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1

Sulfur compounds in coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

1977-01-01

2

Inorganic Sulfur Compounds as Electron Donors in Purple Sulfur Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria can use inorganic sulfur compounds (e.g. sulfide, elemental sulfur, polysulfides, thiosulfate,\\u000a or sulfide) as electron donors for reductive carbon dioxide fixation during photolithoautotrophic growth. In these organisms,\\u000a light energy is used to transfer electrons from sulfur compounds to the level of the more highly reducing electron carriers\\u000a NAD(P)+ and ferredoxin. In this chapter the sulfur oxidizing

Christiane Dahl

3

Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds.  

PubMed

Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed. PMID:21809426

Samokhvalov, Alexander

2011-11-18

4

Ambient Air Monitoring for Sulfur Compounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review of analytical techniques available for the study of compounds at low concentrations points up some of the areas where further research is needed. Compounds reviewed are sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate and bisulfate, metal sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, and organic sulfides. (BL)

Forrest, Joseph; Newman, Leonard

1973-01-01

5

Sulfur-containing compounds from Clinacanthus siamensis.  

PubMed

Two new sulfur-containing compounds, trans-3-methylsulfonyl-2-propenol (1) and trans-3-methylsulfinyl-2-propenol (2) were isolated together with trans-3-methylthioacrylamide (3), entadamide A (4) and entadamide C (5) from the leaves of Clinacanthus siamensis. The structures were established on the basis of the spectroscopic data. The compounds were tested for antimalarial and antimycobacterial activity. PMID:14646322

Tuntiwachwuttikul, Pittaya; Pootaeng-on, Yupa; Pansa, Pootchana; Srisanpang, Thongchai; Taylor, Walter Charles

2003-12-01

6

Metabolic Reactions among Organic Sulfur Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur is central to the metabolisms of many organisms that inhabit extreme environments. Numerous authors have addressed the energy available from a variety of inorganic sulfur redox pairs. Less attention has been paid, however, to the energy required or gained from metabolic reactions among organic sulfur compounds. Work in this area has focused on the oxidation of alkyl sulfide or disulfide to thiol and formaldehyde, e.g. (CH3)2S + H2O yields CH3SH + HCHO + H2, eventually resulting in the formation of CO2 and SO4(-2). It is also found that reactions among thiols and disulfides may help control redox disequilibria between the cytoplasm and the periplasm. Building on our earlier efforts for thiols, we have compiled and estimated thermodynamic properties for alkyl sulfides. We are investigating metabolic reactions among various sulfur compounds in a variety of extreme environments, ranging from sea floor hydrothermal systems to organic-rich sludge. Using thermodynamic data and the revised HKF equation of state, along with constraints imposed by the geochemical environments sulfur-metabolizing organisms inhabit, we are able to calculate the amount of energy available to these organisms.

Schulte, M.; Rogers, K.

2005-01-01

7

Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in Coffee Beans by Sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this `feasibility study' the influence of roasting on the sulfur speciation in Mexican coffee beans was investigated by sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy. Spectra of green and slightly roasted beans could be fitted to a linear combination of `standard' reference spectra for biological samples, whereas longer roasting obviously involves formation of additional sulfur compounds in considerable amounts.

Lichtenberg, H.; Prange, A.; Modrow, H.; Hormes, J.

2007-02-01

8

The production and utilization of intermediary elemental sulfur during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediary production of elemental sulfur during the microbial oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds has frequently been reported. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, an acidophilic chemolithoautotroph, was found to produce an insoluble sulfur compound, primarily elemental sulfur, during the oxidation of thiosulfate, trithionate, tetrathionate and sulfide. This was confirmed by light and electron microscopy. Sulfur was produced from sulfide by an oxidative step,

W. Hazeu; P. Bos; R. K. Van der Pas; J. G. Kuenen

1988-01-01

9

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

SciTech Connect

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized 10 and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, W.E.

1991-12-31

10

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOEpatents

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01

11

MANUAL METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF REDUCED SULFUR COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual method for measuring reduced sulfur compounds in Kraft pulp mill and sulfur recovery plant emissions was evaluated. The method involves removing SO2 from the gas stream (if present) with a citric acid-potassium citrate buffer, that passes reduced sulfur compounds; therma...

12

Sulfur isotopic analysis of individual organosulfur compounds from Cariaco Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter sulfurization reactions in marine sediments influence global cycles of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. We investigated sulfurization processes by exploiting the sulfur isotopic gradient generated by microbial sulfate reduction. A novel analytical method, coupled GC-ICPMS, provides a previously inaccessible level of information about the controls, mechanisms, and sulfur sources for organic sulfur compound (OSC) formation. Lipids were extracted from eight depths in a six-meter-long sediment core from the Cariaco Basin. The polar fractions of these complex extracts contained individual OSC with ?34S values ranging from -37.0 to -20.9‰. The average standard deviation for triplicate analyses was approximately 1.5‰. Organosulfur compounds are more isotopically depleted than coexisting sulfide and represent the most depleted component of the Cariaco sulfur system yet observed. Extreme 34S depletions may record significant syngenetic OSC formation in a zone of intensive sulfur recycling near either the sediment-water interface or in the water column. OSC ?34S trends with depth indicate the onset of sulfurization between 140 and 265 cm; apparent diagenetic OSC formation continues to at least 535 cm, beyond the previously described sulfurization window for some non-polar compounds. Diverse ?34S values for OSC also provide important constraints on the diagenetic histories of different compounds and may record reaction with distinct inorganic sulfur pools. These results will be presented in the context of available inorganic and organic geochemical data to describe the processes of organic sulfurization in marine environments.

Raven, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.; Adkins, J. F.

2012-12-01

13

Oxidative metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds by bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the elucidation of the microbiology and biochemistry of the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in chemolithotrophic bacteria is briefly reviewed, and the contribution of Martinus Beijerinck to the study of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria highlighted. Recent developments in the biochemistry, enzymology and molecular biology of sulfur oxidation in obligately and facultatively lithotrophic bacteria are summarized, and the existence of

Donovan P. Kelly; Jasvinder K. Shergill; Wei-Ping Lu; Ann P. Wood

1997-01-01

14

Oxidative metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds by bacteria.  

PubMed

The history of the elucidation of the microbiology and biochemistry of the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in chemolithotrophic bacteria is briefly reviewed, and the contribution of Martinus Beijerinck to the study of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria highlighted. Recent developments in the biochemistry, enzymology and molecular biology of sulfur oxidation in obligately and facultatively lithotrophic bacteria are summarized, and the existence of at least two major pathways of thiosulfate (sulfur and sulfide) oxidation confirmed. These are identified as the 'Paracoccus sulfur oxidation' (or PSO) pathway and the 'S4intermediate' (or S4I) pathway respectively. The former occurs in organisms such as Paracoccus (Thiobacillus) versutus and P. denitrificans, and possibly in Thiobacillus novellus and Xanthobacter spp. The latter pathway is characteristic of the obligate chemolithotrophs (e.g. Thiobacillus tepidarius, T. neapolitanus, T. ferrooxidans, T. thiooxidans) and facultative species such as T. acidophilus and T. aquaesulis, all of which can produce or oxidize tetrathionate when grown on thiosulfate. The central problem, as yet incompletely resolved in all cases, is the enzymology of the conversion of sulfane-sulfur (as in the outer [S-] atom of thiosulfate [-S-SO3-]), or sulfur itself, to sulfate, and whether sulfite is involved as a free intermediate in this process in all, or only some, cases. The study of inorganic sulfur compound oxidation for energetic purposes in bacteria (i.e. chemolithotrophy and sulfur photolithotrophy) poses challenges for comparative biochemistry. It also provides evidence of convergent evolution among diverse bacterial groups to achieve the end of energy-yielding sulfur compound oxidation (to drive autotrophic growth on carbon dioxide) but using a variety of enzymological systems, which share some common features. Some new data are presented on the oxidation of 35S-thiosulfate, and on the effect of other anions (selenate, molybdate, tungstate, chromate, vanadate) on sulfur compound oxidation, including observations which relate to the roles of polythionates and elemental sulfur as intermediates. PMID:9049021

Kelly, D P; Shergill, J K; Lu, W P; Wood, A P

1997-02-01

15

Sulfur cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even granting our uncertainties about parts of our model of the sulfur cycle, we can draw some conclusions from it. Man is now contributing about one half as much as nature to the total atmospheric burden of sulfur compounds, but by A.D. 2000 he will be contributing about as much, and in the northern hemisphere alone he will be more

W. W. Kellogg; R. D. Cadle; E. R. Allen; A. L. Lazrus; E. A. Martell

1972-01-01

16

Uses of lunar sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

1988-01-01

17

Uses of lunar sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical, and biochemical properties. Although known abundances on the Moon are limited (approximately 0.1 percent in mare soils), sulfur is relatively extractable by heating. Coproduction of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich mare soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10 percent of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource.

Vaniman, D.; Pettit, D.; Heiken, G.

1992-01-01

18

Unsensitized photooxidation of sulfur compounds with molecular oxygen in solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short wavelength irradiation of aliphatic disulfides, sulfides and of n-butanethiol in alcohols or aqueous acetonitrile in the presence of oxygen was investigated : the corresponding sulfonic acids are produced in good yields for short alkyl chain compounds, together with smaller amounts of sulfuric and carboxylic acids. In acetonitrile, the influence of added water on the reaction course is evidenced

Evelyne Robert-Banchereau; Sylvie Lacombe; Jean Ollivier

1997-01-01

19

Production of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) by basidiomycetous yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 30 species of seven genera were grown on media containing l-cysteine or l-methionine as sole nitrogen sources with the objective of evaluating volatile organic sulfur compound (VOSC) production. The headspace of yeast cultures was analyzed by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method, and volatile compounds were quantified and identified by GC-MS techniques. Ten strains assimilating

Pietro Buzzini; Sergio Romano; Benedetta Turchetti; Ann Vaughan; Ugo Maria Pagnoni; Paolo Davoli

2005-01-01

20

Sulfur Mustard  

MedlinePLUS

... than air, so it will settle in low-lying areas. Immediate signs and symptoms of sulfur mustard ... heavier than air and will settle in low-lying areas. If avoiding sulfur mustard exposure is not ...

21

Emission of Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Spruce Trees 1  

PubMed Central

Spruce (Picea Abies L.) trees from the same clone were supplied with different, but low, amounts of plant available sulfate in the soil (9.7-18.1 milligrams per 100 grams of soil). Branches attached to the trees were enclosed in a dynamic gas exchange cuvette and analyzed for the emission of volatile sulfur compounds. Independent of the sulfate supply in the soil, H2S was the predominant reduced sulfur compound continuously emitted from the branches with high rates during the day and low rates in the night. In the light, as well as in the dark, the rates of H2S emission increased exponentially with increasing water vapor flux from the needles. Approximately 1 nanomole of H2S was found to be emitted per mole of water. When stomata were closed completely, only minute emission of H2S was observed. Apparently, H2S emission from the needles is highly dependent on stromatal aperture, and permeation through the cuticle is negligible. In several experiments, small amounts of dimethylsulfide and carbonylsulfide were also detected in a portion of the samples. However, SO2 was the only sulfur compound consistently emitted from branches of spruce trees in addition to H2S. Emission of SO2 mainly proceeded via an outburst starting before the beginning of the light period. The total amount of SO2 emitted from the needles during this outburst was correlated with the plant available sulfate in the soil. The diurnal changes in sulfur metabolism that may result in an outburst of SO2 are discussed. PMID:16667315

Rennenberg, Heinz; Huber, Beate; Schröder, Peter; Stahl, Klaus; Haunold, Werner; Georgii, Hans-Walter; Slovik, Stefan; Pfanz, Hardy

1990-01-01

22

The role of labile sulfur compounds in thermochemical sulfate reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reduction of sulfate to sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide, commonly referred to as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), is an important abiotic alteration process that most commonly occurs in hot carbonate petroleum reservoirs. In the present study we focus on the role that organic labile sulfur compounds play in increasing the rate of TSR. A series of gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted with n-octane and CaSO4 in the presence of reduced sulfur (e.g. H2S, S??, organic S) at temperatures of 330 and 356 ??C under a constant confining pressure. The in-situ pH was buffered to 3.5 (???6.3 at room temperature) with talc and silica. For comparison, three types of oil with different total S and labile S contents were reacted under similar conditions. The results show that the initial presence of organic or inorganic sulfur compounds increases the rate of TSR. However, organic sulfur compounds, such as 1-pentanethiol or diethyldisulfide, were significantly more effective in increasing the rate of TSR than H2S or elemental sulfur (on a mole S basis). The increase in rate is achieved at relatively low concentrations of 1-pentanethiol, less than 1 wt% of the total n-octane, which is comparable to the concentration of organic S that is common in many oils (???0.3 wt%). We examined several potential reaction mechanisms to explain the observed reactivity of organic LSC. First, the release of H2S from the thermal degradation of thiols was discounted as an important mechanism due to the significantly greater reactivity of thiol compared to an equivalent amount of H2S. Second, we considered the generation of olefines in association with the elimination of H2S during thermal degradation of thiols because olefines are much more reactive than n-alkanes during TSR. In our experiments, olefines increased the rate of TSR, but were less effective than 1-pentanethiol and other organic LSC. Third, the thermal decomposition of organic LSC creates free-radicals that in turn might initiate a radical chain-reaction that creates more reactive species. Experiments involving radical initiators, such as diethyldisulfide and benzyldisulfide, did not show an increase in reactivity compared to 1-pentanethiol. Therefore, we conclude that none of these can sufficiently explain our observations of the initial stages of TSR; they may, however, be important in the later stages. In order to gain greater insight into the potential mechanism for the observed reactivity of these organic sulfur compounds during TSR, we applied density functional theory-based molecular modeling techniques to our system. The results of these calculations indicate that 1-pentanethiol or its thermal degradation products may directly react with sulfate and reduce the activation energy required to rupture the first S-O bond through the formation of a sulfate ester. This study demonstrates the importance of labile sulfur compounds in reducing the onset timing and temperature of TSR. It is therefore essential that labile sulfur concentrations are taken into consideration when trying to make accurate predictions of TSR kinetics and the potential for H2S accumulation in petroleum reservoirs. ?? 2008.

Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G. S.; Tang, Y.

2008-01-01

23

Reactive uptake of organic compounds by liquid sulfuric acid.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uptake of several organic compounds by laboratory surrogates for tropospheric sulfuric acid particles were investigated by mass spectrometry and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. Among the compounds studied were acetone [(CH_3)_2CO], 2,4-hexanedione [CH_3CO(CH_2)_2COCH_3, MBO], and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol [CH_2CHC(CH_3)_2OH]. Experiments were carried out on ultrathin sulfuric acid films (ca. 10-100 monolayer equivalents thick) as functions of organic partial pressure, temperature, and acid composition. Acetone uptake is irreversible for acids that contain >70 weight percent (wt. %) H_2SO4, with kinetics that are second-order in concentration of dissolved acetone. Hexanedione and MBO are irreversibly taken for all acid compositions investigated (60-96 wt. %), with first-order uptake kinetics. In all cases, the irreversible uptake is a consequence of sulfuric acid catalyzed reactions that lead to the formation of new C-C bonds. Implications of these results for heterogeneous tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

Roberts, J.; Michelsen, R.

2003-04-01

24

Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Coal by the Thermophilic Organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius  

PubMed Central

The thermophilic, reduced-sulfur, iron-oxidizing bacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was used for the removal of sulfur compounds from coal. The inclusion of complex nutrients such as yeast extract and peptone, and chemical oxidizing agents, 0.01 M FeCl3 into leaching medium, reduced the rate and the extent of sulfur removal from coal. The rate of sulfur removal by S. acidocaldarius was strongly dependent on the sulfur content of the coal and on the total external surface area of coal particles. Approximately 96% of inorganic sulfur was removed from a 5% slurry of coal which had an initial total sulfur content of 4% and an inorganic (pyritic S and sulfate) sulfur content of 2.1%. This resulted in removal of 50% of initial total sulfur present in coal. PMID:16346112

Kargi, Fikret; Robinson, James M.

1982-01-01

25

The Sulfur Cycle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model estimating the contributions of sulfur compounds by natural and human activities, and the rate of removal of sulfur from the atmosphere, is based on a review of the existing literature. Areas requiring additional research are identified. (AL)

Kellogg, W. W.; And Others

1972-01-01

26

Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust  

DOEpatents

A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

1982-01-01

27

Evaluation of different sulfur compounds in the diet of juvenile sunshine bass ( Morone chrysops ? × M. saxatilis ?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semipurified basal diet with 35% crude protein, 0.38% methionine and 0.13% cystine was supplemented with different sulfur compounds to evaluate their efficacy in satisfying the total sulfur amino acid requirement of sunshine bass (Morone chrysops ? × M. saxatilis ?). A control diet was supplemented with l-methionine to meet the total sulfur amino acid requirement of sunshine bass, and

C. N. Keembiyehetty; D. M. Gatlin

1995-01-01

28

Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

1992-01-01

29

Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of this pork product. They were 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulphide. Addition of thiamine or cysteine also enabled us to study the effect of these odour precursors on the formation of odorant furans during the cooking of ham. The results revealed a direct link between the thermal degradation of thiamine and the formation of these compounds. By contrast, addition of cysteine in the presence of fructose or xylose did not appreciably increase their production. PMID:24594176

Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

2014-07-15

30

Determination of sulfur-containing compounds in diesel oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector.  

PubMed

This article reports an analytical method for separating, identifying and quantitating sulfur-containing compounds and their groups in diesel oils (170-400 degrees C) using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector. The identification of target compounds and their groups was based on standard substances, the group separation feature and tile-effect of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. The quantitative analysis on major sulfur compounds and total sulfur was carried out based on the linear response of sulfur chemiluminescence detector and the internal standards method. The results of total sulfur determination in the samples were compared with those from ASTM D 4294 standard method, the R.S.D. percentage were <6.02%, correctness of this method can meet the industrial requirement. To the end, the method developed was used to investigate the sulfur-containing compounds in different diesel oils, the result shows that the distribution of sulfur-containing compounds in diesel oils from different process units are apparently different. The sulfur compounds in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), residuum fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) diesel oils mainly exist in the form of alkyl-substituted dibenzothiophenes that add up to about 40-50% of the total sulfur, while this number is only 6-8 and 20-28% in visbreaking (VB) and delayed-coking (DC) diesel oils, respectively. PMID:14650608

Hua, Ruixiang; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Jincheng; Wei, Haibo; Wang, Jinghua; Lu, Xin; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang

2003-11-26

31

Active Microbial Sulfur Disproportionation in  

E-print Network

Active Microbial Sulfur Disproportionation in the Mesoproterozoic David T. Johnston,1 *. Boswell A E. Canfield5 The environmental expression of sulfur compound disproportionation has been placed sulfur isotope 33S. These measurements imply that sulfur compound disproportionation was an active part

Long, Bernard

32

In-digester reduction of organic sulfur compounds in kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experimental research examines the relationship between the formation of organic sulfur compounds and delignification during kraft wood pulping. A phase transition point (PTP) was discovered below and above which the formation of total organic sulfur compounds, with respect to delignification, changes significantly. The PTP occurs at approximately pulp kappa number 35 for softwoods and 20 for hardwoods. The PTP

S.-H. Yoon; X.-S. Chai; J. Y. Zhu; J. Li; E. W. Malcolm

2001-01-01

33

Lunar sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

Kuck, David L.

1991-01-01

34

Role of reduced sulfur compounds in nutrition of Propionibacterium acnes.  

PubMed

In a study of the nutritional requirements of Propionibacterium acnes, acid hydrolyzed casein was shown to be the preferred nitrogen source in a glycerol-salts medium. Of 22 individual amino acids tested, only cysteine supported growth in the glycerol-salts medium. This indicated a requirement not only for amino nitrogen but also for reduced sulfur. In the presence of an auxiliary nitrogen source, thioglycolate or thiosulfate could replace sulfur-containing amino acids. The apparent requirement of P. acnes for reduced sulfur possibly could be satisfied in vivo by the constant availability of this substance in the form of sulfhydryl groups in the sebaceous follicle during keratinization. The relationship between P. acnes and its nutritional substrate may give this organism a selective advantage to exist in this ecological niche. PMID:6833481

Nielsen, P A

1983-02-01

35

Microwave spectra of some sulfur and nitrogen compounds. [for chemical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-controlled microwave spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. The apparatus, software, and experimental procedures are described. Tables of absorption frequencies, peak absorption coefficients, and integrated intensities are included for 13 sulfur compounds, 14 nitrogen compounds, and 1 compound containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The frequency range covered was 26,500 to 40,000 MHz for most compounds and 18,000 to 40,000 MHz for some.

White, W. F.

1974-01-01

36

Strategies for Developing New Reactions of Organic Sulfur Compounds Containing Pyridine and Related Heterocycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristic properties of organic sulfur compounds containing heteroaromatics and their reactions are described. Applications of these organic sulfur derivatives in organic synthesis, development of several new reactions and their mechanisms are mentioned as follows: 1) simple sulfoxides such as methyl 2-pyridyl sulfoxide are used as efficient phase transfer catalysts in the SN 2 type displacement reactions and alkylations of active

Naomichi Furukawa

1986-01-01

37

A STUDY TO IMPROVE EPA METHODS 15 AND 16 FOR REDUCED SULFUR COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA source test methods for reduced sulfur compounds, Method 15 for Claus sulfur recovery plants and Method 16 for Kraft pulp mills have been evaluated, and information is provided for the user. Techniques and procedures for the gas chromatographic measurement of hydrogen sulfide...

38

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 69476959 Transport and transformation of sulfur compounds over East  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 6947­6959 Transport and transformation of sulfur compounds over form 14 October 2003; accepted 9 February 2004 Abstract On the basis of the recently estimated emission inventory for East Asia with a resolution of 1 � 11, the transport and chemical transformation of sulfur

39

Thermochemical Data on Gas Phase Compounds of Sulfur, Fluorine, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Related to Pyrolysis and Oxidation of Sulfur Hexafluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochemical data on selected gas phase compounds containing sulfur, fluorine, oxygen, and hydrogen are evaluated. These are of particular relevance to plasma chemistry and SF6 dielectric breakdown. Values of the enthalpies of formation and the entropy are provided at 298 K. Where no experimental data are available, methods for estimation have been developed for deriving the enthalpy of formation. Data are tabulated for 36 substances.

Herron, John T.

1987-01-01

40

Vertical Distribution of PhysicoChemical Properties and Number of Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Buried Layer of Soil Profiles with Marine-Reduced Sulfur Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the presence of reduced sulfur compounds in the buried soil layer of a paddy field on Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture. We sampled the paddy field soil from 0 to 300 cm depth and analyzed the physico-chemical properties of the soil and the numbers of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and iron-oxidizing bacteria in order to elucidate both the sulfur-oxidizing mechanism and

Hirotomo Ohba; Naoto Owa

2005-01-01

41

Metal phosphate reduction in the presence of gaseous sulfur compounds  

SciTech Connect

The phosphorus used for combining with calcium oxide is usually obtained by means of thermally stable acidic or amphoteric oxide additives, i.e., almost only silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, and aluminum silicate. The reduction of tricalcium phosphate and natural calcium phosphate ores by natural gas in the presence of such additives at an acidity coefficient (C{sub a}) of 1 may be brought to completion in 1-3 h. Increasing the C{sub a} of a charge to 1.5-3 facilitates solid-phase reduction of low-melting phosphate ores and raises the phosphorus vaporization rate. However solid-phase additives in the phosphate and their high consumption increase charge preparation cost and lower equipment efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to study a replacement of solid-phase fluxes by volatiles that can combine with basic oxides. This approach was examined theoretically as to the possibility of replacing solid-phase fluxes by hydrogen chloride and volatile sulfur compounds. The latter is often found in natural gases that could be used in the phosphorus industry without prior purification. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Kriklivyi, D.I.; Klimovich, M.A.; Petrovskaya, N.A.

1992-05-20

42

No sulfur flows on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and chemical properties of elemental sulfur are incompatible with the suggestion that the colored flows associated with volcanoes on Io are quenched unstable allotropes of sulfur. Either the volcanic flows are not sulfur, or some mechanism other than quenching is required to produce colored forms of sulfur in them. The properties of sulfur are unsuited to the production and survival of colored unstable allotropes on Io. The color of this object is probably due to some other material, possibly iron compounds.

Young, A. T.

1984-01-01

43

Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

44

Evaluation of the performance of the HCTH exchange-correlation functional using a benchmark of sulfur compounds  

E-print Network

of sulfur compounds Julianna A. Altmann*a and Nicholas C. Handyb a Department of Chemistry, KingÏs College L a benchmark of sulfur-containing molecules. Optimised structural parameters, harmonic frequencies methodology and appropriate experimental results. It is shown that, for sulfur compounds that do not contain

Peterson, Kirk A.

45

Sulfur Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to those observed on the Earth's surface and are mimicked by lows under the oceans and highs under the altiplanos. Careful and area selective S wave core mantle ellipsometry might be able to discern these core-mantle topographic variations. As such this process demonstrates the validity of the Gaia hypothesis enunciated by Baas Becking(1931) that no ecological niche on our planet is closed off from other niches "nothing in the world is single".

de Jong, B. H.

2007-12-01

46

Kinase regulation by sulfur and selenium containing compounds.  

PubMed

Kinases are enzymes that are involved in a wide-range of cellular targets such as cell proliferation, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. Aberrations in the activity of the kinases have been linked to many human diseases such as diabetes, inflammation and cancer. The discovery of more than 518 kinases encoded by the human genome has spurred the development of rapid screening techniques for potential drugs against these enzymes and these have been identified as interesting targets for medicinal chemistry programs, especially in cancer therapy. On the other hand, sulfur and selenium have been increasingly recognized as essential elements in biology and medicine. Converging data from epidemiological and clinical studies have highlighted these elements as effective chemopreventive agents, particularly against various types of cancer (prostate, lung, breast, leukemia, colon, skin, lymphome, thyroid, pancreas, liver). These elements act through a wide range of potential mechanisms where one identified signal pathway event is kinase modulation, which is common for the two elements and emerges as a valid target. The kinases modulated by sulfur and selenium derivatives include MAP, ERK, JNK, Akt, Cdc2, Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c amongst others. Although both of the elements in question are in the same group in the periodic table and have similar biochemistries, there are relevant differences related to redox potentials, stabilities, oxidation states and anticancer activity. Literature data suggest that the replacement of sulfur by selenium in established cancer chemopreventive agents results in more effective chemopreventive analogs. In view of the multi-target kinase mechanisms in preventing cellular transformation, as well as the differences and similarities between them, in this review we focus on the development of new structures that contain selenium and/or sulfur and discuss our understanding of the regulation of antitumoral effects with emphasis on kinase modulation activity and its implications in cancer. PMID:21395545

Sanmartín, Carmen; Plano, Daniel; Font, María; Palop, Juan Antonio

2011-05-01

47

Process for forming sulfuric acid  

DOEpatents

An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

1981-01-01

48

Determination of total sulfur compounds and benzothiazole in asphalt fume samples by gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

As part of a collaborative project between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate asphalt pavers' exposures to asphalt fume and their potential health effects, a method was developed for the determination of total sulfur compounds and benzothiazole in asphalt fume samples. Asphalt fume samples were collected from asphalt mixtures with and without the addition of ground-up rubber tires. The asphalt fume samples were collected with sampling trains that consisted of a Teflon membrane filter and an XAD-2 adsorbent tube. Filter and sampling tube media were extracted with hexane and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector. Separation was achieved with a 100 percent dimethyl polysiloxane fused silica column. Typical calibration curves had linear correlation coefficients of 0.99 or better with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5 percent. Benzothiazole desorption efficiency (DE) determined using spiked sampling tubes ranged from 96.5 percent at 5.0 micrograms to 89.4 percent at 40 micrograms with RSD values from 0.9 to 4.0 percent. Benzothiazole storage recovery determined using sampling tubes spiked at 20 micrograms and refrigerated for 30 days at 4 degrees C was 89.8 percent when corrected for the DE with an RSD of 1.1 percent. The limit of detection for the method determined using spiked sampling tubes was 0.30 microgram. Quantitation for total sulfur compounds and benzothiazole was against benzothiazole standards in hexane. Because of detector selectivity, sample preparation consisted of a simple hexane extraction even when samples had a high background due to hydrocarbon overload. Detector sensitivity provided quantitation in the sub-microgram region. Because of the sample preparation step and because benzothiazole was determined during the same analysis run, this method is straightforward and analytically efficient. The method has been used to analyze asphalt fume samples collected at several asphalt paving and roof operations. PMID:10983404

Jaycox, L B; Olsen, L D

2000-09-01

49

Biodegradation of organic sulfur compounds in crude oils from Oman  

SciTech Connect

Five closely related crude oils from Oman, showing various degrees of biodegradation ranging from non-biodegraded to severely biodegraded, were quantitatively investigated for free and sulfur-bound hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons sequestered in the alkylsulfide fraction and the polar fraction were analysed after Raney Ni desulfurisation and subsequent hydrogenation. With increasing degree of biodegradation, pristane (Pr), phytane (Ph) and a series of mid-chain methyl alkanes are enriched relative to the n-alkanes, as evidenced by increased Pr/n-C{sub 17} and Ph/n-C{sub 18} ratios. In the severely biodegraded oil no free n-alkanes, mid-chain alkanes or isoprenoid alkanes could be detected. Sterane and hopane distributions, however, remain unchanged throughout the biodegradation series. Hydrocarbons sequestered in the alkylsulfide fraction (i.e. n-alkanes, mid-chain methyl alkanes, Pr and Ph) are biodegraded at lower rates than the corresponding hydrocarbons in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction. Similar hydrocarbons sequestered in the polar fraction are biodegraded at even lower rates. These results suggest that hydrocarbons bound by a higher amount of sulfur links are biodegraded at a lower rate.

Koopmans, M.P.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Den Burg (Netherlands)

1996-10-01

50

Adsorptive removal of sulfur compounds using IRMOF-3 at ambient temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc-based metal-organic framework (IRMOF-3) was used as adsorbent for removal of dimethyl sulfide, ethyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide in fixed bed reactor at ambient temperature. These samples before and after exposure to sulfur compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermo gravimetric (TG), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that IRMOF-3 exhibit the best performance for hydrogen sulfide removal with the highest breakthrough sulfur capacity, followed by ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide. This is in consistent with the interaction strength between IRMOF-3 and sulfur compounds. In the case of dimethyl sulfide and ethyl mercaptan, the interaction comes from the weak interaction between the amino group in the MOFs and the sulfur atom of the adsorbate. This can also be considered as a hydrogen bond complex in which the amino group in the MOFs and the S atom of the sulfur compounds play the role of H-donor and H-acceptor, respectively. In the case of hydrogen sulfide, the interaction with sulfur atom originates from the amino group and zinc site in the MOFs. The former is more like an acid-base interaction, whereas the latter results in new products of ZnS and H2O and serious destruction of the MOFs.

Wang, Xiao-Ling; Fan, Hui-Ling; Tian, Zhen; He, En-Yun; Li, Ye; Shangguan, Ju

2014-01-01

51

Flash pyrolysis of coal, coal maceral, and coal-derived pyrite with on-line characterization of volatile sulfur compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A Pyroprobe flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector was used to study volatile sulfur compounds produced during the thermal decomposition of Illinois coal, coal macerals and coal-derived pyrite. Maximum evolution of volatile organic sulfur compounds from all coal samples occurred at a temperature of approximately 700??C. At this temperature, the evolution of thiophene, its alkyl isomers, and short-chain dialkyl sulfide compounds relative to the evolution of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene compounds was greater from coal high in organic sulfur than from coal low in organic sulfur. The variation in the evolution of sulfur compounds observed for three separate coal macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) was similar to that observed for whole coal samples. However, the variation trend for the macerals was much more pronounced. Decomposition of coal-derived pyrite with the evolution of elemental sulfur was detected at a temperature greater than 700??C. The results of this study indicated that the gas chromotographic profile of the volatile sulfur compounds produced during flash pyrolysis of coals and coal macerals varied as a function of the amount of organic sulfur that occurred in the samples. Characterization of these volatile sulfur compounds provides a better understanding of the behavior of sulfur in coal during the thermolysis process, which could be incorporated in the design for coal cleaning using flash pyrolysis techniques. ?? 1988.

Chou, I.-M.; Lake, M.A.; Griffin, R.A.

1988-01-01

52

Bacterial Sulfur Globules: Occurrence, Structure and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide, polysulfides, thiosulfate, polythionates, and elemental sulfur are oxidized by a\\u000a large and diverse group of prokaryotes, including the phototrophic sulfur bacteria, the thiobacilli and other colorless sulfur\\u000a bacteria and some thermophilic Archaea. Typically, these sulfur compounds are oxidized to sulfate but in many cases globules of polymeric, water-insoluble sulfur\\u000a accumulate as a transient and

Christiane Dahl; Alexander Prange

53

Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

1991-01-01

54

Use of reduced sulfur compounds by Beggiatoa sp.  

