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Sample records for sulfur dioxide dimethyl

  1. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  2. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

    1993-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  3. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  5. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a

  6. Operational overview of the NASA GTE/CITE 3 airborne instrument intercomparisons for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcneal, Robert J.; Bendura, Richard J.; Drewry, Joseph W.; Barrick, John D.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Motta, Adauto G.; Navarro, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the overall experimental design and gives a brief overview of results from the third airborne Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) mission conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment. The primary objective of CITE 3 was to evaluate the capability of instrumentation for airborne measurements of ambient concentrations of SO2, H2S, CS, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. Ancillary measurements augmented the intercomparison data in order to address the secondary objective of CITE 3 which was to address specific issues related to the budget and photochemistry of tropospheric sulfur species. The CITE 3 mission was conducted on NASA's Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft and included a ground-based intercomparison of sulfur standards and intercomparison/sulfur science flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, followed by flights from Natal, Brazil. Including the transit flights, CITE 3 included 16 flights encompassing approximately 96 flight hours.

  7. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  8. Seasonal and short-term variability in dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and biogenic sulfur and sea salt aerosol particles in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, Caroline; Persson, Cecilia

    1996-04-01

    The International Arctic Ocean Expedition (IAOE), lasting from August to mid-October 1991, provided a unique opportunity to characterize and quantify relationships within the natural sulfur cycle in the marine boundary layer under conditions of limited anthropogenic influence. Concentrations of dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and submicrometer aerosol concentrations of methane sulfonate, non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and elemental carbon ranged from 17 to 0.05nmol m-3 (380 1 ppt(v)), 1.7 0.04nmol m-3 (38 0.9 ppt(v)), 1.4 0.002nmol m-3 (31 0.05 ppt(v), 6.9 0.03nmol m-3 (155 0.7 ppt(v)), 3.9 0.03nmol m-3 (90 0.7 ppt(v)) and 0.51 0.009nmol m-3 (11 0.2 ppt(v)), respectively. Observations showed a seasonal variation of concentrations with highest values for all the marine biogenic sulfur gas-aerosol parametres along the ice edge zone in August and lowest values over the pack ice in late September On average concentrations fell with a decline rate of about 20 40% per week. A similar seasonal change was also reflected in particulate ammonium. This therefore indicates links between the different sulfur compounds as well as between the biogenic sulfur and nitrogen cycles. Concentrations over the pack ice region were generally lower than over the open waters at the ice edge with an estimated net loss rate of roughly 35% per day of transport over the pack ice. Contrary to earlier marine sulfur studies performed outside the Arctic region, a constant methane sulfonate to non-sea-salt sulfate molar ratio was found in the submicrometer size fraction for samples with a minimal influence from fog and anthropogenic sources. This ratio had a value of 0.22 in spite of large seasonal changes in temperature and concentrations of methane sulfonate and non-sea-salt sulfate. Thus we conclude that the sum of the proceses controlling the measured particle properties do not exhibit a net temperature dependence. The one to one molar ratio of ammonium to non-sea-salt sulfate indicated a partly neutralised ammoniated sulfate aerosol. This was further verified by single particle analysis. Measurements of non-sea-salt sulfate and ammonium revealed a bimodal size distribution with about 70% of their mass found in the submicrometer size fraction. Methane sulfonate was mainly associated with submicrometer particles, with less than 8% of the mass observed in the largest particles. We have also shown that the interchange of air between the surface mixed layer and clouds, caused by atmospheric wave motions, dominated the short time variations in atmospheric DMS and submicrometer aerosol concentrations. This interchange will have a strong influence on the chemical and physical processes that control the properties of the aerosol, and deserves more attention in future work.

  9. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  10. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  13. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  15. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  18. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  20. Inactivation of different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in various apple ciders treated with dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) as an alternative method.

    PubMed

    Basaran-Akgul, N; Churey, J J; Basaran, P; Worobo, R W

    2009-02-01

    Escherichia coli has been identified as the causative agent in numerous foodborne illness outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh apple cider. Apple cider has a pH which is normally below 4.0 and would not be considered a medium capable of supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens. The association of unpasteurized apple cider with foodborne illness due to E. coli O157:H7 has however, led to increased interest in potential alternative methods to produce pathogen free cider. Apple cider was prepared from eight different apple cultivars, inoculated with approximately 10(6)-10(7) CFU of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 per ml (933, ATCC 43889, and ATCC 43895) and tested to determine the effectiveness of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). Bacterial populations for treated and untreated samples were then enumerated by using non-selective media. Eight different ciders were treated with DMDC (125 and 250 ppm) and SO(2) (25, 50, 75, 100 ppm). Greater than a 5-log reduction was achieved at room temperature with 250 ppm of DMDC and 50 ppm of SO(2) after the incubation time of 6h and 24h, respectively. Addition of DMDC and/or SO(2) may offer an inexpensive alternative to thermal pasteurization for the production of safe apple cider for small apple cider producers. PMID:19028298

  1. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur...

