, Ze; Xin, Xiao-Juan

2012-01-01

304

Remedial actions for acidic sulfate corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Objectives were to identify a reference acid sulfate environment which produced accelerated intergranular corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing under typical steam generator operating conditions and to identify inhibitors capable of limiting the progression of the corrosion. A background report summarized the occurrences of corrosion in operating steam generators attributed to acid sulfate environments and reviewed the laboratory corrosion tests performed in these environments. Although the corrosion in several operating plants is thought to be caused by acid sulfate environments, and previous laboratory testing his produced corrosion of Alloy 600 tubing in the presence of acid sulfates, the testing performed in this program did not produce accelerated intergranular corrosion. In some cases, the tests produced accelerated localized wastage, but this is not representative of the most relevant plant experience. Testing with more oxidizing conditions was found to reduce the aggressiveness of the corrosion. Given the range of test conditions addressed in the testing, it is concluded that the occurrence of intergranular corrosion with acid sulfate bulk chemistries is confined to a narrower range of operating variables than is typically thought to be the case for intergranular corrosion produced in alkaline environments. Zinc oxide and homologous and substituted derivatives of ethylene-diamine and propylene-diamine were identified as candidate inhibitors for acid sulfate-induced corrosion. They may also have corrosion inhibition capabilities in other crevice environments.

Baum, A.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Div.)

1992-08-01

305

Chlorophenol degradation coupled to sulfate reduction.  

PubMed Central

We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique. No methane was formed, verifying that sulfate reduction was the electron sink. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited chlorophenol degradation completely. These results indicate that the chlorophenols were mineralized under sulfidogenic conditions and that substrate oxidation was coupled to sulfate reduction. In acclimated cultures the three monochlorophenol isomers and 2,4-dichlorophenol were degraded at rates of 8 to 37 mumol liter-1 day-1. The relative rates of degradation were 4-chlorophenol greater than 3-chlorophenol greater than 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol. Sulfidogenic cultures initiated with biomass from an anaerobic bioreactor used in treatment of pulp-bleaching effluents dechlorinated 2,4-dichlorophenol to 4-chlorophenol, which persisted, whereas 2,6-dichlorophenol was sequentially dechlorinated first to 2-chlorophenol and then to phenol.

Haggblom, M M; Young, L Y

1990-01-01

306

Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin;Department of Zoology REV)

2001-09-25

307

Chondroitin sulfate-E fine-tunes osteoblast differentiation via ERK1/2, Smad3 and Smad1/5/8 signaling by binding to N-cadherin and cadherin-11.  

PubMed

Bone formation in the vertebrate skeleton occurs via the processes of endochondral and membranous ossification. Bone matrices contain chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains that regulate endochondral ossification. However, the function of CS in membranous ossification is unclear. Here, using preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells we demonstrate that chondroitin sulfate-E (CS-E) promotes osteoblast differentiation by binding to both N-cadherin and cadherin-11. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited an increase in the total amount of CS and of E-disaccharide units of CS over time. In addition, CS-E polysaccharide, but not CS-A polysaccharide, bound to N-cadherin and cadherin-11 and enhanced osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, osteoblast differentiation was inhibited in chondroitinase ABC-digested MC3T3-E1 cells. Notably, CS-E polysaccharide and hexasaccharide activated intracellular signaling during osteoblast differentiation in non-contacting MC3T3-E1 cells, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and activated Smad3 and Smad1/5/8; these reactions were blocked by neutralizing antibodies against N-cadherin or cadherin-11, even though cell-cell adhesion is reported to be required for initiation of MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Furthermore, CS-E-unit overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells increased adhesion of the cells to N-cadherin and cadherin-11, and promoted osteoblast differentiation. Collectively, these results suggest that CS-E is a selective ligand for the potential CS receptors, N-cadherin and cadherin-11, leading to osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:22440395

Koike, Toshiyasu; Izumikawa, Tomomi; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

2012-03-13

308

Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction: Competitive and Noncompetitive Substrates in Estuarine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Sulfate ions did not inhibit methanogenesis in estuarine sediments supplemented with methanol, trimethylamine, or methionine. However, sulfate greatly retarded methanogenesis when hydrogen or acetate was the substrate. Sulfate reduction was stimulated by acetate, hydrogen, and acetate plus hydrogen, but not by methanol or trimethylamine. These results indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria will outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, acetate, or both, but will not compete with methanogens for compounds like methanol, trimethylamine, or methionine, thereby allowing methanogenesis and sulfate reduction to operate simultaneously within anoxic, sulfate-containing sediments.

Oremland, Ronald S.; Polcin, Sandra

1982-01-01

309

Substrate specificity of 6-O-endosulfatase (Sulf-2) and its implications in synthesizing anticoagulant heparan sulfate  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatase (Sulf) catalyzes the hydrolysis of 6-O-sulfo groups from HS polysaccharides. The resultant HS has reduced sulfation levels and displays altered biological activities. The Sulfs have been associated with several cancers and developmental problems and could function as a tool for editing specific HS structures. Here, we characterize the substrate specificity of human Sulf-2 using site-specifically radiolabeled synthetic polysaccharides. The enzyme was expressed and harvested from the conditioned medium of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with Sulf-2 expression plasmids. The uniquely [35S]sulfated polysaccharides were prepared using purified recombinant HS biosynthetic enzymes. We found that Sulf-2 is particularly effective in removing the 6-O-sulfo group residing in the trisulfated disaccharide repeating unit comprising 2-O-sulfated uronic acid and N-sulfated 6-O-sulfo glucosamine, but can also hydrolyze sulfo groups from N- and 6-O-sulfated disaccharides. In addition, we found that Sulf-2 treatment significantly decreases HS's ability to bind to platelet factor 4 (PF4), a chemokine, while binding to antithrombin is maintained. Because HS–PF4 complexes are the initiating cause of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, this finding provides a promising strategy for developing heparin therapies with reduced side effects. Further understanding of Sulf-2 activity will help elucidate HS structure–function relationships and provide a valuable tool in tailoring HS-based anticoagulant drugs.

Pempe, Elizabeth H; Burch, Tanya C; Law, Courtney J; Liu, Jian

2012-01-01

310

Xylitol and erythritol decrease adherence of polysaccharide-producing oral streptococci.  

PubMed

Xylitol consumption decreases counts of mutans streptococci. However, the mechanism behind this decrease is not well understood. We studied not only type strains and clinical isolates of mutans streptococci, but also other polysaccharide-forming oral streptococci. Growth inhibition and adherence of cells to a smooth glass surface-reflecting synthesis of water-insoluble polysaccharides were studied in the presence of 2% (0.13 mol/l) and 4% (0.26 mol/l) xylitol. The effect of xylitol was compared to a novel polyol sweetener, erythritol. Except for Streptococcus mutans 10449 and S. sobrinus OMZ 176, the glass surface adhesion of most polysaccharide-forming streptococci was reduced by the presence of both 4% xylitol and erythritol. For the S. mutans and S. sobrinus type strains, the growth inhibition with 4% xylitol and erythritol was 36-77% and for the clinical S. mutans isolates 13-73%. Of the other oral streptococci, only S. sanguinis was inhibited with 4% xylitol (45-55%). For both polyols, the magnitude of the growth inhibition observed was not associated with the magnitude of the decrease in adherence (xylitol: r = -0.18; erythritol: r = 0.49). In conclusion, both xylitol and erythritol can decrease polysaccharide-mediated cell adherence contributing to plaque accumulation through a mechanism not dependent on growth inhibition. PMID:19777305

Söderling, Eva M; Hietala-Lenkkeri, Aija-Maaria

2009-09-24

311

Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological\\u000a property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeastCryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt\\u000a (8,10) showing that ?1 ? 3, ??4, and

Gene R. Petersen; Gregory A. Nelson; Cheryl A. Cathey; Gerald G. Fuller

1989-01-01

312

Polysaccharide gel with multiple emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to investigate the possibility of using a semicrystalline oil phase in W\\/O\\/W to modify the release of encapsulated hydrophilic compounds from polysaccharide gels with embedded multiple emulsions.l-Tryptophan was enclosed within the W1-phase of an W1\\/O\\/W2-emulsion, which itself was homogeneously distributed in a Ca2+-alginate gel with maltodextrin (D.E. 6.5) as a bulking agent. Various

Julia Weiss; Inta Scherze; Gerald Muschiolik

2005-01-01

313

Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia

Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau

2008-01-01

314

Immunopotentiating effects of four Chinese herbal polysaccharides administered at vaccination in chickens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 4 Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the production of serum antibodies and the proliferation of peripheral T lymphocytes, including subpopulations in vaccinated chickens. A total of 450 chickens were randomly assigned to 9 groups at 14 d of age and vaccinated first with live Newcastle disease (ND)-infectious bronchitis virus vaccine, and second with ND-infectious bronchitis oil adjuvant vaccine at 28 d of age. At the same time as the first vaccination, the chickens in groups 1 to 8 were intramuscularly injected with 4 polysaccharides at high and low dosages, respectively, once a day for 3 successive days starting on the day of the first vaccination. Group 9 (control group) was injected in the same manner with saline instead of a polysaccharide. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after the first vaccination, the temporal changes in serum ND hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer were determined by the micromethod. On d 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 after the first vaccination, the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to concanavalin A stimulation as well as the proportions of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and flow cytometry, respectively. The results showed that astragalus polysaccharide and isatis root polysaccharide at low dosages, and achyranthes root polysaccharide and Chinese yam polysaccharide at high dosages significantly enhanced the ND antibody titers, concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and ratio of CD4(+) to CD8(+) (P <0.05). Collectively, these findings indicate that the 4 polysaccharides possess significant immune-enhancing properties in chickens. This finding may have direct application in vaccine design and other strategies designed to potentiate immune system development and function in chickens. PMID:18029798