PubMed Central

A strain of Beggiatoa cf. leptomitiformis (OH-75-B, clone 2a) was isolated which is unique among reported strains in its ability to deposit internal sulfur granules from thiosulfate. It also deposited these characteristic granules (as all BEggiatoa species do) from sulfide. In cultures where growth was limited by exhaustion of organic substrates, these granules generally comprised about 20% of the total cell weight. With medium containing acetate and thiosulfate, no measurable utilization of thiosulfate or deposition of elemental sulfur (S0) took place until after the exponential growth phase. Neither sulfide nor thiosulfate added an increment to heterotrophic growth yield except for the weight of the deposited S0. The deposition of S0 from thiosulfate was probably a disproportionation in which S0 and sulfate were produced in a 1:1 ratio. Some of the S0 was further oxidized to sulfate. No autotrophic or mixotrophic growth was demonstrated for this strain. When inoculated in small, well-dispersed quantities into yeast extract medium, this strain grew only after long lags. Addition of the enzyme catalase eliminated initial lags and increased growth rates slightly. In contrast, catalase had no influence on growth rate when added to mineral medium containing acetate. In yeast extract medium, the inhibition of growth rate was presumably because of peroxides. Addition of thiosulfate was almost as effective as catalase in eliminating this inhibition. The S0 granules which, in this case, were deposited during the exponential growth phase, appeared to be partly responsible for this relief. This strain of Beggiatoa sp. remained active for at least 5 days under strictly anaerobic conditions, and under those conditions, it increased its dry weight by about 2.5-fold. Anaerobic "growth" and maintenance required the presence of an energy source, such as acetate. When cells containing much internal S0 were transferred to an organic anaerobic medium, a substantial portion of the internal S0 was eventually converted to sulfide. PMID:7240091

Nelson, D C; Castenholz, R W

1981-01-01

55

Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams  

DOEpatents

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjani

2004-06-01

56

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOEpatents

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20

57

Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and ?-pinene) showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (?), defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of ?-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed ? values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and ? showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

Riccobono, F.; Rondo, L.; Sipilä, M.; Barmet, P.; Curtius, J.; Dommen, J.; Ehn, M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kulmala, M.; Kürten, A.; Mikkilä, J.; Paasonen, P.; Petäjä, T.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

2012-10-01

58

Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to formation and to the early growth of nucleated particles, respectively. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and ?-pinene) showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a Condensation Particle Counter battery and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (?), defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of ?-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed ? values indicate that the growth is dominated by organic compounds already at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and ? showed a strong dependence on particle size supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particles growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. The size resolved growth analysis finally indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

Riccobono, F.; Rondo, L.; Sipilä, M.; Barmet, P.; Curtius, J.; Dommen, J.; Ehn, M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kulmala, M.; Kürten, A.; Mikkilä, J.; Petäjä, T.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.

2012-05-01

59

The effects of biodegradation and water washing on sulfur compound speciation in crude oils from the Bolivar Coastal Fields  

SciTech Connect

A series of crude oils from a partially and heavily biodegraded reservoir were analyzed fro sulfur compound speciation by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The most reasonable explanation of the data is that they represent a maturity sequence. There is no strong evidence that biodegradation or water washing produce any major changes in sulfur compound speciation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Manowitz, B.; Jeon, Y.

1991-08-01

60

Sulfur 1s near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of thiol and thioether compounds  

SciTech Connect

The speciation and quantification of sulfur species based on sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy is of wide interest, particularly for biological and petroleum science. These tasks require a firm understanding of the sulfur 1s near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of relevant species. To this end, we have examined the gas phase sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectra of a group of simple thiol and thioether compounds. These high-resolution gas phase spectra are free of solid-state broadening, charging, and saturation effects common in the NEXAFS spectra of solids. These experimental data have been further analyzed with the aid of improved virtual orbital Hartree-Fock ab initio calculations. The experimental sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectra show fine features predicted by calculation, and the combination of experiment and calculation has been used to improve assignment of spectroscopic features relevant for the speciation and quantification of the sulfur compounds.

Beyhan, Shirin; Urquhart, Stephen G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Hu Yongfeng [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C6 (Canada)

2011-06-28

61

A review of volatile sulfur-containing compounds from terrestrial plants: biosynthesis, distribution and analytical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review includes 554 volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSCs) that have been reported from 43 terrestrial plant families until and including 2010. This review deals with extraction and analytical methods for VSCs, distribution of VSCs among plants, biosynthesis and other important aspects of this class of natural products. It has been shown that some classes of VSCs, specifically those in certain

M. Iranshahi

2012-01-01

62

Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

2004-01-01

63

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were

Ian Cooper Rumsey

2010-01-01

64

Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Organic Compounds from the Murchison Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotopic measurements have been made on organic sulfur and phosphorus compounds recently discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Carbon, hydrogen and sulfur measurements were performed on individual members of the organic sulfur compounds, alkyl sulfonates; and carbon and hydrogen measurements were made on bulk alkyl phosphonates. Cooper and Chang reported the first carbon isotopic measurements of Murchison organic sulfonates, providing insight into the potential synthetic mechanisms of these and, possibly, other organic species. Hydrogen isotopic measurements of the sulforiates now reveal deuterium excesses ranging from +660 to +2730 %. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low temperature astrophysical environment consistent with that of dense molecular clouds. Measurements of the sulfur isotopes provide further constraints on the origin and mechanism of formation of these organic molecules. Recently, there has been growing documentation of sulfur isotopic anomalies in meteoritic material. Thiemens and Jackson have shown that some bulk ureilites possess excess S-33 and Thiemens et al. have reported excess S-33 in an oldhamite separate from the Norton County meteorite. Rees and Thode reported a large S-33 excess in an Allende acid residue, however, attempts to verify this measurements have been unsuccessful, possibly due to the heterogeneous nature of the carrier phase. With the recognition that sulfur isotopes may reflect chemistry in the protosolar nebula or the precursor molecular cloud, identification of potential carriers is of considerable interest. In the present study, the stable isotopes of sulfur were measured in methane sulfonic acid extracted from the Murchison meteorite. The isotopic composition was found to be: (delta)S-33 = 2.48 %, (delta)S-34 = 2.49 % and (delta)S-36 = 6.76 %. Based upon analysis of more than 60 meteoritic and numerous terrestrial samples, the mass fractionation lines are defined by Delta-33 = (delta)S-33 -0.50(delta)S-34 and Delta-36 = (delta)s-36 - 1.97 (delta)S-34. From these relationships Delta-33 = 1.24 % and Delta-36 = 0.89 % are observed. These anomalies, particularly the Delta-33, lie well outside the range of analytical uncertainty. They are the largest observed in any meteoritic component and the first found in an organosulfur compound. As discussed by Thiemens and Jackson, due to it's position on the periodic chart, sulfur undergoes chemically induced mass independent isotopic fractionations as does oxygen. Experiments by Mauersberger et. al. show that in such processes, the magnitude of fractionation for the different isotopically substituted species varies with mass and angular momentum; thus, anomalies are expected for both S-33 and S-36, but not necessarily of the same magnitude. Laboratory experiments have also confirmed that chemically produced, mass independent fractionations are mediated by molecular symmetry factors. A chemical source of fractionation requires that the sulfur isotopic anomaly was established in the gas phase, probably in reactions involving symmetric CS2. The discovery of an anomalous sulfur isotopic composition in a specific molecule containing excess deuterium is an important advance in the understanding of the cosmochemistry of sulfur. This evidence suggests that methanesulfonic acid was synthesized by interstellar processes. Further measurements and details of possible synthesis and fractionation mechanisms will be presented.

Cooper, G. W.; Thiemens, M. H.; Jackson, T.; Chang, Sherwood

1996-01-01

65

Exploring the Arabidopsis sulfur metabolome.  

PubMed

Sulfur plays a crucial role in protein structure and function, redox status and plant biotic stress responses. However, our understanding of sulfur metabolism is limited to identified pathways. In this study, we used a high-resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometric approach in combination with stable isotope labeling to describe the sulfur metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Databases contain roughly 300 sulfur compounds assigned to Arabidopsis. In comparative analyses, we showed that the overlap of the expected sulfur metabolome and the mass spectrometric data was surprisingly low, and we were able to assign only 37 of the 300 predicted compounds. By contrast, we identified approximately 140 sulfur metabolites that have not been assigned to the databases to date. We used our method to characterize the ?-glutamyl transferase mutant ggt4-1, which is involved in the vacuolar breakdown of glutathione conjugates in detoxification reactions. Although xenobiotic substrates are well known, only a few endogenous substrates have been described. Among the specifically altered sulfur-containing masses in the ggt4-1 mutant, we characterized one endogenous glutathione conjugate and a number of further candidates for endogenous substrates. The small percentage of predicted compounds and the high proportion of unassigned sulfur compounds identified in this study emphasize the need to re-evaluate our understanding of the sulfur metabolome. PMID:24147819

Gläser, Katharina; Kanawati, Basem; Kubo, Tobias; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grill, Erwin

2014-01-01

66

EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING BIOGENIC AIRBORNE SULFUR COMPOUNDS, CEDAR ISLAND FIELD STUDY, 1977  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfur in both gaseous and particulate form has been measured near biogenic sources using new measurement techniques. The preconcentration of gaseous sulfur on gold-coated glass beads followed by desorption into a flame photometric detection for sulfur is shown to have a detectio...

67

ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF SELECTED SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS. OUTDOOR SMOG CHAMBER STUDY. PHASE 2  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical behavior of mixtures of selected sulfur containing species, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides was examined in outdoor smog chambers. Sulfur dioxide, H2S, CH3SH, COS, and thiophene are the sulfur species tested. A surrogate ambient hydrocarbon mixture comprised o...

68

Comparison of microbial sulfuric acid production in sewage sludge from added sulfur and thiosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial leaching is one of the most attractive methods of removing toxic metals from sewage sludge. Sulfuric acid produced by indigenous microflora by the oxidation of elemental sulfur and sulfur compounds solubilizes toxic metals. The oxidation of sulfur compounds can be achieved by the direct oxidation to sulfates or by indirect oxidation, through the production and accumulation of soluble intermediate

R. D. Tyagi; J. F. Blais; L. Deschenes; P. Lafrance; J. P. Villeneuve

1994-01-01

69

Defluorination of organofluorine sulfur compounds by Pseudomonas sp. strain D2  

SciTech Connect

Little is known of the potential for biodegradation of fluorinated sulfonates. Because of the apparent stability of fluorinated organics, their bioactivity, and their potential for accumulation in the environment, it is important to understand their environmental fate and the mechanisms by which they might be degraded. To evaluate this potential, the following model compounds were selected: difluoromethane sulfonate (DFMS), trifluoromethane sulfonate (TFMS), 2,2,2-trifluoroethane sulfonate (TES), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctane sulfonate (H-PFOS). A laboratory isolate designated Pseudomonas sp. strain D2 completely defluorinated DFMS under aerobic sulfur-limiting conditions in a defined mineral medium. Strain D2 utilized DFMS as the sole source of sulfur, but not as a source of carbon or energy. DFMS utilization was inhibited by other forms of sulfur, and noncompetitive inhibition kinetics were observed, with K{sub i}-values of 3--4 {micro}M for sulfate, sulfite, methane sulfonate, and cystine. Strain D2 was subsequently used to evaluate degradation of other fluorinated sulfonates. Growth and defluorination were only observed for those compounds containing hydrogen (TES and H-PFOS). TFMS and PFOS were not degraded. TES was completely defluorinated, and H-PFOS was partially defluorinated. No volatile transformation products were detected for TES or DFMS, but six volatile products were detected for H-PFOS. All of the volatile products contained oxygen and fluorine, but not sulfur. This is the first report of defluorination of fluorinated sulfonates, a linkage between sulfur assimilation and defluorination, and generation of volatile fluorinated biotransformation products.

Key, B.D.; Criddle, C.S. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Howell, R.D. [3M Environmental Technology and Safety Services, St. Paul, MN (United States)] [3M Environmental Technology and Safety Services, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1998-08-01

70

Production and Fate of Methylated Sulfur Compounds from Methionine and Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Anoxic Salt Marsh Sediments †  

PubMed Central

Anoxic salt marsh sediments were amended with dl-methionine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Microbial metabolism of methionine yielded methane thiol (MSH) as the major volatile organosulfur product, with the formation of lesser amounts of dimethylsulfide (DMS). Biological transformation of DMSP resulted in the rapid release of DMS and only small amounts of MSH. Experiments with microbial inhibitors indicated that production of MSH from methionine was carried out by procaryotic organisms, probably sulfate-reducing bacteria. Methane-producing bacteria did not metabolize methionine. The involvement of specific groups of organisms in DMSP hydrolysis could not be determined with the inhibitors used, because DMSP was hydrolyzed in all samples except those which were autoclaved. Unamended sediment slurries, prepared from Spartina alterniflora sediments, contained significant (1 to 10 ?M) concentrations of DMS. Endogenous methylated sulfur compounds and those produced from added methionine and DMSP were consumed by sediment microbes. Both sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria were involved in DMS and MSH consumption. Methanogenesis was stimulated by the volatile organosulfur compounds released from methionine and DMSP. However, apparent competition for these compounds exists between methanogens and sulfate reducers. At low (1 ?M) concentrations of methionine, the terminal S-methyl group was metabolized almost exclusively to CO2 and only small amounts of CH4. At higher (>100 ?M) concentrations of methionine, the proportion of the methyl-sulfur group converted to CH4 increased. The results of this study demonstrate that methionine and DMSP are potential precursors of methylated sulfur compounds in anoxic sediments and that the microbial community is capable of metabolizing volatile methylated sulfur compounds. PMID:16347461

Kiene, Ronald P.; Visscher, Pieter T.

1987-01-01

71

Removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum re?nery wastewater through adsorption on modified activated carbon.  

PubMed

The adsorption of sulfur compounds from petroleum refinery wastewater on a chemically modified activated carbon (MAC) was investigated. The modification technique (nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and thermal modification) enhanced the removal capacity of carbon and therefore decreases cost-effective removal of sulfide from refinery wastewater. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data were determined for sulfur removal from real re?nery wastewater. The data were evaluated according to several adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. The Freundlich isotherm fitted well with the equilibrium data of sulfur on different adsorbents, whereas the kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. Insights of sulfide removal mechanisms indicated that the sorption was controlled through the intraparticle diffusion mechanism with a significant contribution of film diffusion. The MAC adsorbent was found to have an effective removal capacity of approximately 2.5 times that of non-modified carbon. Using different MAC, sulfides were eliminated with a removal capacity of 52 mg g(-1). Therefore, MAC can be utilized as an effective and less expensive adsorbent for the reduction of sulfur in refinery wastewater. PMID:25353943

Ben Hariz, Ichrak; Al Ayni, Foued; Monser, Lotfi

2014-10-01

72

Thermodynamics of Aqueous Organic Sulfur Compounds: A Key to the Organic Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Systems?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal environments are locations of varied geochemistry due to the disequilibrium between vent fluids and seawater. The disequilibrium geochemistry has been hypothesized to include reactions to synthesize organic compounds. Observations of the organic geochemistry of hydrothermal vent sites has received little attention. Experimental simulations of these environments, however, indicate that organic compounds may have difficulty forming in a purely aqueous environment. On the other hand, thiols. thioesters and disulfides have been implicated as reaction intermediates between CO or CO2 in experiments of carbon reduction in hydrothermal environments as well as in a variety of biological processes and other abiotic reactions (Wachtershauser, 1990, OLEB 20, 173; Heinen and Lauwers, 1996, OLEB 26, 13 1, Huber and Wachtershauser, 1997, Science 276, 245; Russell et al., 1998, in Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life?). The reduction of CO2 to thiols, for example, is observed using the FeS-H2S/FeS2 couple to provide the reducing power (see Schoonen et al., 1999, OLEB 29, 5). In addition, the enzyme involved in final stage of methanogenesis, coenzyme-M, is itself a thiol. Thus, organic sulfur compounds may hold the key to the organic chemistry leading to the origin of life at high temperatures. Understanding the biochemical processes of microorganisms that can live to temperatures at least as high as 113 C (Blochl et al., 1996, Extremophiles 1, 14) requires knowledge of the properties of the chemical reactions involved. In order to assess the role of aqueous organic sulfur compounds in hydrothermal organic geochemistry, we have been attempting to determine their thermodynamic properties. We have culled the literature to obtain the properties of organic sulfur compounds. We are able to calculate a number of essential properties, such as free energies of formation, from solubility data available in the literature together with standard properties of organic sulfur gases. However, a number of the properties for aqueous organic sulfur compounds have not been experimentally determined. Furthermore, most of thermodynamic data that are available are for 25 C and 1 bar. In order to determine reaction properties to temperatures and pressures appropriate to the hydrothermal conditions in which thermophilic organisms actually live, we use equations of state developed by Helgeson and co-workers (Helgeson et al., 1981, AJS 281, 1249). A key piece of information needed to go up in temperature is the partial molal heat capacity, which is one of the properties for which experimental data are unavailable for nearly all organic sulfur compounds. We have used correlation methods to determine the partial molal heat capacities and volumes of many organic solutes. These estimates allow us to asses the role of organic sulfur compounds during the reduction of carbon in hydrothermal settings. We will present these data, along with examples of the thermodynamic properties of reactions involving aqueous organic sulfur compounds.

Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, Karyn L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

73

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

2008-07-02

74

Organic sulfur compounds formed during early diagenesis in Black Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from Units I and II of the Black Sea were analyzed to assess the early diagenetic formation of organic sulfur compounds (OSC). A series of isomeric C28-2,4-dialkylthiophenes was found at low concentrations in surface sediments. OSC with C25-highly branched isoprenoid (RBI) skeletons were not found in surface sediments even though there was a rapid decrease in the concentrations of

Stuart G. Wakeham; Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté; Math E. L. Kohnen; Jan W. De Leeuw

1995-01-01

75

Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous sulfur compounds by silver-deposited titanium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of ultrafine particle of silver on titanium dioxide (TiO2) significantly improved the photocatalytic activity for degradation of gaseous sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methylmercaptan (CH3SH). The silver-deposited photocatalytic filter (Ag-PCF) was prepared by coating TiO2 powder on the porous ceramics substrate and successively depositing nano-sized silver particles on TiO2 by means of photodeposition method. The photocatalytic

Shinji Kato; Yuji Hirano; Misao Iwata; Taizo Sano; Koji Takeuchi; Sadao Matsuzawa

2005-01-01

76

Involvement of a BranchedChain Aminotransferase in Production of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Yarrowia lipolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic degradation of L-methionine and the subsequent formation of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are essential for the development of the typical flavor in cheese. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the degradation of L-methionine was accompanied by the formation of the transamination product 4-methylthio- 2-oxobutyric acid. A branched-chain aminotransferase gene (YlBCA1 )o fY. lipolytica was amplified, and the L-methionine-degrading activity

Daniela Cernat Bondar; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Pascal Bonnarme

2005-01-01

77

Modeling the overall persistence and environmental mobility of sulfur-containing polychlorinated organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Experimental data on partition coefficients and environmental half-lives of sulfur analogs of polychlorinated organic compounds\\u000a are scarce. Consequently, little is known about their overall persistence and long-range transport potential, which are the\\u000a most vital measures in the environmental exposure assessment. We performed Multimedia Modeling of environmental fate and transport\\u000a to complement this paucity of scientific data. The

Aleksandra Mostr?g; Tomasz Puzyn; Maciej Haranczyk

2010-01-01

78

Reduced sulfur compounds in ambient air surrounding an industrial region in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric concentrations of several reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) including H2S, CH3SH, DMS, CS2, and DMDS were measured concurrently from a series of field campaigns covering multiple locations in the surroundings of\\u000a a large industrial region (August 2004 to September 2005). These field studies have been designed and undertaken to inspect\\u000a the concentrations of RSCs in ambient air. The RSC

Raktim Pal; Ki-Hyun Kim; Eui-Chan Jeon; Sang-Keun Song; Zang-Ho Shon; Shin-Young Park; Ki-Han Lee; Sun-Jin Hwang; Jong-Min Oh; Youn-Seo Koo

2009-01-01

79

Quantification and reduction of organic sulfur compound formation in a commercial wood pulping process.  

PubMed

This study experimentally quantified the formation of organic sulfur compounds in a commercial SuperBatch kraft pulping process using a laboratory pilot-scale digester. The results indicate that wood chips not only can adsorb HS- but also methyl mercaptan (MM) in the black liquor used for pretreatment during the two pretreatment stages. The absorption rate of MM is much faster than that of HS-. In the third stage of SuperBatch pulping, the rate of formation of MM and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is very similar to that found in conventional batch kraft pulping processes. The study examined the applicability of the phase transition cooking (PTC) concept for reducing organic sulfur compounds in pulping, previously developed in laboratory batch pulping using a bomb-type digester, in a SuperBatch process. It was confirmed that there is a phase transition point (PTP) corresponding to PTC in SuperBatch pulping beyond which further delignification significantly increases the formation of volatile organic sulfur compounds. The results indicate that a 40% reduction of TRS formation can be achieved by using PTC. PMID:12038840

Zhu, J Y; Chai, X S; Pan, X J; Luo, Q; Li, J

2002-05-15

80

Regeneration of flue gas desulfurization waste liquors: Precipitation and hydrolysis of nitrogen-sulfur compounds  

SciTech Connect

Regeneration of the Fe[sup II] EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigate a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K[sub 2]SO[sub 4] to the scrubbing liquor. The effects of the amount of added K[sub 2]SO[sub 4] on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. The effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature of the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first-order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

Kwon, T.M.; Randolph, A.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-04-01

81

Microbiological fractionation of stable sulfur isotopes: A review and critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological transformations of sulfur compounds discriminate to various degrees between the stable sulfur isotopes S and S. Comparatively little is known on isotopic effects associated with sulfur?oxidizing organisms, and the interpretation of results is complicated since the sulfur pathways are poorly defined and compounds containing two or more sulfur atoms at different oxidation states may be involved. Dissimilatory reduction of

L. A. Chambers; P. A. Trudinger

1979-01-01

82

Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

1999-01-01

83

Complete genome sequence of the sulfur compounds oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Sulfuricurvum kujiense type strain (YK-1T)  

PubMed Central

Sulfuricurvum kujiense Kodama and Watanabe 2004 is the type species of the monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum, which belongs to the family Helicobacteraceae in the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The species is of interest because it is frequently found in crude oil and oil sands where it utilizes various reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Members of the species do not utilize sugars, organic acids or hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources. This genome sequence represents the type strain of the only species in the genus Sulfuricurvum. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 2,574,824 bp length and four plasmids of 118,585 bp, 71,513 bp, 51,014 bp, and 3,421 bp length, respectively, harboring a total of 2,879 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:22675602

Han, Cliff; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg; Chertkov, Olga; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Sikorski, Johannes; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C.

2012-01-01

84

Complete genome sequence of the sulfur compounds oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Sulfuricurvum kujiense type strain (YK-1T)  

SciTech Connect

Sulfuricurvum kujiense Kodama and Watanabe 2004 is the type species of the monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum, which belongs to the family Helicobacteriaceae in the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The species is of interest because it is frequently found in crude oil and oil sands where it utilizes various reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Members of the species do not utilize sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Sulfuricurvum. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 2,574,824 bp length and four plasmids of 118,585 bp, 71,513 bp, 51,014 bp, and 3,421 bp length, respectively, harboring a total of 2,879 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kotsyurbenko, Oleg [Technical University of Braunschweig; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2012-01-01

85

Sulfur tolerant anode materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01

86

Sulfur tolerant anode materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-02-01

87

Sulfur in achondritic meteorites.  

PubMed

Total sulfur abundances have been measured for 48 achondrites. For twenty eucrites they ranged from 370 to 3700 micrograms S/g with a median sulfur content of 1180 micrograms S/g. Sulfur abundances for howardites ranged from 1490 to 3240 micrograms S /g and had a median sulfur concentration of 2340 micrograms S/g. Diogenites' sulfur abundances ranged from 130 to 3170 micrograms S/g, with a median value of 1280 micrograms S/g. Four shergottites had a median sulfur content of 1940 micrograms S/g and ranged from 740 to 2540 micrograms S/g. Enstatite achondrites contained the greatest sulfur abundances of any achondrite group. They ranged from 2450 to 8580 micrograms S/g and had a median sulfur content of 6020 micrograms S/g and had a median sulfur content of 6020 micrograms S/g. A single Chassignite had a sulfur concentration of 360 micrograms S/g. The wide variations in sulfur concentrations for the achondrites reflect the small scale heterogeneous nature of these unique extraterrestrial materials due in large part to discrete sulfide mineral grains. PMID:11539026

Gibson, E K; Moore, C B; Primus, T M; Lewis, C F

1985-09-30

88

Replacement of a Thiourea-S with an Amidine-NH Donor Group in a Platinum-Acridine Antitumor Compound Reduces the Metal's Reactivity with Cysteine Sulfur  

E-print Network

Compound Reduces the Metal's Reactivity with Cysteine Sulfur Zhidong Ma, Lu Rao, and Ulrich Bierbach, 2009 The reactivity of two DNA-targeted platinum-acridine conjugates with cysteine sulfur was studied cisplatin (cis- [PtCl2(NH3)2]) with the intracellular sulfur-containing nucleo- phile glutathione (-L

89

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

90

Molecular characterization of nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds in night-time SOA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) leads to the formation of low volatile organic compounds that can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Studies in the past showed that laboratory generated and ambient SOA are made of polar molecules with O/C ratios generally greater than 0.5. More recent studies have shown that SOA compounds can contain heteroatoms mainly sulfur and nitrogen atoms. Offline chemical analysis with high-resolution mass spectrometers and fragmentation experiments has shown that sulphur containing compounds are mainly organosulfates and nitrogen containing species are aromatic heterocyclic compounds such as imidazole and nitrated aromatic compounds such as nitrophenols. In addition to these, SOA compounds containing both sulfur and nitrogen have been reported from the analysis of ambient organic aerosol, rainwater, fog and cloud samples. Based on the mass spectrometric evidence these compounds are attributed to nitrooxy-organosulfates originating from isoprene and monoterpenes. Although these compounds are ubiquitously detected in the ambient samples, reports about their detection in laboratory generated SOA are scares and their formation mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the formation of sulfur and nitrogen containing SOA species in the oxidation of biogenic VOCs. Photooxidation and night-time oxidation experiments were performed in a smog chamber to produce SOA samples. The laboratory generated SOA samples were analysed with UPLC-IMS-TOFMS (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry). The presence of highly acidic sulphate seed particles (pH0) did not promote the formation of compounds with chemical formula of C10H17NO7S- and m/z value of 294.0653, indicating that the formation mechanisms of these compounds unlikely involve the ring opening reactions of epoxides and subsequent sulfation reactions. On the other hand, their formation was significantly enhanced when the night-time oxidation was performed in the presence of both neutral seed particle and gas-phase SO2, suggesting that the presence of gas-phase SO2 is a key for their formation.

Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Mutzel, Anke; Rodigast, Maria; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

2014-05-01

91

Isotopically labeled sulfur compounds and synthetic selenium and tellurium analogues to study sulfur metabolism in marine bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary Members of the marine Roseobacter clade can degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) via competing pathways releasing either methanethiol (MeSH) or dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Deuterium-labeled [2H6]DMSP and the synthetic DMSP analogue dimethyltelluriopropionate (DMTeP) were used in feeding experiments with the Roseobacter clade members Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 and Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, and their volatile metabolites were analyzed by closed-loop stripping and solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC–MS. Feeding experiments with [2H6]DMSP resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium label into MeSH and DMS. Knockout of relevant genes from the known DMSP demethylation pathway to MeSH showed in both species a residual production of [2H3]MeSH, suggesting that a second demethylation pathway is active. The role of DMSP degradation pathways for MeSH and DMS formation was further investigated by using the synthetic analogue DMTeP as a probe in feeding experiments with the wild-type strain and knockout mutants. Feeding of DMTeP to the R. pomeroyi knockout mutant resulted in a diminished, but not abolished production of demethylation pathway products. These results further corroborated the proposed second demethylation activity in R. pomeroyi. Isotopically labeled [2H3]methionine and 34SO4 2?, synthesized from elemental 34S8, were tested to identify alternative sulfur sources besides DMSP for the MeSH production in P. gallaeciensis. Methionine proved to be a viable sulfur source for the MeSH volatiles, whereas incorporation of labeling from sulfate was not observed. Moreover, the utilization of selenite and selenate salts by marine alphaproteobacteria for the production of methylated selenium volatiles was explored and resulted in the production of numerous methaneselenol-derived volatiles via reduction and methylation. The pathway of selenate/selenite reduction, however, proved to be strictly separated from sulfate reduction. PMID:23766810

Brock, Nelson L; Citron, Christian A; Zell, Claudia; Berger, Martine; Wagner-Dobler, Irene; Petersen, Jorn; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard

2013-01-01

92

Topsoe`s Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process: An alternative technology for recovering refinery sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Topsoe Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process is a catalytic process which produces concentrated sulfuric acid from refinery streams containing sulfur compounds such as HâS (Claus plant feed), Claus plant tail gas, SOâ (FCC off-gas, power plants), and spent sulfuric acid (alkylation acid). The WSA process recovers up to 99.97% of the sulfur value in the stream as concentrated

1995-01-01

93

Io - Geochemistry of sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evidence from Voyager imaging, Earth-based spectral reflectivity studies, and thermal emission measurements combine to suggest an extremely fresh, volcanically recycled sulfur-rich crust for Io, with very shallow large-scale melting. Two present styles of volcanism are possible, depending on the thickness of local deposits of sulfur: shallow liquid sulfur magma generation with quiescent flooding, and high-temperature volcanism with violet eruption of a sulfur-iron magma driven by SO2. Evolutionary considerations preclude direct derivation of Io's lithosphere from any metal-bearing chondritic source material. Metal-free C3V- or C2M-type parent material of either primary or secondary origin is the most plausible direct antecedent of the present sulfur-rich crust. Sulfates are almost certainly important constituents of the mantle, and can participate in the recycling of reduced, dense sulfide species to prevent total extraction of sulfur into the core.

Lewis, J. S.

1982-01-01

94

The global sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

Sagan, D. (editor)

1985-01-01

95

Colourless sulfur bacteria and their role in the sulfur cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The bacteria belonging to the families of the Thiobacteriaceae, Beggiatoaceae and Achromatiaceae are commonly called the colourless\\u000a sulfur bacteria. While their ability to oxidize reduced inorganic sulfur compounds has clearly been established, it is still\\u000a not known whether all these organisms can derive metabolically useful energy from these oxidations.\\u000a \\u000a During the last decades research has mainly focussed on the genus

J. Gijs Kuenen

1975-01-01

96

Apparatus for recovery of sulfur  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for the recovery of sulfur from an underground sulfur formation. It comprises means for the injection of hot water into contact with the underground sulfur formation; means to permit the water and elemental sulfur to remain in contact, so as to melt at least a portion of the sulfur and form a mixture of molten sulfur and water; means for removing the mixture of molten sulfur and heated water to the surface; means for separating the water and sulfur mixture to recover molten sulfur and water; and means to recycle the water to the underground formation.

Peters, J.R.; Ramey, M.E.; Seyffert, A.E.; Canon, J.L.; Robinson, M.W.; Abercrombie, W.T.

1989-09-26

97

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of the Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T during Growth on Different Reduced Sulfur Compounds  

PubMed Central

The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T is one of the best-studied sulfur-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, and it has been developed into a model organism for laboratory-based studies of oxidative sulfur metabolism. Here, we took advantage of the organism's high metabolic versatility and performed whole-genome transcriptional profiling to investigate the response of A. vinosum cells upon exposure to sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, or sulfite compared to photoorganoheterotrophic growth on malate. Differential expression of 1,178 genes was observed, corresponding to 30% of the A. vinosum genome. Relative transcription of 551 genes increased significantly during growth on one of the different sulfur sources, while the relative transcript abundance of 627 genes decreased. A significant number of genes that revealed strongly enhanced relative transcription levels have documented sulfur metabolism-related functions. Among these are the dsr genes, including dsrAB for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, and the sgp genes for the proteins of the sulfur globule envelope, thus confirming former results. In addition, we identified new genes encoding proteins with appropriate subcellular localization and properties to participate in oxidative dissimilatory sulfur metabolism. Those four genes for hypothetical proteins that exhibited the strongest increases of mRNA levels on sulfide and elemental sulfur, respectively, were chosen for inactivation and phenotypic analyses of the respective mutant strains. This approach verified the importance of the encoded proteins for sulfur globule formation during the oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate and thereby also documented the suitability of comparative transcriptomics for the identification of new sulfur-related genes in anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria. PMID:23873913

Weissgerber, Thomas; Dobler, Nadine; Polen, Tino; Latus, Jeanette; Stockdreher, Yvonne

2013-01-01

98

Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180T during growth on different reduced sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

The purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum DSM 180(T) is one of the best-studied sulfur-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, and it has been developed into a model organism for laboratory-based studies of oxidative sulfur metabolism. Here, we took advantage of the organism's high metabolic versatility and performed whole-genome transcriptional profiling to investigate the response of A. vinosum cells upon exposure to sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, or sulfite compared to photoorganoheterotrophic growth on malate. Differential expression of 1,178 genes was observed, corresponding to 30% of the A. vinosum genome. Relative transcription of 551 genes increased significantly during growth on one of the different sulfur sources, while the relative transcript abundance of 627 genes decreased. A significant number of genes that revealed strongly enhanced relative transcription levels have documented sulfur metabolism-related functions. Among these are the dsr genes, including dsrAB for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, and the sgp genes for the proteins of the sulfur globule envelope, thus confirming former results. In addition, we identified new genes encoding proteins with appropriate subcellular localization and properties to participate in oxidative dissimilatory sulfur metabolism. Those four genes for hypothetical proteins that exhibited the strongest increases of mRNA levels on sulfide and elemental sulfur, respectively, were chosen for inactivation and phenotypic analyses of the respective mutant strains. This approach verified the importance of the encoded proteins for sulfur globule formation during the oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate and thereby also documented the suitability of comparative transcriptomics for the identification of new sulfur-related genes in anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria. PMID:23873913

Weissgerber, Thomas; Dobler, Nadine; Polen, Tino; Latus, Jeanette; Stockdreher, Yvonne; Dahl, Christiane

2013-09-01

99

Sodium-sulfur thermal battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid

Ludwig

1990-01-01

100

Observation of dipropenyldisulfide and other organic sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of a beech forest with Allium ursinum ground cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dipropenyldisulfide, methylpropenyldisulfide, cis-propenylpropyldisulfide, diallylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and 3-methylthiopropene were detected in the atmosphere of a beech forest with Allium ursinum (broad-leaved garlic) ground cover plants. Furthermore, it was shown that the Allium plants were the source of the organic sulfur compounds. The atmospheric concentrations of the organic sulfur observed on one day in May 1994 in a suburban forest in Vienna ranged from 0.3 to 7.8 ppb S with an average level of 2.9 ppb S. The atmospheric emission rate of organic sulfur species from A. ursinum determined with an enclosure box was the highest ever reported for terrestrial continental plants. The total organic sulfur flux on the average was at least 1 jug g-1h-1 (plant dry weight) or 60 gmgm-2 h-1 (per unit of ground area).