  2. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  3. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  4. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  5. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  6. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  7. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOEpatents

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  8. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  9. Taxing sulfur dioxide emission allowances

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.L. )

    1993-09-15

    The acid rain control program authorized by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) was designed to reduce the adverse effects of acid rain by limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) into the atmosphere. The program is a complex scheme involving the issuance, consumption, holding, and trading of emission allowances for SO[sub 2]. Not surprisingly, electric utilities will face federal income tax issues in connection with the program. Under the emission allowance program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will issue emission allowance to owners or operators of certain utility power plants at no cost to the recipients. An emission allowance is an authorization to emit one ton of SO[sub 2] during or after the calendar year for which it is issued. If a utility power plant subject to the program emits SO[sub 2] in excess of its allowances, the owner or operator will be subject to a penalty of $2,000 a ton, and must offset the excess emissions with allowances in the subsequent year. Allowances may be bought and sold. Phase I of the program begins January 1, 1995, and will apply to 110 utility generating units. Phase II takes effect January 1, 2000, and will include most electric utility generating units. EPA will withhold a specified number of allowances for direct sale and auction. The resulting proceeds will be paid to the utilities from which the allowances were withheld. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has provided somewhat limited guidance on several tax issues raised by the program. Significant tax issues and the positions articulated by the IRS (if any) are discussed in this article.

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  14. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  15. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  16. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  17. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  19. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  20. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  1. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  2. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  3. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  4. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  5. RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

  6. LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition velocities have been carried out in the laboratory with the use of a cylindrical flow reaction. Analysis of data from these experiments was performed with models that specifically account for diffusive transport in the system. Consequentl...

  7. SOLID SORBENT FOR COLLECTING ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid sorbent for collecting atmospheric SO2 was evaluated as part of an overall effort to develop a replacement method for the West-Gaeke method presently used to measure 24-hour ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in ambient air. Research showed that a solid sorbent, consis...

  8. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  10. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  11. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  13. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  14. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  16. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  17. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  18. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  1. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  5. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  7. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  8. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  10. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  11. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  12. Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io's surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. However, the deposition patterns and relation of the frost distribution to the volcanic activity is unknown, since prior measurements lacked the spatial resolution to accurately map the surface frost.

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained relatively high spatial and spectral resolution images during the C3 orbit, and the characteristic infrared absorptions of sulfur dioxide frost appearing in the spectra were used to produce the SO2 frost map shown on the right. The comparison image on the left (from 1979 Voyager measurements) shows the same view and indicates the surface brightness as seen in visible light.

    The frost map shows maximum SO2 concentration as white, lesser amounts as blue coloration, and areas with little or no SO2 as black. The resolution of this map is about 120 km (75 miles), which spans the latitude range 120 W to 270 W.

    It is interesting to compare this frost distribution with regions of volcanic activity. Volcanic hotspots identified from NIMS and SSI images occur in many of the dark - low SO2 - areas, a reasonable finding since sulfur dioxide would not condense on such hot regions. The Pele region (to the lower left), N. Colchis hot spots (upper center) and S. Volund (upper right) are good examples of hot spot areas depleted in sulfur dioxide. Much of the rest of this hemisphere of Io has varying amounts of sulfur dioxide present. The most sulfur dioxide-rich area is Colchis Regio, the white area to the right of center.

    Of particular interest is the dark area to the south of Colchis Regio. From the study of other NIMS images, it is seen that this region does not have any large, obvious hotspots. However, it is depleted in sulfur dioxide.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  13. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; van Aardenne, John; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

    2011-01-02

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 - 2005. A combination of mass balance and best available inventory data was used in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties of up to 30% were found. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping.

  14. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5 grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  15. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

  16. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  17. Radio detection of interstellar sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Hollis, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Lovas, F. J.; Johnson, D. R.; Buhl, D.

    1975-01-01

    Interstellar sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been detected in emission from the direction of the Orion Nebula molecular cloud and from Sgr B2. SO2 is the heaviest interstellar molecule detected to date, and the only nonlinear triatomic molecule which does not contain hydrogen. The remarkable Orion emission profiles suggest that two components are supporting the SO2 emission: a dense circumstellar-type envelope, which may be in maser emission, and a warm galactic cloud component.