Qiu, Y; Hu, Y L; Cui, B A; Zhang, H Y; Kong, X F; Wang, D Y; Wang, Y G

2007-12-01

315

Substrates for Sulfate Reduction and Methane Production in Intertidal Sediments  

PubMed Central

The activity of and potential substrates for methane-producing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria were examined in marsh, estuary, and beach intertidal sediments. Slow rates of methane production were detected in all sediments, although rates of sulfate reduction were 100- to 1,000-fold higher. After sulfate was depleted in sediments, the rates of methane production sharply increased. The addition of methylamine stimulated methanogenesis in the presence of sulfate, and [14C]methylamine was rapidly converted to 14CH4 and 14CO2 in freshly collected marsh sediment. Acetate, hydrogen, or methionine additions did not stimulate methanogenesis. [methyl-14C]methionine and [2-14C]acetate were converted to 14CO2 and not to 14CH4 in fresh sediment. No reduction of 14CO2 to 14CH4 occurred in fresh sediment. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited [2-14C]acetate metabolism by 98.5%. Fluoracetate, an inhibitor of acetate metabolism, inhibited sulfate reduction by 61%. These results suggest that acetate is a major electron donor for sulfate reduction in marine sediments. In the presence of high concentrations of sulfate, methane may be derived from novel substrates such as methylamine.

Winfrey, Michael R.; Ward, David M.

1983-01-01

316

Chondroitin Sulfate Synthase-2 Is Necessary for Chain Extension of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Critical for Skeletal Development  

PubMed Central

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2?/? mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2?/? chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ?10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

2012-01-01

317

Sulfate, nitrate declines noted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of more than 4000 samples of precipitation that were collected weekly from 1978 through 1983 at 19 sites in 13 states showed no clear pattern of changes in overall acidity, according to a recent report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior. The analysis did, however, reveal significant declines in sulfate and nitrate concentrations during that 5-year period.USGS hydrologists said that sulfate and nitrate, sometimes used as indirect indicators of the acidity of precipitation, showed widespread and substantial downward trends in the eastern United States. (All but three of the 19 stations are located east of the Mississippi River.) At the five stations in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, for example, sulfate concentrations declined 25% to 40% during the 5-year period. Only two of those five stations showed statistically significant trends in pH; these were decreases in acidity comparable to the decreases in sulfate.

318

Tumor attenuation by combined heparan sulfate and polyamine depletion.  

PubMed

Cells depend on polyamines for growth and their depletion represents a strategy for the treatment of cancer. Polyamines assemble de novo through a pathway sensitive to the inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). However, the presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans may provide a salvage pathway for uptake of circulating polyamines, thereby sparing cells from the cytostatic effect of DFMO. Here we show that genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of proteoglycan synthesis in the presence of DFMO inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, mutant cells lacking heparan sulfate were more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of DFMO than wild-type cells or mutant cells transfected with the cDNA for the missing biosynthetic enzyme. Moreover, extracellular polyamines did not restore growth of mutant cells, but completely reversed the inhibitory effect of DFMO in wild-type cells. In a mouse model of experimental metastasis, DFMO provided in the water supply also dramatically diminished seeding and growth of tumor foci in the lungs by heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells compared with the controls. Wild-type cells also formed tumors less efficiently in mice fed both DFMO and a xylose-based inhibitor of heparan sulfate proteoglycan assembly. The effect seemed to be specific for heparan sulfate, because a different xyloside known to affect only chondroitin sulfate did not inhibit tumor growth. Hence, combined inhibition of heparan sulfate assembly and polyamine synthesis may represent an additional strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:11752393

Belting, Mattias; Borsig, Lubor; Fuster, Mark M; Brown, Jillian R; Persson, Lo; Fransson, Lars-Ake; Esko, Jeffrey D

2001-12-18

319

Tumor attenuation by combined heparan sulfate and polyamine depletion  

PubMed Central

Cells depend on polyamines for growth and their depletion represents a strategy for the treatment of cancer. Polyamines assemble de novo through a pathway sensitive to the inhibitor, ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). However, the presence of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans may provide a salvage pathway for uptake of circulating polyamines, thereby sparing cells from the cytostatic effect of DFMO. Here we show that genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of proteoglycan synthesis in the presence of DFMO inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, mutant cells lacking heparan sulfate were more sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of DFMO than wild-type cells or mutant cells transfected with the cDNA for the missing biosynthetic enzyme. Moreover, extracellular polyamines did not restore growth of mutant cells, but completely reversed the inhibitory effect of DFMO in wild-type cells. In a mouse model of experimental metastasis, DFMO provided in the water supply also dramatically diminished seeding and growth of tumor foci in the lungs by heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells compared with the controls. Wild-type cells also formed tumors less efficiently in mice fed both DFMO and a xylose-based inhibitor of heparan sulfate proteoglycan assembly. The effect seemed to be specific for heparan sulfate, because a different xyloside known to affect only chondroitin sulfate did not inhibit tumor growth. Hence, combined inhibition of heparan sulfate assembly and polyamine synthesis may represent an additional strategy for cancer therapy.

Belting, Mattias; Borsig, Lubor; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Persson, Lo; Fransson, Lars-?ke; Esko, Jeffrey D.

2002-01-01

320

Utilization of lignocellulosic polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a vast supply of fermentable carbohydrates and functional aromatic compounds. Conversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol and other useful products would be of widespread economical and environmental benefit. Better understanding of the behavior of different lignocellulosic feedstocks in fermentation protocols as well as catalytic activities involved in lignocellulosic depolymerization will further enhance the commercial viability of biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The relative toxicity of the combined non-xylose components in prehydrolysates derived from three different lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (poplar, corn stover and switchgrass, or Panicum virgatum L.) was determined using a Pichia stipits fermentation assay. The relative toxicity of the prehydrolysates, in decreasing order, was poplar-derived prehydrolysates > switchgrass-derived prehydrolysates > corn stover-derived prehydrolysates. Ethanol yields averaged 74%, 83% and 88% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Volumetric ethanol productivities (g ethanol lsp{-1} hsp{-1}) averaged 32%, 70% and 102% of control values for poplar, switchgrass and corn stover prehydrolysates, respectively. Ethanol productivities correlated closely with acetate concentrations in the prehydrolysates; however, regression lines correlating acetate concentrations and ethanol productivities were found to be feedstock-dependent. Differences in the relative toxicity of xylose-rich prehydrolysates derived from woody and herbaceous feedstocks are likely due to the relative abundance of a variety of inhibitory compounds, e.g. acetate and aromatic compounds. Fourteen aromatic monomers present in prehydrolysates prepared from corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar were tentatively identified by comparison with published mass spectra. The concentrations of the aromatic monomers totaled 112, 141 and 247 mg(l)sp{-1} for corn stover, switchgrass and poplar prehydrolysates, respectively. The woody and herbaceous feedstocks differed in both amount and type of aromatic monomers. The cellulases of Trichoderma reesei are the most widely studied for use in the depolymerization of lignocellulosics. The Trichoderma cellobiohydrolases CBH1 and CBH2 are traditionally categorized as exo-acting cellulases. A simple individual-based model was created to explore the potential effects of native endo activity on substrate-velocity profiles. The model results indicate that an enzyme with a small amount of endo activity will show an apparent substrate inhibition as substrate levels are increased. Actual hydrolysis studies using affinity chromatography-purified CBH2 preparations from three laboratories indicate that CBH2 has native endo activity, while CBH1 does not.

Fenske, John James

321

Peptides that mimic the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide antigen.  