Puxbaum, H.; König, G.

101

Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array.  

PubMed

Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2) in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for clean air. The cermet sensor arrays used in this analysis are rugged, low cost, reusable, and show promise for multiple compound detection at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. PMID:17386588

Kramer, Kirsten E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Hammond, Mark H; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H

2007-02-12

102

Methods for removing malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mill flue gases and the like by using green liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an improved method for removing malodorous sulfur compounds from flue gases generated in kraft or sodium sulfite pulping operations and the like by the absorption process using green liquor, an aqueous solution containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The malodorous gas compounds, including hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide are preferentially absorbed by the sodium sulfide forming

Farin

1984-01-01

103

Polarizable empirical force field for sulfur-containing compounds based on the classical Drude oscillator model.  

PubMed

Condensed-phase computational studies of molecules using molecular mechanics approaches require the use of force fields to describe the energetics of the systems as a function of structure. The advantage of polarizable force fields over nonpolarizable (or additive) models lies in their ability to vary their electronic distribution as a function of the environment. Toward development of a polarizable force field for biological molecules, parameters for a series of sulfur-containing molecules are presented. Parameter optimization was performed to reproduce quantum mechanical and experimental data for gas phase properties including geometries, conformational energies, vibrational spectra, and dipole moments as well as for condensed phase properties such as heats of vaporization, molecular volumes, and free energies of hydration. Compounds in the training set include methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, ethyl methyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide. The molecular volumes and heats of vaporization are in good accordance with experimental values, with the polarizable model performing better than the CHARMM22 nonpolarizable force field. Improvements with the polarizable model were also obtained for molecular dipole moments and in the treatment of intermolecular interactions as a function of orientation, in part due to the presence of lone pairs and anisotropic atomic polarizability on the sulfur atoms. Significant advantage of the polarizable model was reflected in calculation of the dielectric constants, a property that CHARMM22 systematically underestimates. The ability of this polarizable model to accurately describe a range of gas and condensed phase properties paves the way for more accurate simulation studies of sulfur-containing molecules including cysteine and methionine residues in proteins. PMID:20575015

Zhu, Xiao; MacKerell, Alexander D

2010-09-01

104

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

1993-01-01

105

Nanostructured sulfur cathodes.  

PubMed

Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. PMID:23325336

Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

2013-04-01

106

Analysis of low concentration reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) in air: storage issues and measurement by gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection.  

PubMed

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) were measured at low concentrations in small volume air samples using a cryo-trapping inlet system and gas chromatograph outfitted with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD). The relative sensitivity of the system to the RSCs follows the sequence H(2)Ssulfur mass injected, we found that the response properties for each RSC differed. At concentrations below 2ppb, the compounds H(2)S and CH(3)SH have diminished responses, leading to larger measurement uncertainties. Two generations of commercially available SilcoCan canisters were tested to evaluate the relative RSC loss due to storage in the canister and loss of inertness because of coating age. The older generation canister (>6 years from initial coating) saw significant loss of H(2)S and CH(3)SH within 2 days, while the more recent generation canister (<1 year from initial coating) yielded percent recoveries of RSCs in the range of 85% (H(2)S and CH(3)SH) to 95% (OCS, DMS and CS(2)) after 7 days of storage, suggesting that these canisters may be suitable for the short-term storage of low level RSCs. The development of this low concentration, low sample volume method is well suited for measuring RSC gas fluxes from natural soils in laboratory incubations and in field flux chamber studies. PMID:22265544

Khan, M A H; Whelan, M E; Rhew, R C

2012-01-15

107

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

108

Sulfur volcanoes on Io?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual rheological properties of sulfur are discussed in order to determine the distinctive volcanic flow morphologies which indicate the presence of sulfur volcanoes on the Saturnian satellite Io. An analysis of high resolution Voyager imagery reveals three features which are considered to be possible sulfur volcanoes: Atar Patera, Daedalus Patera, and Kibero Patera. All three features are distinguished by circular-to-oval central masses surrounded by irregular widespread flows. The central zones of the features are interpreted to be domes formed of high temperature sulfur. To confirm the interpretations of the satellite data, molten sulfur was extruded in the laboratory at a temperature of 210 C on a flat surface sloping 0.5 deg to the left. At this temperature, the sulfur formed a viscous domelike mass over the event. As parts of the mass cooled to 170 C the viscosity decreased to a runny stage, forming breakout flows. It is concluded that a case can be made for sulfur volcanoes on Io sufficient to warrant further study, and it is recommended that the upcoming Galileo mission examine these phenomena.

Greeley, R.; Fink, J. H.

1984-01-01

109

Comparison of different calibration approaches in the application of thermal desorption technique: A test on gaseous reduced sulfur compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the reliability of thermal desorbing technique was investigated using the gaseous standards of five reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs: hydrogen sulfide, methane thiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide). A series of calibration experiments for RSCs were performed using gas chromatography (GC) with pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) that is interfaced with a thermal desorber (TD) unit.

Sudhir Kumar Pandey; Ki-Hyun Kim

2009-01-01

110

Transformation of Sulfur Compounds by an Abundant Lineage of Marine Bacteria in the a-Subclass of the Class Proteobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of a group of marine bacteria that is numerically important in coastal seawater and sediments were characterized with respect to their ability to transform organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Fifteen strains representing the Roseobacter group (a phylogenetic cluster of marine bacteria in the a-subclass of the class Proteobacteria) were isolated from seawater, primarily from the southeastern United States. Although

RONALD P. KIENE; MARY ANN MORAN

1999-01-01

111

Ionizing radiation and antioxidants affect volatile sulfur compounds, lipid oxidation, and color of ready-to-eat Turkey bologna.  

PubMed

Bologna was processed from ground turkey breast meats containing one of four antioxidant treatments (none, rosemary extract, sodium erythorbate, and sodium nitrite). After it was cooked, the bologna was sliced, sealed in gas impermeable bags, exposed to 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy gamma-radiation, and then stored at 5 degrees C for up to 8 weeks. Thiobarbuturic acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, and volatile sulfur compounds were measured every 2 weeks during storage. Irradiation had no consistent effect on TBARS values. The rosemary extract and sodium nitrite inhibited, while erythorbate increased, TBARS values, independent of radiation dose or storage time. Irradiation promoted redness and reduced yellowness of the control (no antioxidant) bologna at weeks 0 and 2. The use of nitrite and rosemary extract inhibited the changes in color due to irradiation. Several volatile sulfur compounds (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, methyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide), measured using a pulsed flame photometric detector, increased with radiation dose. However, none of the antioxidants had any substantial effect on volatile sulfur compounds induced by irradiation. Our results suggest that antioxidants did not consistently affect irradiation-induced volatile sulfur compounds of turkey bologna although they did significantly impact color and lipid oxidation. PMID:15161223

Fan, Xuetong; Sommers, Christopher H; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

2004-06-01

112

CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF TOTAL REDUCED SULFUR COMPOUNDS FROM PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRIES WITH OZONE AS AN OXIDANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Pulp and paper industry generates more than 144 million lb of VOCs per year including a range of reduced sulfur compounds (TRS) such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methane thiol (MT) and H2S that are odorous, toxic and contribute to smog formation. Thermal ...

113

Under sulfur's spell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomas Rauchfuss marvels at the diversity of sulfur reactivity. Although it poisons most industrial catalysts, it adopts many forms in nature and takes on a variety of biological roles -- including that of a biocatalyst.

Rauchfuss, Thomas

2011-08-01

114

Bacterial ethane formation from reduced, ethylated sulfur compounds in anoxic sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trace levels of ethane were produced biologically in anoxic sediment slurries from five chemically different aquatic environments. Gases from these locations displayed biogenic characteristics, having 12C-enriched values of ??13CH4 (-62 to -86%.), ??13C2H6 (-35 to -55%.) and high ratios (720 to 140,000) of CH4 [C2H6 + C3H8]. Endogenous production of ethane by slurries was inhibited by autoclaving or by addition of the inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES). Ethane formation was stimulated markedly by ethanethiol (ESH), and, to a lesser extent, by diethylsulfide (DES). Formation of methane and ethane in ESH- or DES-amended slurries was blocked by BES. Experiments showed that ethionine (or an analogous compound) could be a precursor of ESH. Ethylamine or ethanol additions to slurries caused only a minor stimulation of ethane formation. Similarly, propanethiol additions resulted in only a minor enhancement of propane formation. Cell suspensions of a methyltrophic methanogen produced traces of ethane when incubated in the presence of DES, although the organism did not grow on this compound. These results indicate that methanogenic bacteria produce ethane from the traces of ethylated sulfur compounds present in recent sediments. Preliminary estimates of stable carbon isotope fractionation associated with sediment methane formation from dimethylsulfide was about 40%., while ethane formation from DES and ESH was only 4. 6 and 6.5%., respectively. ?? 1988.

Oremland, R.S.; Whiticar, M.J.; Strohmaier, F.E.; Kiene, R.P.

1988-01-01

115

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: SULFUR COMPOUNDS AND PARTICULATE SIZE DISTRIBUTION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

In conjunction with the Regional Air Pollution Study being conducted in the St. Louis Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), a methodology for estimating the amount of sulfur trioxide (SO3) emitted by combustion sources was developed. It is based on SO2/SO3 ratios determined both exp...

116

Sulfur Volcanoes on Io?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unusual rheological properties of molten sulfur, in which viscosity decreases approximately four orders of magnitude as it cools from 170 to 120 C, may result in distinctive volcanic flow morphologies that allow sulfur flows and volcanoes to be identified on Io. Search of high resolution Voyager images reveals three features--Atar Patera, Daedalus Patera, and Kibero Patera--considered to be possible sulfur volcanoes based on their morphology. All three average 250 km in diameter and are distinguished by circular-to-oval central masses surrounded by irregular, widespread flows. Geometric relations indicate that the flows were emplaced after the central zone and appear to have emanated from their margins. The central zones are interpreted to be domes representing the high temperature stage of sulfur formed initially upon eruption. Rapid quenching formed a crust which preserved this phase of the emplacement. Upon cooling to 170 C, the sulfur reached a low viscosity runny stage and was released as the thin, widespread flows.

Greeley, R.; Fink, J.

1985-01-01

117

Advanced sulfur control concepts  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

1995-11-01

118

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11

119

Thiosulfate and Sulfur Oxidation in Purple Sulfur Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chemotrophic and phototrophic sulfur oxidizers that do not form sulfur deposits a periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing multienzyme\\u000a complex (Sox complex) has been described to be responsible for formation of sulfate from thiosulfate. In the anoxygenic phototrophic\\u000a sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum intracellular sulfur globules are an obligate intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfate. Despite this fundamental\\u000a difference A. vinosum possesses

Frauke Grimm; Bettina Franz; Christiane Dahl

120

In vitro growth characteristics and volatile sulfur compound production of Solobacterium moorei.  

PubMed

Solobacterium moorei has recently been implicated as a causative agent of halitosis. In vitro experiments to evaluate the role of S. moorei in halitosis have, however, been complicated by a paucity of information on the ideal conditions for culturing this organism. This work aimed to optimize a liquid culture medium for S. moorei, and to determine the growth-curve of the organism. Further, the ability of S. moorei to generate volatile sulfur compounds was investigated and compared quantitatively to other oral anaerobes by an optimized head-space gas chromatography method. Serum-supplementation of standard liquid growth media gave greater growth of S. moorei than non-supplemented broths, with the best medium found to be serum-supplemented tryptone soya broth. S. moorei was able to metabolize cysteine directly to hydrogen sulfide, but was unable to produce methanethiol from methionine. S. moorei produced 2-3 times more hydrogen sulfide (normalized for colony forming units) than Porphyromonas gingivalis and Veillonella dispar, but considerably less than Fusobacterium nucleatum. The study has identified reliable growth conditions for culture of S. moorei, which were employed to show that S. moorei has the requisite biochemistry consistent with a potential role in halitosis. PMID:24487184

Stephen, Abish S; Naughton, Declan P; Pizzey, Robert L; Bradshaw, David J; Burnett, Gary R

2014-04-01

121

Origins of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of a zone of high productivity (Gulf of Guinea)  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations have suggested substantial emission of sulfur compounds by oceanic water which could explain the presence of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sup +//sub 4/ in the air above these waters. The emission is thought to increase with the productivity of the oceanic zones. This point is discussed in relation to the Gulf of Guinea, a zone of high productivity. During the first two campaigns between Dakar, Abidjan, and the Gulf of Guinea SO/sup +//sub 4/ concentrations were measured in the air. Between Abidjan and the Gulf of Guinea the atmospheric SO= /sub 4/ concentrations decreased from 800 to 400 ng m/sup -3/. During the third campaign, between Abidjan and the South Equatorial Current (latitude 1/sup 0/S), the H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured. The mean H/sub 2/S concentration was 20 ng m/sup -3/, and that of SO/sub 2/ varied between 120 and under 50 ng m/sup -3/. The origins of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sup +//sub 4/ in the air of this area are discussed through the daily variations of the H/sub 2/S content of the air and a contribution from the forested zones of West Africa.

Delmas, R.; Servant, J.

1982-12-20

122

Direct effect of chlorine dioxide, zinc chloride and chlorhexidine solution on the gaseous volatile sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study focused on the ability of aqueous anti-volatile-sulfur-compound (VSC) solutions to eliminate gaseous VSCs by direct contact in a sealed space to describe possible mode of action of anti-VSC agents. Materials and methods. Twenty milliliters of each experimental solution, 0.16% sodium chlorite, 0.25% zinc chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine and distilled water, was injected into a Teflon bag containing mixed VSCs, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide and mixed vigorously for 30 s. The VSC concentration was measured by gas chromatography before, immediately after, 30 min and 60 min after mixing. Results. The sodium chlorite solution reduced the VSC concentration remarkably. After mixing, nearly all VSCs were eliminated immediately and no VSCs were detected at 30 and 60 min post-mixing. However, in the other solutions, the VSC concentration decreased by ?30% immediately after mixing and there was no further decrease. Conclusion. The results suggest that sodium chlorite solution has the effect of eliminating gaseous VSCs directly. This must be because it can release chlorine dioxide gas which can react directly with gaseous VSCs. In the case of other solutions that have been proved to be effective to reduce halitosis clinically, it can be proposed that their anti-VSC effect is less likely due to the direct chemical elimination of gaseous VSCs in the mouth. PMID:24512204

Kim, Ju-Sik; Park, Ji-Woon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yun

2014-11-01

123

Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus on volatile sulfur compounds produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis.  

PubMed

Halitosis as oral malodour is an unpleasant odour caused by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). VSCs are produced primarily by anaerobic bacteria that abundantly produce proteinase as trypsin-like enzyme. General therapies, such as mouthwash and plaque control, do not provide a continuous effect on oral halitosis. Streptococcus thermophilus is a probiotic bacterium that is beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of S. thermophilus on Porphyromonas gingivalis-producing VSCs and to analyze the inhibitory mechanism of halitosis. P. gingivalis was cultured with or without S. thermophilus, and the emission of VSCs from the spent culture medium was measured by gas chromatography. In order to analyze the inhibitory effect, the antibacterial activity of S. thermophilus against P. gingivalis was assessed. After the spent culture medium or whole bacterial of S. thermophilus was mixed with the spent culture medium of P. gingivalis, VSCs were again measured by gas chromatograph. When S. thermophilus and P. gingivalis were co-cultivated, VSCs were present at a lower level than those of single-cultured P. gingivalis. S. thermophilus inhibited growth of P. gingivalis, and the whole bacteria and the spent culture medium of S. thermophilus reduced emission of VSCs gas. S. thermophilus may reduce oral malodour by inhibition of P. gingivalis growth and neutralizing VSCs with their metabolites or themselves. PMID:25105253

Lee, Sung-Hoon; Baek, Dong-Heon

2014-11-01

124

Multidimensional gas chromatography in combination with accurate mass, tandem mass spectrometry, and element-specific detection for identification of sulfur compounds in tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

A method is developed for identification of sulfur compounds in tobacco smoke extract. The method is based on large volume injection (LVI) of 10?L of tobacco smoke extract followed by selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) using electron ionization (EI) and positive chemical ionization (PCI), with parallel sulfur chemiluminescence detection (SCD). In order to identify each individual sulfur compound, sequential heart-cuts of 28 sulfur fractions from (1)D GC to (2)D GC were performed with the three MS detection modes (SCD/EI-TOF-MS, SCD/PCI-TOF-MS, and SCD/PCI-Q-TOF-MS). Thirty sulfur compounds were positively identified by MS library search, linear retention indices (LRI), molecular mass determination using PCI accurate mass spectra, formula calculation using EI and PCI accurate mass spectra, and structure elucidation using collision activated dissociation (CAD) of the protonated molecule. Additionally, 11 molecular formulas were obtained for unknown sulfur compounds. The determined values of the identified and unknown sulfur compounds were in the range of 10-740ngmg total particulate matter (TPM) (RSD: 1.2-12%, n=3). PMID:25087743

Ochiai, Nobuo; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Yoshimura, Yuta; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

2014-09-01

125

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark clade of marine gamma-proteobacterial sulfur oxidizers (GSOs) are distributed throughout proteins for sulfur oxidation (adenosine phosphosulfate reductase, sox (sulfur oxidizing system

Hansell, Dennis

126

Heterologous Production of Methionine Lyase from Brevibacterium linens in Lactococcus lactis and Formation of Volatile Sulfur Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of methionine to volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) is of great importance in flavor formation during cheese ripening and is the focus of biotechnological approaches toward flavor improvement. A synthetic mgl gene encoding methionine--lyase (MGL) from Brevibacterium linens BL2 was cloned into a Lactococcus lactis expression plasmid under the control of the nisin-inducible promoter PnisA. When expressed in L.

Sean B. Hanniffy; Mark Philo; Carmen Pelaez; Michael J. Gasson; Teresa Requena; M. C. Martinez-Cuesta

2009-01-01

127

ATP generation during reduced inorganic sulfur compound oxidation by Acidithiobacillus caldus is exclusively due to electron transport phosphorylation.  

PubMed

The synthesis of adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) (increase in phosphorylation potential) during the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds was studied in the moderately thermophilic acidophileAcidithiobacillus caldus (strain KU) (formerly Thiohacillus caldus). The phosphorylation potential increased during the oxidation of all reduced inorganic sulfur compounds tested compared with resting cells. The generation of ATP in whole cells was inhibited by the F0F1 ATPase inhibitor oligomycin, electron transport chain inhibitors, valinomycin and potassium ions. There was no increase in the phosphorylation potential, nor synthesis of ATP. in the absence of electron transport. An apparent lack of substrate-level phosphorylation was indicated by the lack of adenosine 5-phosphosulfate reductase in tetrathionate-grown At. caldus. Studies were also performed on the synthesis of ATP by membrane vesicles of At. caldus when presented with an artificial proton gradient. Complete inhibition of ATP synthesis in these vesicles occurred when they were loaded with N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), but not when they were loaded with oligomycin, vanadate or electron transport chain inhibitors. The data presented here suggest that during the oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds by At. caldus, all ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation via a membrane-bound F0F1 ATPase driven by a proton gradient. PMID:12013432

Dopson, Mark; Lindström, E Börje; Hallberg, Kevin B

2002-04-01

128

Meteoritic Sulfur Isotopic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funds were requested to continue our program in meteoritic sulfur isotopic analysis. We have recently detected a potential nucleosynthetic sulfur isotopic anomaly. We will search for potential carriers. The documentation of bulk systematics and the possible relation to nebular chemistry and oxygen isotopes will be explored. Analytical techniques for delta33, delta34S, delta36S isotopic analysis were improved. Analysis ofmilligram samples is now possible. A possible relation between sulfur isotopes and oxygen was detected, with similar group systematics noted, particularly in the case of aubrites, ureilites and entstatite chondrites. A possible nucleosynthetic excess S-33 has been noted in bulk ureilites and an oldhamite separate from Norton County. High energy proton (approximately 1 GeV) bombardments of iron foils were done to experimentally determine S-33, S-36 spallogenic yields for quantitation of isotopic measurements in iron meteorites. Techniques for measurement of mineral separates were perfected and an analysis program initiated. The systematic behavior of bulk sulfur isotopes will continue to be explored.

Thiemens, Mark H.

1996-01-01

129

Meteoritic Sulfur Isotopic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Funds were requested to continue our program in meteoritic sulfur isotopic analysis. We have recently detected a potential nucleosynthetic sulfur isotopic anomaly. We will search for potential carriers. The documentation of bulk systematics and the possible relation to nebular chemistry and oxygen isotopes will be explored. Analytical techniques for delta(sup 33), delta(sup 34)S, delta(sup 36)S isotopic analysis were improved. Analysis of sub milligram samples is now possible. A possible relation between sulfur isotopes and oxygen was detected, with similar group systematics noted, particularly in the case of aubrites, ureilites and entstatite chondrites. A possible nucleosynthetic excess S-33 has been noted in bulk ureilites and an oldhamite separate from Norton County. High energy proton (approximately 1 GeV) bombardments of iron foils were done to experimentally determine S-33, S-36 spallogenic yields for quantitation of isotopic measurements in iron meteorites. Techniques for measurement of mineral separates were perfected and an analysis program initiated. The systematic behavior of bulk sulfur isotopes will continue to be explored.

Thiemens, Mark H.

1996-01-01

130

COAL SULFUR MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a new technique for sulfur forms analysis based on low-temperature oxygen plasma ashing. The technique involves analyzing the low-temperature plasma ash by modified ASTM techniques after selectively removing the organic material. The procedure has been tested...

131

Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

132

Export of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds from the East Asia region in spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of gaseous and particulate reactive nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as other chemical species, were made using the P-3B and DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment, conducted between February and April 2001. These measurements provide a good opportunity to study the extent to which anthropogenic NOx

M. Koike; Y. Kondo; K. Kita; N. Takegawa; Y. Masui; Y. Miyazaki; M. W. Ko; A. J. Weinheimer; F. Flocke; R. J. Weber; D. C. Thornton; G. W. Sachse; S. A. Vay; D. R. Blake; D. G. Streets; F. L. Eisele; S. T. Sandholm; H. B. Singh; R. W. Talbot

2003-01-01

133

PREPARATION OF RACEMIC AND ENANTIOPURE ARENESULFONIMIDOYL AZOLES - NEW COMPOUNDS CHIRAL ON SULFUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel arenesulfonimidoyl imidazoles 7a-j and nitrotriazoles 9d-j were obtained in good yield from the corresponding arenesulfonimidoyl chlorides 6a-j. The reaction of optically pure sulfonimidoyl chlorides 6 with imidazole resulted in the first reported optically active arenesulfonimidoyl imidazoles 7 with high enantiomeric purities (ee up to > 99%); the stereochemical course of the reaction (inversion or retention at sulfur) is

Ralph Kluge; Heiko Hocke; Manfred Schulz; Frank Schilke

1999-01-01

134

Control of the chemical state change of sulfur in solid compound targets during high-resolution PIXE measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-energy-resolution wavelength-dispersive (WD) X-ray spectrometer in the Johansson geometry, which allowed energy resolution below the natural linewidth of the K ? lines was employed in measurements of the proton-induced K ? X-ray emission spectra for six typical sulfur compounds (CdS, Na2SO3, Na2 S2O5, NaHSO3, (NH4)2SO4, and Na2SO4) to investigate the chemical state change during 2.4-MeV proton irradiation with a current density of 7.5 nA/mm2. We found that the chemical state change of each compound depended on the various factors affecting the surface temperature increase, such as target thickness, mounting method, and existence of active cooling during the measurement. The chemical state of sulfur on the target surface of S4+ compounds was gradually changed into S6+ without exception through irradiation under poor cooling conditions. Sulfur compounds of the S0 and S6+ states with closed shell structures were proven to be chemically stable against proton bombardment, as expected. However, (NH4)2SO4 was found to be most sensitive to proton irradiation among the sulfur compounds, and S0, one of the reaction products, became a major element at doses higher than 3 × 108 Gy. If thick targets were mounted by using a carbon adhesive tape, chemical state change could be observed in some cases even with lowtemperature cooling down to -80 °C, however, the chemical state change seemed to be remarkably suppressed by using very thin targets mounted with a silver paste even without active cooling. In conclusion, the chemical states of sulfur compounds could be preserved without significant change for an accumulated dose of about 3 × 107 Gy, equivalent to a typical high-resolution PIXE scanning period, by adopting a proper target preparation scheme to discharge proton-induced thermal energy effectively from the irradiated target surface.

Woo, Hyung-Joo; Choi, Han-Woo; Kim, Gi-Dong; Kim, Joon-Kon

2012-07-01

135

Activity of vanadium catalysts for sulfuric acid production, promoted with Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Mg compounds, at various pressures of sulfur oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of vanadium catalysts promoted with Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Mg sulfates (ratio Me:V = 4) were studied in conditions of low (up to 1 kPa) and high (up to 70 kPa) partial pressures of sulfur oxides at 693 and 758 K. The authors report results of reaction kinetic studies.

S. V. Ivanenko; R. R. Dzhoraev

1995-01-01

136

Complete genome sequence of Desulfocapsa sulfexigens, a marine deltaproteobacterium specialized in disproportionating inorganic sulfur compounds  

PubMed Central

Desulfocapsa sulfexigens SB164P1 (DSM 10523) belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobulbaceae and is one of two validly described members of its genus. This strain was selected for genome sequencing, because it is the first marine bacterium reported to thrive on the disproportionation of elemental sulfur, a process with a unresolved enzymatic pathway in which elemental sulfur serves both as electron donor and electron acceptor. Furthermore, in contrast to its phylogenetically closest relatives, which are dissimilatory sulfate-reducers, D. sulfexigens is unable to grow by sulfate reduction and appears metabolically specialized in growing by disproportionating elemental sulfur, sulfite or thiosulfate with CO2 as the sole carbon source. The genome of D. sulfexigens contains the set of genes that is required for nitrogen fixation. In an acetylene assay it could be shown that the strain reduces acetylene to ethylene, which is indicative for N-fixation. The circular chromosome of D. sulfexigens SB164P1 comprises 3,986,761 bp and harbors 3,551 protein-coding genes of which 78% have a predicted function based on auto-annotation. The chromosome furthermore encodes 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. PMID:23961312

Finster, Kai Waldemar; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Schreiber, Lars

2013-01-01

137

Sulfur Chemistry in Bacterial Leaching of Pyrite  

PubMed Central

In the case of pyrite bioleaching by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, an organism without sulfur-oxidizing capacity, besides the production of tetra- and pentathionate, a considerable accumulation of elemental sulfur occurred. A similar result was obtained for chemical oxidation assays with acidic, sterile iron(III) ion-containing solutions. In the case of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, only slight amounts of elemental sulfur were detectable because of the organism's capacity to oxidize sulfur compounds. In the course of oxidative, chemical pyrite degradation under alkaline conditions, the accumulation of tetrathionate, trithionate, and thiosulfate occurred. The data indicate that thiosulfate, trithionate, tetrathionate, and disulfane-monosulfonic acid are key intermediate sulfur compounds in oxidative pyrite degradation. A novel (cyclic) leaching mechanism is proposed which basically is indirect. PMID:16535406

Schippers, A.; Jozsa, P.; Sand, W.

1996-01-01

138

Sulfur cycle of a coastal marine sediment (Limfjorden, Denmark)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic transformations of inorganic sulfur compounds in the sediments of a Danish fjord were followed for 2 years. The in situ rate of sulfate reduction measured with a radiotracer technique together with chemical determinations of various sulfur compounds are used to calculate a budget of the complete sulfur cycle. Sulfate reduction rates were high at the sediment surface (25

Jorgensen

1977-01-01

139

The sulfur cycle of a coastal marine sediment (Limfjorden, Denmark)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic transformations of inorganic sulfur compounds in the sediments of a Danish fjord were followed for 2 years. The in situ rate of sulfate reduction measured with a radio- tracer techniqu.e together with chemical determinations of various sulfur compounds are used to calculate a budget of the complete sulfur cycle. Sulfate reduction rates were high at the sediment surface

Bo Barker Jflrgensen

1977-01-01

140

Transporters in plant sulfur metabolism  

PubMed Central

Sulfur is an essential nutrient, necessary for synthesis of many metabolites. The uptake of sulfate, primary and secondary assimilation, the biosynthesis, storage, and final utilization of sulfur (S) containing compounds requires a lot of movement between organs, cells, and organelles. Efficient transport systems of S-containing compounds across the internal barriers or the plasma membrane and organellar membranes are therefore required. Here, we review a current state of knowledge of the transport of a range of S-containing metabolites within and between the cells as well as of their long distance transport. An improved understanding of mechanisms and regulation of transport will facilitate successful engineering of the respective pathways, to improve the plant yield, biotic interaction and nutritional properties of crops.

Gigolashvili, Tamara; Kopriva, Stanislav

2014-01-01

141

Sulfur emissions from Mt. Etna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of three measuring trips to the Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily), field measurements and measurements by aircraft were carried out in the plume of the volcano to determine the concentration distributions and emission rates for the sulfur compounds H2S, SO2, and SO42-. Furthermore, the removal of H2S and SO2 and the production of SO42- in the dispersing plume

Wolfgang Jaeschke; Harald Berresheim; Hans-W. Georgii

1982-01-01

142

Acidithiobacillus caldus Sulfur Oxidation Model Based on Transcriptome Analysis between the Wild Type and Sulfur Oxygenase Reductase Defective Mutant  

PubMed Central

Background Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus) is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox) system (omitting SoxCD), non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR). The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system. Results An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor) was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S0) and tetrathionate (K2S4O6) as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR) of the wild type and the ?sor mutant in S0 and K2S4O6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO) and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR), the truncated Sox pathway, and the S4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media. Conclusion An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized. PMID:22984393

Chen, Linxu; Ren, Yilin; Lin, Jianqun; Liu, Xiangmei; Pang, Xin; Lin, Jianqiang

2012-01-01

143

Process for producing benzene by hydrodealkylation of a hydrocarbon fraction comprising alkylaromatic hydrocarbons, olefinic hydrocarbons and sulfur compound  

SciTech Connect

A stabilized hydrocarbon fraction comprising toluene, xylene, sulfur and olefinic hydrocarbons is converted to benzene by catalytic hydrodesulfurization, hydrodealkylation and catalytic hydrogenation.

Derrien, M.; Cosyns, J.

1984-07-31

144

Sulfur dioxide removal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reducing the loss of sodium values in a system for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas by the use of an absorption-desorption cycle employing aqueous sodium sulfite as the essential absorption solution. Sodium sulfate and\\/or sodium thio-sulfate build-up in the system is avoided and the loss of sodium values reduced by subjecting sodium sulfate and\\/or

N. E. Nicholson; J. Scarlett

1978-01-01

145

Sulfur mobility in peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead-210 chronologies, vertical S concentration gradients and ?34S values are presented for 5 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs located in Central Europe (Rybarenska slat and Ocean Bog; Czech Republic) and the British Isles (Thorne Moors, England; Connemara, Ireland; and Mull, Scotland). Sulfur concentrations were measured in three 40-cm deep peat cores per site, sectioned into 2-cm segments. The coefficient of variation in

Martin Novák; Marie Adamová; R. Kelman Wieder; Simon H. Bottrell

2005-01-01

146

Sulfur dichloride, SCl2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's molecule is sulfur dichloride, SCl2. This and other small inorganic molecules are discussed in the article by Matta and Gillespie. They describe electron density in molecules and how to analyze it to obtain information about molecular bonding and structure. Different depictions of electron density in SCl2 and other small molecules emphasize different aspects of their electron density and of the structures of the molecules.

147

Sulfur plumes off Namibia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur plumes rising up from the bottom of the ocean floor produce colorful swirls in the waters off the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. The plumes come from the breakdown of marine plant matter by anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen to live. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on April 24, 2002 Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

148

Origin and diagenetic transformations of C sub 25 and C sub 30 highly branched isoprenoid sulfur compounds: Further evidence for the formation of organically bound sulfur during early diagenesis  

SciTech Connect

A number of C{sub 25} and C{sub 30} highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulfur compounds (e.g., thiolanes, 1-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo(b)thiophenes) with 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)pentadecane and 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons were identified in sediments, ranging from Holocene to Upper Cretaceous. These identifications are based on mass spectral characterization, desulfurization, and, in some cases, by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with those of authentic standards. The presence of unsaturated C{sub 25} and C{sub 30} HBI thiolanes in a Recent sediment from the Black Sea (age 3-6 {times} 10{sup 3} a) strongly supports their formation during early diagenesis. The co-occurrence of HBI polyenes (C{sub 25} and C{sub 30}) and unsaturated HBI thiolanes (C{sub 25} and C{sub 30}) possessing two double bonds less than the corresponding HBI polyenes, in this Recent sediment, testifies to the formation of unsaturated HBI thiolanes by a reaction of inorganic sulfur species with double bonds of the HBI polyenes. Furthermore, a diagenetic scheme for HBI sulfur compounds is proposed based on the identification of HBI sulfur compounds in sediment samples with different maturity levels.