  18. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  19. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  1. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  3. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  4. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  5. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  6. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  8. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  10. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15... shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur in excess of 0.8...

  11. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15... shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur in excess of 0.8...

  12. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15... shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur in excess of 0.8...

  13. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  14. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  15. Modeling sulfur dioxide absorption by fine water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Hsiung Huang

    2005-07-01

    A novel theoretical model was developed to determine the removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide using fine water spray. The droplet pH, diameter, S(IV) concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, and liquid-to-gas ratio are found to influence the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray. The results demonstrate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray increases as the droplet diameter falls. The concentration gradient between the interface of the gaseous and liquid phases causes the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the droplets to increase as the initial S(IV) concentration decreases or the sulfur dioxide concentration increases. The results indicate that the performance of the fine water spray in removing sulfur dioxide is generally improved by reducing the droplet diameter or the initial S(IV) concentration, or by increasing the sulfur dioxide concentration, the droplet pH or the liquid-to-gas ratio. The proposed model reveals the parameters that should be controlled in using a fine water spray device and a method for improving its performance in removing sulfur dioxide.

  16. Sulfur dioxide removal from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.; Ginger, E.A.

    1986-11-11

    A process is described for removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant gas from gas stream which comprises contacting the gas stream with pretreated shale in the form of an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate including from about 0.1 to about 2.0% by weight of the pretreated shale. The pretreatment of the shale comprises the heating of the shale in the presence of a gas unable to support combustion at a temperature in a range of from about 340/sup 0/C. to about 480/sup 0/C.

  17. Heterogeneous Photochemical Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zanan, H. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2007-12-01

    The gas phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the hydroxyl radical is a significant source of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Stockwell and Calvert (1983) performed fifteen chamber experiments where mixtures of HONO, NO, NO2, H2O, SO2 and CO were photolyzed in synthetic air or in nitrogen containing approximately 50 ppm oxygen. They found that the atmospheric oxidation of SO2 by hydroxyl radical was a chain process that occurs through the production of an HO2 radical followed by reaction with NO to reproduce HO. We have reanalyzed this dataset and we have found that a very large amount of the observed SO2 oxidation (70.0 ± 9.1 %) is not explained through the HO + SO2 reaction alone. The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) was used to investigate additional chemical pathways for the oxidation of SO2. A mechanism consisting of photochemical heterogeneous reactions is proposed to account for the observed additional sulfur dioxide oxidation not accounted for by gas phase oxidation. The analysis showed that the measured time dependent SO2, CO2 and nitrogenous compound concentrations could be simulated by the photochemical heterogeneous mechanism in conjunction with the RACM2 mechanism.

  18. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  19. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  20. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  1. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  3. The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

  4. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  6. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  7. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...This regulation establishes a time-limited tolerance for residues of sulfur dioxide in or on fig. This action is associated with the utilization of a crisis exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing use of the pesticide on figs. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of sulfur dioxide, including its......

  8. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  11. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  13. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  14. RESPONSE OF MAIZE AND WHEAT TO SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four hybrids of maize and seven cultivars of wheat were exposed to relatively low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0.1 to 0.6 ppm) for up to 100 hours. Maize was found to be tolerant to sulfur dioxide and only minor differences were observed in dry mass, foliar injury, and total...

  15. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  16. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  17. Avoidance responses of estuarine fish to sulfur dioxide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr; Margrey, S.L.; Graves, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, and Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentration of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30C.

  18. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  19. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  20. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  1. DYNAMIC DILUTION SYSTEM FOR AUDITING AMBIENT SULFUR DIOXIDE ANALYZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the development, evaluation, and field performance of a device designed to provide accurate sulfur dioxide concentration standards suitable for auditing the accuracy of continuous, ambient SO2 monitors. This compact, lightweight, device has been subjected to ...

  2. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON DIMETHYL SULFUR IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is anticipated that under stress, the cellular DMSP concentration should drop, as sulfur is transferred from the DMSP pool to DMS. Sulfur in the DMS pool will be transferred to the DMSO pool as radicals are scavenged. Enzyme activities such as DMSP lyase, which converts D...

  3. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  4. Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine.

    PubMed

    Monro, Tanya M; Moore, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO(2) over time, resulting in wines with little SO(2) protection. Furthermore, SO(2) and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO(2) in wine require the SO(2) to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  5. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  6. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  7. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  10. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... between fixed barge piping and shore piping of either Schedule 40 pipe having flexible metallic joints that meet § 151.04-5(h) or of flexible metallic hose that is acceptable to the Commandant (CG-522);...