PubMed

Microbial polysaccharides are notably poor immunogens. We have developed an alternate route for the production of Abs to important carbohydrate epitopes. mAb S9, a protective mAb against the type III capsular polysaccharide of group B streptococci (GBS), was used to select epitope analogues from a peptide display phage library. Depending upon desorption conditions, two populations of phage were identified with displayed sequences of WENWMMGNA and FDTGAFDPDWPA. ELISA results demonstrated that these phage bound to S9 and no other Abs. Phage blocked the binding of S9 to type III GBS, but did not block binding by another anti-GBS mAb. Phage displaying the latter peptide sequence showed greater inhibition. Ab S9 and other monoclonal and polyclonal anti-GBS type III antisera bound the synthetic peptide FDTGAFDPDWPAC. The binding of S9 to GBS was inhibited by the free peptide with an IC50 of 30 microg/ml. The binding of polyclonal anti-GBS antibodies to peptide could be blocked by intact GBS as well as purified capsular polysaccharide. The peptide was conjugated to three different carriers and was used to immunize mice. All mice produced a significant antibody response to GBS and to the purified capsular polysaccharide following a single immunization. These data demonstrate that a peptide mimetic of the GBS capsular polysaccharide is both antigenic and immunogenic. The incorporation of such peptides into vaccine preparations may enhance the efficacy of vaccines in inducing Ab responses to important carbohydrate epitopes. PMID:9551983

Pincus, S H; Smith, M J; Jennings, H J; Burritt, J B; Glee, P M

1998-01-01

322

Glycopeptide Sulfation Evades Resistance  

PubMed Central

The incidence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms is increasing at an alarming rate. Resistance against front-line therapeutics such as the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has emerged and has spread to highly virulent pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide antibiotics are natural products from the Actinomycetes that have a characteristic heptapeptide core. The chemical diversity of the class is achieved through glycosylation, halogenation, methylation, and acylation of the core, modifications that are implicated in improved solubility, stability, or activity of the molecule. Sulfation is yet another modification observed infrequently in glycopeptides, but its role is not known. Although glycopeptide sulfotransferases are found in the environmental metagenome and must therefore serve an evolutionary purpose, all previous studies have reported decreased antibiotic activity with sulfation. We report that sulfation of glycopeptides has little effect on the compound's ability to bind its target, the d-Ala-d-Ala peptidoglycan precursors of the bacterial cell wall. However, sulfation does impact glycopeptide dimerization, and importantly, sulfated glycopeptides are significantly less potent inducers of the resistance gene cluster vanHAX in actinomycetes. Our results begin to unravel the mystery of the biological role of glycopeptide sulfation and offer a potential new strategy for the development of new antibiotics that avoid resistance.

Kalan, Lindsay; Perry, Julie; Koteva, Kalinka; Thaker, Maulik

2013-01-01

323

Polysaccharide production by microalgae. Final report on phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of producing commercially valuable polysaccharides from microalgal biomass was demonstrated. Algal biomass with a high polysaccharide content was produced by subjecting cultures to short periods of nitrogen limitation without decreasing overall biomass production rates. Three different algae were studied--unicellular blue-green alga Synechococcus leopoliensis, filamentous blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, and a green colonial alga, Scenedesmus sp. Batch cultures were grown with varying amounts of nitrate to limit nitrogen uptake at various stages in the batch growth curve. In the presence of high nitrate concentrations, the Synechococcus culture became stationary within four days, whereas both Spirulina and Scenedesmus maintained an appreciable growth rate and high daily productivities, for at least a week. With limiting nitrate concentrations, the cellular content of polysaccharide (measured as total carbohydrates) increased markedly, from 20-25 percent to 70-80 percent in Synechococcus and Spirulina. Depending on the level of nitrate used, onset of nitrogen limitation could be set at various culture densities. In all cases, little or no inhibition of total biomass production was noted.

Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

1980-04-01

324

Two distinct chondroitin sulfate ABC lyases. An endoeliminase yielding tetrasaccharides and an exoeliminase preferentially acting on oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Crude enzyme obtained from chondroitin sulfate-induced Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4636 has been fractionated into 1) an endoeliminase capable of depolymerizing chondroitin sulfate and related polysaccharides to produce, as end products, a mixture of Delta4-unsaturated tetra- and disaccharides and 2) an exoeliminase preferentially acting on chondroitin sulfate tetra- and hexasaccharides to yield the respective disaccharides. Isolation of the two enzymes was achieved by a simple two-step procedure: extracting the enzymes from intact P. vulgaris cells with a buffer solution of nonionic surfactant and then treating the extract by cation-exchange chromatography. Each of the enzymes thus prepared was apparently homogeneous as assessed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and readily crystallized from polyethylene glycol solutions. Both enzymes acted on various substrates such as chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, and dermatan sulfate at high, but significantly different, initial rates. They also attacked hyaluronan but at far lower rates and were inactive to keratan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and heparin. Our results show that the known ability of the conventional enzyme called "chondroitinase ABC" to catalyze the complete depolymerization of chondroitin sulfates to unsaturated disaccharides may actually result from the combination reactions by endoeliminase (chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase) and exoeliminase (chondroitin sulfate ABC exolyase). PMID:9083041

Hamai, A; Hashimoto, N; Mochizuki, H; Kato, F; Makiguchi, Y; Horie, K; Suzuki, S

1997-04-01

325

Adjuvanticity of compound polysaccharides on chickens against Newcastle disease and avian influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of compound polysaccharides (cPS) on the immune responses via chicken models. First, in screening experiment, a comprehensive analysis for immunomodulatory activity of four cPSs, including Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), Epimedium polysaccharides (EPS), sulfated APS (sAPS) and sulfated EPS (sEPS), was performed in vitro and in vivo. APS-sEPS was picked out having the best effect on lymphocyte proliferation and raising the antibody titers. Therefore, the adjuvanticities of APS-sEPS on Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) vaccine were further validated. Chickens were administrated with ND or AI vaccines containing APS-sEPS of 150, 100 and 50 mg/kg, respectively, taking oil adjuvant vaccine as control. It was observed ND or AI antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 100 mg/kg of APS-sEPS. In conclusion, appropriate dose of APS-sEPS may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate suitable for vaccines. PMID:22266329

Guo, Liwei; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Xiaona; Wang, Yuanlei; Yang, Shujuan; Wang, Junmin; Fan, Yunpeng; Han, Guocai; Gao, Huan

2012-01-13

326

Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

1987-10-01

327

Acidic polysaccharides isolated from Phellinus linteus induce phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic polysaccharides (PL) isolated from Phellinus linteus are known to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes and humoral immune functions to act as a polyclonal activator of B cells, and to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. However, little is known about their immunomodulating effects or the effects of its mechanisms on murine bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DC). In this

Soon-Kew Park; Gi-Young Kim; Jae-Young Lim; Jong-Young Kwak; Yoe-Sik Bae; Jae-Dong Lee; Yang-Hyo Oh; Soon-Cheol Ahn; Yeong-Min Park

2003-01-01

328

Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Heparan Sulfate Negative Ions: Sulfate Loss Patterns and Chemical Modification Methods for Improvement of Product Ion Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide modified with sulfation, acetylation, and epimerization that enable its binding with protein ligands and regulation of important biological processes. Tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to sequence linear biomolecules e.g., proteins and peptides. However, its application in structural characterization of HS is limited due to the neutral loss of sulfate (SO3) during collisional induced dissociation (CID). In this report, we studied the dissociation patterns of HS disaccharides and demonstrate that the N-sulfate (N-S) bond is especially facile during CID. We identified factors that influence the propensities of such losses from precursor ions and proposed a Free Proton Index (FPI) to help select ions that are able to produce meaningful backbone dissociations. We then investigated the thermodynamics and kinetics of SO3 loss from sulfates that are protonated, deprotonated, and metal-adducted using density functional theory computations. The calculations showed that sulfate loss from a protonated site was much more facile than that from a deprotonated or metal-adducted site. Further, the loss of SO3 from N-sulfate was energetically favored by 3-8 kcal/mol in transition states relative to O-sulfates, making it more prone to this process by a substantial factor. In order to reduce the FPI, representing the number of labile sulfates in HS native chains and oligosaccharides, we developed a series of chemical modifications to selectively replace the N-sulfates of the glucosamine with deuterated acetyl group. These modifications effectively reduced the sulfate density on the HS oligosaccharides and generated considerably more backbone dissociation using on-line LC/tandem MS.

Shi, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Naimy, Hicham; Zaia, Joseph

2012-09-01

329

Interactions between polysaccharides and aroma compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of interactions between several polysaccharides: modified and waxy starches, dextrin, dextrans, hydroxypropyl celluloses, galactomannans and model aroma compounds: limonene, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ß-ionone, was studied by the use of the exponential dilution technique. The observed decrease of the reduced infinite dilution activity coefficient of these compounds when the concentration of polysaccharides is increased shows that the

S. Langourieux; J. Crouzet

1995-01-01

330

Solution NMR Spectroscopy of Food Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many polysaccharides are allowed for direct food use, where they serve a number of useful functions including dietary fiber, bulking agent, thickener, encapsulant, gelling agent, foam and emulsion stabilizer, protective colloid, emulsifier and suspending agent, adhesive and binder, flocculant, swelling agent, film\\/coat former, or syneresis inhibitor. Many of these polysaccharides have complex structures or are mixtures with different components. Over

H. N. Cheng; Thomas G. Neiss

2012-01-01

331

Botanical polysaccharides: Macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of

Igor A. Schepetkin; Mark T. Quinn

2006-01-01

332

Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUA?1-3GalNAc?1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ?O-D-D, ?A-D-D, ?C-D-D, ?E-A-D, ?D-D-C, ?E-D-D and ?A-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ?C-A-D, ?C-D-C and ?A-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol ? stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ?A-D-A, ?A-D-D and ?A-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields. PMID:23019154

Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

2012-09-26

333

Attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to carrot cells and Arabidopsis wound sites is correlated with the presence of a cell-associated, acidic polysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

An early step in crown gall tumor formation involves the attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. A. tumefaciens C58::A205 (C58 attR) is a Tn3HoHo1 insertion mutant that was found to be avirulent on Bryophyllum daigremontiana and unable to attach to carrot suspension cells. The mutation mapped to an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 247 amino acids which has significant homology to transacetylases from many bacteria. Biochemical analysis of polysaccharide extracts from wild-type strain C58 and the C58::A205 mutant showed that the latter was deficient in the production of a cell-associated polysaccharide. Anion-exchange chromatography followed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the polysaccharide produced by strain C58 was an acetylated, acidic polysaccharide and that the polysaccharide preparation contained three sugars: glucose, glucosamine, and an unidentified deoxy-sugar. Application of the polysaccharide preparation from strain C58 to carrot suspension cells prior to inoculation with the bacteria effectively inhibited attachment of the bacteria to the carrot cells, whereas an identical preparation from strain C58::A205 had no inhibitory effect and did not contain the acidic polysaccharide. Similarly, preincubation of Arabidopsis thaliana root segments with the polysaccharide prevented attachment of strain C58 to that plant. This indicates that the acidic polysaccharide may play a role in the attachment of A. tumefaciens to host soma plant cells.