Kohnen, M.E.L.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kock-Van Dalen, A.C.; de Leeuw, J.W. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Ten Haven, H.L.; Rullkoetter, J. (Institute of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Juelich (West Germany))

1990-11-01

149

Understanding Sulfur Systematics in Large Igneous Provinces Using Sulfur Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruption of the Siberian Traps coincided with perhaps the greatest environmental catastrophe in Earth's history, at the Permo-Triassic boundary. The source and magnitude of the volatile emissions, including sulfur, associated with the eruption remain poorly understood yet were critical in forcing environmental change. Two of the primary questions are how much sulfur gases were emitted during the eruptions and from where they were sourced. Primary melts carry dissolved sulfur from the mantle. Magmas ponding in sills and ascending through dykes may also assimilate sulfur from country rocks, as well as heat the country rocks and generate fluids through contact metamorphism. If the magmas interacted thermally, for prolonged periods, with sulfur-rich country rocks then it is probable that the sulfur budget of these eruptions might have been augmented considerably. This is exactly what we have shown recently for a basaltic sill emplaced in oil shale that fed eruptions of the British Tertiary Province, where surrounding sediments showed extensive desulfurization (Yallup et al. Geoch. Cosmochim. Acta, online, 2013). In the current study sulfur isotopes and trace element abundances are used to discriminate sulfur sources and to model magmatic processes for a suite of Siberian Traps sill and lava samples. Our bulk rock and pyrite geochemical analyses illustrate clearly their high abundance of 34S over 32S. The high 34S/32S has been noted previously and linked to assimilation of sulfur from sediments but may alternatively be inherited from the mantle plume source. With the aim of investigating the sulfur isotopic signature in the melt prior to devolatilization, we use secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), for which a specific set of glass standards was synthesised. In order to understand how sulfur isotopes fractionate during degassing we have also conducted a parallel study of well-characterized tephras from Kilauea Volcano, where sulfur degassing behavior is well known.

Novikova, S.; Edmonds, M.; Turchyn, A. V.; Maclennan, J.; Svensen, H.; Frost, D. J.; Yallup, C.

2013-12-01

150

Fluorine-Induced Chemiluminescence Detection of Biologically Methylated Tellurium, Selenium, and Sulfur Compounds and Methyldithiocarbhydrazide as a Formaldehyde Derivatization Reagent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of this dissertation describes capillary chromatography coupled to a fluorine-induced chemiluminescence detector as a sensitive method by which biologically methylated metalloids can be determined in the presence of high concentrations of potentially interfering molecules. With a wide linear range and excellent sensitivity, this method was applied to the detection of dimethyl selenide (DMSe), dimethyl diselenide (DMDSe), and dimethyl telluride (DMTe), often found in biological environments in the presence of interfering methylated sulfur gases, such as methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. Detection limits for DMSe, DMDSe, and DMTe were 30, 9, and 7 picograms, respectively. This DMTe detection limit is the lowest reported to date for a volatile tellurium gas. A variety of selenium-resistant bacteria emitted mixtures of methylated sulfur/selenium gases when dosed with inorganic selenium salts in the presence of sulfur containing growth media. One of the gases detected was dimethyl selenenyl sulfide, CH_3SeSCH _3, reported here for the first time in headspace above microorganisms. In addition, this detector responded to reduced phosphorus compounds such as phosphine. The detection limit for this compound was 2.8 picograms. Detection limits for alkylated phosphines trimethyl and triethyl phosphine were 0.5 and 17 picograms respectively, based on the relative response of these compounds compared to dimethyl sulfide. This method can be used for the simultaneous determination of methylated sulfur, selenium, tellurium compounds found in biological systems. Part II of this dissertation describes work with methyldithiocarbhydrazide, a compound that has been synthesized for use as a derivatization reagent to capture formaldehyde in the gas phase. Chosen for its ability to react in a manner similar to 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, this molecule was selected based on two structural characteristics: a hydrazine tag to react with and thereby capture carbonyls and a methyl sulfide group to allow for sensitive detection by fluorine-induced chemiluminescence. Although in the final analysis methyldithiocarbohydrazide failed as a successful means by which formaldehyde can be determined using gas chromatography in conjunction with fluorine-induced chemiluminescence, it did successfully derivatize formaldehyde in both solution and the gas phase without the need for low pH conditions.

Chasteen, Thomas Girard

1990-01-01

151

The behavior of nitrifying sludge in presence of sulfur compounds using a floating biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The tolerance, kinetic and oxidizing capability of a nitrifying sludge exposed to different initial concentrations of sulfide (1.7 to 18mg/L) was evaluated in batch experiments. A nitrifying sludge fed with ammonium and thiosulfate and produced in steady state conditions was used as inoculum. Sulfide induced a significant effect either on ammonium consumption rates or nitrite accumulation. In spite of the nitrifying kinetic was affected, the ammonium consumption efficiencies were close to 100%, with nitrate production yields around 1.0. The IC(50) value for ammonium oxidizing-process was 13mg/L of sulfide. Sulfide was oxidized in two steps: first sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur and afterward into sulfate. FISH oligonucleotide probes for Thiobacillusdenitrificans, Nitrosomonas spp., and Nitrobacter spp. were used in order to know if these bacteria were part of the microbial ecology. The obtained results showed that under nitrifying conditions are possible to carry out simultaneously two biological processes, nitrification and sulfur oxidation. PMID:20620047

Beristain-Cardoso, Ricardo; Gómez, Jorge; Méndez-Pampín, Ramón

2010-11-01

152

Influence of Sulfur for Oxygen Substitution in the Solvolytic Reactions of Chloroformate Esters and Related Compounds  

PubMed Central

The replacement of oxygen within a chloroformate ester (ROCOCl) by sulfur can lead to a chlorothioformate (RSCOCl), a chlorothionoformate (ROCSCl), or a chlorodithioformate (RSCSCl). Phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl) reacts over the full range of solvents usually included in Grunwald-Winstein equation studies of solvolysis by an addition-elimination (A-E) pathway. At the other extreme, phenyl chlorodithioformate (PhSCSCl) reacts across the range by an ionization pathway. The phenyl chlorothioformate (PhSCOCl) and phenyl chlorothionoformate (PhOCSCl) react at remarkably similar rates in a given solvent and there is a dichotomy of behavior with the A-E pathway favored in solvents such as ethanol-water and the ionization mechanism favored in aqueous solvents rich in fluoroalcohol. Alkyl esters behave similarly but with increased tendency to ionization as the alkyl group goes from 1° to 2° to 3°. N,N-Disubstituted carbamoyl halides favor the ionization pathway as do also the considerably faster reacting thiocarbamoyl chlorides. The tendency towards ionization increases as, within the three contributing structures of the resonance hybrid for the formed cation, the atoms carrying positive charge (other than the central carbon) change from oxygen to sulfur to nitrogen, consistent with the relative stabilities of species with positive charge on these atoms. PMID:25310653

D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kevill, Dennis N.

2014-01-01

153

Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfuric acid hydrate has been proposed as an important species on Europa's surface, the acid being produced by radiolysis of surficial sulfur compounds. We investigated the spectral properties of disordered and crystalline forms of sulfuric acid and suggest that the hydration properties of Europa's hypothesized sulfuric acid lie between two end members: liquid sulfuric acid and its higher crystalline hydrates.

R. W. Carlson; M. S. Anderson; R. Mehlman; R. E. Johnson

2005-01-01

154

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOEpatents

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27

155

Sulfur Metabolism in Plastids Elizabeth A.H. Pilon-Smits  

E-print Network

Chapter 19 Sulfur Metabolism in Plastids Elizabeth A.H. Pilon-Smits and Marinus Pilon Biology ................................................................................................................. 387 II. Sulfur Compounds and Their Properties ......................................................................................................................... 398 Summary Sulfur is an essential element for plant primary metabolism as a structural component

156

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

157

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

158

The Quest for the Neutral Sulfur-Selenium-Nitrogen Compounds. The Reaction of Dichlorodiselane-Dichlorodisulfane Mixtures With Ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of dichlorodiselane and dichlorodisulfane mixtures with ammonia produce heterocyclic selenium sulfides as well as sulfur nitrides and imides. The reaction products have been identified with Se and N NMR spectroscopy. No evidence on the formation of sulfur-selenium nitrides and imides was observed.

Jarl Siivari; Risto S. Laitinen; Yrjo Hiltunen

1992-01-01

159

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2013-07-01

160

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2012-07-01

161

Characterization of sulfur compounds in whisky by full evaporation dynamic headspace and selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous element-specific detection.  

PubMed

A method is described for characterization of sulfur compounds in unaged and aged whisky. The method is based on full evaporation dynamic headspace (FEDHS) of 100 ?L of whisky samples followed by selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) retention-time-locked (RTL) gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) with simultaneous element-specific detection using a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) and a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD). Sequential heart-cuts of the 16 sulfur fractions were used to identify each individual sulfur compound in the unaged whisky. Twenty sulfur compounds were positively identified by a MS library search, linear retention indices (LRI), and formula identification using MS calibration software. Additionally eight formulas were also identified for unknown sulfur compounds. Simultaneous heart-cuts of the 16 sulfur fractions were used to produce the (2)D RTL GC-SCD chromatograms for principal component analysis. PCA of the (2)D RTL GC-SCD data clearly demonstrated the difference between unaged and aged whisky, as well as two different whisky samples. Fourteen sulfur compounds could be characterized as key sulfur compounds responsible for the changes in the aging step and/or the difference between two kinds of whisky samples. The determined values of the key sulfur compounds were in the range of 0.3-210 ng mL(-1) (RSD: 0.37-12%, n=3). PMID:23182286

Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; MacNamara, Kevin

2012-12-28

162

Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the

H Rennenberg

1984-01-01

163

Organic Sulfur Gas Production in Sulfidic Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lower Kane Cave, Big Horn Basin, WY, permits access to an environment where anaerobic sulfide-rich groundwater meets the aerobic vadose zone. At this interface microorganisms thrive on diverse metabolic pathways including autotrophic sulfur oxidation, sulfate reduction, and aerobic heterotrophy. Springs introduce groundwater rich in H2S to the cave where it both degasses into the cave atmosphere and is used by chemautotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the cave spring and stream habitat. The cave atmosphere in the immediate vicinity of the springs has elevated levels of CO2, H2S and methane, mirroring the higher concentration of H2S and methane in the spring water. The high CO2 concentrations are attenuated toward the two main sources of fresh air, the cave entrance and breathing holes at the rear of the cave. Conventional toxic gas monitors permit estimations of H2S concentrations, but they have severe cross sensitivity with other reduced sulfur gases, and thus are inadequate for characterization of sulfur cave gases. However employment of a field-based GC revealed elevated concentrations of carbonyl sulfide in cave atmosphere. Cultures of microorganisms collected from the cave optimized for enriching fermenters and autotrophic and heterophic sulfate reducing bacteria each produced carbonyl sulfide suggesting a biogenic in origin of the COS in addition to H2S. Enrichment cultures also produced methanethiol (methyl mercaptan) and an additional as yet undetermined volatile organic sulfur compound. In culture, the organo-sulfur compounds were less abundant than H2S, whereas in the cave atmosphere the organo-sulfur compounds were the dominant sulfur gases. Thus, these organo-sulfur gases may prove to be important sources of both reduced sulfur and organic carbon to microorganisms living on the cave wall in a subaerial habitat. Moreover groundwater has not yet been recognized as a source of sulfur gases to the atmosphere, but with the abundance of sulfidic groundwater, this environment may prove to be important to the global sulfur cycle and its influence of the global radiation budget.

Stern, L. A.; Engel, A. S.; Bennett, P. C.

2001-12-01

164

Clinical comparison of a new manual toothbrush on breath volatile sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of a newly designed manual toothbrush (Colgate 360 degrees) to two commercially available manual toothbrushes (Oral-B Indicator and Oral-B CrossAction) and a battery-powered toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush PRO) for their ability to reduce overnight volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) associated with oral malodor. The study followed a four-period crossover design. Following a washout period, prospective subjects arrived at the testing facility without eating, drinking, or performing oral hygiene for baseline evaluation of breath VSC levels. For each phase of the study, subjects were given one of the test tooth-brushes and a tube of regular toothpaste to take home, and they were instructed to brush their teeth in their customary manner for 1 minute. When using the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush, subjects were instructed to clean their tongue with the implement on the back of the brush head for 10 seconds. The following morning, subjects reported to the testing facility, again without performing oral hygiene, eating, or drinking, for the overnight evaluation. After a minimum 2-day washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen using the other toothbrushes. The levels of breath VSC were evaluated instrumentally using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Measurements were taken in duplicate and then averaged. The levels of VSC were expressed as parts per billion (ppb) in mouth air. Sixteen men and women completed the study. At baseline, the mean levels of VSC in mouth air for the 4 toothbrushes were 719.8 ppb+/-318.4 ppb, 592.8 ppb+/-264.6 ppb, 673.8 ppb+/-405.9 ppb, and 656.2 ppb+/-310.2 ppb for the Colgate 360 degrees, Oral-B Indicator, Crest SpinBrush PRO, and Oral-B CrossAction, respectively. Overnight, the mean breath VSC levels after using the four toothbrushes were lower than those observed at baseline. The respective mean levels of breath VSC were 266.5 ppb+/-269.9 ppb, 545.2 ppb+/-346.1 ppb, 567 ppb+/-335.7 ppb, and 554.6 ppb+/-398.4 ppb. Only the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush provided a statistically significant reduction (P < .05) in breath VSC vs baseline. Additionally, the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush was statistically significantly better (P < .05) than the three commercial toothbrushes in reducing breath VSC. Therefore, the results of this randomized, crossover clinical study indicate that a newly designed manual toothbrush with a tongue-cleaning implement on the back of the brush head was significantly more effective than three commercially available toothbrushes in reducing morning breath VSC associated with oral malodor. PMID:15789979

Williams, Malcolm I; Vazquez, Joe; Cummins, Diane

2004-10-01

165

The Biogeochemistry of Sulfur in Hydrothermal Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. The incorporation of sulfur into many biomolecules likely dates back to the development of the earliest metabolic strategies. Sulfur is common in enzymes and co-enzymes and is an indispensable structural component in many peptides and proteins. Early metabolism may have been heavily influenced by the abundance of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal systems. Understanding how sulfur became prevalent in biochemical processes and many biomolecules requires knowledge of the reaction properties of sulfur-bearing compounds. We have previously estimated thermodynamic data for thiols, the simplest organic sulfur compounds, at elevated temperatures and pressures. If life began in hydrothermal environments, it is especially important to understand reactions at elevated temperatures among sulfur-bearing compounds and other organic molecules essential for the origin and persistence of life. Here we examine reactions that may have formed amino acids with thiols as reaction intermediates in hypothetical early Earth hydrothermal environments. (There are two amino acids, cysteine and methionine, that contain sulfur.) Our calculations suggest that significant amounts of some amino acids were produced in early Earth hydrothermal fluids, given reasonable concentrations H2, NH3, H2S and CO. For example, preliminary results indicate that glycine activities as high as 1 mmol can be reached in these systems at 100 C. Alanine formation from propanethiol is also a favorable reaction. On the other hand, the calculated equilibrium log activities of cysteine and serine from propanethiol are -21 and -19, respectively, at 100 C. These results indicate that while amino acid formation with thiols as intermediates is favored in some cases, other mechanisms may have been necessary to produce significant amounts of other amino acids. Coupled with our previous results for thiols, these studies imply that sulfur may have been easily incorporated into the organic geochemistry of early Earth hydrothermal systems, leading to its widespread use in biomolecules. Formation of more complex biomolecules in hydrothermal systems may have required sulfur-bearing organic compounds as reaction intermediates.

Schulte, Mitchell; Rogers, K. L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

166

Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1980-01-01

167

Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2002-01-01

168

8, 93479404, 2008 Sulfur isotope  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 9347­9404, 2008 Sulfur isotope analyses of individual aerosol particles B. Winterholler et the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Sulfur isotope isotope analyses of individual aerosol particles B. Winterholler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen blown and air blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas. The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed.

Lorton, G. A.

1980-01-01

170

Post-SL9 Sulfur Photochemistry on Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have modeled the photochemical evolution of the sulfur containing species that were observed in Jupiter's stratosphere after the Shoemaker Levy 9 (SL9) impacts. We find that most of the sulfur is converted to S8 in the first few days. Other important sulfur reservoirs are CS, whose abundance increases markedly with time, and possibly H2CS, HNCS, and NS, whose abundances depend on kinetic reaction rates that are unknown at the present. We discuss the temporal variation of the major sulfur compounds, make abundance and compositional predictions useful for comparison with observations, and discuss the possible condensation of sulfur containing species.

Moses, Julianne I.; Allen, Mark; Gladstone, G. Randall

1995-01-01

171

Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-08-15

172

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was ˜21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

173

Third quarterly technical summary report on the homogeneous production and removal of NO/sub x/ from combustion exhaust flows. [27 reactions of sulfur or sulfur compounds with other gases or vapors  

SciTech Connect

The addition of ammonia to the exhaust stream of stationary combustors is a promising approach toward reducing NO/sub x/ emissions. The use of high sulfur-content fuels will produce moderate quantities of SO/sub 2/ and other sulfur-bearing compounds which may affect the effectiveness of this thermal deNO/sub x/ process. Modeling efforts indicate that the presence of SO/sub 2/ is slightly beneficial in removing NO above 1250K. In addition, experiments show that the ammonia species (NH/sub i/, i = 1,2,3) have no appreciable reaction rate with SO/sub 2/. An explanation of the effect of SO/sub 2/ on the thermal deNO/sub x/ process is presented, as well as preliminary calculations leading to the measurement of the key reaction of H + SO/sub 3/.

Silver, J.A.

1981-05-01

174

Sulfur dimers adsorbed on Au(111) as building blocks for sulfur octomers formation: A density functional study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have shown for more than two decades rectangular formations when sulfur atoms are deposited on Au(111) surfaces. The precursors have ranged from simple molecules or ions, such as SO2 gas or sulfide anions, to more complex organosulfur compounds. We investigated, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory, the structure of these rectangular patterns assuming them entirely composed of sulfur atoms as the experimental evidence suggests. The sulfur coverage at which the simulations were carried out (0.67 ML or higher) provoked that the sulfur-sulfur association had to be taken into account for achieving a good agreement between the sets of simulated and experimental STM images. A combination of four sulfur dimers per rectangular formation properly explained the trends obtained by the experimental STM analysis which were related with the rectangles' size and shape fluctuations together with sulfur-sulfur distances within these rectangles. Finally, a projected density of states analysis showed that the dimers were capable of altering the Au(5d) electronic states at the same level as atomic sulfur adsorbed at low coverage. Besides, sulfur dimers states were perfectly distinguished, whose presence near and above the Fermi level can explain both: sulfur-sulfur bond elongation and dimers stability when they stayed adsorbed on the surface at high coverage.

Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Pujals, Daniel Codorniu; Mikosch, Hans; Hernández, Mayra P.

2014-07-01

175

Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton). PMID:21353535

Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Miller, E N; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Fu, Z; Tong, Z; Ingram, L O

2011-04-01

176

[An evaluation of acute effects of sulfur compounds for the human organism in natural gas fields emergencies (review)].  

PubMed

A trend towards a growing number of emergency situations at industrial enterprises has been recently traced throughout the world. The main reasons of such phenomenon are: a comprehensive use of highly dangerous technologies and materials; large-scale violations of the operational rules and norms; and an inadmissibly high wear-and-tear of the main production funds in economic branches with extra risk. The world experience is indicative of a high degree of danger related with exploiting the natural-gas fields with a high content of sulfur compounds. The occurrence of emergency situations in the mentioned fields is accompanied by development of acute and sub-acute toxic effects in the workers and population. It necessitated, recently, an elaboration of a concept of a relative safety, in view of an unfavorable impact produced by chemical substances in emergencies, and an elaboration of methods applicable to the evaluation of emergency regulations. PMID:12852038

Salikhova, L R; Zebseev, V V; Karpov, A I; Eremin, M N; Gorlov, A V

2003-01-01

177

Stability and P-V-T Equations of State of High-Pressure Iron-Sulfur Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been hypothesized that iron and perhaps sulfur are important contributors to the cores of terrestrial planets. In order to assess the incorporation of sulfur in a metallic iron core, we must understand phase relations in the Fe-S system at high pressure and temperature. The absence of structure and pressure-density data for the Fe3S2 and Fe2S high-pressure phases limits the ability to fully characterize the Fe-S system at high pressure and temperature. In this study, we report new experimental results on the stability, in-situ structure, and P-V-T equations of state of the high-pressure iron-sulfur compounds. Experiments were performed in a multi-anvil apparatus using an 8/3 assembly at beamline BL04B1 in the SPring-8 synchrotron facility. FeS and Fe were mixed in appropriate proportions (Fe3S2 and Fe2S) and loaded into a MgO capsule. The MgO capsule material was also utilized as an internal pressure calibrant. The Fe-FeS mixtures were first pressurized to about 20 GPa at room temperature. The sample was then heated with a rhenium foil heater to 1073 K and held at that temperature for two to four hours to promote formation of the high-pressure Fe-S phase. Temperatures were measured using a W0.05Re-W0.26Re thermocouple. X-ray diffraction data of the samples were collected at appropriate time intervals to address reaction kinetics. The relative intensities of the diffraction lines associated with metallic Fe and the high-pressure Fe-S compounds (Fe3S2 or Fe2S) decreased and increased, respectively, with time. The observed diffraction peaks at simultaneous high pressure and temperature will be used to determine the in-situ structures of Fe3S2 and Fe2S. We also obtained P-V-T data for Fe3S whose structure type has been previously determined, over a wide pressure-temperature range. These data will be used to constructed density profiles of S-bearing iron cores and to evaluate core composition models

Frank, M. R.; Fei, Y.; Mibe, K.; Watson, H.

2003-12-01

178

The Science and Application of Critical Loads for Deposition of Nitrogen and Sulfur Compounds in National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Parks of the U.S. contain resources of unsurpassed beauty and ecological significance. Park managers are directed to preserve the scenery and natural resources in these parks unimpaired for future generations. However, air pollution can damage the very resources that parks were created to preserve and, often, air pollution originates from outside park boundaries and therefore beyond the National Park Service's management jurisdiction. The Clean Air Act provides a framework and certain tools for protecting park resources from air pollution, but despite these programs, air pollution impacts to national park resources are widespread, including acidification or eutrophication from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Advances in ecosystem research and modeling have allowed national park managers to use critical loads to better evaluate ecosystem condition and set clear management goals for parks. Critical loads define the amount of deposition, usually nitrogen or sulfur compounds, below which harmful effects to a given resource are not expected. Resource protection goals based on critical loads, in turn, can be communicated to federal and State air regulatory agencies, and incorporated into air quality management planning for ecosystem protection. For example, the National Park Service, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and the Environmental Protection Agency have collaborated to use a critical load to set goals for a nitrogen deposition reduction plan to remedy ecosystem impacts in Rocky Mountain National Park. Elevated nitrogen deposition to the park has caused changes in the type and abundance of aquatic plant species, elevated levels of nitrate in surface waters, elevated levels of nitrogen in spruce needles, long-term accumulation of nitrogen in forest soils, and a shift in alpine tundra plant communities favoring sedges and grasses over the natural wildflower flora. The plan calls for nitrogen deposition to be reduced gradually over 20 years, to ultimately ensure ecosystem recovery and protection.

Porter, E.

2008-12-01

179

SULFUR (S) Role of S in plants  

E-print Network

SULFUR #12;SULFUR (S) · Role of S in plants Component of amino acids Essential for nitrate reductase enzyme · Nitrate organic-N · Deficiency symptoms not localized #12;#12;#12;#12;POTENTIAL SULFUR DEFICIENCIES · Low organic matter soils · No recent manure history · Low sulfur in precipitation · Low subsoil

Balser, Teri C.

180

Sulfur isotopes Laura Rosales-Lagarde  

E-print Network

1 Sulfur isotopes Laura Rosales-Lagarde April 9th 2013 Figures from Seal et al. 2000 and Seal 2006 Significance v. 40, 541-602 Seal, R.R. II, 2006, Sulfur Isotope Geochemistry of Sulfide Minerals, in Vaughan D;2 Sulfur species #12;3 Mass-independent fractionation #12;4 #12;5 Sulfur and Oxygen isotopic secular

Lachniet, Matthew S.

181

1,2,4-Dithiazole-5-ones and 5-thiones as efficient sulfurizing agents of phosphorus(III) compounds--a kinetic comparative study.  

PubMed

The sulfurization efficiency of 25 3-substituted-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-ones and 5-thiones towards triphenyl phosphite in acetonitrile, DCM, THF and toluene at 25 °C was evaluated. All the 1,2,4-dithiazoles are much better sulfurizing reagents than commercially available agents (PADS, TETD, Beaucage's reagent). The most efficient sulfurizing agents in all solvents are 3-phenoxy (4), 3-phenylthio (5) and 3-ethoxy-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-one (1) whose reactivity is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of other 1,2,4-dithiazoles. Contrary to a previous report, the sulfurization with 1 does not yield carbonylsulfide and ethyl cyanate as the additional reaction products but unstable ethoxythiocarbonyl isocyanate which has been trapped with 4-methoxyaniline. Similar trapping experiments have proven that the site of attack is at the sulfur adjacent to the C=O group for compounds 4 and 5. The reaction pathway involves rate-limiting initial nucleophilic attack of the phosphorus at sulfur followed by decomposition of the phosphonium intermediate to the corresponding phosphorothioate and isocyanate/isothiocyanate species. The existence of the phosphonium intermediate during sulfurization of triphenyl phosphine with 3-phenyl-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-thione (7a) was proven using kinetic studies. From the Hammett and Brønsted correlations and from other kinetic measurements it was concluded that the transition-state structure is almost apolar for the most reactive 1,2,4-dithiazoles whereas a polar structure resembling a zwitter-ionic intermediate may be more appropriate for the least reactive 1,2,4-dithiazoles. The extent of P–S bond formation and S–S bond cleavage is very similar in all reaction series but it gradually decreases with the reactivity of the 1,2,4-dithiazole derivatives. PMID:23052107

Ponomarov, Oleksandr; Laws, Andrew P; Hanusek, Ji?í

2012-11-28

182

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOEpatents

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01

183

New insights into Archean sulfur cycle from mass-independent sulfur isotope records from the  

E-print Network

New insights into Archean sulfur cycle from mass-independent sulfur isotope records from of Archean sulfur reservoirs and to trace pathways in the Archean sulfur cycle. Our data are explained-dependent fractionation in the ocean. In the Archean, volcanic, sulfur-bearing gas species were photolysed by solar

184

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-print Network

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen-17 In this thermochemical cycle, sulfuric acid is decomposed at high temperature 850°C to SO2 and wa- ter, and the SO2

Weidner, John W.

185

Thermal behavior of the sulfur electrolyte in sodium-sulfur battery concepts  

SciTech Connect

The composition range and the temperature limits for the sulfur electrolyte in sodium-sulfur battery concepts extends from the molten polysulfide phase into and through the region of molten pulse-molten sulfur phase separation, to elemental sulfur. Investigations of the thermal behavior of the sulfur electrolyte (melting-crystallizatio

Janz, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.

1983-01-01

186

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the annual...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2012-07-01

187

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2013-07-01

188

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (b) The 1-hour...

2011-07-01

189

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an amendment published...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2010-07-01

190

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2010-07-01

191

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2011-07-01

192

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the annual...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2013-07-01

193

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2012-07-01

194

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the annual...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2011-07-01

195

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-print Network

A joint research effort is being conducted on ways to produce cost-effective pulping catalysts from lignin. This project addresses improving selectivities and reducing the levels of sulfur chemicals used in pulping. Improved selectivity means...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

196

Radiolysis of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid monohydrate, and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate and its relevance to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report laboratory studies on the 0.8MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4·H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4·4H2O) between 10 and 180K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4-, and SO42-. At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that

M. J. Loeffler; R. L. Hudson; M. H. Moore; R. W. Carlson

2011-01-01

197

Identification of the chemical form of sulfur compounds in the Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) skeleton using ?-XRF/XAS speciation mapping.  

PubMed

The distributions and chemical forms of sulfur compounds in the skeleton of Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) were investigated using X-ray spectroscopic techniques combined with micro-focused soft X-ray radiation. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence/soft X-ray photoabsorption (?-XRF/XAS) speciation mapping clarified that sulfate is the primary species in the coral skeleton, with minor amounts of organic sulfur, whereas both sulfate and organic sulfur coexist in coenenchyme. Analysis of the post-edge region of the XAS spectra confirmed that sulfate ions in the coral skeleton are mainly in the form of gypsum-like inorganic sulfate substituting for the carbonate ions in the calcite skeleton. The sulfate concentration was negatively correlated with the magnesium concentration and positively correlated with that of phosphorus. Speciation mapping of sulfate in the coral skeleton showed clear fluctuations with sulfate concentrations being higher at dark bands, whereas the small amount of organic sulfur had unclear dark/bright bands. These results suggest that the little organic sulfur that is present is contained in the organic matter embedded in the biocrystal of coral skeleton. PMID:24727132

Tamenori, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Luan, Nguyen Trong; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Iwasaki, Nozomu

2014-05-01

198

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01

199

TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING REDUCED FORMS OF SULFUR IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

A new technique for measuring low concentrations of volatile sulfur compounds in ambient air is discussed. The technique consists of preconcentration of sulfur compounds by chemisorption on gold metal coated sand or gold foil surface followed by thermal desorption, separation, an...

200

Characterization and quantification of the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen and associated compounds in their gaseous, aerosol, and dissolved states  

SciTech Connect

The needs and problems associated with the characterization and quantification of the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen and associated compounds in their gaseous, aerosol, and dissolved states are discussed. Illustrations are given of the techniques in present usage for the determination of the substances of interest to investigators concerned with the effects of air pollutants on the terrestrial ecosystem. The value and utility of the newer techniques employing real time continuous instrumentation are presented and compared with the more traditional approaches utilizing sampling collection. A plea is made to provide resources for data reduction especially in order to obtain constructive utilization of continuous instrumentation. It is asserted that real time instrumentation is best utilized during campaign measurement programs where short time resolution is required and that collection techniques still have a place, especially in long term monitoring efforts. Special attention was directed at, and the problems highlighted that are associated with, the utilization of the real time instruments available for the flame photometric determination of the oxides of sulfur and the chemiluminescent measurement of the oxides of nitrogen. The newer methods proposed for their use in the determination of sulfate and nitric acid respectively are presented. The difficulties associated with the determination of nitrate are enunciated and attention focused on the problems of obtaining a sample due to the variation of the vapor pressure of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia above solid ammonium nitrate which is in association with an acidic aerosol containing sulfate. The utility of measurements of the composition of rainwater is discussed in light of its application to determine the mechanisms through which rain derives its chemical composition.

Newman, L

1980-05-01

201

Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.  

PubMed

Chlorobaculum (Cba.) tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium that oxidizes sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate for photosynthetic growth. To gain insight into the sulfur metabolism, the proteome of Cba. tepidum cells sampled under different growth conditions has been quantified using a rapid gel-free, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) protocol with an in-solution isotopic labeling strategy. Among the 2245 proteins predicted from the Cba. tepidum genome, approximately 970 proteins were detected in unlabeled samples, whereas approximately 630-640 proteins were detected in labeled samples comparing two different growth conditions. Wild-type cells growing on thiosulfate had an increased abundance of periplasmic cytochrome c-555 and proteins of the periplasmic thiosulfate-oxidizing SOX enzyme system when compared with cells growing on sulfide. A dsrM mutant of Cba. tepidum, which lacks the dissimilatory sulfite reductase DsrM protein and therefore is unable to oxidize sulfur globules to sulfite, was also investigated. When compared with wild type, the dsrM cells exhibited an increased abundance of DSR enzymes involved in the initial steps of sulfur globule oxidation (DsrABCL) and a decreased abundance of enzymes putatively involved in sulfite oxidation (Sat-AprAB-QmoABC). The results show that Cba. tepidum regulates the cellular levels of enzymes involved in sulfur metabolism and other electron-transferring processes in response to the availability of reduced sulfur compounds. PMID:22092713

Falkenby, Lasse G; Szymanska, Monika; Holkenbrink, Carina; Habicht, Kirsten S; Andersen, Jens S; Miller, Mette; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik

2011-10-01

202

Intermediate sulfur oxidation state compounds in the euxinic surface sediments of the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (Black Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep Black Sea is known to be depleted in electron-acceptors for sulfide oxidation. This study on depth distributions of sulfur species (S(II), S(0), Sn2-, SO32-, SO32-, SO42-) in the Dvurechenskii mud volcano, a cold seep situated in the permanently anoxic eastern Black Sea basin (Sorokin Trough, 2060 m water depth), showed remarkable concentrations of sulfide oxidation products. Sulfite concentrations of up to 11 ?mol L-1, thiosulfate concentrations of up to 22 ?mol L-1, zero-valent sulfur concentrations of up to 150 ?mol L-1 and up to five polysulfide species were measured in the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Electron-acceptors found to be available in the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV) for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfide oxidation intermediates are iron-minerals, and probably also reactive manganese phases. Up to 60 ?mol g-1 of reactive iron-minerals and up to 170 ?mol L-1 dissolved iron was present in the central summit with the highest fluid upflow and fresh mud outflow. Thus, the source for the oxidative power in the DMV are reactive iron phases extruded with the mud from an ancient source in the deeply buried sediments, leading to the formation of various sulfur intermediates in comparably high concentrations. Another possible source of sulfide oxidation intermediates in DMV sediments could be the formation of zero-valent sulfur by sulfate dependent anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane followed by disproportionation of zero-valent sulfur. Sulfide oxidation intermediates, which are produced by these processes, do not reach thermodynamic equilibrium with rhombic sulfur, especially close to the active center of the DMV due to a short equilibration time. Thus, mud volcano sediments, such as in the DMV, can provide oxidizing niches even in a highly reduced environment like the abyssal part of the Black Sea.

Lichtschlag, Anna; Kamyshny, Alexey; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; deBeer, Dirk

2013-03-01

203

Smaller sulfur molecules promise better lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

The lithium-sulfur battery holds a high theoretical energy density, 4-5 times that of today's lithium-ion batteries, yet its applications have been hindered by poor electronic conductivity of the sulfur cathode and, most importantly, the rapid fading of its capacity due to the formation of soluble polysulfide intermediates (Li(2)S(n), n = 4-8). Despite numerous efforts concerning this issue, combatting sulfur loss remains one of the greatest challenges. Here we show that this problem can be effectively diminished by controlling the sulfur as smaller allotropes. Metastable small sulfur molecules of S(2-4) were synthesized in the confined space of a conductive microporous carbon matrix. The confined S(2-4) as a new cathode material can totally avoid the unfavorable transition between the commonly used large S(8) and S(4)(2-). Li-S batteries based on this concept exhibit unprecedented electrochemical behavior with high specific capacity, good cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which promise a practicable battery with high energy density for applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles, and large-scale energy storage systems. PMID:23101502

Xin, Sen; Gu, Lin; Zhao, Na-Hong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhou, Long-Jie; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

2012-11-14

204

Are we getting enough sulfur in our diet?  