  13. Process for desulfurization of sulfur dioxide-containing gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, D.H. Jr.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes a process for the desulfurization of sulfur dioxide-containing gases. It comprises contacting a sulfur dioxide-containing gas stream with an aqueous solution of magnesium hydroxide in a wet scrubber, wherein the aqueous solution of magnesium hydroxide has a magnesium ion content of between about 5000 to about 15,000 parts per million, to remove sulfur dioxide therefrom; subjecting a portion of the spent scrubbing medium to oxidation and then treating the oxidized product with a magnesium-containing lime slurry to obtain magnesium hydroxide and calcium sulfate, the magnesium-containing lime used to prepare the slurry containing about 1.5 to about 7 weight percent magnesium oxide, with the balance being calcium oxide; separating calcium sulfate from the treated product and recycling magnesium hydroxide to the scrubber.

  14. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Zhang, Yinzhi; Kuchta, Matthew E.; Andresen, John M.; Fauth, Dan J.

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  15. Sulfur Dioxide variability in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Mahieux, A.; Wilquet, V.; Chamberlain, S.; Belayev, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Marcq, E.; Mils, F.; Parkinson, C.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Recent observations of sulfur oxides (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2 SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed u nexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Particularly intriguing are the layer of enhanced gas-phase SO2 and SO in the upper mesosphere, and variability in the maximum observed SO2 a bundance and the equator -to-pole SO2 abundance gradient, seemingly on multi-year cycles, that is not uniquely linked to local time variations. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Consequently, sulfur oxide observations provide important insight into the ongoing chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism.

  16. Interaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide with clean silver in ultrahigh vacuum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that when a clean polycrystalline silver surface is subjected to sulfur dioxide at a pressure of 1 nanotorr, sulfur is chemisorbed to the silver. Heating the contaminated silver leads to an estimation of the minimum heat of desorption of 59 kcal/mol. Sulfur Auger peak height and relative function measurements of the surface during exposure show that adsorption occurs during 6 microtorr/sec exposure at 1 nanotorr.

  17. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  18. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.

  19. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN CLASS I WILDERNESS AREAS, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the state of Washington. Different plot symbols are used for sources which emit less than 100 tons/year, between 100 and 1000 tons/year, and over 1000 tons/year of SO2. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background...

  20. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY PLANTS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE AND PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the result of a detailed review of European and United States literature regarding the sensitivity of woody vegetation to sulfur dioxide, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), or nitrogen oxides. Reference is made to Russian, Japanese and Austrian literature onl...

  1. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  2. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN WA, OR, AND ID

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: USGS, Nat...

  3. LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

  4. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION: SPECTRORADIOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO2 was...

  5. THE MECHANISM OF SULFUR DIOXIDE INITIATED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric sulfur oxides exist in chemically complex particulates of the respirable size range. Inhalation of these particulates represents a potential health hazard. This report provides the results of a series of experiments into the uptake of sulfate salts by the lung, the in...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard...

  7. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  8. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  9. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  10. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard...

  12. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  13. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  14. Responses of Hawaiian plants to volcanic sulfur dioxide: stomatal behavior and foliar injury

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-14

    Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal conductance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.

  15. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  16. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section 52.1875 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1875 Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary national ambient air quality standard...

  18. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  19. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  20. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  1. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  2. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  3. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  4. Benzosulfones as photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) donors.

    PubMed

    Malwal, Satish R; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-02-28

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a gaseous environmental pollutant which is routinely used in industry as a preservative and antimicrobial. Recent data suggests that SO2 may have value as a therapeutic agent. However, due to its gaseous nature, localizing SO2 generation is challenging. Herein, various 1,3-dihydrobenzo[c]thiophene 2,2-dioxides (benzosulfones) were prepared as candidates for photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) generation. These compounds were found to be stable in buffer but were photolysed upon irradiation with UV light to generate SO2. Our data indicates that photolysis of benzosulfones depends on substituents, and that the presence of electron donating groups results in an enhanced yield of SO2. PMID:25563212