Reuhs, B L; Kim, J S; Matthysse, A G

1997-01-01

334

[Extraction and analysis of sargassum hemiphyllum polysaccharides].  

PubMed

Sargassum hemiphyllum polysaccharides (SHP) was extracted by thermal water method and the physical and chemical characters, the extraction rate, contents, compositions of SHP was studied. The result showed that SHP was ashen powder, water-soluble, insoluble in organic solvents. The reaction of iodide-potassium iodide was negative to evaluate that SHP was nonstarch polysaccharides. Extraction rate was 7.04% and the content of polysaccharides was 82.9%. Ultraviolet spectrum showed that there were little DNA and protein. Infrared spectroscopy showed that SHP was main pyrano polysaccharides and had beta-linked glycopolysaccharides in molecule structure of SHP. Thin layer chromatography traced that SHP could be xylan. The results indicated that the extract was not only polysaccharides but also higher purity and the method was high efficiency. PMID:15828327

Meng, Qing-yong; Liu, Zhi-hui; Xu, Mei-yi; Dongye, Guang-zhi

2004-12-01

335

Anticoagulant and anti-platelet activity of polyphenolic-polysaccharide preparation isolated from the medicinal plant Erigeron canadensis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphenolic-polysaccharide preparation from Erigeron canadensis L. was isolated by multi-step process, characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and was subjected to anion-exchange chromatography. The whole preparation demonstrated in vivo anticoagulant activity, and the effect was neutralized by protamine sulfate. It had also anti-platelet activity, limited to the cyclooxygenase pathway, induced by arachidonic acid. The plant preparation was fractionated to

Izabela Pawlaczyk; Leszek Czerchawski; Wiktor Kuliczkowski; Bo?ena Karolko; Witold Pilecki; Wojciech Witkiewicz; Roman Gancarz

2011-01-01

336

Directing the biological activities of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides using a chemoenzymatic approach  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are highly sulfated polysaccharides exhibiting essential physiological functions. The sulfation patterns determine the functional selectivity for HS and heparin. Chemical synthesis of HS, especially those larger than a hexasaccharide, remains challenging. Enzymatic synthesis of HS has recently gained momentum. Here we describe the divergent assembly of HS heptasaccharides and nonasaccharides from a common hexasaccharide precursor. The hexasaccharide precursor was synthesized via a chemical method. The subsequent elongation, sulfation and epimerization were completed by glycosyltransferases, HS sulfotransferases and epimerase. Using the synthesized heptasaccharides, we discovered that the iduronic acid is critical for binding to fibroblast growth factor-2. We also designed a synthetic path to prepare a nonasaccharide with an antithrombin-binding affinity of 3 nM. Our method demonstrated the feasibility of combining chemical and enzymatic synthesis to prepare structurally defined HS oligosaccharides with desired biological activities.

Xu, Yongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Renpeng; Bridges, Arlene S; Huang, Xuefei; Liu, Jian

2012-01-01

337

Activity of CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase in Escherichia coli strains expressing the capsular K5 polysaccharide implication for K5 polysaccharide biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The activity of the cytoplasmic CMP-2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid synthetase (CMP-KDO synthetase), which is low in Escherichia coli rough strains such as E. coli K-12 and in uncapsulated strains such as E. coli O111, was significantly elevated in encapsulated E. coli O10:K5 and O18:K5. This enzyme activity was even higher in an E. coli clone expressing the K5 capsule. This and the following findings suggest a correlation between elevated CMP-KDO synthetase activity and the biosynthesis of the capsular K5 polysaccharide. (i) Expression of the K5 polysaccharide and elevated CMP-KDO synthetase activity were observed with bacteria grown at 37 degrees C but not with cells grown at 20 degrees C or below. (ii) The recovery kinetics of capsule expression of intact bacteria, in vitro K5 polysaccharide-synthesizing activity of bacteria, and CMP-KDO synthetase activity of bacteria after temperature upshift from 18 to 37 degrees C were the same. (iii) Chemicals which inhibit capsule (polysaccharide) expression also inhibited the elevation of CMP-KDO synthetase activity. The chromosomal location of the gene responsible for the elevation of this enzyme activity was narrowed down to the distal segment of the transport region of the K5 expression genes. PMID:2542215

Finke, A; Roberts, I; Boulnois, G; Pzzani, C; Jann, K

1989-06-01

338

Anaerobic Production of Extracellular Polysaccharide by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens nyx  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic production of extracellular polysaccharide (EP) was examined, using a previously uncharacterized, obligately anaerobic rumen isolate, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens nyx, which produced an EP that was rheologically similar to xanthan gum. The main objectives were to determine the nutritional requirements and conditions which promoted EP production by strain nyx. Strain nyx was grown anaerobically in defined and semidefined media. In addition to carbohydrate and nitrogen sources, strain nyx required acetic acid, folic acid, biotin, and pyridoxamine. Strain nyx produced similar amounts of EP at 35 to 40°C. Conditions that improved growth usually improved EP production. Of the carbohydrates tested, glucose supported the fastest growth and most EP production, followed by sucrose, xylose, and lactose. Strain nyx utilized ammonium sulfate, urea, or vitamin-free casein hydrolysate as nitrogen sources for growth and EP production. At 2 and 20 g/liter, respectively, ammonium sulfate and vitamin-free casein hydrolysate supported about the same rates of growth and EP production. EP was not produced in the lag or stationary phases, and EP production was exponential during exponential cell growth. Based on the results of this work, anaerobic EP production with B. fibrisolvens nyx could reduce energy costs for industrial EP production compared with the cost of aerated systems. Finally, this work demonstrated that, under appropriate growth conditions, a gastrointestinal tract (ruminal) microorganism produced high levels of EP.

Wachenheim, Daniel E.; Patterson, John A.

1992-01-01

339

The antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effect of polysaccharides from the starfish Asterias rollestoni.  

PubMed

After the starfish was defatted with isopropyl alcohol and ethanol, crude polysaccharide was extracted by 0.15 mol/L HCl. Anion exchange chromatography was performed to fractionate the sample into two fractions, SF-1 and SF-2. Chemical analysis showed that the major component of SF-1 was a glucan consisting of a backbone of 1?3 linked ?-D-glucopyranose residues, and it had a minor glucan component containing a backbone of 1?3 linked ?-D-glucopyranose residues. SF-2 was a mannoglucan sulfate. SF-2 displayed the highest antioxidant activity among the polysaccharides. Moreover, SF-1 and SF-2 exhibited neuroprotective activities in a neurotoxicity model of Parkinson's disease (PD). PMID:23618233

Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Jing; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Quanbin

2013-02-26

340

Stabilization of mitochondrial and microsomal function by polysaccharide of Ulva lactuca on D-Galactosamine induced hepatitis in rats.  