PubMed Central

Sulfur, after calcium and phosphorus, is the most abundant mineral element found in our body. It is available to us in our diets, derived almost exclusively from proteins, and yet only 2 of the 20 amino acids normally present in proteins contains sulfur. One of these amino acids, methionine, cannot be synthesized by our bodies and therefore has to be supplied by the diet. Cysteine, another sulfur containing amino acid, and a large number of key metabolic intermediates essential for life, are synthesized by us, but the process requires a steady supply of sulfur. Proteins contain between 3 and 6% of sulfur amino acids. A very small percentage of sulfur comes in the form of inorganic sulfates and other forms of organic sulfur present in foods such as garlic, onion, broccoli, etc. The minimal requirements (RDA) for all the essential amino acids have always been estimated in terms of their ability to maintain a nitrogen balance. This method asses amino acid requirements for protein synthesis, only one of the pathways that methionine follows after ingestion. To adequately evaluate the RDA for methionine, one should perform, together with a nitrogen balance a sulfur balance, something never done, neither in humans nor animals. With this in mind we decided to evaluate the dietary intake of sulfur (as sulfur amino acids) in a random population and perform sulfur balance studies in a limited number of human volunteers. Initially this was done to try and gain some information on the possible mode of action of a variety of sulfur containing compounds (chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, and others, ) used as dietary supplements to treat diseases of the joints. Out of this study came information that suggested that a significant proportion of the population that included disproportionally the aged, may not be receiving sufficient sulfur and that these dietary supplements, were very likely exhibiting their pharmacological actions by supplying inorganic sulfur. PMID:17986345

Nimni, Marcel E; Han, Bo; Cordoba, Fabiola

2007-01-01

205

SULFUR-CONTAINING ODORANTS IN FRAGRANCE CHEMISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur-containing compounds are some of the strongest odorants. The perception of their odors often depends on their concentration as well as on their chemical, diastereo- and enantiomeric purity. Even if present only in trace amounts, they may change the overall olfactory impressions of fragrant mixtures, which makes the art of composing perfumes both difficult as well as rewarding. In the

Andreas Goeke

2002-01-01

206

Some Experiments in Sulfur-Nitrogen Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly surveys the main structural types of sulfur-nitrogen compounds, and describes syntheses, suitable as undergraduate experiments, which illustrate four of the five types of cyclic species. Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of results for these experiments are provided. (Author/JN)

Banister, Arthur J.; Smith, Nigel R. M.

1982-01-01

207

Measuring global sulfur dioxide emissions with satellite sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric sulfur dioxide affects the weather by enhancing cloud formation, and long-term shifts in emissions can change the climate by increasing the amount of solar radiation scattered back into space. Sulfur dioxide emissions are the basis for acid rain, and the gas itself can cause respiratory problems. Despite the compound's importance to climate, the difficulties associated with accurately measuring sulfur dioxide mean that rates of emissions are generally not well understood.

Schultz, Colin

2013-11-01

208

A three-dimensional study of the tropospheric sulfur cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global tropospheric distributions of seven important sulfur species were simulated with a global three-dimensional chemistry-transport model (IMAGES). Surface emission and deposition velocity maps were established for use as lower boundary conditions in the model. While anthropogenic SO2 emissions are by far the largest sulfur source in the northern midlatitudes, reduced sulfur compounds, notably dimethyl sulfide (DMS) predominate over most

M. Pham; J.-F. Müller; G. P. Brasseur; C. Granier; G. Mégie

1995-01-01

209

Control of oxidative sulfur metabolism in Chlorobium  

SciTech Connect

The photosynthetic, anaerobic microorganism Chlorobium limicola forma sp. thiosulfatophilum is being investigated as a possible biocatalyst for the removal of acid gases (primarily H/sub 2/S) generated by the hydroprocessing of fossil fuels. The organism was grown in an anaerobic, fed-batch photobioreactor which was continuously supplied with N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. The effect of light intensity, surface area of illuminated bioreactor, H/sub 2/S flow rate and various wavelength regions of light on oxidative sulfur metabolism by Chlorobium was examined. Light intensity, surface area of illuminated bioreactor, and H/sub 2/S flow rate regulated oxidative sulfur metabolism. The H/sub 2/S utilization rate increased with a corresponding increase in light intensity. The photoautotroph grew in any selected wavelength region with production of the various sulfur compounds, i.e., thiosulfate, sulfate, and sulfur. However, the rate of H/sub 2/S oxidation was wavelength dependent. The photosynthetic quantum efficiency (which is the molecules of sulfur (S/sup 0/) produced per photon utilized) was determined for this system. It is possible that the quantum efficiency can be used as a sufficiency factor for a photobioreactor. The sufficiency factor would be a unique characteristic of the reactor and demonstrate the relationship between light intensity and the rate of the light driven reaction. This sufficiency factor could be used for the determination of a light efficient photobioreactor.

Maka, A.

1986-01-01

210

MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NITROGEN, OXYGEN AND SULFUR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS: STUDIES WITH AQUIFER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for anaerobic biodegradation of 12 heterocyclic model compounds was studied. Nine of the model compounds were biotransformed in aquifer slurries under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. The nitrogen and oxygen heterocyclic compounds were more susceptible t...

211

MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NITROGEN, OXYGEN, AND SULFUR HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS: STUDIES WITH AQUIFER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential for anaerobic biodegradation of 12 heterocyclic model compounds was studied. ine of the model compounds were biotransformed in aquifer slurries under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions. he nitrogen and oxygen heterocyclic compounds were more susceptible to ...

212

Io's theothermal (sulfur) - Lithosphere cycle inferred from sulfur solubility modeling of Pele's magma supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface deposits of volatile compounds such as water (Earth) or sulfur (Io) on volcanically active bodies suggest that a magmatic distillation process works to concentrate volatiles in surface reservoirs. On Earth, this is the combined hydrologic and tectonic cycle. On Io, sulfurous compounds are transferred from the interior to the surface reservoirs through a combination of a mantle-sourced magmatic system, vertical cycling of the lithosphere, and a sulfur-dominated crustal thermal system that we here call the "theothermal" system. We present a geochemical analysis of this process using previously inferred temperature and oxygen fugacity constraints of Pele's basaltic magma to determine the behavior of sulfur in the ionian magmas. Sulfate to sulfide ratios of Pele's magma are -4.084 ± 0.6 and -6.442 ± 0.7 log10 units, comparable to or lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts. This reflects the similarity of Io's oxidation state with Earth's depleted mantle as previously suggested by Zolotov and Fegley (Zolotov, M.Y., Fegley, B. [2000]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2789-2792). Our calculated limits of sulfur solubility in melts from Pele's patera (˜1100-1140 ppm) are also comparable to terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflecting a compositional similarity of mantle sources. We propose that the excess sulfur obvious on Io's surface comes from two sources: (1) an insoluble sulfide liquid phase in the magma and (2) theothermal near-surface recycling.

Battaglia, Steven M.; Stewart, Michael A.; Kieffer, Susan W.

2014-06-01

213

Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine.  

PubMed

Because the role of elemental sulfur in human nutrition has not been studied extensively, it is the purpose of this article to emphasize the importance of this element in humans and discuss the therapeutic applications of sulfur compounds in medicine. Sulfur is the sixth most abundant macromineral in breast milk and the third most abundant mineral based on percentage of total body weight. The sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) are methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, homocystine, and taurine. Dietary SAA analysis and protein supplementation may be indicated for vegan athletes, children, or patients with HIV, because of an increased risk for SAA deficiency in these groups. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), a volatile component in the sulfur cycle, is another source of sulfur found in the human diet. Increases in serum sulfate may explain some of the therapeutic effects of MSM, DMSO, and glucosamine sulfate. Organic sulfur, as SAAs, can be used to increase synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), glutathione (GSH), taurine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). MSM may be effective for the treatment of allergy, pain syndromes, athletic injuries, and bladder disorders. Other sulfur compounds such as SAMe, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), taurine, glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate, and reduced glutathione may also have clinical applications in the treatment of a number of conditions such as depression, fibromyalgia, arthritis, interstitial cystitis, athletic injuries, congestive heart failure, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS. Dosages, mechanisms of action, and rationales for use are discussed. The low toxicological profiles of these sulfur compounds, combined with promising therapeutic effects, warrant continued human clinical trails. PMID:11896744

Parcell, Stephen

2002-02-01

214

Regulation of Dissimilatory Sulfur Oxidation in the Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium Vinosum  

PubMed Central

In the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum, thiosulfate oxidation is strictly dependent on the presence of three periplasmic Sox proteins encoded by the soxBXAK and soxYZ genes. It is also well documented that proteins encoded in the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) operon, dsrABEFHCMKLJOPNRS, are essential for the oxidation of sulfur that is stored intracellularly as an obligatory intermediate during the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide. Until recently, detailed knowledge about the regulation of the sox genes was not available. We started to fill this gap and show that these genes are expressed on a low constitutive level in A. vinosum in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds. Thiosulfate and possibly sulfide lead to an induction of sox gene transcription. Additional translational regulation was not apparent. Regulation of soxXAK is probably performed by a two-component system consisting of a multi-sensor histidine kinase and a regulator with proposed di-guanylate cyclase activity. Previous work already provided some information about regulation of the dsr genes encoding the second important sulfur-oxidizing enzyme system in the purple sulfur bacterium. The expression of most dsr genes was found to be at a low basal level in the absence of reduced sulfur compounds and enhanced in the presence of sulfide. In the present work, we focused on the role of DsrS, a protein encoded by the last gene of the dsr locus in A. vinosum. Transcriptional and translational gene fusion experiments suggest a participation of DsrS in the post-transcriptional control of the dsr operon. Characterization of an A. vinosum ?dsrS mutant showed that the monomeric cytoplasmic 41.1-kDa protein DsrS is important though not essential for the oxidation of sulfur stored in the intracellular sulfur globules. PMID:21927612

Grimm, Frauke; Franz, Bettina

2011-01-01

215

Journal of Sulfur Chemistry Vol. 26, No. 3, June 2005, 245250  

E-print Network

Journal of Sulfur Chemistry Vol. 26, No. 3, June 2005, 245­250 RESEARCH ARTICLE Highly efficient of organic sulfur compounds [1, 2]. Reactions of acetylene compounds with sulfide anions are of great importance in the synthesis of the thiophenes [3, 4]. On the other hand, sulfur compounds, and especially

Rüedi, Peter

216

On the Origin of Sulfur  

E-print Network

We present our work on the halo evolution of sulfur, based on observations of the S I lines around 9220 A for ten stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694 A. We cannot confirm the rise and the high [S/Fe] abundances for low [Fe/H], as claimed in the literature from analysis of the 8694 A lines. The reasons for claims of an increase in [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] are probably twofold: uncertainties in the measurements of the weak 8694 A lines, and systematic errors in metallicity determinations from Fe I lines. The near-infrared sulfur triplet at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars. Our work was presented in full by Ryde & Lambert (2004).

Nils Ryde; David L. Lambert

2005-10-05

217

Biochemistry of Dissimilatory Sulfur Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The long term goals of this research were to define the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during the dissimilatory oxidation of sulfur practiced by various species of the thiobacilli. Specific adhesion of the thiobacilli to elemental sulfur was studied by electrical impedance, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry, and optical trapping methods. The conclusion is that the thiobacilli appear to express specific receptors that enable the bacteria to recognize and adhere to insoluble sulfur. The enzyme tetrathionate oxidase was purified from two species of the thiobacilli. Extensive structural and functional studies were conducted on adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase purified from cell-free extracts of Thiobacillus denitrificans. The kinetic mechanism of rhodanese was studied.

Blake II, R.

2003-05-30

218

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous extracts of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozonolysis of dlimonene were subjected to dissolution, evaporation, and re-dissolution in the presence and absence of ammonium sulfate (AS). Evaporation with AS at pH 4-9 produced chromophores that were stable with respect to hydrolysis and had a distinctive absorption band at 500 nm. Evaporation accelerated the rate of chromophore formation by at least three orders of magnitude compared to the reaction in aqueous solution, which produced similar compounds. Absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry experiments suggested that the molar fraction of the chromophores was small (< 2%), and that they contained nitrogen atoms. Although the colored products represented only a small fraction of SOA, their large extinction coefficients (>10{sup 5} L mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at 500 nm) increased the effective mass absorption coefficient of the residual organics in excess of 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} - a dramatic effect on the optical properties from minor constituents. Evaporation of SOA extracts in the absence of AS resulted in the production of colored compounds only when the SOA extract was acidified to pH {approx} 2 with sulfuric acid. These chromophores were produced by acid-catalyzed aldol condensation, followed by a conversion into organosulfates. The presence of organosulfates was confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometry experiments. Results of this study suggest that evaporation of cloud or fog droplets containing dissolved organics leads to significant modification of the molecular composition and serves as a potentially important source of light-absorbing compounds.

Nguyen, Tran B.; Lee, Paula B.; Updyke, Katelyn M.; Bones, David L.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2012-01-14

219

The Speciation of Sulfur in an Ocean on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stability of native sulfur, iron sulfides, and aqueous sulfur compounds is evaluated at assumed P-T conditions of the Europa's ocean floor. Pyrite, gypsum, and ferric hydroxides can coexist in contact with sulfate-rich oceanic water. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Zolotov, M. Yu.; Shock, E. L.

2002-01-01

220

Flavor precursors and sensory-active sulfur compounds in alliaceae species native to South Africa and South America.  

PubMed

Profiles of S-substituted cysteine flavor precursors were determined in 42 Alliaceae species native to South Africa and South America. It was found that the pool of cysteine derivatives present in these plants is remarkably very simple, with S-((methylthio)methyl)cysteine 4-oxide (marasmin) being the principal flavor precursor, typically accounting for 93-100% of the pool. Out of the other cysteine derivatives, only minor quantities of methiin were present in some species. The marasmin-derived thiosulfinate marasmicin (2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4-oxide), a major sensory-active compound of the freshly disrupted plants, was isolated, and its organoleptic properties were evaluated. Furthermore, sulfur-containing volatiles formed upon boiling of these alliaceous species were studied by GC-MS. The profile of the volatiles formed was relatively simple, with 2,3,5-trithiahexane and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane being the major components. Despite the traditional belief, ingestion of the marasmin-rich plants was always accompanied by development of a strong "garlic breath". We believe that especially several Tulbaghia species deserve to attract much greater attention from the food industry thanks to their pungent garlicky taste and unusual yet pleasant alliaceous smell. PMID:23331069

Kubec, Roman; Krej?ová, Petra; Mansur, Leví; García, Nicolás

2013-02-13

221

Sulfuric Acid on Europa's Surface and the Radiolytic Sulfur Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galileo infrared spectra of Europa's surface show distorted water bands that have been attributed to hydrated evaporite salts (McCord et al., J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11827, 1999) or to the scattering properties of ice (Dalton and Clark, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1081, 1998). Using new laboratory spectra, we show that hydrated sulfuric acid can explain Europa's spectra and further

R. W. Carlson; R. E. Johnson; M. S. Anderson

1999-01-01

222

Three-Zone Catalyst Resists Sulfur Poisoning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-zone catalyst bed uses different types of nickel catalysts to convert sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Zones designed to achieve conversion with minimal residue of unconverted hydrocarbon, no soot and mimimal sulfur contamination.

Voecks, G. E.; Stephanopoulos, M. F.; Houseman, J.

1984-01-01

223

Thermal behavior of the sulfur electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Data is included on heats of solid-state transition, heats of fusion and crystallization, heat capacities, DSC endotherms, and the composition range and temperature limits for the sulfur/polysulfide electrolyte in sodium-sulfur batteries.

Janz, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.

1982-01-01

224

Thermal behavior of the sulfur electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data is included on heats of solid-state transition, heats of fusion and crystallization, heat capacities, DSC endotherms, and the composition range and temperature limits for the sulfur\\/polysulfide electrolyte in sodium-sulfur batteries.

G. J. Janz; D. J. Rogers

1982-01-01

225

Parameters Influencing Sulfur Speciation in Environmental Samples Using Sulfur K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to enhance the credibility of applying the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as an innovative “fingerprint” for characterizing environmental samples. The sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of ten sulfur compound standards detected by two different detectors, namely, Lytle detector (LyD) and Germanium detector (GeD), were studied and compared. Further investigation on “self-absorption” effect revealed that the maximum sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were achieved when diluting sulfur compound standards with boron nitride (BN) at the mixing ratio of 0.1%. The “particle-size” effect on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum sensitivities was examined by comparing signal-to-noise ratios of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter of less than 10 millionths of a meter (PM10) collected at three major cities of Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratios of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were positively correlated with sulfate content in aerosols and negatively connected with particle sizes. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) has proved that sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum can be used to characterize German terrestrial soils and Andaman coastal sediments. In addition, this study highlighted the capability of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra as an innovative “fingerprint” to distinguish tsunami backwash deposits (TBD) from typical marine sediments (TMS). PMID:23193498

Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Thumanu, Kanjana; Kositanont, Charnwit; Schwarzer, Klaus; Prietzel, Jorg; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak; Kittikoon, Itthipon

2012-01-01

226

Behavior of sulfur during coal pyrolysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The behavior of sulfur in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by thermogravimetry/ Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR) techniques. SO2, COS, and H2S were major gaseous sulfur-containing products observed during coal pyrolysis. The release rates of the gaseous sulfur species showed several peaks within the temperature ranges, which were due to the emission of different forms of sulfur in coal. ?? 1994.

Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Heidbrink, J.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

1994-01-01

227

The effect of elemental sulfur, gypsum and ammonium thiosulfate as sulfur sources on yield of rapeseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth chamber experiment was conducted to compare ammonium thiosulfate, gypsum and elemental sulfur in the form of Agrisul as sources of sulfur for rapeseed (Brassica napus var. Regent). Rapeseed supplied with ammonium thiosulfate or gypsum produced significantly higher yields than treatments supplied with elemental sulfur. Powdering and mixing of elemental sulfur, as opposed to banding granules, significantly increased dry

M. Swan; R. J. Soper; G. Morden

1986-01-01

228

Sulfuric acid versus elemental sulfur as by-products. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic comparison of sulfuric acid production and sulfur recovery processes was made on eastern coal feeds in this study. Sulfuric acid is the more attractive product whenever assured markets are available, on the basis of rail transportation of by-products. The capital cost is higher for a plant to recover the sulfur, and the product value is lower per unit

1978-01-01

229

December 2002 Issue #13 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR  

E-print Network

December 2002 Issue #13 ­ 2002 SULFUR RESPONSES AND THE WISCONSIN ALFALFA SULFUR SURVEY 1/ K to applied sulfur fertilizer in northern and western Wisconsin on lighter textured, low organic matter soils and Kelling, 1987). More recently, crop consultants and others have reported seeing sulfur responses on soils

Balser, Teri C.

230

Sulfur Economy and Cell Wall Biosynthesis during Sulfur Limitation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1  

E-print Network

Sulfur Economy and Cell Wall Biosynthesis during Sulfur Limitation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1 that specifically accumulate during sulfur limitation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These polypeptides, present at high levels in the extracellular polypeptide fraction from a sulfur-deprived, cell wall-minus C

231

Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. II. Thermodynamics of Sulfur Oxides on Platinum(111)  

E-print Network

Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. II. Thermodynamics of Sulfur Oxides on Platinum at the highest coverages and sulfur oxidation states. Calculated vibrational spectra are used to assign observed the preferred SOx species on Pt(111), consistent with observation. I. Introduction The chemistry of sulfur

Lin, Xi

232

Parallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope records of the evolving Paleozoic marine sulfur reservoir  

E-print Network

Parallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope records of the evolving Paleozoic marine sulfur the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur are expressed in the evolving stable isotope composition of the ocean time, along with the sulfate sulfur isotope composition preserved as carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS

Saltzman, Matthew R.

233

The properties of calibration errors in the analysis of reduced sulfur compounds by the combination of a loop injection system and gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the extent of analytical biases involved in the GC calibration, we conducted a series of experiments to examine the calibration methods of trace gas components. For the purpose of this comparative study, gaseous standards of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were

Ki-Hyun Kim

2006-01-01

234

Sulfidation Study of Molybdenum Oxide Using MoO 3\\/SiO 2\\/Si(100) Model Catalysts and Mo IV 3Sulfur Cluster Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monochromatic XPS spectra of the temperature-dependent sulfidation of MoO3\\/SiO2\\/Si(100) model catalysts are compared with spectra of Mo-S cluster compounds in particular with those of (NH4)2[Mo3S13] · H2O and its thermal decomposition products. XPS is used to identify different states of sulfur and molybdenum occurring during sulfidation, The spectra show the presence of bridging disulfide ligands and of substantial amounts of

J. C. Muijsers; T. Weber; R. M. Vanhardeveld; H. W. Zandbergen; J. W. Niemantsverdriet

1995-01-01

235

A SAW-based chemical sensor for detecting sulfur-containing organophosphorus compounds using a two-step self-assembly and molecular imprinting technology.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new effective approach for the sensitive film deposition of surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensors for detecting organophosphorus compounds such as O-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) containing sulfur at extremely low concentrations. To improve the adsorptive efficiency, a two-step technology is proposed for the sensitive film preparation on the SAW delay line utilizing gold electrodes. First, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylene)thio

Pan, Yong; Yang, Liu; Mu, Ning; Shao, Shengyu; Wang, Wen; Xie, Xiao; He, Shitang

2014-01-01

236

Bipotentiometry in Organic Redox Systems. II. Oxidation of Nonaromatics Including Sulfur Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bipotentiometry has been found to be applicable in the oxidation with lead (IV) acetate of various polyenes and organosulfur compounds in trifluoroacetic acid. It is assumed that oxidation produces intermediates such as radical cations that are electroche...

H. W. Yurow, S. Sass

1971-01-01

237

Allyl sulfur compounds and cellular detoxification system: effects and perspectives in cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) have been shown to have chemopreventive effects and to suppress the proliferation of\\u000a tumor cells in vitro through the induction of apoptosis. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic and anti-proliferative\\u000a effects of garlic-derived OSCs are not fully understood. Several modes of action of these compounds have been proposed, and\\u000a it seems likely that the rate of

S. Melino; R. Sabelli; M. Paci

2011-01-01

238

The sulfur isotope composition of basaltic rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfur isotope composition of tholeiitic basalts, olivine alkali basalts and alkalirich undersaturated basalts were investigated. A method of preparation was devised(a)for the extraction of the small amounts of sulfur contained in the rock samples (about 100 ppm S),(b)for the separation of sulfide- and sulfate-sulfur.

Alfred Schneider

1970-01-01

239

Geological evolution from isotope proxy signals — sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

A currently emerging sulfur isotope record for Phanerozoic seawater, based on structurally substituted sulfate in stratigraphically well constrained biogenic carbonates, allows the detailed assessment of secular variations within the global sulfur cycle and the interaction between the sulfur and carbon cycles. It is superior to the evaporite-based dataset because it enables sampling of the entire biostratigraphic column. Discrete biological and

Harald Strauss

1999-01-01

240

Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

241

Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

Ho, N.W.Y.

1991-01-01

242

46 CFR 148.315 - Sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur. 148.315 Section 148.315 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.315 Sulfur. (a) This part applies to lump or coarse grain powder sulfur only. Fine-grained powder...

2013-10-01

243

46 CFR 148.315 - Sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur. 148.315 Section 148.315 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.315 Sulfur. (a) This part applies to lump or coarse grain powder sulfur only. Fine-grained powder...

2012-10-01

244

46 CFR 148.315 - Sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur. 148.315 Section 148.315 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.315 Sulfur. (a) This part applies to lump or coarse grain powder sulfur only. Fine-grained powder...

2011-10-01

245

Biochemistry of dissimilatory sulfur oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Our goals of this research are to define the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during the dissimilatory oxidation of sulfur by thiobacilli. We have purified APS reductase to electrophoratic homogeneity from cell-free extracts of Thiobacillus denitrificans. Sufficient protein is available to initiate the production of polyclonal antibodies and to perform the kinetic experiments.

Blake, R. II.

1992-01-01

246

Sulfur-tolerant anode materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the second year's technical effort on a program to identify and evaluate alternative anode materials for use in molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) operating with high levels of sulfur contaminants in the fuel are summarized. In the first year of this program, a literature survey was performed covering all materials development research relating to electrode development for molten carbonate fuel cells. A final selection of 15 candidate materials was made, and samples of 9 of these 15 materials were fabricated and tested for electrical conductivity and for stability in the molten electrolyte. An additional 5 materials were evaluated during the second year. Several water-gas shift catalysts were also evaluated for their catalytic activity and sulfur resistance under conditions prevailing in the MCFC anode. These materials were titanium carbide, cobalt metal, copper metal, copper-nickel alloy, and lithium ferrate (III). Only the lithium ferrate (III) exhibited sulfur tolerance in that the performance of the lithium ferrate (III) cell did not change when sulfur was added to the fuel. The lithium ferrate (III) was then used to fabricate anodes for two 100 cm(2) bench-scale cells. These cells were assembled and operated on a medium-Btu simulated coal gasifier-derived fuel. Results are discussed.

Remick, Robert J.; Osif, Terry L.; Lawson, M. G.

1988-09-01

247

TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents an analysis of regional trends in atmospheric concentrations in sulfur dioxide (502) and particulate sulfate (50~- ) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CAsTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used t...

248

Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

Gillette, Donald G.

1975-01-01

249

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

250

Identification of Components of Electron Transport Chains in the Extremely Thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Metallosphaera sedula through Iron and Sulfur Compound Oxidation Transcriptomes? †  

PubMed Central

The crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales collectively contain at least five major terminal oxidase complexes. Based on genome sequence information, all five complexes are found only in Metallosphaera sedula and Sulfolobus tokodaii, the two sequenced Sulfolobales capable of iron oxidization. While specific respiratory complexes in certain Sulfolobales have been characterized previously as proton pumps for maintaining intracellular pH and generating proton motive force, their contribution to sulfur and iron biooxidation has not been considered. For M. sedula growing in the presence of ferrous iron and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs), global transcriptional analysis was used to track the response of specific genes associated with these complexes, as well as other known and putative respiratory electron transport chain elements. Open reading frames from all five terminal oxidase or bc1-like complexes were stimulated on one or more conditions tested. Components of the fox (Msed0467 to Msed0489) and soxNL-cbsABA (Msed0500 to Msed0505) terminal/quinol oxidase clusters were triggered by ferrous iron, while the soxABCDD? terminal oxidase cluster (Msed0285 to Msed0291) were induced by tetrathionate and S0. Chemolithotrophic electron transport elements, including a putative tetrathionate hydrolase (Msed0804), a novel polysulfide/sulfur/dimethyl sulfoxide reductase-like complex (Msed0812 to Msed0818), and a novel heterodisulfide reductase-like complex (Msed1542 to Msed1550), were also stimulated by RISCs. Furthermore, several hypothetical proteins were found to have strong responses to ferrous iron or RISCs, suggesting additional candidates in iron or sulfur oxidation-related pathways. From this analysis, a comprehensive model for electron transport in M. sedula could be proposed as the basis for examining specific details of iron and sulfur oxidation in this bioleaching archaeon. PMID:18931292

Auernik, Kathryne S.; Kelly, Robert M.

2008-01-01

251

Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and polymeric succinimide compounds  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for making an additive for lubricants comprising co-reacting: (a) an olefin; (b) sulfur; (c) hydrogen sulfide; and (d) a polymeric succinimide selected from the group consisting of the reaction products of polymeric succinic anhydride with one or more reactants selected from the group consisting of: (a) polyethylene amines selected from the group consisting of diethylene triamines, treithylenetetramine, and tetraethylenepentamine; (b) hydroxyl containing amines, and; (c) polyols in conjunction with (a) or (b) selected from the group consisting of pentaerythritol, and trimethylol propane; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric succinimide, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of about 3 to about 0.5, about 0.001, to about 0.4, and about 0.5 to about 0.7, respectively.

Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

1988-11-22

252

Sulfur isotope distribution in solfatares, Yellowstone National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfur isotope data on hydrogen sulfide, native sulfur, and sulfates from acid hot-spring areas at Yellowstone National Park suggest that hydrogen sulfide oxidizes to sulfur analogically, whereas sulfur undergoes biological oxidation to sulfuric acid. An exception occurs at Mammoth Hot Springs where hydrogen sulfide apparently undergoes biochemical oxidation to sulfur.

Schoen, R.; Rye, R.O.

1970-01-01

253

The evolution of infalling sulfur species in Titan's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We studied the hypothesis that micrometeorites and Enceladus' plume activity could carry sulfur-bearing species into the upper atmosphere of Titan, in a manner similar to oxygen-bearing species. Methods: We have developed a detailed photochemical model of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of Titan that couples hydrocarbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur chemistries. Results: Photochemical processes produce mainly CS and H2CS in the upper atmosphere of Titan and C3S, H2S and CH3SH in the lower atmosphere. Mole fractions of these compounds depend significantly on the source of sulfur species. Conclusions: A possible future detection of CS (or the determination of a low upper limit) could be used to distinguish the two scenarios for the origin of sulfur species, which then could help to differentiate the various scenarios for the origin of H2O, CO, and CO2 in the stratosphere of Titan.

Hickson, K. M.; Loison, J. C.; Cavalié, T.; Hébrard, E.; Dobrijevic, M.

2014-12-01

254

Disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds by the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes gen. nov., sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater lake after enrichment with\\u000a thiosulfate as the energy source. The strain, named Bra2 (DSM 7269), is able to grow by disproportionation of thiosulfate\\u000a or sulfite to sulfate plus sulfide. Elemental sulfur is also disproportionated to sulfate and sulfide, but this only supports\\u000a growth if free sulfide

Peter H. Janssen; Alexandra Schuhmann; Friedhelm Bak; Werner Liesack

1996-01-01

255

Sulfur-oxidizing Bacteria: A Novel Bioinoculant for Sulfur Nutrition and Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sulfur is an essential nutrient for plant growth as sulfur-deficient conditions cause severe losses in crop yield. Sulfur\\u000a nutrition has received little attention for many years, since fertilizers and atmospheric inputs have provided adequate amounts.\\u000a However, recent reductions in sulfur inputs from atmospheric depositions have resulted in a negative sulfur balance in agricultural\\u000a soils, making crop plants increasingly dependent on

R. Anandham; P. Indira Gandhi; M. SenthilKumar; R. Sridar; P. Nalayini; Tong-Min Sa

256

Possible Roles of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in a Chemoautotrophic Bacterium-Mollusc Symbiosis  

E-print Network

Possible Roles of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids in a Chemoautotrophic Bacterium-Mollusc Symbiosis avoiding its toxic effects. The sulfur-containing free amino acids taurine and thiotaurine may function in sulfide detoxification by serving as sulfur storage compounds or as transport compounds between symbiont

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

257

Rhodanese Functions as Sulfur Supplier for Key Enzymes in Sulfur Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus. PMID:22496367

Aussignargues, Clement; Giuliani, Marie-Cecile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese; Ilbert, Marianne

2012-01-01

258

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-print Network

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01

259

INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 23. SULFUR, SULFUR OXIDES AND SULFURIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The sulfur indus...

260

Missing SO2 oxidant in the coastal atmosphere? - Evidence from high resolution measurements of OH and atmospheric sulfur compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diurnal and seasonal variations of gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) were measured in N.E. Atlantic air at the Mace Head atmospheric research station during the years 2010 and 2011. The measurements utilized selected ion/chemical ionization mass spectrometry (SI/CIMS) with a detection limit for both compounds of 4.3 × 10 4 cm-3 at 5 min signal integration. The H2SO4 and MSA gas-phase concentrations were analysed in conjunction with the condensational sink for both compounds derived from 3 nm-10 ?m (diameter) aerosol size distributions. Accommodation coefficients of 1.0 for H2SO4 and 0.12 for MSA were assumed leading to estimated atmospheric lifetimes of the order of 7 min and 25 min, respectively. With the SI/CIMS instrument in OH measurement mode alternating between OH signal and background (non-OH) signal evidence was obtained for the presence of one or more unknown oxidants of SO2 in addition to OH. Depending on the nature of the oxidant(s) their ambient concentration may be enhanced in the CIMS inlet system by additional production. The apparent unknown SO2 oxidant was additionally confirmed by direct measurements of SO2 in conjunction with calculated H2SO4 concentrations. The calculated concentrations were consistently lower than the measured concentrations by a factor 4.8 ± 3.4 when considering the oxidation of SO2 by OH as the only source of H2SO4. Both the OH and the background signal were also observed to increase significantly during daytime aerosol nucleation events, independent of the ozone photolysis frequency, J(O1D), and were followed by peaks in both H2SO4 and MSA concentrations. This suggests a strong relation between the unknown oxidant(s), OH chemistry, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation of biogenic iodine compounds. As to the identity of the oxidant(s), we have been able to exclude ClO, BrO, IO, and OIO as possible candidates based on ab initio calculations. Stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) produced from ozonolysis of alkenes potentially contribute to the oxidation efficiency of the coastal and marine atmosphere. However, analysis of the CIMS background signal in context with recently published kinetic data currently suggests that larger Criegee intermediates produced from ozonolysis play no significant role for SO2 oxidation in the marine atmosphere. The possibility of H2SO4 formation without SO2 as precursor or from SO2 oxidation by small sCI produced photolytically should be explored.

Berresheim, H.; Adam, M.; Monahan, C.; O'Dowd, C.; Plane, J. M. C.; Bohn, B.; Rohrer, F.

2014-01-01

261

ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

262

Sulfur and iron in shipwrecks cause conservation concerns.  