  5. Biofilm control studies using ferrate and sulfur dioxide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-10-01

    This study evaluates the possibility of utilizing two new compounds for biofilm control. The two compounds studied were iron (VI) ferrate and sulfur dioxide. Previous studies have indicated that iron (VI) ferrate is an effective disinfectant of bacterial suspensions. Therefore, the possibility of ferrate inactivating bacterial film was studied in test laboratory condensers. Bench scale flow through systems were established and environmental conditions were set so that a bacterial film of greater than 100 microns developed in less than two weeks operation. The effectiveness of ferrate treatment for biofouling control was ascertained by measuring film thickness vs. time in the test systems as a function of various ferrate doses. For ferrate concentrations similar to those effective in suspended systems, that is, 10/sup -5/M ferrate, good biofilm growth prevention was observed. When ferrate concentrations were decreased to below 10/sup -6/M, no repression of film growth was observed. Therefore, ferrate is a possible control chemical for biofilm growth prevention in condenser systems. The second part of this study dealt with the evaluation of sulfur dioxide as a biocidal agent. This study was only preliminary in nature and the main objective was to determine whether sulfur dioxide could act as a biocide against suspended bacterial systems. No biofilm studies were undertaken using SO/sub 2/ as a treatment chemical. The results indicated that sulfur dioxide is an effective biocide but its effectiveness is highly pH dependent. Several different types of bacterial were used as test organisms and all were rapidly inactivated at reasonable sulfur dioxide concentrations when the pH was below four. For neutral or basic pH very large SO/sub 2/ concentrations, often approaching two grams per liter, were required for reasonable disinfection kinetics. 65 references, 35 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Coralline algae as a globally significant pool of marine dimethylated sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Heidi L.; Hatton, Angela D.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2015-10-01

    Marine algae are key sources of the biogenic sulfur compound dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a vital component of the marine sulfur cycle. Autotrophic ecosystem engineers such as red coralline algae support highly diverse and biogeochemically active ecosystems and are known to be high DMSP producers, but their importance in the global marine sulfur cycle has not yet been appreciated. Using a global sampling approach, we show that red coralline algae are a globally significant pool of DMSP in the oceans, estimated to be ~110 × 1012 moles worldwide during the summer months. Latitude was a major driver of observed regional-scale variations, with peaks in polar and tropical climate regimes, reflecting the varied cellular functions for DMSP (e.g., as a cryoprotectant and antioxidant). A temperate coralline algal bed was investigated in more detail to also identify local-scale temporal variations. Here, water column DMSP was driven by water temperature, and to a lesser extent, cloud cover; two factors which are also vital in controlling coralline algal growth. This study demonstrates that coralline algae harbor a large pool of dimethylated sulfur, thereby playing a significant role in both the sulfur and carbon marine biogeochemical cycles. However, coralline algal habitats are severely threatened by projected climate change; a loss of this habitat may thus detrimentally impact oceanic sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling.

  7. Cyclopropane⋯sulfur dioxide and ethylene⋯sulfur dioxide van der Waals complexes: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayón, V. M.; Sordo, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at different levels of theory [HF, MP2, MP4SDTQ, and QCISD(T)] and using different basis sets (Pople's 6-31G**, Dunning-Huzinaga's D95**, and Dunning's aug-cc-pVDZ) were carried out to analyze the potential energy hypersurfaces of the cyclopropane⋯sulfur dioxide and ethylene⋯sulfur dioxide van der Waals complexes. Both the theoretical methods employed and the basis set chosen exert a great influence on the geometry and nature of the stationary points located: The MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ structures are consistent with experimental data from microwave spectroscopy. Binding energies, dipole moments, and rotational constants are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental values. Calculations predict the existence of tunneling pathways between equivalent structures in accord with the experimentally observed splittings in the rotational spectra: The QCISD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ energy barrier in the case of ethylene⋯sulfur dioxide is 48 cm-1, in good agreement with the experimental estimate (30 cm-1). For the cyclopropane⋯sulfur dioxide complex where an experimental estimate cannot be done, the computed barrier is 69 cm-1. Although covalent forces make appreciable contributions to the stabilization of both van der Waals complexes, the electrostatic component of the intermolecular interaction seems to play an especially relevant role in determining the relative orientation of the two subunits in each complex.

  8. Sulfur Dioxide variability in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Esposito, Larry W.; Lefevre, Franck; Mills, Franklin; Limaye, Sanjay; Mahieux, Arnaud; Belyaev, Denis; Encrenaz, Therese; Marcq, Emmanuel; Korablev, Oleg; Parkinson, Christopher; Wilson, Colin; Wilquet, Valérie; Chamberlain, Sarah; Jessup, Kandis Lea; Stolzenbach, Aurelien