PubMed

In this study we used liver mitochondrial and microsomal fraction from rats pretreated with seaweed Ulva lactuca polysaccharide extract (ULP - 200mg/kg body weight, daily for 21 days, oral gavage) on D-Galactosamine (500mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) challenge. Effectiveness of ULP was determined based on functional status of trichloro acetic acid (TCA), urea cycle, and microsomal enzymes. The composition of sulfate polysaccharide content such as total sugars, sulfate and uronic acid were examined. In addition the fine ultra structural changes were examined using electron microscopy (EM). We observed significant (p<0.001) mitochondrial and microsomal abnormalities during liver damage by D-Galactosamine, consequently altering enzymes of energy metabolism. Electron microscopy of D-Galactosamine intoxicated rat liver tissue revealed the swelling and loss of mitochondrial cristae. Conversely the rats pretreated with ULP against D-Galactosamine challenge prevented (p<0.05) the significant abnormality of TCA, microsomal enzymes and severity of mitochondria as observed in EM study in rats injected with D-Galactosamine alone. However no effective prevention was observed in urea cycle enzymes among D-Galactosamine and treatment group rats. These results showed the effectiveness of ULP in stabilizing the functional status of mitochondrial and microsomal membrane which might be due to the presence of sulfated polysaccharide that could prevented the oxidative stress induced by D-Galactosamine intoxication. PMID:19000663

Devaki, Thiruvengadam; Sathivel, Arumugam; BalajiRaghavendran, Hanumantha Rao

2008-10-18

341

Uncoupling of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis by brefeldin A  

PubMed Central

Brefeldin A has dramatic, well-documented, effects on the structural and functional organization of the Golgi complex. We have examined the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on the Golgi-localized synthesis and addition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate side chains. BFA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan elongation and sulfation onto the core proteins of the melanoma-associated proteoglycan and the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated invariant chain. In the presence of BFA, the melanoma proteoglycan core protein was retained in the ER but still acquired complex, sialylated, N-linked oligosaccharides, as measured by digestion with endoglycosidase H and neuraminidase. The initiation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis was not affected by BFA, as shown by the incorporation of [6-3H]galactose into a protein-carbohydrate linkage region that was sensitive to beta-elimination. The ability of cells to use an exogenous acceptor, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xyloside, to elongate and sulfate core protein-free glycosaminoglycans, was completely inhibited by BFA. The effects of BFA were completely reversible in the absence of new protein synthesis. These experiments indicate that BFA effectively uncouples chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan synthesis by segregating initiation reactions from elongation and sulfation events. Our findings support the proposal that glycosaminoglycan elongation and sulfation reactions are associated with the trans-Golgi network, a BFA-resistant, Golgi subcompartment.

1991-01-01

342

Immunochemical studies on a Mycoplasma pneumoniae polysaccharide fraction: cross-reactions with type 23 and 32 antipneumococcal rabbit sera.  

PubMed Central

Lipid-free polysaccharide fraction 2 extracted from Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH by Prescott et al. (J. Bacteriol. 91:2117-2115, 1966) was examined for its ability to cross-precipitate antibody from type-specific rabbit antipneumococcal sera types 1 to 34 inclusive. Cross-precipitation in type-specific pneumococcal anti-type 23 and anti-type 32 sera was examined in detail and could be attributed to a rhamnose-galactose-rich component of crude M. pneumoniae polysaccharide fraction 2 recovered from immunoprecipitates formed with anti-type 23 serum. Immunochemically isolated mycoplasma polysaccharide was found to contain glucose, galactose, rhamnose, and mannose in 1:14:5:4 molar proportions. Comparison of the ability of 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-D-glucose and free L-rhamnose to inhibit precepitation by homologous pneumococcal and heterologous mycoplasma polysaccharide antigens indicates a combining site specificity for anti-type 23 and anti-type 32 antibodies directed largely against the alpha-linked L-rhamnosyl determinants and the occurrence of alpha-L-rhamnosyl units in type 32 and M. pneumoniae polysaccharides. Hapten inhibition of the cross-precipitation of pneumococcal type 23 capsular polysaccharide in anti-type 32 serum helps to establish that cross-reactivity can be attributed to interaction of recurrent, alpha-L-rhamnosyl units of type 23 with anit-alpha-L-rhamnoside combining sites of anti-type 32 antibodies.

Allen, P Z; Prescott, B

1978-01-01

343

Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural polysaccharides, due to their outstanding merits, have received more and more attention in the field of drug delivery systems. In particular, polysaccharides seem to be the most promising materials in the preparation of nanometeric carriers. This review relates to the newest developments in the preparation of polysaccharides-based nanoparticles. In this review, four mechanisms are introduced to prepare polysaccharides-based nanoparticles,

Zonghua Liu; Yanpeng Jiao; Yifei Wang; Changren Zhou; Ziyong Zhang

2008-01-01

344

Differentiation of the fucoidan sulfated L-fucose isomers constituents by CE-ESIMS and molecular modeling.  

PubMed

Alpha-L-fucose, the monosaccharide component of fucoidan, is found in the polysaccharide mainly as its sulfated form where sulfate groups are in position 2 and/or 4 and/or 3. The correlation between biological activities and structure of fucoidan requires the determination of the sulfation pattern of the fucose residues. Therefore, it is of importance to discriminate between the isobaric sulfated fucose isomers. For this purpose, the three isomers 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-sulfated fucose have been analyzed using electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis. The results reported herein show that it is possible to differentiate between these three positional isomers of sulfated fucose based on their fragmentation pattern upon MS/MS experiments. 3-O-Sulfated fucose was characterized by the loss of the hydrogenosulfate anion HSO4- as the main fragmentation product, while the two other isomers 2-O-, and 4-O-sulfated fucose exhibited cross-ring fragmentation yielding to distinctive (0,2)X and (0,2)A daughter ion, respectively. A computational study of the conformation of the sulfated fucose isomers was carried out providing an understanding of the fragmentation pattern with respect to the position of the sulfate group. PMID:16413001

Tissot, Bérangère; Salpin, Jean-Yves; Martinez, Michael; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Daniel, Régis

2006-01-17

345

Dextran sulfate as a contaminant of DNA extracted from concentrated viruses and as an inhibitor of DNA polymerases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextran sulfate is commonly used with polyethylene glycol to concentrate viruses before extraction of their DNA. However, dextran sulfate then easily contaminated such DNA and acted as a potent inhibitor of DNA polymerases from Bacillus subtilis (III), phage PBS2, and phage T4. Dextran sulfate only weakly inhibited Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I preparations.

R. A. Hitzeman; A. M. Hanel; A. R. Price

1978-01-01

346

Extraction and bioactivity of polygonatum polysaccharides.  

PubMed

The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters and liver protective effect of the polygonatum polysaccharides in vivo. The order of factor effects on polysaccharides production was found to be extraction time (min, A)>ratio of solvent to solid (C)>extraction temperature (°C, B)>extraction number (D). The results show that the effects of extraction time (min, A) and ratio of solvent to solid (C) were more significant than those of the other factors. Optimal extraction parameters were as followings: extraction time 120 min, extraction temperature 100 °C, ratio of solvent to solid 5, and extraction number 4. Polygonatum polysaccharides was administered orally at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/(kg day) to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats. Results showed that administration of polygonatum polysaccharides could increase rats' final body weight, liver antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR)), decrease serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The liver sections obtained from animals supplemented with polygonatum polysaccharides extract demonstrated reduced pathological damages, supporting that polygonatum polysaccharides extract could effectively decrease the toxicity of CCl(4). It can be concluded that polygonatum polysaccharides treatment may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative injury in experimental rats. PMID:23246900

Jiang, Qunguang; Lv, Yunxia; Dai, Weidong; Miao, Xiongying; Zhong, Dewu

2012-12-13

347

A highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate preparation, CS-E, prevents excitatory amino acid-induced neuronal cell death.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a major microenvironmental molecule in the CNS, and there have been few reports about its neuroprotective activity. As neuronal cell death by excitotoxicity is a crucial phase in many neuronal diseases, we examined the effect of various CS preparations on neuronal cell death induced by the excitotoxicity of glutamate analogs. CS preparations were added to cultured neurons before and after the administration of glutamate analogs. Then, the extents of both neuronal cell death and survival were estimated. Pre-administration of a highly sulfated CS preparation, CS-E, significantly reduced neuronal cell death induced by not only NMDA but also (S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid or kainate. Neither CS preparations other than CS-E nor other highly sulfated polysaccharides such as heparin and dextran sulfate exerted any neuroprotective effects. NMDA-induced current in neurons was not changed by pre-administration of CS-E, but the pattern of protein-tyrosine phosphorylation was changed. In addition, the elevation of caspase 3 activity was significantly suppressed in CS-E-treated neurons. These results indicate that CS-E prevents neuronal cell death mediated by various glutamate receptors, and suggest that phosphorylation-related intracellular signals and the suppression of caspase 3 activation are implicated in neuroprotection by CS-E. PMID:17996021

Sato, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Keiko; Tokita, Yoshihito; Kakizawa, Hiroko; Ida, Michiru; Maeda, Hiroshi; Matsui, Fumiko; Aono, Sachiko; Saito, Akiko; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Oohira, Atsuhiko

2007-11-07

348

ELECTRODE POTENTIALS IN MOLTEN LITHIUM SULFATE-POTASSIUM SULFATE EUTECTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium sulfate --potassium sulfate eutectic (80% lithium sulfate by ; mole; melting point 535 deg ) was shown to be an adequate molten solvent for ; electrochemical investigations at 625 deg . A procedure for preparing the ; eutectic melt was established. The silver(I) --silver(0) system was found to be ; a satisfactory reference electrode in this melt. The

C. H. Liu

1962-01-01

349

Pectic polysaccharides from Panax ginseng as the antirotavirus principals in ginseng.  