PubMed

Synchrotron-based sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals considerable accumulation of organosulfur (e.g. thiols), pyrite and iron(II) sulfides in marine-archaeological wood preserved in seawater, e.g. for historical shipwrecks such as the Vasa and Mary Rose. In the museum, oxidation of the sulfur compounds in the presence of iron ions may cause severe acidity in the moist wood. This tutorial review discusses developments of conservation methods to remove acid and iron, and how to analyse and stabilise sulfur compounds in the wood. PMID:16636724

Fors, Yvonne; Sandström, Magnus

2006-05-01

263

Minimal sulfur requirement for growth and sulfur-dependent metabolism of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus  

PubMed Central

Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon that uses peptides as carbon and energy sources. Elemental sulfur (S°) is obligately required for its growth and is reduced to H2S. The metabolic functions and mechanisms of S° reduction were explored by examining S°-dependent growth and activities of key enzymes present in this organism. All three forms of S° tested—sublimed S°, colloidal S° and polysulfide—were used by S. marinus, and no other sulfur-containing compounds could replace S°. Elemental sulfur did not serve as physical support but appeared to function as an electron acceptor. The minimal S° concentration required for optimal growth was 0.05% (w/v). At this concentration, there appeared to be a metabolic transition from H2 production to S° reduction. Some enzymatic activities related to S°-dependent metabolism, including sulfur reductase, hydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and electron transfer activities, were detected in cell-free extracts of S. marinus. These results indicate that S° plays an essential role in the heterotrophic metabolism of S. marinus. Reducing equivalents generated by the oxidation of amino acids from peptidolysis may be transferred to sulfur reductase and hydrogenase, which then catalyze the production of H2S and H2, respectively. PMID:15803665

Hao, Xiaolei; Ma, Kesen

2003-01-01

264

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOEpatents

A novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200/degree/C or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S)/sub y/)n wherein y = 1 to 6; n = 2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprises one or more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon. 4 figs.

DeJonghe, L.C.; Visco, S.J.; Mailhe, C.C.; Armand, M.B.

1988-03-31

265

Economical nitrogen—sulfur fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Fertilizer & Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has developed and begun introduction of a new family of nitrogen—sulfur (NS) suspensions with several advantages. The new NS suspensions have a substantial economic advantage over ammonium thiosulfate-based solutions and they are considerably higher in grade and more versatile than ammonium sulfate-based solutions currently on the market. In some areas, the NS

J. L. Boles; C. A. Hodge; L. C. Faulkner

1991-01-01

266

Comparative Aspects of Sulfur Mineralization in Sediments of a Eutrophic Lake Basin †  

PubMed Central

The net mineralization of organic sulfur compounds in surface sediments of Wintergreen Lake was estimated from a mass-balance budget of sulfur inputs and sediment sulfur concentrations. The net mineralization of organic sulfur inputs is <50% complete, which is consistent with the dominance of organic sulfur (>80% of total sulfur) in sediment. Although sediment sulfur is predominantly organic, sulfate reduction is the most significant process in terms of the quantities of sulfur transformed in surface sediments. Rates of sulfate reduction in these sediments average 7 mmol/m2 per day. On an annual basis, this rate is 19-fold greater than net rates of organic sulfur mineralization and 65-fold greater than sulfate ester hydrolysis. PMID:16346037

King, Gary M.; Klug, M. J.

1982-01-01

267

Biotic and abiotic carbon to sulfur bond cleavage. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The microbial desulfurization of organosulfur compounds occurs by unprecedented and largely unexplored biochemical processes. A study of such biotic desulfurizations can be expected to give rise to new and useful chemistry and enzymology. The potential value of understanding and harnessing these processes is seen in relation to the need for methods for the removal of organically bound sulfur from coal and the degradation of organic sulfur-containing pollutants. This research effort has been directed towards an examination of desulfurization ability in well characterized microorganisms, the isolation of bacteria with desulfurization ability from natural sources, the characterization and mechanistic evaluation of the observed biocatalytic processes, the development of biomimetic synthetic organic chemistry based on biotic desulfurization mechanisms and the design and preparation of improved coal model compounds for use in microbial selection processes. A systematic approach to studying biodesulfurizations was undertaken in which organosulfur compounds have been broken down into classes based on the oxidation state of the sulfur atom and the structure of the rest of the organic material. Microbes have been evaluated in terms of ability to degrade organosulfur compounds with sulfur in its sulfonic acid oxidation state. These compounds are likely intermediates in coal desulfurization and are present in the environment as persistent pollutants in the form of detergents. It is known that oxygen bonded to sulfur lowers the carbon-sulfur bond energy, providing a thermodynamic basis for starting with this class of compounds.

Frost, J.W.

1994-05-01

268

The 1950 sulfur flow of Mauna Loa: Considerations for Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the geological relationships observed in the Mauna Loa sulfur flow may apply in considering volcanic processes on Io. Given the presence of sulfur/sulfur compounds in the eruption plumes and on the surface of Io, it is likely that extensive secondary deposits of sulfur exist, some of which may be of fumarolic origin and analogous to the Mauna Loa deposit. Given the likelihood of silicate volcanism of Io based on the inferred material properties of some flows, and the attendant high temperatures for silicate volcanism, it is likely that the secondary surface deposits of sulfur would have been mobilized without being heated to the high viscosity stage. Mobilized sulfur flows on Io may flow long distances as a result of: (1) low viscosities in the melting range; (2) sustained effusion resulting from continued heating source area; (3) continued remobilization within the flow as a consequence of surges from the source; and (4) extension via lava tubes, or similar conduits through which there is little heat loss. Sulfur flows may form a relatively thin veneer over silicate flows and other surface units, given their fluidity and low mobilization temperature. Active splashing and splattering may spread sulfur over a wider area contributing the bright blooms observed in association with some Ionian flows.

Greeley, R.; Theilig, E.; Christensen, P.

1984-01-01

269

Sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

The commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries is hindered by low cycle stability and low efficiency, which are induced by sulfur active material loss and polysulfide shuttle reaction through dissolution into electrolyte. In this study, sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes are synthesized as cathode material for the lithium-sulfur battery. The obtained sulfur-carbon tube cathodes demonstrate superior cyclability and Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, the electrochemical characterization indicates a new stabilization mechanism of sulfur in carbon induced by heat treatment. PMID:21928817

Guo, Juchen; Xu, Yunhua; Wang, Chunsheng

2011-10-12

270

Transition metal sulfur dioxide hexafluoroarsenates and hexafluoroantimonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and characterization by X-ray crystallography of transition metal sulfur dioxide hexafluoroarsenates of the general formula [M(SO2)x](AsF6)21 (1a: M=Mn, x=2; 1c: M=Co, x=4; 1e: M=Cu, x=4) and the hexafluoroantimonate [Co(SO2)2](SbF6)23 is reported. The structural features of the compounds mentioned are compared with those of [Fe(SO2)4](AsF6)2 (1b) and [Ni(SO2)6](AsF6)2 (1d), reported previously. The structural diversity of transition metal sulfur dioxide

E Lork; R Mews; J Petersen; M Schröter; B Žemva

2001-01-01

271

Insertion of Elemental Sulfur and SO2 into the Metal-Hydride and Metal-Carbon Bonds of Platinum  

E-print Network

Insertion of Elemental Sulfur and SO2 into the Metal-Hydride and Metal-Carbon Bonds of Platinum of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received September 15, 1998 Elemental sulfur-bearing organic compounds. One convenient sulfur source capable of insertion chemistry is elemental sulfur (S8

Jones, William D.

272

Prebiotic Synthesis of Methionine and Other Sulfur-Containing Organic Compounds on the Primitive Earth: A Contemporary Reassessment Based on an Unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Original extracts from an unpublished 1958 experiment conducted by the late Stanley L. Miller were recently found and analyzed using modern state-of-the-art analytical methods. The extracts were produced by the action of an electric discharge on a mixture of methane (CH4), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Racemic methionine was farmed in significant yields, together with other sulfur-bearing organic compounds. The formation of methionine and other compounds from a model prebiotic atmosphere that contained H2S suggests that this type of synthesis is robust under reducing conditions, which may have existed either in the global primitive atmosphere or in localized volcanic environments on the early Earth. The presence of a wide array of sulfur-containing organic compounds produced by the decomposition of methionine and cysteine indicates that in addition to abiotic synthetic processes, degradation of organic compounds on the primordial Earth could have been important in diversifying the inventory of molecules of biochemical significance not readily formed from other abiotic reactions, or derived from extraterrestrial delivery.

Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio

2010-01-01

273

Extending the models for iron and sulfur oxidation in the extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans gains energy from the oxidation of ferrous iron and various reduced inorganic sulfur compounds at very acidic pH. Although an initial model for the electron pathways involved in iron oxidation has been developed, much less is known about the sulfur oxidation in this microorganism. In addition, what has been reported for both iron and sulfur oxidation has

Raquel Quatrini; Corinne Appia-Ayme; Yann Denis; Eugenia Jedlicki; David S. Holmes; Violaine Bonnefoy

2009-01-01

274

Analysis of sulfur-related transcription by Roseobacter communities using a taxon-specific functional  

E-print Network

Analysis of sulfur-related transcription by Roseobacter communities using a taxon role in the surface ocean sulfur cycle and well represented by genome sequences. The array consisted labile organic sulfur or carbon compounds produced during the bloom. The relative investment

Wehrli, Bernhard

275

Ceramic-metal seals for advanced battery systems. [sodium sulfur and lithium sulfur batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for materials which are electrochemically compatible with the lithium sulfur and sodium sulfur systems is discussed. The use liquid or braze alloys, titanium hydrite coatings, and tungsten yttria for bonding beryllium with ceramic is examined.

Reed, L.

1978-01-01

276

Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis  

E-print Network

Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

Lyons, J. R.

277

HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

2003-11-01

278

Measurement of sulfur-containing compounds involved in the metabolism and transport of cysteamine and cystamine. Regional differences in cerebral metabolism?  

PubMed Central

An HPLC method with coulometric detection is presented for the quantitation of cysteamine, cystamine, thialysine, glutathione, glutathione disulfide and an oxidized metabolite of thialysine [S-(2-aminoethyl)-l-cysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer (AECK-DD)]. The advantage of coulometric detection is that derivatization is unnecessary if the analyte is redox sensitive. The method was used to quantitate several sulfur-containing compounds in plasma and brain following gavage feeding of cysteamine to rats. Cysteamine, cystamine, thialysine and AECK-DD were detected in the brains of these animals. Interestingly, cysteamine treatment resulted in greatly elevated levels of cerebral methionine, despite the fact that cysteamine is not a precursor of methionine. PMID:19523884

Pinto, John T.; Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; McLaren, Gordon D.; Denton, Travis T.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Jeitner, Thomas M.; Cooper, Arthur J.L.

2009-01-01

279

Elemental sulfur in Eddy County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfur has been reported in Eddy County, N. Mex., in rocks ranging from Silurian to Holocene in age at depths of 0-15,020 feet. Targets of present exploration are Permian formations in the Delaware Basin and northwest shelf areas at depths of less than 4,000 feet. Most of the reported sulfur occurrences in the shelf area are in the 'Abo' (as used by some subsurface geologists), Yeso, and San Andres Formations and the Artesia Group. Sulfur deposition in the dense dolomites of the 'Abo,' Yeso, and San Andres Formations is attributed to the reduction of ionic sulfate by hydrogen sulfide in formation waters in zones of preexisting porosity and permeability. A similar origin accounts for most of the sulfur deposits in the formations of the Artesia Group, but some of the sulfur in these formations may have originated in place through the alteration of anhydrite to carbonate and sulfur by the metabolic processes of bacteria in the presence of hydrocarbons. Exploration in the Delaware Basin area is directed primarily toward the Castile Formation. Sulfur deposits in the Castile Formation are found in irregular masses of cavernous brecciated secondary carbonate rock enveloped by impermeable anhydrite. The carbonate masses, or 'castiles,' probably originated as collapse features resulting from subsurface solution and upward stopping. Formation of carbonate rock and sulfur in the castiles is attributed to the reduction of brecciated anhydrite by bacteria and hydrocarbons in the same process ascribed to the formation of carbonate and sulfur in the caprocks of salt domes.

Hinds, Jim S.; Cunningham, Richard R.

1970-01-01

280

Sulfur: Not a Silent Element Any More!  

SciTech Connect

To understand the many important functions of sulfur, a ubiquitous element in biological systems, in the environment and for industrial applications, detailed analyses are needed. Characterization of the variety of sulfur functional groups in a natural sample, often occurring in a wide range of oxidation states, became possible when the development of dedicated X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy started in the mid-1980s. This tutorial review provides an overview of sulfur XANES spectroscopic investigations into the role of sulfur in all kinds of natural samples, from sediment and oil to marine-archaeological wood and plants.

Jalilehvand, F.

2007-07-09

281

Sulfuric Acid Production on Europa: The Radiolysis of Sulfur in Water Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa's surface is chemically altered by radiolysis from energetic charged particle bombardment. It has been suggested that hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4·nH2O) is a major surface species and is part of a radiolytic sulfur cycle, where a dynamic equilibrium exists between continuous production and destruction of sulfur polymers Sx, sulfur dioxide SO2, hydrogen sulfide H2S, and H2SO4·nH2O. We measured the rate

R. W. Carlson; M. S. Anderson; R. E. Johnson; M. B. Schulman; A. H. Yavrouian

2002-01-01

282

Sulfuric Acid Production on Europa: The Radiolysis of Sulfur in Water Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa's surface is chemically altered by radiolysis from energetic charged particle bombardment. It has been suggested that hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4.nH2O) is a major surface species and is part of a radiolytic sulfur cycle, where a dynamic equilibrium exists between continuous production and destruction of sulfur polymers Sx, sulfur dioxide SO2, hydrogen sulfide H2S, and H2SO4.nH2O. We measured the rate

R. W. Carlson; M. S. Anderson; R. E. Johnson; M. B. Schulman; A. H. Yavrouian

2002-01-01

283

Electrochemical properties of sulfur electrode containing nano Al2O3 for lithium\\/sulfur cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

To prevent the dissolution of lithium polysulfides into liquid electrolyte and to promote the lithium\\/sulfur redox reaction, nano-sized Al2O3 particles having large specific surface area were added into sulfur electrode. The effects of nano-sized Al2O3 particles on the electrochemical properties of sulfur electrode for lithium\\/sulfur battery were investigated using CV measurements, charge\\/discharge tests and ionic conductivity measurements of liquid electrolyte.

Y. J. Choi; B. S. Jung; D. J. Lee; J. H. Jeong; K. W. Kim; H. J. Ahn; K. K. Cho; H. B. Gu

2007-01-01

284

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23

285

Multiple sulfur isotope constraints on the modern sulfur cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 28 multiple sulfur isotope measurements of seawater sulfate (?34S and ?33S) from the modern ocean over a range of water depths and sites along the eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean. The average measured ?34S is 21.24‰ (±0.88‰,2?) with a calculated ?33S of +0.050‰ (±0.014‰,2?). With these values, we use a box-model to place constraints on the gross fraction of pyrite burial in modern sediments. This model presents an improvement on previous estimates of the global pyrite burial flux because it does not rely on the assumed value of ?34S, which is poorly constrained, but instead uses new information about the relationship between ?34S and ?33S in global marine sulfate. Our calculations indicate that the pyrite burial flux from the modern ocean is between 10% and 45% of the total sulfur lost from the oceans, with a more probable range between 20% and 35%.

Tostevin, Rosalie; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Farquhar, James; Johnston, David T.; Eldridge, Daniel L.; Bishop, James K. B.; McIlvin, Matthew

2014-06-01

286

Sulfur species in graphene oxide.  

PubMed

The structure of graphene oxide (GO) is of crucial importance for its chemical functionalization. However, the sulfur content present in GO prepared by Hummers' method has only been addressed by a few authors so far. It has been reported that hydrolysis of sulfur species takes place and that stable sulfonic groups are present in graphite oxide. In this manuscript, in contrast to earlier reports, sulfate species are identified that are covalently bound to GO and still present after extensive aqueous work-up. Additionally, we exclude the possibility that sulfonic groups are present in GO as major species after aqueous work up. Our results are based on bulk characterization of graphene oxide by thermogravimetry and subsequent analysis of the decomposition products using mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Up to now, the combustion temperature between 200 and 300 °C remained almost unaddressed. In a temperature dependant experiment we reveal two main decomposition steps that differ in temperature and that are closely related to the sulfur species in GO. While the decomposition, between 200 and 300 °C, is related to the degradation of organosulfate, the other one, between 700 and 800 °C, is assigned to the pyrolysis of inorganic sulfate. Furthermore, organosulfate is to some extent responsible for the reactivity of GO. Therefore, the structural model of GO was extended by adding organosulfate in addition to epoxy and hydroxyl groups, which are predominantly covalently bound above and below the carbon skeleton. Furthermore, the identification of organosulfate groups beneath epoxy groups makes new molecular architectures feasible and can be used to explain the properties of GO in various applications. PMID:23780799

Eigler, Siegfried; Dotzer, Christoph; Hof, Ferdinand; Bauer, Walter; Hirsch, Andreas

2013-07-15

287

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode.

G. H. Farbman; B. R. Krasicki; C. C. Hardman; S. S. Lin; G. H. Parker

1978-01-01

288

Massive atmospheric sulfur loading of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina eruption and implications for petrologic sulfur estimates  

E-print Network

Massive atmospheric sulfur loading of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina eruption and implications for petrologic sulfur estimates Fidel Costa1 and Bruno Scaillet Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orle´ans, UMR petrological, analytical, and thermodyna- mical data to constrain the sulfur yield of the AD 1600 Huaynaputina

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Contribution of Gulf Area natural sulfur to the North American sulfur budget  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the contribution of natural sulfur compounds from the Gulf of Mexico to the overall North American sulfur budget two series of air sampling flights were performed over the gulf area. Total aerosol mass load and sulfate concentration data indicate, in agreement with our previous findings on gas-phase products, that these observations can be divided into two categories. One group of measurements was taken under offshore airflow and the other under onshore flow conditions. From the measurements performed under clean (onshore) flow, average inside boundary layer SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations were evaluated. Using these data, together with our previously reported dimethyl sulfide levels, a simple model was developed to estimate the sulfur flux transported northward from the gulf area. Upper and lower limits of this contribution are estimated at 0.25 and 0.04 Tg (S) year/sup -1/, respectively. Although this quantity is relatively low compared with the national US anthropogenic emission, it has significance for the global sulfur cycle, and it can cause a significant acidification of cloud water. 24 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Luria, M.; Van Valin, C.C.; Wellman, D.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

1986-01-01

290

40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52... § 52.1030 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for the...

2013-07-01

291

40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1117 Section 52.1117...Maryland § 52.1117 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) [Reserved] ...attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur dioxide standards. [40 FR...

2012-07-01

292

ORIGINAL PAPER Pyrite tracks assimilation of crustal sulfur  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Pyrite tracks assimilation of crustal sulfur in Pyrenean peridotites Jean ), consistent with a sedimentary sulfur source. Pyrite microtextures and chalcophile trace element contents support a process of assimilation of crustal sulfur from the metamorphosed sedimentary country rocks

Demouchy, Sylvie

293

40 CFR 52.231 - Regulations: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Regulations: Sulfur oxides. 52.231 Section 52.231...California § 52.231 Regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) [Reserved...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides. (1) Lake County...

2011-07-01

294

40 CFR 52.231 - Regulations: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Regulations: Sulfur oxides. 52.231 Section 52.231...California § 52.231 Regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) [Reserved...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides. (1) Lake County...

2013-07-01

295

40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52... § 52.1030 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to Regulation 100.6 (Chapter 106) “Low Sulfur Fuel Regulation” for the...

2011-07-01

296

40 CFR 52.231 - Regulations: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Regulations: Sulfur oxides. 52.231 Section 52.231...California § 52.231 Regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) [Reserved...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides. (1) Lake County...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 52.231 - Regulations: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Regulations: Sulfur oxides. 52.231 Section 52.231...California § 52.231 Regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) [Reserved...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Oxides. (1) Lake County...

2012-07-01

298

Transport and equilibrium in molecular plasmas: the sulfur lamp  

E-print Network

Transport and equilibrium in molecular plasmas: the sulfur lamp PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de William Transport and equilibrium in molecular plasmas: the sulfur lamp / by Colin William Johnston. : plasma / zwavel lamp / moleculen / transporteigenschappen Subject headings : plasma / sulfur lamp

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

299

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2011-07-01

300

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2013-07-01

301

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2014-10-01

302

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2010-10-01

303

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2011-10-01

304

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2014-07-01

305

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2012-07-01

306

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2012-10-01

307

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2013-10-01

308

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOEpatents

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26

309

Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Cenozoic Seawater Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous seawater sulfate sulfur isotope curve for the Cenozoic with a resolution of ;1 million years was generated using marine barite. The sulfur isotopic composition decreased from 19 to 17 per mil between 65 and 55 million years ago, increased abruptly from 17 to 22 per mil between 55 and 45 million years ago, remained nearly constant from 35

Adina Paytan; Miriam Kastner; Douglas Campbell; Mark H. Thiemens

1998-01-01

310

SURFACE REACTIONS OF OXIDES OF SULFUR  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface reactions of several sulfur-containing molecules have been studied in order to understand the mechanism by which sulfate ions are formed on atmospheric aerosols. At 25C the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 to sulfuric acid and sulfate ions occurred on hydrated silica...

311

The Microbial Karst Sulfuric Acid Dynamo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original model for sulfuric acid speleogenesis attributes limestone dissolution to the oxidation of gaseous H2S to sulfuric acid on limestone cave walls (Egemeier 1981). This model has recently been reexamined in Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming (USA), where the most intense limestone dissolution appears to be the result of microbial colonization of limestone surfaces below the water table (Engel et

E. Lyon; K. Meyer; B. Koffman; S. Galdenzi; J. Macalady

2004-01-01

312

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and\\/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially

2008-01-01

313

Leaching behavior of ilmenite with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the rate of dissolution of ilmenite in sulfuric acid solutions has been carried out. The effects of temperature, particle size, stirring speed, and concentration of sulfuric acid on the rate of dissolution of ilmenite has been investigated. Temperature range studied in this investigation was 88° to 115°C, and the Arrhenius activation energy was found to be 64.4

K. N. Han; T. Rubcumintara; M. C. Fuerstenau

1987-01-01

314

Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A  

E-print Network

potential impacts on water quality, including acid generation in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009. Microbial oxidation of sulfur-rich mining waste materials drives acid mine drainage (AMD) and affects the global sulfur biogeochemical cycle. The generation of AMD is a complex

Hitchcock, Adam P.

315

21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...582.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product....

2010-04-01

316

21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01...2012-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...582.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product....

2012-04-01

317

21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01...2011-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...582.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product....

2011-04-01

318

21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.  

21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01...2014-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...582.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product....

2014-04-01

319

21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01...2013-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...582.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product....

2013-04-01

320

Sulfur Metabolism in the Extreme Acidophile Acidithiobacillus Caldus  

PubMed Central

Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound (ISC) oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of ISCs. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and ISC metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide–quinone reductase (sqr), tetrathionate hydrolase (tth), two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ), sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor), and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC) in A. caldus ISC metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid, elemental sulfur versus planktonic cells. This study has provided insights into sulfur metabolism of this acidophilic chemolithotroph and gene expression during attachment to solid elemental sulfur. PMID:21687411

Mangold, Stefanie; Valdes, Jorge; Holmes, David S.; Dopson, Mark

2011-01-01

321

Metabolism of L-methionine linked to the biosynthesis of volatile organic sulfur-containing compounds during the submerged fermentation of Tuber melanosporum.  

PubMed

Tuber melanosporum, known as the black diamond of cuisine, is highly appreciated for its unique and characteristic aroma, which is mainly due to its volatile organic sulfur-containing compounds (VOSCs). In this work, by adding 5 g/L?L-methionine to the fermentation medium, the activities of aminotransferase and ?-ketoacid decarboxylase were significantly enhanced by 103 and 250%, respectively, while the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and demethiolase were decreased by 277 and 39%. Then, the six VOSCs, i.e., methanethiol (MTL), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional), and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), were first detected in the submerged fermentation of T. melanosporum. These results indicated that the biosynthesis of VOSCs was triggered by aminotransferase and ?-ketoacid decarboxylase. The production of methional and methionol increased with the increased concentrations of L-methionine (i.e., 5, 10, 15, and 20 g/L) before day 4 of the culture protocol, and methionol was the major product in the Ehrlich pathway. The production of MTL was significantly decreased after day 4 with a significantly increased DMDS, and DMDS was the major product of the demethiolation pathway. Compared with the demethiolation pathway with a total flux of sulfur of 11.33-24.32 ?M, the Ehrlich pathway with a total flux of sulfur of 6,149-10,330 ?M was considered the major pathway for the biosynthesis of VOSCs. This is the first report linking the metabolism of L-methionine to the biosynthesis of VOSCs by the Ehrlich and demethiolation pathways during the submerged fermentation of T. melanosporum. PMID:24092005

Liu, Rui-Sang; Zhou, Huan; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Chen, Tao; Tang, Ya-Jie

2013-12-01

322

Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems  

SciTech Connect

This study consisted of a technical evaluation and economic comparison of sulfur removal processes for integration into a coal gasification-molten carbonate (CGMC) fuel cell power plant. Initially, the performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and screened for conformance to the conditions and requirements expected in commercial CGMC power plants. Four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen-blown and air-blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas (1 ppMv or 25 ppMv). The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed for the essentially complete removal of sulfur compounds. The impact on the overall plant performance was also determined. The total capital requirement for sulfur removal schemes ranged from $59.4/kW to $84.8/kW for the oxygen-blown cases and from $89.5/kW to $133/kW for the air-blown cases. The O and M costs for sulfur removal for 70% plant capacity factor ranged from 0.82 mills/kWh to 2.76 mills/kWh for the oxygen-blown cases and from 1.77 mills/kWh to 4.88 mills/kWh for the air-blown cases. The Selexol process benefitted the most from the addition of COS hydrolysis pretreatment.

Lorton, G.A.

1980-01-01

323

Isotopic composition and concentration of sulfur in carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New sulfur isotopic ratio measurements are reported for seven carbonaceous chondrites. Newly developed procedures permit measurement of delta S-33, delta S-34, and delta S-36 at precisions significantly greater than previously reported. A search for S-36 nucleosynthetic anomalies coproduced with anomalies in, for example, Ti-50 and Ca-48 was negative. The high endemic sulfur concentration probably dilutes any S-36 anomaly, and separation of individual sulfur phases may be needed to identify S-36 carrier phases. Large internal isotopic variations are observed, deriving from parent body and possibly nebular processes. Chondrule separates from Allende demonstrate isotopic compositions which vary as a function of diameter. High-temperature gas-solid exchange and a two-component mixing model may account for the observations. High-resolution isotopic data and structural information are reported for organic sulfur compounds separated by chemical extractions. The insoluble organics appear to be of either aliphatic or alicyclic structure and are dominant phases.

Gao, Xia; Thiemens, Mark H.

1993-01-01

324

Development of instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in coal process streams. Quarterly technical progress report for October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Work is in progress on the preparation of a user-oriented computer software manual, for estimating sulfur speciation in aqueous coal process streams form a thermodynamic data base. Capabilities and limitations of sulfide and polysulfide analysis by differential pulse polarography at a dropping mercury anode are assessed critically. Thallous nitrate used as the titrant reagent in a thermometric enthalpy titration yields the molar sum of monosulfide and polysulfide. Inorganic sulfur has been successfully speciated in coal conversion by-product water samples. A combination of differential pulse voltammetry, thermometric enthalpy titrations and classical methods was used. One hundred percent of the total sulfur present was quantitatively accounted for.

Jordan, J.; Stutts, J. D.; Ankabrandt, S. J.; Stahl, J.; Yakupkovic, J. E.

1981-01-01

325

Sulfur Production by Obligately Chemolithoautotrophic Thiobacillus Species  

PubMed Central

Transient-state experiments with the obligately autotrophic Thiobacillus sp. strain W5 revealed that sulfide oxidation proceeds in two physiological phases, (i) the sulfate-producing phase and (ii) the sulfur- and sulfate-producing phase, after which sulfide toxicity occurs. Specific sulfur-producing characteristics were independent of the growth rate. Sulfur formation was shown to occur when the maximum oxidative capacity of the culture was approached. In order to be able to oxidize increasing amounts of sulfide, the organism has to convert part of the sulfide to sulfur (HS(sup-)(symbl)S(sup0) + H(sup+) + 2e(sup-)) instead of sulfate (HS(sup-) + 4H(inf2)O(symbl)SO(inf4)(sup2-) + 9 H(sup+) + 8e(sup-)), thereby keeping the electron flux constant. Measurements of the in vivo degree of reduction of the cytochrome pool as a function of increasing sulfide supply suggested a redox-related down-regulation of the sulfur oxidation rate. Comparison of the sulfur-producing properties of Thiobacillus sp. strain W5 and Thiobacillus neapolitanus showed that the former has twice the maximum specific sulfide-oxidizing capacity of the latter (3.6 versus 1.9 (mu)mol/mg of protein/min). Their maximum specific oxygen uptake rates were very similar. Significant mechanistic differences in sulfur production between the high-sulfur-producing Thiobacillus sp. strain W5 and the moderate-sulfur-producing species T. neapolitanus were not observed. The limited sulfide-oxidizing capacity of T. neapolitanus appears to be the reason that it can convert only 50% of the incoming sulfide to elemental sulfur. PMID:16535627

Visser, J. M.; Robertson, L. A.; Van Verseveld, H. W.; Kuenen, J. G.

1997-01-01

326

Sulfur species in volcanic gases.  

PubMed

A new analytical method for the determination of the sulfur species (SO2, H2S, S8(0)) in volcanic gases is proposed by revising, updating, and improving previous methods. The most significant advantages of the proposed procedure can briefly be summarized, as follows: (i) the reaction among sulfur species stops during the gas sampling by using preevacuated thorion-tapped vials with purified 0.15M Cd(OH)2 in 4 M NaOH to favor the precipitation of H2S as CdS; (ii) all the sulfur species (SO2, H2S, S8(0)) are analyzed by ion chromatography, after conversion to SO4, which allows the detection limit to be lowered significantly with respect to the previous studies; (iii) appropriate aliquots from intermediate steps may be used to determine other species commonly present in volcanic gases such as CO2, HCI, HF, HBr, HI, and so forth; (iv) determination of all the other gas species is not jeopardized by the proposed method, i.e., one single vial can be used for analyzing the full chemical composition of a volcanic gas with the exception of NH3. Statistical parameters calculated from gas sampling data at the F5 crater fumarole in Vulcano Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy), suggest that the standard error of mean (s/ root n) is higher for S (0.10), followed by SO2, H2S, and CO2 (0.04, 0.038, and 0.028, respectively). SO2 shows the higher variation coefficient (12.1%) followed by H2S, S, and CO2 (5.7, 1.5, and 0.8%, respectively). Furthermore, if the time dependence of sampling is taken into account, the measured values, instead of fluctuating in a random manner, tend to follow systematic patterns, out of statistical control, possibly suggesting a sort of natural fluctuation of the volcanic system. Other crater fumaroles from volcanic systems located in different geodynamical areas (Hawaii, USA, El Chichon, Mexico, Poas, Costa Rica) have been analyzed as well. PMID:11510838

Montegrossi, G; Tassi, F; Vaselli, O; Buccianti, A; Garofalo, K

2001-08-01

327

The role of sulfur in detectingThe role of sulfur in detecting climate change on Venusclimate change on Venus  

E-print Network

The role of sulfur in detectingThe role of sulfur in detecting climate change on Venusclimate: Progress, Prospects, and New Missions LPI Gilruth Center #12;Sulfur CyclesSulfur Cycles · Fast Atmospheric H2 + (1/n)Sn H2S CO + (1/n)Sn COS #12;Geologic Sulfur CycleGeologic Sulfur Cycle SO2 + 1/2O2 + CaCO3

Treiman, Allan H.

328

Garlic powder and allyl sulfur compounds enhance the ability of dietary selenite to inhibit 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary DNA adducts.  

PubMed

These studies examined the ability of garlic powder or allyl sulfur compounds to modify selenite protection against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary epithelial cell DNA adducts. In Study 1, female rats (n = 5) were fed diets containing sodium selenite at 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mg Se/kg and garlic powder at 0, 20, or 40 g/kg diet. Total DNA adducts correlated inversely with selenite or garlic powder intake. Garlic powder enhanced the selenite inhibition of mammary DNA adducts. In Study 2, selenite (2.0 mg Se/kg diet), garlic powder (20 g/kg diet), water-soluble S-allyl cysteine (SAC; 5.2 mumol/kg diet), and oil-soluble diallyl disulfide (DADS; 5.2 mumol/kg diet) inhibited (p < 0.05) total DNA adducts by 45%, 40%, 80%, and 75%, respectively. Combining selenite with garlic powder, SAC, or DADS further inhibited DNA adducts. Selenite, but not garlic powder, SAC, or DADS, enhanced liver glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase activities. Selenite, garlic powder, SAC, or DADS did not affect liver cytochrome P-450 1A1 activities. The present studies provide evidence that synergistic protection against the initiation of DMBA carcinogenesis occurs when selenite is supplemented in conjunction with garlic or its allyl sulfur components. PMID:9121944

Schaffer, E M; Liu, J Z; Milner, J A

1997-01-01

329

Sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as a tool for understanding sulfur chemical state in anaerobic granular sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur is an essential biological element, yet its biochemistry in anaerobic biofilm is poorly understood because there are few tools for studying this element in biological systems. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides a unique approach to determining the chemical speciation of sulfur in intact biological samples. When treating sulfate containing wastewaters in full scale up-flow anaerobic sludge bed bioreactors, microbial activity forms biofilms, consisting of a complex mixture of cells and associated extracellular substances as well as undefined inorganic precipitates. In addition to the anaerobic sludges, a large variety of model compounds of S (esp. sulfides) were investigated to find consistencies in the XANES that were used to model each "valence state" of S. The results confirmed that attributing a specific valence to most sulfides is impossible as we measured a continuum of edge shifts from sulfur "-2" to "-1", depending on the electronic structure of S in the probed sulfides. In the sludges, various sulfur hot spots were probed for speciation, despite photo-reduction was sometimes a problem. First, we index the main features of complex K-edge XANES spectra for S2--type units and sulfate units. Organic sulfur compounds were also shown to contribute significantly to the sulfur species present in some anaerobic granular sludge.

van Hullebusch, E.; Rossano, S.; Farges, F.; Lenz, M.; Labanowski, J.; Lagarde, P.; Flank, A.-M.; Lens, P.