    The recent observations of SO _{2} by SOIR and SPICAV-UV on board Venus Express and ground-based observations of SO _{2} and SO have provoked much reaction in the scientific community. SO _{2} is strongly related to the formation of the clouds and haze on Venus, which are composed of sulfuric acid combined to water complexes. Presence and variations of SO _{2} could be the proof of a possible volcanism on Venus. The most intriguing are discrepancies among different observations, and the suspected long-term variations of the SO _{2} abundance observed on the scales of several years, in particular during Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Venus Express missions. Similar trends are also observed in the super-rotation period and circulation patterns, which suggest that these aspects may be more strongly coupled than expected. An ISSI international team has been built in view of considering different aspects of sulfur chemistry on Venus. This includes comparison and validation of observations, from past missions, from Venus Express, from the Earth, and from Hubble Space Telescope, modeling of photochemistry and of other processes in which the sulfur family is involved. We will consider not only SO _{2}, but also SO and other constituents involved in its cycle. Reference density and vmr fields will be constructed from the detailed analysis and comparison of data. These will be included into the next generation of the VIRA references atmosphere.

  9. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  10. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... maintenance plan for sulfur dioxide in Lake and Jefferson Counties. (14) On March 20, 2000, the Ohio... for the number of hours in a given period of time by the number of hours in that period. For...

  11. Resistance to injury by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, J.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO/sub 2/, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO/sub 2/ at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H/sub 2/S. Young leaves emit H/sub 2/S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 2/ to emitted (/sup 35/S)H/sub 2/S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/S and emission of the H/sub 2/S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO/sub 2/.

  12. Lagrangian measurements of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion rates

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of Project MISTT data and proposed homogeneous gas phase oxidation mechanisms for sulfur dioxide, it has been suggested that the degree of mixing with background air, the chemical composition of the background air, and the intensity of the sunlight available are key factors determining the rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion. These hypotheses are examined in light of Lagrangian measurements of conversion rates in power plant plumes made during the Tennessee Plume Study and Project Da Vinci. It is found that the Lagrangian conversion rate measurements are consistent with these hypotheses. It has also been suggested that the concentration of ozone may serve as a workable surrogate for the concentrations of the free radicals involved in the homogeneous gas phase mechanism. Certain of the Lagrangian data indicate that this suggestion should be regarded with caution.

  13. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  14. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  15. Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.; Margrey, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20/sup 0/C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25/sup 0/C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30/sup 0/C. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Sulfur dioxide: episodic injection shows evidence for active venus volcanism.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L W

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in Earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent Earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use. PMID:17830154

  17. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  18. MARINE SULFUR CYCLE. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-26

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms. PMID:26113722

  19. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  20. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  1. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  2. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  4. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  6. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  7. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  11. Dimethyl sulfide air-sea fluxes and biogenic sulfur as a source of new aerosols in the Arctic fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempillo, Ofelia; Seguin, Alison Michelle; Norman, Ann-Lise; Scarratt, Michael; Michaud, Sonia; Chang, Rachel; Sjostedt, Steve; Abbatt, Jon; Else, Brent; Papakyriakou, Tim; Sharma, Sangeeta; Grasby, Steve; Levasseur, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and its oxidation products, which have been proposed to provide a climate feedback mechanism by affecting aerosol and cloud radiative properties, were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard ship Amundsen in sampling campaigns in the Arctic in the fall of 2007 and 2008. DMS flux was calculated based on the surface water measurements and yielded 0.1-2.6 μmol m-2 d-1 along the Northwest Passage in 2007 and 0.2-1.3 μmol m-2 d-1 along Baffin Bay in 2008. DMS oxidation products, sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane sulfonic acid (MSA), and sulfate in aerosols were also measured. The amounts of biogenic SO2 and sulfate were approximated using stable isotope apportionment techniques. Calculating the threshold amount of SO2 needed for significant new particle formation from the formulation by Pirjola et al. (1999), the study suggests that instances of elevated biogenic SO2 concentrations (between 8 and 9 September 2008) derived using conservative assumptions may have been sufficient to form new aerosols in clean air conditions in the Arctic region.

  12. Implicit nucleophilic reagents in the sulfur dioxide-amine system. Sulfur trioxide treatment of azomethines

    SciTech Connect

    Bodrikov, I.V.; Krasnov, V.L.; Matyukov, E.V.; Chernov, A.N.; Verin, I.A.