PubMed

To evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ginseng, the active principals of ginseng were studied in vitro model of rotavirus infection, the leading cause of severe diarrhea. Two pectic polysaccharides, named as GP50-dHR (56.0 kDa) and GP50-eHR (77.0 kDa), were purified from hot water extract of ginseng by bioassay-linked fractionation. Both polysaccharides rescued cell viability from rotavirus infection dose-dependently (IC50 are 15 and 10 microg/mL, respectively). Both polysaccharides had common structural features of homogalacturonan backbone with hairy regions of rhamnogalacturonan type I. Arabinose-rich side chains with abundant branch points were unique in GP50-eHR and may contribute to a greater antirotavirus effect of GP50-eHR than GP50-dHR. Because homogalacturonan itself did not show an antirotavirus effect, hairy regions might be functional sites. Of note, the antirotavirus effect of both polysaccharides resulted from inhibiting rotavirus attachment to cells. Together with a wide range of noncytotoxicity, these findings suggest that ginseng polysaccharides are viable therapeutic options for rotavirus diarrhea. PMID:20597500

Baek, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Jin Gyun; Park, Seo Young; Bae, Ok Nam; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Hill

2010-08-01

350

Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense  

PubMed Central

Background Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. Objective: To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. Materials and Methods The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Results and Conclusion Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples.

Yan, Chunyan; Kong, Fansheng; Zhang, Dezhi; Cui, Jiangxia

2013-01-01

351

Regulation by organic acids of polysaccharide-mediated microbe-plant interactions.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide flocculant of Klebsiella pneumoniae H12 has been suggested to mediate microbe-plant interactions with the aid of Ca2+ [K. Nakata et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 64, 459-465, 2000]. Here, two-way regulation of polysaccharide-mediated interactions between K. pneumoniae and Raphanus sativus was studied using organic acids. Namely, 10 mM equivalents of organic acids promoted production of the polysaccharide by the bacterium, but inhibited flocculation of bacterial cells by the polysaccharide. These phenomena were counterbalanced by equi-molar equivalents of Ca2+, suggesting competition for Ca2+ between the carboxylic residues of the polysaccharide and those of the aliphatic acids. By electron microscopy observations, bacterial cell aggregates were sparsely distributed over the main roots and root hairs, had various sizes, and seemed to tightly adhere to root tissues. Their shapes seemed to be distorted and abundant in cavities. In brief, these microscopical observations may be explained by a two-way regulation system of bacterial adhesion to a plant by organic acids. PMID:11129573

Nakata, K; Kobayashi, T; Takiguchi, Y; Yamaguchi, T

2000-10-01

352

Rheology of interfacial protein-polysaccharide composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology and mechanical properties of protein adsorption layers can significantly be altered by the presence of surfactants, lipids, particles, other proteins, and polysaccharides. In food emulsions, polysaccharides are primarily considered as bulk thickener but can under appropriate environmental conditions stabilize or destabilize the protein adsorption layer and, thus, the entire emulsion system. Despite their ubiquitous usage as stabilization agent, relatively few investigations focus on the interfacial rheology of composite protein/polysaccharide adsorption layers. The manuscript provides a brief review on both main stabilization mechanisms, thermodynamic phase separation and electrostatic interaction and discusses the rheological response in light of the environmental conditions such as ionic strength and pH.

Fischer, P.

2013-05-01

353

Polysaccharide Based Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polysaccharide based hydrogels for their physico-chemical and biological properties can be used as scaffolds for soft tissue\\u000a regneration and as vehicles for drug controlled release. For both these applications, Hyaluronan shows optimal characteristics\\u000a even though its quick enzymatic degradability makes this natural polysaccharide unsuitable for applications which require\\u000a prolonged presence in the human organism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a For this reason, new semisynthetic polysaccharides

Gemma Leone; Rolando Barbucci

2009-01-01

354

Oil recovery process employing a complexed polysaccharide  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the polyvalent metal ion complex of a fungal polysaccharide wherein the polyvalent metal ion is a member selected from the group consisting of titanium ion and chromium ion. The polysaccharide is a scleroglucan having a linear chain of anhydroglucose units linked beta 1,3 with 30-35% of the linear chain units bearing single appended anhydroglucose units linked beta 1,6. The complex is prepared by forming a water solution of the polysaccharide and adding thereto a water soluble reducing agent and a water soluble member selected from the group consisting of titanium compounds and chromium dichloride to form the complex.

Sampath, K.

1987-03-03

355

Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to explore the spatial and temporal variability of the stratospheric sulfate layer, its chemical composition, and mode of formation. In addition, trace chemical concentrations in the natural stratosphere are provided as reference values before extensive use of the stratosphere for aircraft travel. EXPERIMENTAL This research comprises a systematic study of the stable constituents of

A. L. Lazrus; B. W. Gandrud

1974-01-01

356

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.|

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

357

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

358

Intra-axonal polysaccharide deposits in the peripheral nerve seen in adult polysaccharide storage myopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of an adult polysaccharide storage myopathy demonstrating polysaccharide deposits within the axons of the peripheral nerve. Histochemical and electron-microscopic studies revealed that the intra-axonal deposits were basophilic, PAS-positive, diastase-resistant, and composed of filamentous and granular material. The structural similarity among the polysaccharide deposits in our case, amylopectin-like materials in type IV glycogenosis, Lafora bodies, corpora

O. Komure; K. Ichikawa; A. Tsutsumi; K. Hiyama; A. Fujioka

1985-01-01

359

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...base), and 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, with or without...

2009-04-01

360

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2009-04-01

361

21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

2010-04-01

362

21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions...base), and 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, with or without...

2010-04-01

363

Herbal polysaccharides and cough reflex.  

PubMed

In the last decades plant substances have become a leading form of treatment of many respiratory symptoms, including cough. It has been shown that compounds purified form polysaccharides from Adhatoda vasica, Withania somnifera, and Glycyrrhiza glabra have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antispasmodic action, or antiallergic properties, and they often act as cough suppressants. This work demonstrates new natural substitutes for synthetic antitussives whose application is associated with numerous adverse effects. We investigated pharmacodynamic characteristics of arabinogalacatan samples extracted from A. vasica, W. somnifera, and G. glabra. These extracts showed the ability to reduce citric acid-induced cough in awake guinea pigs after oral administration in a dose of 50mg/kg. The strongest antitussive effect (81%) was found after application of the extract from G. glabra. There was a 67% cough suppression with A. vasica and 61% with W. somnifera, which was comparable with the antitussive activity of codeine (62%). PMID:23597834

Nosalova, Gabriela; Fleskova, Dana; Jurecek, Ludovit; Sadlonova, Vladimira; Ray, Bimalendu

2013-04-15

364

Effects of the polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko on human cytokine network in serum.  

PubMed

Some physico-chemical characterizations of Pholiota nameko polysaccharides (PNPS-1) were studied, including sulfate content, UV/visible and infrared spectra, also the variation of cytokine communication network in serum to clarify the pharmacological effects of PNPS-1 by determination of 39 cytokines in serum of healthy volunteers. The result proved that PNPS-1 possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity. Further, we use Microsoft Visio 2007 software to map out the cell-cell communication network diagram. The analysis to the diagram suggested that PNPS-1 could take effect on the innate and adaptive immunity and hematopoiesis of volunteers. PMID:22044749

Li, Haiping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Yang; Hua, Yanjun; Zhi, Dexian; Pang, Guangchang

2011-10-23

365

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

Dallam, R.D.

1987-03-23

366

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants.  

PubMed

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H2 35SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. PMID:3561145

Dallam, R D

1987-03-23

367

Serogroup quantitation of multivalent polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate meningococcal vaccines from China.  

PubMed

The active components of most meningococcal vaccines are four antigenic serogroup capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). The vaccines, monovalent or multivalent mixtures of either free polysaccharides or polysaccharides conjugated to antigenic carrier proteins, may be in liquid or lyophilised formulations, with or without excipients. Acid hydrolysis and chromatographic methods for serogroup quantitation, which were previously optimised and qualified using polysaccharide-based standards and a narrow range of real vaccines, are here challenged with multiple lots of a broad assortment of additional multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccine products. Centrifugal filtration successfully removed all interfering lactose excipient without loss of polysaccharides to allow for the determination of Y and W135 serogroups. Replicate operations by three different analysts indicated high method reproducibility. Results indicated some lot-to-lot and product-to-product variations. However, all vaccines were within general specifications for each serogroup polysaccharide, with the exception of all lots of one polysaccharide vaccine - which by these methods were found to be deficient in the serogroup A component only. These robust techniques are very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and consistency of manufacture. The deformulation, hydrolysis and chromatographic methods may be adaptable for the evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines. PMID:23665303

Cook, Matthew C; Gibeault, Sabrina; Filippenko, Vasilisa; Ye, Qiang; Wang, Junzhi; Kunkel, Jeremy P

2013-05-09

368

Evidence for syntrophic butyrate metabolism under sulfate-reducing conditions in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

The importance of syntrophy in the degradation of butyrate in an aquifer where sulfate reduction was shown to be an important terminal electron-accepting process was assessed. Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer sediments coupled butyrate degradation to sulfate reduction and methane production. Butyrate degradation in methanogenic microcosms was inhibited by the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, and was restored by the addition of 10 mM sulfate and a hydrogen- and formate-using sulfate reducer, but not by the addition of 10 mM sulfate alone. Molybdate addition inhibited butyrate degradation in sulfate-reducing microcosms. The addition of CO, which inhibits hydrogenases, to sulfate-reducing microcosms inhibited butyrate metabolism and caused the hydrogen partial pressure to increase to levels that would make syntrophic butyrate degradation via sulfate reduction energetically unfavorable (-5 to +3 kJ mol(-1) ). DNA extracted from the most probable number cultures and contaminated sediments contained sequences related to members of the families Syntrophomonadaceae and Syntrophaceae, whose members are known to syntrophically degrade fatty acids, as well as sequences related to uncultured Firmicutes, Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfobacteriaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae. These data show that contaminated sediments degraded butyrate syntrophically coupled to methane production and sulfate reduction. PMID:21223338

Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Duncan, Kathleen E; McInerney, Michael J

2011-02-01

369

Indirect Hemagglutination Assay for Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Antibody.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large scale immunization with purified pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines require the use of a rapid and specific means for determining antibody titers before and following immunization. A hemagglutination technique has many advantages providing the fol...