2009-11-01

330

New proteins involved in sulfur trafficking in the cytoplasm of Allochromatium vinosum.  

PubMed

The formation of periplasmic sulfur globules is an intermediate step during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds in various sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. The mechanism of how this sulfur is activated and crosses the cytoplasmic membrane for further oxidation to sulfite by the dissimilatory reductase DsrAB is incompletely understood, but it has been well documented that the pathway involves sulfur trafficking mediated by sulfur-carrying proteins. So far sulfur transfer from DsrEFH to DsrC has been established. Persulfurated DsrC very probably serves as a direct substrate for DsrAB. Here, we introduce further important players in oxidative sulfur metabolism; the proteins Rhd_2599, TusA, and DsrE2 are strictly conserved in the Chromatiaceae, Chlorobiaceae, and Acidithiobacillaceae families of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and are linked to genes encoding complexes involved in sulfur oxidation (Dsr or Hdr) in the latter two. Here we show via relative quantitative real-time PCR and microarray analysis an increase of mRNA levels under sulfur-oxidizing conditions for rhd_2599, tusA, and dsrE2 in Allochromatium vinosum. Transcriptomic patterns for the three genes match those of major genes for the sulfur-oxidizing machinery rather than those involved in biosynthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules. TusA appears to be one of the major proteins in A. vinosum. A rhd_2599-tusA-dsrE2-deficient mutant strain, although not viable in liquid culture, was clearly sulfur oxidation negative upon growth on solid media containing sulfide. Rhd_2599, TusA, and DsrE2 bind sulfur atoms via conserved cysteine residues, and experimental evidence is provided for the transfer of sulfur between these proteins as well as to DsrEFH and DsrC. PMID:24648525

Stockdreher, Yvonne; Sturm, Marga; Josten, Michaele; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Dobler, Nadine; Zigann, Renate; Dahl, Christiane

2014-05-01

331

Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

1989-12-01

332

Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

1989-01-01

333

Understanding Selectivity in the Oxidative Addition of the Carbon-Sulfur Bonds of 2-Cyanothiophene to Pt(0)  

E-print Network

to remove sulfur-containing compounds from petroleum products. Recent research on HDS has focused on new of sulfur allowed in petroleum products.1 The most commonly used catalyst in industry is a Co-Mo sulfide

Jones, William D.

334

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24

335

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2012-07-01

336

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2010-07-01

337

Sulfur isotope biogeochemistry of the Proterozoic McArthur Basin  

E-print Network

Sulfur isotope biogeochemistry of the Proterozoic McArthur Basin David T. Johnston a,b,*, James such a scenario, we look to the structure of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. We present sulfur (32 S, 33 S, 34 S of the Proterozoic ocean, highlight contributions from the oxidative sulfur cycle, and outline a new tool

Kaufman, Alan Jay

338

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2013-07-01

339

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2011-07-01

340

Sulfur Assimilatory Metabolism. The Long and Smelling Road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur represents the ninth and least abundant essential macronutrient in plants, preceded by carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, mag- nesium, and phosphorus. The dry matter of sulfur in plants is only about one-fifteenth of that of nitrogen. Both sulfur and nitrogen are necessary to be assimi- lated into organic metabolites. While nitrogen is mainly used for structural macromolecules, sulfur

Kazuki Saito

2004-01-01

341

The Fate of Sulfur in Late-Stage Magmatic Processes: Insights From Quadruple Sulfur Isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) have recently been shown to be useful tracers of fluid-rock interaction in seafloor hydrothermal systems [1]. Here we present the application of multiple sulfur isotopes to subaerial volcanoes with the aim of unraveling the various processes fractionating sulfur in the upper volcanic system. We take advantage of the fact that the ascent

N. S. Keller; S. Ono; A. M. Shaw

2009-01-01

342

Process for the separation of sulfur oxides from a gaseous mixture containing sulfur oxides and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for the separation of sulfur oxides from a gaseous mixture containing sulfur oxides and oxygen is disclosed. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a solid sulfur oxide acceptor comprising copper, copper oxide, or a mixture thereof dispersed on a carrier material in combination with a platinum group metal component and a component selected from the group consisting of rhenium, germanium and tin.

Derosset, A.J.; Ginger, E.A.

1980-12-23

343

Improvement of cycle property of sulfur electrode for lithium\\/sulfur battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a theoretical specific capacity of lithium\\/sulfur redox couple battery is 1672mAh\\/g, lithium\\/sulfur battery has the serious problems of low utilization of active material and poor rechargeability, due to the loss of active material in the form of soluble polysulfides (Li2Sn, n>2). In this study, carbon nano-fiber having average fiber diameter of 150nm was added into the sulfur electrode in

Young-Jin Choi; Ki-Won Kim; Hyo-Jun Ahn; Jou-Hyeon Ahn

2008-01-01

344

A Comparative Quantitative Proteomic Study Identifies New Proteins Relevant for Sulfur Oxidation in the Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we compared the proteome response of Allochromatium vinosum when growing photoautotrophically in the presence of sulfide, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur with the proteome response when the organism was growing photoheterotrophically on malate. Applying tandem mass tag analysis as well as two-dimensional (2D) PAGE, we detected 1,955 of the 3,302 predicted proteins by identification of at least two peptides (59.2%) and quantified 1,848 of the identified proteins. Altered relative protein amounts (?1.5-fold) were observed for 385 proteins, corresponding to 20.8% of the quantified A. vinosum proteome. A significant number of the proteins exhibiting strongly enhanced relative protein levels in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds are well documented essential players during oxidative sulfur metabolism, e.g., the dissimilatory sulfite reductase DsrAB. Changes in protein levels generally matched those observed for the respective relative mRNA levels in a previous study and allowed identification of new genes/proteins participating in oxidative sulfur metabolism. One gene cluster (hyd; Alvin_2036-Alvin_2040) and one hypothetical protein (Alvin_2107) exhibiting strong responses on both the transcriptome and proteome levels were chosen for gene inactivation and phenotypic analyses of the respective mutant strains, which verified the importance of the so-called Isp hydrogenase supercomplex for efficient oxidation of sulfide and a crucial role of Alvin_2107 for the oxidation of sulfur stored in sulfur globules to sulfite. In addition, we analyzed the sulfur globule proteome and identified a new sulfur globule protein (SgpD; Alvin_2515). PMID:24487535

Weissgerber, Thomas; Sylvester, Marc; Kroninger, Lena

2014-01-01

345

Heterogeneous Photochemical Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the hydroxyl radical is a significant source of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Stockwell and Calvert (1983) performed fifteen chamber experiments where mixtures of HONO, NO, NO2, H2O, SO2 and CO were photolyzed in synthetic air or in nitrogen containing approximately 50 ppm oxygen. They found that the atmospheric oxidation of SO2 by hydroxyl radical was a chain process that occurs through the production of an HO2 radical followed by reaction with NO to reproduce HO. We have reanalyzed this dataset and we have found that a very large amount of the observed SO2 oxidation (70.0 ± 9.1 %) is not explained through the HO + SO2 reaction alone. The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) was used to investigate additional chemical pathways for the oxidation of SO2. A mechanism consisting of photochemical heterogeneous reactions is proposed to account for the observed additional sulfur dioxide oxidation not accounted for by gas phase oxidation. The analysis showed that the measured time dependent SO2, CO2 and nitrogenous compound concentrations could be simulated by the photochemical heterogeneous mechanism in conjunction with the RACM2 mechanism.

El-Zanan, H. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

2007-12-01

346

The sulfur thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of research on sulfur-cycle hydrogen production are presented. An H2S cycle using MoS2 as a catalyst is mentioned as showing promise for thermochemical water splitting, with an equilibrium reaction yield of 7%. Use of I or Pt as catalysts raised efficiencies to 16 and 12%, respectively, and further studies employing hybrid cycles with CO2-S and noble metals are reviewed. Thermal decomposition reactions with sulfuric acid are examined, noting a potential 30% thermal efficiency, and sulfur cycle research being undertaken at various industrial laboratories is outlined. It is noted that experiments with sulfuric acid salts for water electrolysis at Los Alamos will probably use solar collectors as a heat source.

Dokiya, M.

1981-07-01

347

46 CFR 148.04-20 - Sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breathing apparatus, or proper gas mask, must be made available. (i) A fire hose, preferably supplied with fresh water from a shore supply source, must be available at each hatch through which sulfur is being...

2010-10-01

348

Sulfur Dioxide: Its Role in Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, learners investigate impact of sulfur dioxide on the environment. Sulfur dioxide comes from both human activities and natural sources. Burning coal and other fossil fuels is the largest source of sulfur dioxide from human activities. Students have a choice of analyzing the impact of volcanoesâ emissions of sulfur dioxide on the environment; they can also investigate the idea of injecting sulfates into the atmosphere to counteract global warming. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

349

Dual protection of sulfur by carbon nanospheres and graphene sheets for lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

Well-confined elemental sulfur was implanted into a stacked block of carbon nanospheres and graphene sheets through a simple solution process to create a new type of composite cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping analysis confirm that the as-prepared composite material consists of graphene-wrapped carbon nanospheres with sulfur uniformly distributed in between, where the carbon nanospheres act as the sulfur carriers. With this structural design, the graphene contributes to direct coverage of sulfur to inhibit the mobility of polysulfides, whereas the carbon nanospheres undertake the role of carrying the sulfur into the carbon network. This composite achieves a high loading of sulfur (64.2?wt?%) and gives a stable electrochemical performance with a maximum discharge capacity of 1394?mAh?g(-1) at a current rate of 0.1?C as well as excellent rate capability at 1?C and 2?C. The improved electrochemical properties of this composite material are attributed to the dual functions of the carbon components, which effectively restrain the sulfur inside the carbon nano-network for use in lithium-sulfur rechargeable batteries. PMID:24692070

Wang, Bei; Wen, Yanfen; Ye, Delai; Yu, Hua; Sun, Bing; Wang, Guoxiu; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Wang, Lianzhou

2014-04-25

350

Sensitivity of mosses to sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven North American moss species responded differentially to fumigations with sulfur dioxide ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 ppm. Leucobryum glaucum and Dicranum scoparium were the most sensitive species; Dicranella heterophylla, Polytrichum ohioense and Pottia truncata, the most resistant. The results of fumigations with 0.1 to 4.0 ppm sulfur dioxide for 8 hours on cultured gametophytes of Polytrichum ohioense indicate that

T. H. Nash; E. H. Nash

1974-01-01

351

Leaching behavior of ilmenite with sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the rate of dissolution of ilmenite in sulfuric acid solutions has been carried out. The effects of temperature,\\u000a particle size, stirring speed, and concentration of sulfuric acid on the rate of dissolution of ilmenite has been investigated.\\u000a Temperature range studied in this investigation was 88? to 115?C, and the Arrhenius activation energy was found to be 64.4

K. N. Han; T. Rubcumintara; M. C. Fuerstenau

1987-01-01

352

PREPARATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FOR ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained on S³²\\/S³⁴ ratios by mass spectrographic ; analysis of SOâ released from minerals by oxidation of sulfur showed a ; precision of surface proces 0.02%. The method, which consists in converting the ; sulfur in the mineral to SOâ by reaction with CuO in a vacuum at 770 to 810 ; c- C, was applied to pyrite (FeSâ),

Grinenko

1962-01-01

353

Coal beneficiation and organic sulfur removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic sulfur removal from coal with supercritical methanol as solvent, combining extraction and reaction, was studied. Experiments were carried out in a 300 ml batch reactor with Illinois coal at a coal\\/methanol weight ratio of 1:1, 400–450°C and various solvent densities and reaction times. Coal loss, ?25 wt%, was relatively insensitive to operating conditions. Sulfur removal was highest at low

S. Meffe; A. Perkson; O. Trass

1996-01-01

354

Atmospheric Influence of Earth's Earliest Sulfur Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass-independent isotopic signatures for delta33S, delta34S, and delta36S from sulfide and sulfate in Precambrian rocks indicate that a change occurred in the sulfur cycle between 2090 and 2450 million years ago (Ma). Before 2450 Ma, the cycle was influenced by gas-phase atmospheric reactions. These atmospheric reactions also played a role in determining the oxidation state of sulfur, implying that atmospheric

James Farquhar; Huiming Bao; Mark Thiemens

2000-01-01

355

Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries  

PubMed Central

This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes. PMID:24958296

Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Gosselink, Denise; Doan, The Nam Long; Sadhu, Mikhail; Cheang, Ho-Jae; Chen, Pu

2012-01-01

356

Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy as a Tool for Understanding Sulfur Dynamics in Soil Organic Matter  

E-print Network

Sulfur K-edge XANES Spectroscopy as a Tool for Understanding Sulfur Dynamics in Soil Organic Matter Dawit Solomon,* Johannes Lehmann, and Carmen Enid Marti´nez ABSTRACT in oxidation states. Sulfur occurs, form, and bio- and cultivated fields at Munesa sites in Ethiopia. Sulfur XANES geochemical

Lehmann, Johannes

357

Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.  

PubMed

Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed. PMID:22742653

Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

2012-09-01

358

Early generation characteristics of a sulfur-rich Monterey kerogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the critical role of organic sulfur in the early formation of bitumen and oil from a sulfur-rich kerogen from the Miocene Monterey Formation in California. Monterey kerogen commonly contains abundant chemically bound sulfur (8-14 wt %) which appears responsible for early, low-temperature generation of heavy, sulfur-rich petroleum due to the lower energy required to break carbon-sulfur bonds

D. K. Baskin; K. E. Peters

1992-01-01

359

Multiple sulfur isotopes and the evolution of the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in multiple sulfur isotope analyses has been fueled by recent reports of mass-independent sulfur isotope signatures in the geologic record. A non-zero multiple isotopic signature of sulfur (?33S and ?36S) is produced primarily through photochemical reactions, and it is an almost perfect tracer of the source of sulfur. Once the signature is passed on to a given sulfur reservoir,

James Farquhar; Boswell A. Wing

2003-01-01

360

Sulfur “concrete” for lunar applications Sublimation concerns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form “concrete” is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

361

Improved Chromatographic Techniques for Sulfur Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes several improvements in instrumental techniques for the analysis of low ppb concentrations of sulfur gases using gas chromatography (G.C.). This work has focused on the analytical problem of ambient air monitoring of the two main sulfur gas pollutants, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The most significant technical improvement that will be reported here is the newly developed silica gel column for ppb concentrations of the light sulfur gases (COS, H2S, CS2, SO2, CH3SH). A simplified inlet system will be described which improves reliability of the GC system. The flame photometric detector is used as the means of selectively and sensitively detecting the low concentrations of sulfur gases. Improvements will be described which have yielded better performance than previously reported for this application of the detector. Also included in this paper will be a report of field monitoring using this improved GC system. Reliability and repeatability of performance at the low ppb concentrations of sulfur gases will be demonstrated.

Hartmann, C. H.

1971-01-01

362

Sulfur "Concrete" for Lunar Applications - Sublimation Concerns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Melting sulfur and mixing it with an aggregate to form "concrete" is commercially well established and constitutes a material that is particularly well-suited for use in corrosive environments. Discovery of the mineral troilite (FeS) on the moon poses the question of extracting the sulfur for use as a lunar construction material. This would be an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. However, the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. Here it is assumed that the lunar ore can be mined, refined, and the raw sulfur melded with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. This study evaluates pure sulfur and two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar stimulant and SiO2 powder as aggregate additions. Each set was subjected to extended periods in a vacuum environment to evaluate sublimation issues. Results from these experiments are presented and discussed within the context of the lunar environment.

Grugel, Richard N.; Toutanji, Houssam

2006-01-01

363

Novel Cysteine-Centered Sulfur Metabolic Pathway in the Thermotolerant Methylotrophic Yeast Hansenula polymorpha  

PubMed Central

In yeast and filamentous fungi, sulfide can be condensed either with O-acetylhomoserine to generate homocysteine, the precursor of methionine, or with O-acetylserine to directly generate cysteine. The resulting homocysteine and cysteine can be interconverted through transsulfuration pathway. Here, we systematically analyzed the sulfur metabolic pathway of the thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, which has attracted much attention as an industrial yeast strain for various biotechnological applications. Quite interestingly, the detailed sulfur metabolic pathway of H. polymorpha, which was reconstructed based on combined analyses of the genome sequences and validation by systematic gene deletion experiments, revealed the absence of de novo synthesis of homocysteine from inorganic sulfur in this yeast. Thus, the direct biosynthesis of cysteine from sulfide is the only pathway of synthesizing sulfur amino acids from inorganic sulfur in H. polymorpha, despite the presence of both directions of transsulfuration pathway Moreover, only cysteine, but no other sulfur amino acid, was able to repress the expression of a subset of sulfur genes, suggesting its central and exclusive role in the control of H. polymorpha sulfur metabolism. 35S-Cys was more efficiently incorporated into intracellular sulfur compounds such as glutathione than 35S-Met in H. polymorpha, further supporting the cysteine-centered sulfur pathway. This is the first report on the novel features of H. polymorpha sulfur metabolic pathway, which are noticeably distinct from those of other yeast and filamentous fungal species. PMID:24959887

Oh, Doo-Byoung; Kwon, Ohsuk; Lee, Sang Yup; Sibirny, Andriy A.; Kang, Hyun Ah

2014-01-01

364

Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfuric acid hydrate has been proposed as an important species on Europa's surface, the acid being produced by radiolysis of surficial sulfur compounds. We investigated the spectral properties of disordered and crystalline forms of sulfuric acid and suggest that the hydration properties of Europa's hypothesized sulfuric acid lie between two end members: liquid sulfuric acid and its higher crystalline hydrates. The spectra of these end members are similar except for spectral shifts at the band edges. We measured the optical constants of sulfuric acid octahydrate and used these with simple radiative transfer calculations to fit Europa spectra obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS). The global distribution of the hydrate that we associate here with hydrated sulfuric acid shows a strong trailing-side enhancement with a maximum fractional hydrate abundance of 90% by volume, corresponding to a sulfur atom to water molecule ratio of 10%. The hydrate concentration spatially correlates with the ultraviolet and visible absorption of the surface and with the sulfur dioxide concentration. The asymmetric global distribution is consistent with Iogenic plasma ion implantation as the source of the sulfur, possibly modified by electron irradiation and sputtering effects. The variegated distribution also correlates with geologic forms. A high spatial resolution image shows resolved lineae with less hydrate appearing within the lineae than in nearby crustal material. The low concentration of hydrated material in these lineae argues against their conveying sulfurous material to the surface from the putative ocean.

Carlson, R. W.; Anderson, M. S.; Mehlman, R.; Johnson, R. E.

2005-10-01

365

Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the production of distillate and residual lube oils, the lube stocks may be treated with concentrated sulfuric acid or oleum. This removes unsaturates, aromatics, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds and resinous substances, all of which are materials that lower the stability and have a detrimental effect on the service indexes of commercial petroleum oils. Acid tar is formed as a

A. F. Frolov; T. S. Titova; I. V. Karpova; T. L. Denisova

1985-01-01

366

Homolytic bond dissociation energies for C-H bonds adjacent to sulfur and aromatic moieties: The effects of substituents of C-H bond strengths of the benzylic positions in coal model compounds  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-containing compounds are precursors for thiyl radicals at coal liquefaction temperatures due to the weakness of The and S-S bonds. Thiyl radicals play important roles in hydrogen atom shuttling between benzylic positions and catalyze the cleavage and the formation of strong C-C bonds. Although many reactions of thiyl and other sulfur-containing radicals are qualitatively understood, the homolytic bond dissociation energies (EDE`s) and the thermochemistry associated with many key high molecular weight hydrocarbon and sulfur-containing organic structures important to coal is lacking because they are inappropriate for gas-phase techniques. The measurement of BDE`s has been proven to be difficult even in the simplest of molecules.

Alnajjar, M.S.; Franz, J.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gleicher, G.J.; Truksa, S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bordwell, F.; Zhang, Xian-Man [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1993-09-01

367

Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

1995-01-01

368

Sulfuric Acid Production on Europa: The Radiolysis of Sulfur in Water Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europa's surface is chemically altered by radiolysis from energetic charged particle bombardment. It has been suggested that hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4·nH2O) is a major surface species and is part of a radiolytic sulfur cycle, where a dynamic equilibrium exists between continuous production and destruction of sulfur polymers Sx, sulfur dioxide SO2, hydrogen sulfide H2S, and H2SO4·nH2O. We measured the rate of sulfate anion production for cyclo-octal sulfur grains in frozen water at temperatures, energies, and dose rates appropriate for Europa using energetic electrons. The measured rate is GMixture(SO42-)=fSulfur (r0/r)?G1 molecules (100 eV)-1, where fSulfur is the sulfur weight fraction, r is the grain radius, r0=50 ?m, ??1.9, and G1=0.4±0.1. Equilibrium column densities N are derived for Europa's surface and follow the ordering N(H2SO4) » N(S)>N(SO2)>N(H2S). The lifetime of a sulfur atom on Europa's surface for radiolysis to H2SO4 is ?(-S)=120(r/r0)? years. Rapid radiolytic processing hides the identity of the original source of the sulfurous material, but Iogenic plasma ion implantation and an acidic or salty ocean are candidate sources. Sulfate salts, if present, would be decomposed in <3800 years and be rapidly assimilated into the sulfur cycle.

Carlson, R. W.; Anderson, M. S.; Johnson, R. E.; Schulman, M. B.; Yavrouian, A. H.

2002-06-01

369

Failure to Insert the Iron-Sulfur Cluster into the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein Impairs Both Center N and Center P of the  

E-print Network

Failure to Insert the Iron-Sulfur Cluster into the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein Impairs Both Center N to the iron-sulfur cluster of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein to a cysteine results in a respiratory-deficient yeast strain due to formation of iron-sulfur protein lacking the iron- sulfur cluster. The Rieske

Trumpower, Bernard L.

370

Characterization of Sulfur in New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment Ulrich Neuhusler, Huan Feng*, and Keith W. Jones**  

E-print Network

Characterization of Sulfur in New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment Ulrich Neuhäusler, Huan Feng. Sulfur plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of trace elements and in the diagenetic concern in the coastal and marine environment. In this study, we investigated sulfur compounds

Brookhaven National Laboratory

371

Partial Melting in the Iron-Sulfur System at High1 Pressure: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study2  

E-print Network

1 Partial Melting in the Iron-Sulfur System at High1 Pressure: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction meteorites, sulfur is a primary40 constituent. Sulfur easily compounds with iron, producing a metallic melt is mostly iron-nickel alloy, with a small proportion of "light37 element" component, whose precise

Campbell, Andrew

372

Accelerated Corrosion of Printed Circuit Boards due to High Levels of Reduced Sulfur Gasses in Industrial Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated corrosion leading to system failure has been observed on printed circuit boards present in industrial environments that contain abnormal levels of reduced sulfur gasses, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and elemental sulfur. The problem is compounded by the fact that elemental sulfur is regulated by OSHA as a nuisance dust, and is allowed in a human working environment at

Paul Mazurkiewicz

373

Sulfur chemistry and microbiological fractionation of sulfur isotopes in a saline Antarctic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on temperature, water chemistry, and abundance of bacteria in Ace Lake, Antarctica are presented. In particular, the sulfur chemistry and microbiological fractionation of sulfur isotopes are discussed in relation to the possible development of the lake and the climatic history of the lake catchment. The lake is covered by ice for 9 months each year and has a maximum

H. R. Burton; R. J. Barker

1979-01-01

374

Process for the manufacture of sulfur or sulfuric acid from coke oven gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the complete elimination of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases is described which does not lead to the occurrence of sulfur dioxide-containing condensates as in prior-art methods. Most of the hydrogen sulfide combustion gases are cooled only to the point where elementary sulfur condenses out on the cooler bottom. The process initially involves scrubbing the

G. Wunderlich; H. Weber

1974-01-01

375

Processing of the Pyrite Concentrates to Generate Sulfurous Anhydride for Sulfuric Acid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two-stage roasting of pyrite concentrate with air blowing and the principle scheme of the process are presented in the report. The results of experimental sulfuric acid production tests using pyrite concentrate to generate sulfurous rich gas containing 0.1 - 0.15% of sulphur trioxide are shown. Comparative characteristics with technologies known for the present are given.

T. A. Chepushtanova; V. A. Luganov

376

Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

1991-01-01

377

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-print Network

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic, Riverside, CA 92507, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 27 May 2011 Received%, and 10% wt.% of dry biomass were also tested at 180 °C for 10 min. Sugar yields were tracked

California at Riverside, University of

378

Fibrous hybrid of graphene and sulfur nanocrystals for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

Graphene-sulfur (G-S) hybrid materials with sulfur nanocrystals anchored on interconnected fibrous graphene are obtained by a facile one-pot strategy using a sulfur/carbon disulfide/alcohol mixed solution. The reduction of graphene oxide and the formation/binding of sulfur nanocrystals were integrated. The G-S hybrids exhibit a highly porous network structure constructed by fibrous graphene, many electrically conducting pathways, and easily tunable sulfur content, which can be cut and pressed into pellets to be directly used as lithium-sulfur battery cathodes without using a metal current-collector, binder, and conductive additive. The porous network and sulfur nanocrystals enable rapid ion transport and short Li(+) diffusion distance, the interconnected fibrous graphene provides highly conductive electron transport pathways, and the oxygen-containing (mainly hydroxyl/epoxide) groups show strong binding with polysulfides, preventing their dissolution into the electrolyte based on first-principles calculations. As a result, the G-S hybrids show a high capacity, an excellent high-rate performance, and a long life over 100 cycles. These results demonstrate the great potential of this unique hybrid structure as cathodes for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:23672616

Zhou, Guangmin; Yin, Li-Chang; Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Lu; Pei, Songfeng; Gentle, Ian Ross; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

2013-06-25

379

40 CFR 60.104 - Standards for sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...incineration, 250 ppm by volume (dry basis) of sulfur...zero percent excess air. (ii) For a...compounds and 10 ppm by volume of hydrogen sulfide...calculated as ppm SO2 by volume (dry basis) at zero percent excess air. (b)...

2011-07-01

380

Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Wallace, W.E. Jr.

1980-05-01

381

Recovery of selenium sludges in sulfuric acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the selenium compounds formed in the production of sulfuric acid when roasting pyrites is sent together with the roaster gas and residues of cinder dust to the equipment in the wash division. Recovery of these sludges from the wash acid is the subject discussed in the present report. Analysis of the total variety of aspects related to the

V. S. Epifanov; G. B. Kabanova; L. V. Konyakhina; V. G. Moshkova; V. P. Syskova

1983-01-01

382

Production of Sulfur Flavors by Ten Strains of Geotrichum candidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten strains of Geotrichum candidum were studied on a liquid cheese model medium for the production of sulfur compounds which contribute to the aroma of cheeses. The volatile components produced by each cultured strain were extracted by dynamic headspace extractions, separated and quantified by gas chroma- tography (GC), and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. It was shown that four strains of

CELINE BERGER; JEFFREY A. KHAN; PASCAL MOLIMARD; NATHALIE MARTIN; HENRY E. SPINNLER

1999-01-01

383

Coal gasification: molten salt processes for sulfur emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two molten salt desulfurization processes are illustrated. ; Precombustion desulfurization of coal takes place in a single vessel. Pulverized ; coal, slurried with molten salt, is allowed to react with a melt that contains an ; agent with an affinity for the sulfurous compounds. The coal collects at the ; top, being less dense than the melt, and is drawn

Glueck

1973-01-01

384

Growth kinetics of haloalkaliphilic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thioalkalivibrio versutus strain ALJ 15 in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thioalkalivibrio versutus strain ALJ 15, isolated from a soda lake in Kenya, was grown in a continuous culture, with thiosulfate or polysulfide as growth-limiting energy source and oxygen as electron acceptor, at pH 10 and at pH 0.6, 2 M and 4 M total sodium. The end product of the sulfur-compound oxidation was sulfate. Elemental sulfur and a

Horia Banciu; Dimitry Y. Sorokin; Robbert Kleerebezem; Gerard Muyzer; Erwin A. Galinski; J. Gijs Kuenen

2004-01-01

385

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. [comps.

1992-05-31

386

Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr. (comps.)

1992-05-31

387

Sulfur isotope fractionation during the reduction of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate by Dethiosulfovibrio spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thiosulfate and elemental sulfur are typical by-products of the oxidation of dissolved sulfide and important sulfur intermediates in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of natural sediments where they can be further transformed by microbial or chemical oxidation, reduction, or disproportionation. Due to the often superimposing reaction pathways of the sulfur intermediates in natural environments specific tracers are needed to better resolve the complex microbial and biogeochemical reactions. An important fingerprint for sulfur cycling is provided by the microbial fractionation of the stable sulfur isotopes S-34 and S-32. Proper interpretation of isotope signals in nature, however, is only possible by the calibration with results obtained with pure cultures under defined experimental conditions. In addition, sulfur isotope discrimination may provide informations about specific encymatic biochemical pathways within the bacterial cells. In this study, we report the results for the discrimination of stable sulfur isotopes S-32 and S-34 during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur by non-sulfate, but sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria which are phylogenetically not related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. Experiments with were conducted at known cell-specific thiosulfate reduction rates. Stable sulfur isotope fractionation was investigated during reduction of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur at 28°C by growing batch cultures of Dethiosulfovibrio marinus WS100 (type strain DSM 12537) and Dethiosulfovibrio russensis (type strain DSM 12538) using citrate as carbon and energy source. The cell-specific reduction rates were 0.3 to 2.4 fmol cell-1 d-1 (thiosulfate) and 31 to 38 fmol cell-1 d-1 (elemental sulphur), respectively. The sulfide produced was depleted in S-34 by 12 per mil compared to total thiosulfate sulfur, close to previous results observed for sulfate-reducing bacteria, indicating that the thiosulfate-reducing mechanism of sulfate reducers is similar to that of the investigated thiosulfate-reducing strains. Elemental sulfur reduction yields sulfide depleted in S-34 and isotope fractionation effects between 1.3 and 5.2 per mil for Dethiosulfovibrio russensis and 1.7 and 5.1 per mil Dethiosulfovibrio marinus, with the smaller fractionation effects observed in the exponential growth phase and enhanced discrimination under conditions of citrate depletion and cell lysis.

Surkov, A. V.; Böttcher, M. E.; Kuever, J.

2009-04-01

388

A primer on sulfur for the planetary geologist  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur has been proposed as the dominant composition for the volcanic material on Io. Sulfur is a complex element which forms many intramolecular and intermolecular allotropes exhibiting a variety of physical properties. Cyclo-S8 sulfur is the most abundant and stable molecular form. The important molecular species within liquid sulfur change in concentration with temperature. Concentrations of the allotropes control the physical properties of the melt. Discontinuities in density, viscosity, and thermal properties reflect the polymerization process within liquid sulfur. Variations in the melting point are related to autodissociation of the liquid. Many solids forms of sulfur have been identified but only orthorhombic alpha and monoclinic beta sulfur, both composed of cyclo-S8 sulfur, are stable under terrestrial conditions. Physical properties of solid sulfur are dependent on the allotrope and, in some cases, the thermal history. Three natural terrestrial sulfur flows are described: (1) Siretoko-Iosan, Japan; (2) Volcan Azufre, Galapagos Islands; and (3) Mauna Loa, Hawaii. All of the flows are associated with fumarolic areas and are considered to have formed by the melting and mobilization of sulfur deposits. Surface textures of the flows indicate a behavior of molten sulfur similar to that of silicate lava. Channels, rivulets, and lobate edges were described for the flows. The solidification of man-made sulfur flows formed as part of the Frasch mining process by which sulfur is removed from the subsurface in a liquid state is described.

Theilig, E.

1982-01-01

389

Bacterial taxa that limit sulfur flux from the ocean.  

PubMed

Flux of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from ocean surface waters is the predominant natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere and influences climate by aerosol formation. Marine bacterioplankton regulate sulfur flux by converting the precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) either to DMS or to sulfur compounds that are not climatically active. Through the discovery of a glycine cleavage T-family protein with DMSP methyltransferase activity, marine bacterioplankton in the Roseobacter and SAR11 taxa were identified as primary mediators of DMSP demethylation to methylmercaptopropionate. One-third of surface ocean bacteria harbor a DMSP demethylase homolog and thereby route a substantial fraction of global marine primary production away from DMS formation and into the marine microbial food web. PMID:17068264

Howard, Erinn C; Henriksen, James R; Buchan, Alison; Reisch, Chris R; Bürgmann, Helmut; Welsh, Rory; Ye, Wenying; González, José M; Mace, Kimberly; Joye, Samantha B; Kiene, Ronald P; Whitman, William B; Moran, Mary Ann

2006-10-27

390

SH radical: the key intermediate in sulfur transformation during thermal processing of coal  

SciTech Connect

To uncouple the complex behavior of sulfur transformation during thermal processing of coal and to elucidate the main mechanism, typical organic and inorganic sulfur compounds impregnated on or mixed with a low-ash char are studied through temperature-programmed decomposition coupled with online mass spectrum analysis (TPD-MS) and followed by temperature-programmed oxidation coupled also with online mass spectrum analysis (TPO-MS) in a temperature range of up to 800{sup o}C. It is evident that the cleavages of C{sub al}-S and C{sub ar}-S bonds, where the subscripts al and ar stand for aliphatic and aromatic carbon, respectively, in the organic compounds result in the formation of SH radicals, which then undergo secondary reactions with the char to form various sulfur compounds such as H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, COS, and elemental sulfur, as well as sulfur structures in the char. H{sub 2} has the ability to stabilize the SH radicals and weaken the interactions between the SH radicals and the char. For the sulfur compounds, which do not generate the SH radical, the only sulfur products detected are those formed directly from the decomposition of the starting sulfur compounds, H{sub 2}S from FeS{sub 2} in H{sub 2} or SO{sub 2} from Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} in He, for example, and no sulfur structure is formed in the char. Minerals have significant effects on the bond cleavage temperature and the reactions of the SH radicals with the char. It is clear that the SH radical is a key species interacting with the char to form secondary sulfur compounds, while H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} play no role in the sulfur transformation to the carbon structure. 34 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Jinding Yan; Jianli Yang; Zhenyu Liu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

2005-07-01

391

Sulfur 'Concrete' for Lunar Applications - Environmental Considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial use of sulfur concrete on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive, e.g., acid and salt, environments. Having found troilite (FeS) on the Moon raises the question of using extracted sulfur as a lunar construction material, an attractive alternative to conventional concrete as it does not require water. For the purpose of this Technical Memorandum, it is assumed that lunar ore is mined, refined, and the raw sulfur processed with appropriate lunar regolith to form, for example, bricks. With this stipulation, it is then noted that the viability of sulfur concrete in a lunar environment, which is characterized by lack of an atmosphere and extreme temperatures, is not well understood. The work presented here evaluates two sets of small sulfur concrete samples that have been prepared using JSC-1 lunar simulant as an aggregate addition. One set was subjected to extended periods in high vacuum to evaluate sublimation issues, and the other was cycled between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate their subsequent mechanical integrity. Results are presented from both investigations, discussed, and put into the context of the lunar environment.