    1988-03-20

    It was shown by x-ray crystallographic analysis that the products form the reaction of azomethines with the sulfur dioxide-methylamine system are methylammonium 1-aryl-1-(arylamino)methanesulfonates. In aqueous solutions of the latter the amine fragment is redistributed with the formation of arylammonium 1-aryl-1-(arylamino)methanesulfonates. It was established that all the obtained salts are in equilibrium with the azomethines in solutions. The form of the nucleophile taking part in the reaction with the azomethine is suggested on the basis of the data from the PMR spectra of the methylamine-sulfur dioxide system. It was established that in water at room temperature and, particularly, with acid catalysis the compounds undergo fragment transformations which lead finally to redistribution of the covalently bonded amine fragment between the anionic and cationic parts of the salt with the formation of arylammonium 1-aryl-1-(arylamino)methanesulfonates.

  13. Estimate of the contribution of biologically produced dimethyl sulfide to the global sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Maroulis, P J; Bandy, A R

    1977-05-01

    Atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS) measurements were made on the Atlantic Coast of the United States at Wallops Island and Cape Henry, Virginia, during June 1975. The very low concentrations, typically less than 30 parts per trillion observed at the Cape Henry site, were thought to result from the smog chemistry associated with the Norfolk metropolitan area. Atmospheric DMS concentrations at the Wallops Island site were much higher, having a geometric mean of 58 parts per trillion and a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. At this site the DMS source strength was estimated to be 6 milligrams of sulfur per square meter per year. Because of wind conditions during this experiment, the DMS source strength is thought to be representative of the DMS source strength of the ocean in the Wallops Island area and is much less than the 130 milligrams of sulfur per square meter per year needed to balance the ocean-atmosphere portion of the global sulfur budget. PMID:17760057

  14. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  15. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Bennett, J.H.

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury. 16 referances, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries on Mars rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Kindler, A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions of Mars, These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during the critical entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers. These batteries were located on the petals of the lander, which, unlike in the Mars Pathfinder mission, was designed only to carry the rover. The selection of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery system for this application was based on its high specific energy and high rate discharge capability, combined with low heat evolution, as dictated by this application. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries exhibit voltage delay, which tends to increase at low discharge temperatures, especially after extended storage at warm temperatures, In the absence of a depassivation circuit, as provided on earlier missions, e.g., Galileo, we were required to depassivate the lander primary batteries in a unique manner. The batteries were brought onto a shunt-regulated bus set at pre-selected discharge voltages, thus affecting depassivation during constant discharge voltages. Several ground tests were preformed, on cells, cell strings and battery assembly with five parallel strings, to identify optimum shunt voltages and durations of depassivation. We also examined the repassivation of lithium anodes, subsequent to depassivation. In this paper, we will describe these studies, in detail, as well as the depassivation of the lander flight batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity rover prior to the EDL sequence and their performance during landing on Mars.

  17. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  18. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  19. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  20. Enhanced monitoring of sulfur dioxide sources with hyperspectral UV sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Yang, Kai; Krotkov, Nickolay

    2009-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide, a short-lived atmospheric constituent, is oxidized to sulfate aerosols, a climate agent. Main sources are volcanoes, smelters, and fossil fuel combustion. Satellite monitoring of SO2 began with TOMS data in 1978 that detected volcanic eruption clouds. Hyperspectral instruments, like OMI and GOME, have a twenty-fold improvement in sensitivity. Degassing volcanoes, smelters, and large power plants are now monitored for a database of SO2 emission to the atmosphere. SO2 is a distinctive marker for volcanic ash clouds, a hazard to aircraft.

  1. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  2. Absolute integrated intensity for the nu-1 sulfur dioxide band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, P. J.; Young, C.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the IR vibration-rotation nu-1 SO2 band was measured using the linear portion of the curve of growth. Infrared spectroscopic-absorption cell measurements were performed on sulfur dioxide at partial pressures less than 0.15 torr with nitrogen added to give a total pressure of 705 torr, the path length being 4 mm. The absolute integrated intensity was determined to be 112.0 plus or minus 2.6/cm/sq (atm cm) at 296 K at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Detection of sulfur dioxide using a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, O.M.

    1997-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide was detected and determined in air by a piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor coated with 4-aminoantipyrine/1-hydroxyetil-2-heptadecenyl imidazol (amine 220) solution (1:1 v/v in chloroform). The analytical response curve is linear over the concentration range from 0.70 to 5.0 ppm of SO{sub 2}. Good linearities (r = 0.9990, 0.9995 and 0.9968) and sensitivities (18.0, 33.4 and 50.7 Hz/ppm) were found, respectively for exposure times of 30, 60 and 90 seconds. The sensor can be used for more than six months without loss in sensitivity and presented good reversibility and reproducibility. Among some possible interferents tested, only nitrogen dioxide and moisture caused major frequency changes.