A. J. Ammann

1972-01-01

370

Typhoid Vi Polysaccharide Vaccine (Typhim Vi)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Typhim Vi is a sterile solution containing the cell surface Vi polysaccharide extracted from Salmonella typhi Ty2 strain and is for intramuscular use. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

371

Antibody Response of Infants to Pneumococcal Polysaccharides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Normal infants, immunized with varying doses of octavalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine are followed longitudinally for well and sick baby care. Booster effect of the vaccine is determined by immunization of some of subjects at 6 and 12 and others ...

S. H. Sell

1977-01-01

372

Polysaccharide-based nucleic acid nanoformulations.  

PubMed

Therapeutic application of nucleic acids requires their encapsulation in nanosized carriers that enable safe and efficient intracellular delivery. Before the desired site of action is reached, drug-loaded nanoparticles (nanomedicines) encounter numerous extra- and intracellular barriers. Judicious nanocarrier design is highly needed to stimulate nucleic acid delivery across these barriers and maximize the therapeutic benefit. Natural polysaccharides are widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to their inherent biocompatibility. At present, there is a growing interest in applying these biopolymers for the development of nanomedicines. This review highlights various polysaccharides and their derivatives, currently employed in the design of nucleic acid nanocarriers. In particular, recent progress made in polysaccharide-assisted nucleic acid delivery is summarized and the specific benefits that polysaccharides might offer to improve the delivery process are critically discussed. PMID:23680381

Raemdonck, Koen; Martens, Thomas F; Braeckmans, Kevin; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C

2013-05-13

373

Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB\\/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H\\/HeJ

Bao-Mei Shao; Hui Dai; Wen Xu; Zhi-Bin Lin; Xiao-Ming Gao

2004-01-01

374

Using Engineered 2-O-Sulfotransferase to Determine the Activity of Heparan Sulfate C5-epimerase and Its Mutants*  

PubMed Central

Heparan sulfate (HS) is involved in essential physiological and pathophysiological functions. HS is a highly sulfated polysaccharide consisting of glucuronic acid (or iduronic acid) linked to glucosamine carrying various sulfo groups. Biosynthesis of HS involves sulfotransferases and an epimerase. The HS C5-epimerase converts glucuronic acid to iduronic acid. The method for determining the activity has been cumbersome due to the use of a site-specifically 3H-labeled polysaccharide substrate. Here, we report a two-enzyme coupling assay to determine the activity of C5-epimerase. HS 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST) transfers the sulfo group to the 2-OH-position of glucuronic or iduronic acid. Unlike the wild type protein, 2-O-sulfotransferase mutant (2OST Y94I) transfers sulfate to the iduronic acid but not to the glucuronic acid. Thus, 2OST Y94I cannot sulfate N-sulfated heparosan, a polysaccharide containing glucuronic acid. Incubating N-sulfated heparosan with C5-epimerase converts some of the glucuronic acid to iduronic acid, thus becoming a substrate for 2OST Y94I. The susceptibility of the C5-epimerase-treated N-sulfated heparosan to 2OST Y94I modification directly correlates to the amount of the activity of C5-epimerase, proving that this two-enzyme coupling system can be used to assay for C5-epimerase. The method was further used to determine the activities of various C5-epimerase mutants. Our approach will significantly reduce the complexity for assaying the activity of C5-epimerase and facilitate the structural and functional analysis of C5-epimerase.

Li, Kai; Bethea, Heather N.; Liu, Jian

2010-01-01

375

Using engineered 2-O-sulfotransferase to determine the activity of heparan sulfate C5-epimerase and its mutants.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS) is involved in essential physiological and pathophysiological functions. HS is a highly sulfated polysaccharide consisting of glucuronic acid (or iduronic acid) linked to glucosamine carrying various sulfo groups. Biosynthesis of HS involves sulfotransferases and an epimerase. The HS C(5)-epimerase converts glucuronic acid to iduronic acid. The method for determining the activity has been cumbersome due to the use of a site-specifically (3)H-labeled polysaccharide substrate. Here, we report a two-enzyme coupling assay to determine the activity of C(5)-epimerase. HS 2-O-sulfotransferase (2OST) transfers the sulfo group to the 2-OH-position of glucuronic or iduronic acid. Unlike the wild type protein, 2-O-sulfotransferase mutant (2OST Y94I) transfers sulfate to the iduronic acid but not to the glucuronic acid. Thus, 2OST Y94I cannot sulfate N-sulfated heparosan, a polysaccharide containing glucuronic acid. Incubating N-sulfated heparosan with C(5)-epimerase converts some of the glucuronic acid to iduronic acid, thus becoming a substrate for 2OST Y94I. The susceptibility of the C(5)-epimerase-treated N-sulfated heparosan to 2OST Y94I modification directly correlates to the amount of the activity of C(5)-epimerase, proving that this two-enzyme coupling system can be used to assay for C(5)-epimerase. The method was further used to determine the activities of various C(5)-epimerase mutants. Our approach will significantly reduce the complexity for assaying the activity of C(5)-epimerase and facilitate the structural and functional analysis of C(5)-epimerase. PMID:20118238

Li, Kai; Bethea, Heather N; Liu, Jian

2010-01-29

376

Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.  

PubMed

Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is ?-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by ?-(1?3)-glycosidic bonds with attached ?-(1?6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. ?-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

2012-11-01

377

Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1989-04-01

378

Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by

R Dallam

1987-01-01

379

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments. [Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

SciTech Connect

Washed cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of (/sup 75/Se)selenate to (/sup 75/Se)selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was greater than or equal to0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace quantities of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J.P.; Oremland, R.S.

1987-06-01

380

Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Washed cell suspension of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. aestuarii were capable of reducing nanomolar levels of selenate to selenide as well as sulfate to sulfide. Reduction of these species was inhibited by 1 mM selenate or tungstate. The addition of 1 mM sulfate decreased the reduction of selenate and enhanced the reduction of sulfate. Increasing concentrations of sulfate inhibited rates of selenate reduction but enhanced sulfate reduction rates. Cell suspensions kept in 1 mM selenate were incapable of reducing either selenate or sulfate when the selenate/sulfate ratio was ???0.02, indicating that irreversible inhibition occurs at high selenate concentrations. Anoxic estuarine sediments having an active flora of sulfate-respiring bacteria were capable of a small amount of selenate reduction when ambient sulfate concentrations were low (<4 mM). These results indicate that sulfate is an inhibitor of the reduction of trace qunatitites of selenate. Therefore, direct reduction of traces of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria in natural environments is constrained by the ambient concentration of sulfate ions. The significance of this observation with regard to the role sediments play in sequestering selenium is discussed.

Zehr, J. P.; Oremland, R. S.

1987-01-01

381

Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan and Heparin Enhance the Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Induced Tube Formation of Endothelial Cells through Heparan Sulfate-Dependent  6 Overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) activates its high-affinity receptors (FGFRs) but also acts through interaction with hepa- ran sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Exogenous polysaccharides also modulate the angiogenic activity of FGF-2. We investi- gated the effect and mechanism of action of a low molecular weight fucoidan derivative (LMWF) on tube formation by human endothelial cells. LMWF has a better arterial antithrombotic

DELPHINE CHABUT; ANNE-MARIE FISCHER; SYLVIA COLLIEC-JOUAULT; INGRID LAURENDEAU; SABINE MATOU; BERNARD LE BONNIEC; DOMINIQUE HELLEY

2003-01-01

382

Cell aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as an energy-dependent stress response during growth with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 grew with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The growth started with the formation of macroscopic cell aggregates which consisted of respiring cells embedded in an extracellular matrix composed of acidic polysaccharides and DNA. Damaged and uncultivable cells accumulated in these aggregates compared to those cells that remained suspended. We investigated the response of suspended cells