Grugel, R. N.

2008-01-01

392

Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes  

SciTech Connect

Research at Virginia Tech led to two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from much of the Eastern US coals. One controls the surface properties of coal pyrite (FeS[sub 2]) by electrochemical-.potential control, referred to as the Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) Process: The second controls the flotation of middlings, i.e., particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions by using polymeric reagents to react with pyrite and convert the middlings to hydrophilic particles, and is termed the Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR) Process. These new concepts are based on recent research establishing the two main reasons why flotation fails to remove more than about 50% of the pyritic sulfur from coal: superficial oxidization of liberated pyrite to form polysulfide oxidation products so that a part of the liberated pyrite floats with the coal; and hydrophobic coal inclusions in the middlings dominating their flotation so that the middlings also float with the coal. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications of existing coal preparation facilities, enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that they can be used simultaneously to achieve both free pyrite and locked pyrite rejection.

Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

1993-03-23

393

Emissions of sulfur gases from wetlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the emissions of sulfur gases from marine and freshwater wetlands are summarized with respect to wetland vegetation type and possible formation mechanisms. The current data base is largest for salt marshes inhabited by Spartina alterniflora. Both dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) dominate emissions from salt marshes, with lesser quantities of methyl mercaptan (MeSH), carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) being emitted. High emission rates of DMS are associated with vegetation that produces the DMS precursor dimethylsulfonionpropionate (DMSP). Although large quantities of H2S are produced in marshes, only a small percentage escapes to the atmosphere. High latitude marshes emit less sulfur gases than temperate ones, but DMS still dominates. Mangrove-inhabited wetlands also emit less sulfur than temperate S. alterniflora marshes. Few data are available on sulfur gas emissions from freshwater wetlands. In most instances, sulfur emissions from temperate freshwater sites are low. However, some temperate and subtropical freshwater sites are similar in magnitude to those from marine wetlands which do not contain vegetation that produces DMSP. Emissions are low in Alaskan tundra but may be considerably higher in some bogs and fens.

Hines, Mark E.

1992-01-01

394

Multiple sulfur isotopes fractionations associated with abiotic sulfur transformations in Yellowstone National Park geothermal springs  

PubMed Central

Background The paper presents a quantification of main (hydrogen sulfide and sulfate), as well as of intermediate sulfur species (zero-valent sulfur (ZVS), thiosulfate, sulfite, thiocyanate) in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hydrothermal springs and pools. We combined these measurements with the measurements of quadruple sulfur isotope composition of sulfate, hydrogen sulfide and zero-valent sulfur. The main goal of this research is to understand multiple sulfur isotope fractionation in the system, which is dominated by complex, mostly abiotic, sulfur cycling. Results Water samples from six springs and pools in the Yellowstone National Park were characterized by pH, chloride to sulfate ratios, sulfide and intermediate sulfur species concentrations. Concentrations of sulfate in pools indicate either oxidation of sulfide by mixing of deep parent water with shallow oxic water, or surface oxidation of sulfide with atmospheric oxygen. Thiosulfate concentrations are low (<6 ?mol L-1) in the pools with low pH due to fast disproportionation of thiosulfate. In the pools with higher pH, the concentration of thiosulfate varies, depending on different geochemical pathways of thiosulfate formation. The ?34S values of sulfate in four systems were close to those calculated using a mixing line of the model based on dilution and boiling of a deep hot parent water body. In two pools ?34S values of sulfate varied significantly from the values calculated from this model. Sulfur isotope fractionation between ZVS and hydrogen sulfide was close to zero at pH?sulfur is slightly heavier than hydrogen sulfide due to equilibration in the rhombic sulfur–polysulfide – hydrogen sulfide system. Triple sulfur isotope (32S, 33S, 34S) fractionation patterns in waters of hydrothermal pools are more consistent with redox processes involving intermediate sulfur species than with bacterial sulfate reduction. Small but resolved differences in ?33S among species and between pools are observed. Conclusions The variation of sulfate isotopic composition, the origin of differences in isotopic composition of sulfide and zero–valent sulfur, as well as differences in ?33S of sulfide and sulfate are likely due to a complex network of abiotic redox reactions, including disproportionation pathways. PMID:24959098

2014-01-01

395

Role of barium nitrate on the sulfur fixation of calcium oxide.  

PubMed

In this paper, the effect of Ba(NO3)2 on the efficiency of sulfur fixation of calcium oxide during coal combustion was studied. The results showed that addition of barium nitrate to the CaO can enhance the sulfur removal rate of CaO significantly. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of residual ash of coal added some sulfur fixative expressed that Ba2+ can form a compound of Ba-Al-Si-O which encloses the CaSO4 to prevent it's decomposition, so Ba2+ can improve the action of sulfur fixation of CaO. The combustion character of the original coal and original coal added sulfur fixative was researched with thermal-gravity analyzer and the results expressed that adding some sulfur fixative to the coal will make the combustion character of coal change little. PMID:11590723

Liu, G G; Zheng, L Q; Lu, W Y

2001-01-01

396

Sulfur contents and sulfur-isotope compositions of thiotrophic symbioses in bivalve molluscs and vestimentiferan worms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total sulfur (S(TOT)), elemental sulfur (S??) and sulfur-isotope compositions (??34S) of marine animals were analyzed to determine whether these chemical characteristics could help distinguish animals with a sulfur-based, thiotrophic nutrition from animals whose nutrition is based on methanotrophy or on more normal consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The presence of S??was almost entirely confined to the symbiont-containing tissues of thiotrophs, but was sometimes undetectable in thiotrophic species where sulfide availability was probably low. When S??contents were subtracted, the remaining tissue-sulfur concentrations were similar for all nutritional groups. ??34S values were typically lower for thiotrophs than for other groups, although there was overlap in methanotroph and thiotroph values at some sites. Field evidence supported the existence of small to moderate (1 to 10???)34S fractionations in the uptake of sulfides and metabolism of thiosulfate. In general, a total sulfur content of >3% dry weight, the presence of elemental sulfur, and ??34S values less than + 5??? can be used to infer a thiotrophic mode of nutrition.

Vetter, R. D.; Fry, B.

1998-01-01

397

Application of a sodium sulfur cell with dynamic sulfur electrode to a battery system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction and performance of a sodium sulfur battery system with dynamic sulfur electrodes are described. Three cells were first connected in parallel, then two such groups were connected in series. Each cell included a liquid sodium-filled beta-double-prime-alumina tube and a system to feed liquid sulfur into the annular cathode. Low-resistance graphite felt was tightly packed around the beta-double-prime-alumina tube. Sodium pentasulfide was removed from the sulfur electrode. The battery was operated automatically and stably charged and discharged in the two-phase region. The discharged energy was 4372 Wh (capacity 1170 Ah) during a continuous operation of 19.5 h. The discharge/charge energy efficiency of the battery was 82 percent at an averaged current density of 100 mA/sq cm and operating temperature of 350 C. The deviation of the cell current in a parallel chain was less than 7 percent, and this was induced by the difference in internal resistance. In the daily charge/discharge cycle, cell capacity with the dynamic sulfur electrode was 1.5 times higher than that with the static sulfur electrode using the same active surface of beta-double-prime-alumina, because the internal resistance of the former cell was constant regardless of cell capacity. This battery system with a dynamic sulfur electrode can be applied to energy storage systems,such as large scale load leveling systems, electric vehicle batteries, and solar energy systems.

Tokoi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Shimoyashiki, S.

1992-01-01

398

Production of Lunar Concrete Using Molten Sulfur  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States has made a commitment to go back to the moon to stay in the early part of the next century. In order to achieve this objective it became evident to NASA that a Lunar Outpost will be needed to house scientists and astronauts who will be living on the moon for extended periods of time. A study has been undertaken by the authors and supported by NASA to study the feasibility of using lunar regolith with different binders such as molten sulfur, epoxy or hydraulic cement as a construction material for different lunar structures. The basic premise of this study is that it will be more logical and cost effective to manufacture lunar construction materials utilizing indigenous resources rather than transporting needed materials from earth. Lunar concrete (made from Hydraulic Cement and lunar soil) has been studied and suggested as the construction material of choice for some of the lunar projects. Unfortunately, its hydration requires water which is going to be a precious commodity on the moon. Therefore this study explores the feasibility of using binders other than hydraulic cement such as sulfur or epoxy with lunar regolith as a construction material. This report describes findings of this study which deals specifically with using molten sulfur as a binder for Lunar concrete. It describes laboratory experiments in which the sulfur to lunar soil simulant ratios by weight were varied to study the minimum amount of sulfur required to produce a particular strength. The compressive and tensile strengths of these mixes were evaluated. Metal and fiber glass fibers were added to some of the mixes to study their effects on the compressive and tensile strengths. This report also describes experiments where the sulfur is melted and mixed with the lunar regolith in a specially designed vacuum chamber. The properties of the produced concrete were compared to those of concrete produced under normal pressure.

Omar, Husam A.

1993-01-01

399

CE IGCC Repowering plant sulfuric acid plant. Topical report, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the CE IGCC Repowering project is to demonstrate a hot gas clean-up system (HGCU), for the removal of sulfur from the product gas stream exiting the gasifier island. Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) intends to use a HGCU developed by General Electric Environmental Services (GEESI). The original design of this system called for the installation of the HGCU, with a conventional cold gas clean-up system included as a full-load operational back-up. Each of these systems removes sulfur compounds and converts them into an acid off-gas. This report deals with the investigation of equipment to treat this off-gas, recovering these sulfur compounds as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or some other form. ABB CE contracted ABB Lummus Crest Inc. (ABB LCI) to perform an engineering evaluation to compare several such process options. This study concluded that the installation of a sulfuric acid plant represented the best option from both a technical and economic point of view. Based on this evaluation, ABB CE specified that a sulfuric acid plant be installed to remove sulfur from off-gas exiling the gas clean-up system. ABB LCI prepared a request for quotation (RFQ) for the construction of a sulfuric acid production plant. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Inc. presented the only proposal, and was eventually selected as the EPC contractor for this system.

Chester, A.M.

1993-12-01

400

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

DOEpatents

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

Elkins, P. E.

1981-09-22

401

Sulfur Degassing From Volcanoes: Source Conditions, Surveillance, Plume Chemistry and Earth System Impacts  

E-print Network

from volcanoes and geothermal areas is also important since a variety of microorganisms thrive based gas phase at depth, or from the breakdown of sulfur-bearing minerals. Both the amount of sulfur locked in solid compounds (essentially sulfates and sulfides) and that dissolved in silicate melt under pre

Boyer, Edmond

402

Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

Rouse, G.E.

1984-01-01

403

Enhanced cycling stability of lithium sulfur batteries using sulfur-polyaniline-graphene nanoribbon composite cathodes.  

PubMed

A hierarchical nanocomposite material of graphene nanoribbons combined with polyaniline and sulfur using an inexpensive, simple method has been developed. The resulting composite, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis, has a good rate performance and excellent cycling stability. The synergistic combination of electrically conductive graphene nanoribbons, polyaniline, and sulfur produces a composite with high performance. The method developed here is practical for the large-scale development of cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries. PMID:25141233

Li, Lei; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Fei, Huilong; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

2014-09-10

404

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Sulfur and Sulfur Diluted with Hydrogen Sulfide Flowing Through Circular Tubes  

E-print Network

of the temperature range investi- gated, 250 P to 680 F. 8~ A procedure was outlined for using data from the characteristic curves to esign a sulfur heat exchange system which will transfer heat at the same rate as an existing water heat exchange system... . 33 8-9A. Ratio of film conductance of diluted sulfur to that of water versus temperature. The flow of sulfur is considered lami- nar, and the flow of water is considered turbulent. Curve A is invalid for values of velocity times diameter above...

Stone, Porter Walwyn

2012-06-07

405

Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes  

E-print Network

, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a "nonequilibrium" plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just...

Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

406

46 CFR 153.545 - Special requirements for liquid sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Special requirements for liquid sulfur. 153.545 Section 153.545...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...153.545 Special requirements for liquid sulfur. (a) A containment...

2012-10-01

407

46 CFR 153.545 - Special requirements for liquid sulfur.  

...2014-10-01 false Special requirements for liquid sulfur. 153.545 Section 153.545...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...153.545 Special requirements for liquid sulfur. (a) A containment...

2014-10-01

408

46 CFR 153.545 - Special requirements for liquid sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Special requirements for liquid sulfur. 153.545 Section 153.545...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...153.545 Special requirements for liquid sulfur. (a) A containment...

2013-10-01

409

46 CFR 153.545 - Special requirements for liquid sulfur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Special requirements for liquid sulfur. 153.545 Section 153.545...DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...153.545 Special requirements for liquid sulfur. (a) A containment...

2011-10-01

410

40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section... Pennsylvania § 52.2033 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the...

2011-07-01

411

Heterogeneous Interaction of Peroxyacetyl Nitrate on Liquid Sulfuric Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uptake of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on liquid sulfuric acid surfaces has been investigated using a fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. PAN was observed to be reversibly adsorbed on sulfuric acid.

Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun

1996-01-01

412

40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.  

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virgin Islands § 52.2780 Control strategy for sulfur...satisfactory demonstration that the Virgin Islands plan provides for the attainment and...quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix. (b) The...

2014-07-01

413

Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide  

E-print Network

Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

Lin, Ying

414

40 CFR 52.1126 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Corp., Haverhill. Residual oil burning facilities less than...5% sulfur content residual oil; sources in the remaining APCD...approximately 1% sulfur content residual oil). Metropolitan Boston APCD General Motors, Framingham. Polaroid...

2010-07-01

415

40 CFR 52.1126 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Corp., Haverhill. Residual oil burning facilities less than...5% sulfur content residual oil; sources in the remaining APCD...approximately 1% sulfur content residual oil). Metropolitan Boston APCD General Motors, Framingham. Polaroid...

2011-07-01

416

40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment... West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) [Reserved] (b) EPA approves the...

2014-07-01

417

A Three-electrode Column for Pd-Catalytic Oxidation of TCE in Groundwater with Automatic pH-regulation and Resistance to Reduced Sulfur Compound Foiling  

PubMed Central

A hybrid electrolysis and Pd-catalytic oxidation process is evaluated for degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. A three-electrode, one anode and two cathodes, column is employed to automatically develop a low pH condition in the Pd vicinity and a neutral effluent. Simulated groundwater containing up to 5 mM bicarbonate can be acidified to below pH 4 in the Pd vicinity using a total of 60 mA with 20 mA passing through the third electrode. By packing 2 g of Pd/Al2O3 pellets in the developed acidic region, the column efficiency for TCE oxidation in simulated groundwater (5.3 mg/L TCE) increases from 44 to 59 and 68% with increasing Fe(II) concentration from 0 to 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Different from Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination under reducing conditions, this hybrid electrolysis and Pd-catalytic oxidation process is advantageous in controlling the fouling caused by reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) because the in situ generated reactive oxidizing species, i.e., O2, H2O2 and •OH, can oxidize RSCs to some extent. In particular, sulfite at concentrations less than 1 mM even greatly increases TCE oxidation by the production of SO4•?, a strong oxidizing radical, and more •OH. PMID:23121896

Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

2013-01-01

418

A three-electrode column for Pd-catalytic oxidation of TCE in groundwater with automatic pH-regulation and resistance to reduced sulfur compound foiling.  

PubMed

A hybrid electrolysis and Pd-catalytic oxidation process is evaluated for degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. A three-electrode, one anode and two cathodes, column is employed to automatically develop a low pH condition in the Pd vicinity and a neutral effluent. Simulated groundwater containing up to 5 mM bicarbonate can be acidified to below pH 4 in the Pd vicinity using a total of 60 mA with 20 mA passing through the third electrode. By packing 2 g of Pd/Al(2)O(3) pellets in the developed acidic region, the column efficiency for TCE oxidation in simulated groundwater (5.3 mg/L TCE) increases from 44 to 59 and 68% with increasing Fe(II) concentration from 0 to 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Different from Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination under reducing conditions, this hybrid electrolysis and Pd-catalytic oxidation process is advantageous in controlling the fouling caused by reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) because the in situ generated reactive oxidizing species, i.e., O(2), H(2)O(2) and OH, can oxidize RSCs to some extent. In particular, sulfite at concentrations less than 1 mM even greatly increases TCE oxidation by the production of SO(4)(•-), a strong oxidizing radical, and more OH. PMID:23121896

Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

2013-01-01

419

Effects of reduced sulfur compounds on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene in groundwater by cathodic H2 under electrochemically induced oxidizing conditions.  

PubMed

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) poison Pd catalysts for catalytic hydrodechlorination of contaminants in anoxic groundwater. This study investigates the effects of RSCs on Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in oxic groundwater. Water electrolysis in an undivided electrolytic cell is used to produce H2 for TCE hydrodechlorination under oxidizing conditions. TCE is efficiently hydrodechlorinated to ethane, with significant accumulation of H2O2 under acidic conditions. The presence of sulfide at concentrations less than 93.8 ?M moderately inhibits TCE hydrodechlorination and H2O2 production. The presence of sulfite at low concentrations (?1 mM) significantly enhances TCE decay, while at high concentration (3 mM) inhibits initially and enhances afterward when sulfite concentration declines to less than 1 mM. Using radical scavenging experiments and an electron spin resonance assay, SO3(•-), which is generated from sulfite under oxidizing conditions, is validated as the new reactive species contributing to the enhancement. This study reveals a distinct mechanism of effect of sulfite on TCE hydrodechlorination by Pd and H2 in oxic groundwater and presents an alternative approach to increasing resistance of Pd to RSCs poisoning. PMID:23962132

Yuan, Songhu; Chen, Mingjie; Mao, Xuhui; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

2013-09-17

420

An Approach for Measuring the Sorptive Behavior of Odorants Using a Multifunction Thermal Desorber Unit: Preliminary Tests on Reduced Sulfur Compounds  

PubMed Central

In this study, the sorptive behavior of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC) was investigated using a combination of thermal desorber (TD) unit and gas chromatography (GC). To examine the sorptive properties of RSC on textile materials, two types of experiments were conducted under experimental conditions favorable for sorptive processes. In all the experiments, gaseous standards of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were supplied to initiate the adsorption processes on textile pieces. The textile pieces were then forced to release those adsorbed RSC under a fixed condition. It was found that the extent of adsorption, if evaluated quantitatively, occurred at approximately 1/1000 to 1/100 of the level of RSC standards supplied originally to induce adsorption. It also indicated that RSC adsorption was affected very sensitively by the initial exposure durations to induce RSC adsorption with an exponential decrease in relative recovery (RR) values with increasing exposure time. The relative sorptive patterns, when compared between different RSCs, were affected most sensitively by such factors as molecular weight and/or physical contact conditions.

Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Ye-Jin; Yang, Hye-Soon; Joo, Sang-Woo

2008-01-01

421

Iron-sulfur proteins: ancient structures, still full of surprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a survey of the properties and functions of Fe-S proteins under the following headings: sulfur and iron; iron-sulfur clusters; evolution of cofactor use; early observations; complex and extended clusters; sulfur exchange and core interconversions; synthesis and biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters; functions of Fe-S clusters: electron transfer, electron delocalization, spin states and magnetism, covalency of sulfur bonds; non-electron

H. Beinert

2000-01-01

422

Investigation of the role of nickel and the effect of gas phase sulfur compounds on the performance of Ni-Mo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] hydrodenitrogenation catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A series of [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-supported molybdenum and nickel sulfide catalysts was prepared in order to investigate the role of the nickel promoter and the effect of the sulfur feed compounds on the hydro-denitrogenation (HDN) performance of Ni-Mo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts. The reactions performed were pyridine HDN, thiophene HDS, HDN in the presence of thiophene, and HDN in the presence of H[sub 2]S. The catalysts were characterized using laser Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, BET surface area measurement, and temperature-programmed desorption of H[sub s]S thiophene, and pyridine. The results of the reaction studies and characterization experiments are combined with earlier reports in the literature to propose an explanation of the role of nickel and gas phase sulfur compounds in pyridine HDN network. 47 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Ozkan, U.S.; Zhang, Liping; Ni, Shuangyao; Moctezuma, E. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1994-07-01

423

Sulfur isotopic ratio of DMS and DMSP from Lake Kinneret  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic sulfur compounds (VOSC) such as dimethylsulfide (DMS) are an important source of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. The main precursor of DMS is dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a common osmolyte in marine algae. Atmospheric release of VOS compounds contributes to the formation of sulfate aerosols. The latter are of global importance due to their role as cloud-condensation nuclei. VOSC are abundant in terrestrial environments as well and may be involved in important biogeochemical cycles. In lake sediments, another mechanism for the formation of DMS by H2S methylation may be important. The 34S/32S ratio (d34S values) of DMSP of marine surface water around the globe is very homogeneous ranging between +18.9 o to +20.3 o and the fractionation between DMSP and DMS is < +1 o (Amrani et al. 2013). The ?34S values of DMS and other VOSC in sediments should be 34S depleted, similar to its H2S precursor (Oduro et al., 2011). Our goal was to quantify the benthic DMS and DMSP emissions from the sediments of warm monomictic Lake Kinneret relative to their formation by surface water algae by using sulfur isotope ratios. Water column samples and sediment samples from Lake Kinneret were purged and trap in order to extract the VOSC and then introduced to a GC/MC-ICPMS for isotopic measurements (Amrani et al. 2013). The ?34S of DMSP in the water and sediment columns of Lake Kinneret a mesotrophic monomictic lake were measured. Our preliminary results show ?34S values for DMSP ranged between +10.3 o and +13.4 o in the water column. The sulfate ?34S values ranged between +12.6 o to +14.9 o. ?34S -DMSP in the sediment column showed similar values between +9.4 o and +13.0 o, indicating a similar sulfur source. Similar ?34S values obtain for other VOSC such as ethanethiol that contributes significantly to the VOSC of Lake Kinneret sediments. Amrani, A., W. Said-Ahmad,Y. Shaked, and R. P. Kiene. 2013. Sulfur isotopes homogeneity of oceanic DMSP and DMS. PNAS 110(46):18413-18418. Oduro, H., Kamyshny, A. Jr.,W. Guo, and J. Farquhar. 2011. Multiple sulfur isotopes analysis of volatile organic sulfur compounds and their sulfonium precursors in marine coastal environments. Marine Chemistry 124:78-89.

Sela-Adler, Michal; Said-Ahmad, Ward; Eckert, Werner; Kamyshny, Alexey; Sivan, Orit; Amrani, Alon

2014-05-01

424

[Determination of the content of sulfur of coal by the infrared absorption method with high acccuracy].  

PubMed

The present paper reported the differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry curves and the infrared (IR) absorption spectrometry under the temperature program analyzed by the combined simultaneous thermal analysis-IR spectrometer. The gas products of coal were identified by the IR spectrometry. This paper emphasized on the combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, a convenient and accurate method, which measures the content of sulfur in coal indirectly through the determination of the content of sulfur dioxide in the mixed gas products by IR absorption. It was demonstrated, when the instrument was calibrated by varied pure compounds containing sulfur and certified reference materials (CRMs) for coal, that there was a large deviation in the measured sulfur contents. It indicates that the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between CRMs and the analyte results in a systematic error. The time-IR absorption curve was utilized to analyze the composition of sulfur at low temperatures and high temperatures and then the sulfur content of coal sample was determined by using a CRM for coal with a close composition of sulfur. Therefore, the systematic error due to the difference in chemical speciations of sulfur between the CRM and analyte was eliminated. On the other hand, in this combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method, the mass of CRM and analyte were adjusted to assure the sulfur mass equal and then the CRM and the analyte were measured alternately. This single-point calibration method reduced the effect of the drift of the IR detector and improved the repeatability of results, compared with the conventional multi-point calibration method using the calibration curves of signal intensity vs sulfur mass. The sulfur content results and their standard deviations of an anthracite coal and a bituminous coal with a low sulfur content determined by this modified method were 0.345% (0.004%) and 0.372% (0.008%), respectively. The uncertainty (U, k =2) of sulfur contents of two coal samples was evaluated to be 0.019% and 0.021%, respectively. Two main modifications, namely the calibration using the coal CRM with a similar composition of low-temperature sulfur and high temperature sulfur, and the single-point calibration alternating CRM and analyte, endow the combustion at high temperature-IR absorption method with an accuracy obviously better than that of the ASTM method. Therefore, this modified method has a well potential in the analysis of sulfur content. PMID:24822403

Wang, Hai-Feng; Lu, Hai; Li, Jia; Sun, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jun; Dai, Xin-Hua

2014-02-01

425

A New Use for High-Sulfur Coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process recovers some of economic value of high-sulfur coal. Although high-sulfur content is undesirable in most coal-utilization schemes (such as simple burning), proposed process prefers high-sulfur coal to produce electrical power or hydrogen. Potential exists for widespread application in energy industry.

Lawson, D. D.; England, C.

1982-01-01

426

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides with aqueous absorbent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are removed from flue gas by scrubbing the flue gas with an aqueous ammoniacal solution containing ammonium thiosulfate and either ammonium sulfite or ammonium hydroxide. The presence of ammonium thiosulfate in the absorbent solution also inhibits the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to hexavalent sulfur. The scrubber effluent solution or a portion thereof is acidified in

Welty; A. B. Jr

1978-01-01

427

The sulfur cycle of a marine sediment model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a laboratory sediment model consisting of sand and chopped Zostera marina leaves, the sulfur cycle and the succession and zonation patterns of sulfur bacteria were studied for a period of 7 months. The pool size of different forms of sulfur was quantified, and the rate of sulfate reduction was measured with an in situ radio-tracer technique at regular intervals.

B. B. Jørgensen; T. Fenchel

1974-01-01

428

The sulfur cycle in lake waters during thermal stratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sulfur cycle in Linsley Pond, Connecticut, was studied in 1963 and 1964 with sulfur-35 labelled sulfuric acid as a tracer. During the summer large quantities of the tracer disappeared from the hypolimnion and metalimnion. The loss of sulfate dissolved in water occurred predominantly at the mud-water interface. The reduction took place in the region of the hypolimnion as well

M. Stuiver

1967-01-01

429

World sulfur production: As of Jan. 1, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The article consists of a table which lists company and location, source of sulfur, type of process used, design capacity, and sulfur production for 42 countries. Sources of sulfur include refinery gases, natural gas, acid gases, crude oil, shale gas, oil sands, coke oven gas, and hydrogen sulfide.

Not Available

1994-06-13

430

Colors of contrails from fuels with different sulfur contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a recent flight experiment, contrails were produced from fuels with normal and very high sulfur content. A color effect was observed [Schumann et al., 1996]. When observed with the Sun in the back, the low-sulfur contrail appeared grey with weak contrast against the cloud deck underneath, whereas the high-sulfur contrail appeared slightly brown with higher contrast. In order to

K. Gierens; U. Schumann

1996-01-01

431

Visible contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a test for postulated influences of sulfur emissions on nucleation, the contrail formation from a two-engine jet aircraft was investigated using fuels with different sulfur contents for the two engines during the same flight. The sulfur mass fractions in the fuels were about 2 and 250 ppm, respectively, typical for aviation fuels. Other engine and fuel parameters were about

R. Busen; U. Schumann

1995-01-01

432

Reclamation of Elemental Sulfur from Flue Gas Biodesulfurization Waste Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction was used to reclaim elemental sulfur from flue gas biodesulfurization sludge. The sludge was generated from a biodesulfurization system that concurrently treated the flue gas scrubbing solution and wastewater of citric acid production. The sludge contained approximately 40–60% elemental sulfur; other components included flue gas dust, biomass, inorganic salts, and flocculants. The sulfur was extracted with PCE

Chengwen Wang; Yujue Wang; Yanqi Zhang; Qi Zhao; Ran Wang; Wang Chen; Elisabeth Gilmore; Peter Adams; Lester Lave; Huabo Duan; Weifeng Jia; Jinhui Li; Violeta Mugica; Sara Hernandez; Miguel Torres; Rocio García; Antton Melendez; Estibaliz García; Pedro Carnicer; Egoitz Pena; Miren Larrion; Juan Legarreta; Cristina Gutierrez-Canas; Parikhit Sinha; William Schew; Aniket Sawant; Kyle Kolwaite; Sarah Strode; Stephanie Weber; Jill Engel-Cox; Raymond Hoff; Ana Prados; Hai Zhang; Valerie Garcia; Kristen Foley; Edith Gego; David Holland; S. Rao; Sundar Christopher; Pawan Gupta; Christian Murray; Frederick Lipfert; Jung-Nan Hsu; Hsunling Bai; Shou-Nan Li; Chuen-Jinn Tsai

2010-01-01

433

Fate of elemental sulfur in an intertidal sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment from a tidal flat at Wedderwarden, near the mouth of the Weser estuary, northern Germany, was amended with elemental sulfur, and concentrations of metabolic end products were monitored. The production of both sulfate and sulfide was consistent with disproportionation as the most important fate of the added elemental sulfur. A population of bacteria conducting active elemental sulfur disproportionation was

Donald E. Canfield; Bo Thamdrup

1996-01-01

434

40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52.2780 Section 52.2780...Islands § 52.2780 Control strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements...national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

2013-07-01

435

40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57 Section 52.57...Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of the...

2011-07-01

436

RESEARCH ARTICLE Sulfur-induced changes in phosphorus distribution  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Sulfur-induced changes in phosphorus distribution in Everglades Agricultural Area. Soils were sampled four times during the growing season at 2, 6, 9, and 13 months after sulfur application and sub- jected to chemical P fractionation. Sulfur application had minimal effect on soil p

Florida, University of

437

Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sulfur?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing estimates of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for sulfur, which use samples of mainly high-income countries, indicate a maximum emissions turning point at middle to lower high-income levels of GDP per capita. We use a larger and more globally representative sample than previous sulfur EKC studies. We find that sulfur emissions per capita are a monotonic function of

David I. Stern; Michael S. Common

2001-01-01

438

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-print Network

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report (Jan 2004) 2 ABSTRACT A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one

Hultman, Nathan E.

439

40 CFR 60.104 - Standards for sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur oxides. 60.104 Section 60.104...Refineries § 60.104 Standards for sulfur oxides. Each owner or operator...gases into the atmosphere from any Claus sulfur recovery plant containing in excess...

2013-07-01

440

40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52.2780 Section 52.2780...Islands § 52.2780 Control strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements...national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

2011-07-01

441

Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-print Network

Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer John A. Staser The hybrid sulfur cycle has been investigated as a means to produce clean hydrogen efficiently on a large for the hybrid sulfur electrolyzer is controlled mainly by water transport in the cell. Water is required

Weidner, John W.

442

Surface Sulfur Detection via Remote Sensing and Onboard Classification  

E-print Network

77 Surface Sulfur Detection via Remote Sensing and Onboard Classification LUKAS MANDRAKE, UMAA sulfur deposits. These deposits have been observed to be associated with microbial activity at the Borup such as Europa. This article evaluates automated classifiers for detecting sulfur in remote sensing observations

Schaffer, Steven

443

40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52.2780 Section 52.2780...Islands § 52.2780 Control strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements...national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

2012-07-01

444

40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57 Section 52.57...Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of the...

2012-07-01

445

40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57 Section 52.57...Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of the...

2013-07-01

446

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-print Network

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of elemental sulfur and sulfate M. Lamand INRA, Laboratoire des Maladies Nutritionnelles, CRZV Theix, 63122 levels of molybdenum, and sulfur contents are often in excess in ruminant feeds. The minimum level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

The Interaction of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein with  

E-print Network

The Interaction of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein with Occupants of the Qo-site of the bc1 Complex of the native quinone occupant with the Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the bc1 complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and orientation-selective electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) measurements of the iron-sulfur protein

Crofts, Antony R.

448

Quinolinate Synthetase, an iron-sulfur enzyme in NAD biosynthesis  

E-print Network

1 Quinolinate Synthetase, an iron-sulfur enzyme in NAD biosynthesis Sandrine Ollagnier-de Choudens1 observations were used to suggest that the NadA protein was an iron-sulfur enzyme. First, E. coli NadA amino-acid sequence contains three cysteines within the CRSCAHCP motif, which is a common iron-sulfur chelating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING ELEMENTAL SULFUR FROM MAGNESIUM SULFITE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to extend potential applications of MgO flue gas desulfurization processes by allowing the sulfur to be recovered as elemental sulfur as well as sulfuric acid. The study considered the feasibility of combining the exothermic SO2 reduction react...

450

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2010-07-01

451

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2011-07-01

452

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. 180.444...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 )) in or...

2013-07-01

453

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2010-07-01

454

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183 Protection...Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2011-07-01

455

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2013-07-01

456

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2012-07-01

457

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575 Protection...52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With...Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No...

2013-07-01

458

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333 Protection...Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which...turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by...

2011-07-01

459

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2012-07-01

460

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333 Protection...Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which...turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by...

2013-07-01