Janosch Klebensberger; Oliver Rui; Eva Fritz; Bernhard Schink; Bodo Philipp

2006-01-01

383

Heparan sulfate on intestinal epithelial cells plays a critical role in intestinal crypt homeostasis via Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Heparan sulfate (HS), a constituent of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), is a linear polysaccharide present on the cell surface. HSPGs modulate functions of several growth factors and signaling molecules. We examined whether small intestinal epithelial HS plays some roles in crypt homeostasis using intestinal epithelium cell (IEC)-specific HS-deficient C57Bl/6 mice. Survival rate after total body irradiation was significantly reduced in HS-deficient mice due to profound intestinal injury. HS-deficient IECs exhibited Wnt/?-catenin pathway disruption, decreased levels of ?-catenin nuclear localization, and reduced expression of Wnt target genes, including Lgr5 during crypt regeneration. Moreover, epithelial HS increased Wnt binding affinity of IECs, promoted phosphorylation of Wnt coreceptor LRP6, and enhanced Wnt/?-catenin signaling following ex vivo stimulation with Wnt3a, whereas activation of canonical Wnt signaling following direct inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3? by lithium chloride was similar between HS-deficient and wild-type mice. Thus HS influences the binding affinity of IECs to Wnt, thereby promoting activation of canonical Wnt signaling and facilitating regeneration of small intestinal crypts after epithelial injury. PMID:23744737

Yamamoto, Shuji; Nakase, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Minoru; Honzawa, Yusuke; Matsumura, Kayoko; Uza, Norimitsu; Yamaguchi, Yu; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Chiba, Tsutomu

2013-06-06

384

Sulfation of LH Does Not Affect Intracellular Trafficking  

PubMed Central

LH and FSH are produced by the same gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary but differ in their mode of secretion. LH secretion is primarily episodic, or regulated, while FSH secretion is primarily basal, or constitutive. The asparagine (N)-linked oligosaccharides of LH and FSH terminate with sulfate and sialic acid, respectively. TSH also contains sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides and is secreted through the regulated pathway. It has been hypothesized that sulfate plays a role in segregating LH to the regulated pathway. Using a mouse pituitary model, we tested this hypothesis by examining the secretory fate of LH from pituitaries treated with sodium chlorate, a known inhibitor of sulfation. Here we show that mouse LH is sulfated and secreted through the regulated pathway, while FSH is secreted constitutively. LH secretion from chlorate treated pituitaries, which showed complete inhibition of sulfation, was similar to untreated pituitaries. These data suggest that the metabolic role for sulfated N-linked oligosaccharides is not for intracellular trafficking but for the extracellular bioactivity of LH.

Pearl, Christopher A.; Boime, Irving

2009-01-01

385

Immunoelectrophoretic characterization of the molecular weight polydispersion of polysaccharides in multivalent bacterial capsular polysaccharide vaccines.  

PubMed

The molecular weight polydispersion of single antigens present in multivalent bacterial capsular polysaccharide vaccines has been characterized by an immunoelectrophoretic method. Chromatographic effluents from Sepharose gel of bacterial capsular polysaccharide vaccines were tested by fused-rocket immunoelectrophoresis and the distribution coefficient (Kd) of each polysaccharide present in the mixture was calculated. The method appeared to be efficient and reproducible. However, different Kd values were obtained by immunoelectrophoretic and chemical or physical analysis of the chromatographic effluents of each single polysaccharide component. The use of this immunoelectrophoretic procedure was extended to the potency control of multivalent meningococcal and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines in order to detect changes in the molecular weight polydispersion of each antigen with time. PMID:6833304

Porro, M; Fabbiani, S; Marsili, I; Viti, S; Saletti, M

1983-01-01

386

Infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar LGV but Not E Is Dependent on Host Cell Heparan Sulfate  

PubMed Central

The ability of heparan sulfate, heparin, and other glycosaminoglycans to inhibit the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and LGV was examined using a simple competitive inhibition assay with three cell types from the human female reproductive tract, including primary human endosalpingeal cells. With the majority of the glycosaminoglycans tested, LGV was more significantly inhibited than serovar E. We have compared chlamydial infectivity between a wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cell line and two glycosaminoglycan-deficient cell lines. LGV was shown to be unable to infect heparan sulfate-deficient and GAG-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, whereas the E serovar infected these cells as efficiently as the control (nondeficient) cells. These two sets of experiments confirmed that serovar LGV is more dependent on a heparan sulfate-related mechanism of infectivity than is serovar E. This is further supported by the fact that attempts to purify a heparan sulfate-like molecule from either serovar cultured in glycosaminoglycan-deficient cell lines were nonproductive. Previous reports have suggested that chlamydia are able to produce a heparan sulfate-like molecule that is important for attachment and infectivity. We have attempted to detect possible binding of a specific heparan sulfate antibody to C. trachomatis by flow cytometry. Results showed no binding of the heparan sulfate antibody to C. trachomatis serovar LGV or E. Our results strongly indicate that chlamydiae do not produce a heparan sulfate-like molecule but rather use host cell heparan sulfate in order to infect cells.

Taraktchoglou, Maria; Pacey, Allan A.; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Eley, Adrian

2001-01-01

387

Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms.  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-?. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-?B with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides. PMID:22217303

Jeong, Sang Chul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Yong Tae; Song, Chi Hyun; Pang, Gerald

2012-01-01

388

Mycoplasma polysaccharide protects against complement.  

PubMed

Although they lack a cell wall, mycoplasmas do possess a glycocalyx. The interactions between the glycocalyx, mycoplasmal surface proteins and host complement were explored using the murine pathogen Mycoplasma pulmonis as a model. It was previously shown that the length of the tandem repeat region of the surface lipoprotein Vsa is associated with susceptibility to complement-mediated killing. Cells producing a long Vsa containing about 40 repeats are resistant to complement, whereas strains that produce a short Vsa of five or fewer repeats are susceptible. We show here that the length of the Vsa protein modulates the affinity of the M. pulmonis EPS-I polysaccharide for the mycoplasma cell surface, with more EPS-I being associated with mycoplasmas producing a short Vsa protein. An examination of mutants that lack EPS-I revealed that planktonic mycoplasmas were highly susceptible to complement killing even when the Vsa protein was long, demonstrating that both EPS-I and Vsa length contribute to resistance. In contrast, the mycoplasmas were resistant to complement even in the absence of EPS-I when the cells were encased in a biofilm. PMID:22504437

Bolland, Jeffrey R; Simmons, Warren L; Daubenspeck, James M; Dybvig, Kevin

2012-04-13

389

EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDES OF AZOTOBACTER VINELANDII1  

PubMed Central

Cohen, Gary H. (University of Vermont, Burlington), and Donald B. Johnstone. Extracellular polysaccharides of Azotobacter vinelandii. J. Bacteriol. 88:329–338. 1964.—Extracellular polysaccharides synthetized by Azotobacter vinelandii strains 155, 102, and 3A were shown to be carboxylic acid heteropolysaccharides of apparent high molecular weight. Cells were grown in a nitrogen-free, mineral broth medium with 2% sucrose. Extracellular slime was recovered by centrifugation and purified by repeated alcohol precipitation and Sevag deproteinization. Capsular polysaccharide was recovered from washed cells by mild alkaline digestion. Methods of isolation and purification appeared to provide polysaccharide showing no evidence of heterogeneity when examined by chemical and physical methods. Infrared analysis of purified slime from the three strains suggested fundamental structural similarities. Colorimetric, paper chromatographic, and enzymatic analyses on both intact and acid-hydrolyzed slime polysaccharide indicated that the polymers contained in common galacturonic acid, [?] d-glucose, and rhamnose at a ratio of approximately 43:2:1, as well as a hexuronic acid lactone, probably mannurono-lactone. However, as shown by chemical and infrared analysis, minor differences did exist; namely, slime from strain 155 and 102 contained o-acetyl groups, whereas slime from strain 3A contained none. A sialic acid-like component (1.5% of dry weight of the polysaccharide, calculated as N-acetyl neuraminic acid), was found only in the slime of strain 155. Capsular polysaccharide composition closely resembled that for slime. It is of interest that the major slime components were identical whether the energy source provided for the cells was sucrose, glucose, fructose, or ethanol.

Cohen, Gary H.; Johnstone, Donald B.

1964-01-01

390

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum), a basidiomycete white rot fungus, has long been prescribed to prevent and treat various human diseases, particularly in China, Japan, and Korea. Several classes of bioactive substances have been isolated and identified from G. lucidum, such as triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, sterols, and alkaloids, among others. This paper examines the potential role of G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) in tumor therapy and the possible mechanisms involved. Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the anti-tumor activities of GLPS are mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic effects. GLPS affects immune cells and immune-related cells including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells. In addition, recent data also suggest that GLPS suppresses tumorigenesis or inhibits tumor growth through direct cytotoxic effect and anti-angiogenic actions. However, many questions still need to be answered before both G. lucidum and GLPS can be widely accepted and used as anti-tumor agents. PMID:21213395

Xu, Zengtao; Chen, Xiuping; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Chen, Lidian; Wang, Yitao

2011-01-01

391

Macrophage activation by polysaccharide fraction isolated from Salicornia herbacea.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that polysaccharides isolated from Salicornia herbacea (Salicornia polysaccharides, SPS) significantly induces nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) transcription through the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB/Rel (NF-kappaB/Rel). SPS dose-dependently induced the production of NO in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7, a mouse macrophage-like cell line. Moreover, iNOS gene expression was strongly induced by SPS in RAW 264.7 cells. To further investigate the mechanism responsible for the induction of iNOS gene expression, we investigated the effect of SPS on the activation of transcription factors including