  4. Method and aparatus for flue gas cleaning by separation and liquefaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelmalek, F.T.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a method for recovering sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and cleaning flue gases emitted from power plants. It comprises: electronically treating the flue gases to neutralize its electrostatic charges and to enhance the coagulation of its molecules and particles; exchanging sensible and latent heat of the neutralized flue gases to lower its temperature down to a temperature approaching the ambient temperature while recovering its separating the flue gas in a first stage; cooling the separated enriched carbon dioxide gas fraction, after each separation stage, while removing its vapor condensate, then compressing the enriched carbon dioxide gas fraction and simultaneously cooling the compressed gas to liquefy the sulfur dioxide gas then; allowing the sulfur dioxide gas to condense, and continuously removing the liquefied sulfur dioxide; compressing he desulfurized enriched carbon dioxide fraction to further increase its pressure, and simultaneously cooling he compressed gas to liquefy the carbon dioxide gas, then; allowing the carbon dioxide gas to condense and continuously removing the liquefied carbon dioxide; allowing the light components of the flue gas to be released in a cooling tower discharge plume.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  6. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  7. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur... Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) under...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  9. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  10. Absorption of sulfur dioxide by glycerol-containing hexamethylenetetramine solutions in an airlift apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ennan, A.A.; Gavrilenko, M.I.; Nikitin, V.I.; Kurando, S.V.

    1994-04-10

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide in an airlift apparatus with an external circuit is studied by using the cellular model. The absorption was accomplished using glycerol-containing hexamethylenetetramine solutions. These solutions are shown to be in principle applicable for decontaminating air by removing sulfur dioxide.

  11. Nitrogen fixation rate and chlorophyll content of the lichen Peltigera canina exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksson, E.; Pearson, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    In general, the rate of nitrogen fixation decreased when the lichen Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. was exposed to sulfur dioxide gas at levels from 0.1 to 500 ppm; at 30 ppm, however, nitrogen fixation was stimulated. The chlorophyll content decreased as the level of sulfur dioxide increased.

  12. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  15. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sulfur deposition from international shipping in Asian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Arndt, Richard L.

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide from international shipping in Asian waters have been estimated using information on typical shipping parameters and quantities of goods shipped to and from the major ports. Emissions are estimated to be 236,000 t SO 2 per year in 1988. This represents 11.7% of emissions in Southeast Asia and 0.7% of total continental Asian emissions. Emissions from vessels in transit between ports are estimated to be 226,000 t SO 2 per year, and emissions from port activities are estimated to be 10,200 t SO 2 per year. Deposition of this sulfur was calculated using the ATMOS model of atmospheric transport and deposition. Shipping emissions were found to be the dominant source of sulfur deposition in large areas of the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, and the South China Sea. Land areas most heavily affected are those bordering the Strait of Malacca, where portions of Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore have contributions from shipping in excess of 10% of total sulfur deposition. Observational data in Malaysia are consistent with these findings. It is suggested that emissions from shipping may be contributing to ecological damage in areas surrounding the Strait of Malacca.

  16. Histological comparisons of white pine needles fumigated with ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Needles of Pinus strobus were fumigated with low concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide singly and in mixtures for time periods of less than one hour. The needles were killed and fixed immediately after fumigation, cross section 15 microns thick were cut and then stained in a Safranin O-Fast Green stain series. The data revealed that ozone appeared to have a greater initial effect than sulfur dioxide on the tissues of the needles. The sections cut from needles fumigated with sulfur dioxide were similar in appearance to the tissues from nonfumigated control needles. The injury observed in sections of needles fumigated with a mixture of ozone and sulfur dioxide was characteristic of injury caused by ozone rather than sulfur dioxide. Data indicated that fumigations by low concentrations of ozone for a time period of less than one hour could cause changes in the tissues that would be injurious to the normal activities of the needles.

  17. Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on erythrocyte antioxidant status, food intake, and lipid peroxidation during aging.

    PubMed

    Yargiçoğlu, P; Gümüslüoriob, S; Ağar, A; Korgun, D K; Küçükatay, V

    2001-01-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on red blood cell antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation was investigated in young (3 mo), middle-age (12 mo), and old (24 mo) male albino rats. Ten ppm of sulfur dioxide was administered to the rats in the sulfur dioxide groups in an exposure chamber. Exposure occurred 1 hr/d, 7 d/wk, for 6 wk; control rats were exposed to filtered air during the same time periods. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly decreased in the middle-aged and older groups, compared with the young group. Sulfur dioxide exposure significantly decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in all experimental groups, compared with controls. Sulfur dioxide exposure significantly increased enzyme and glutathione activities. PMID:11256857

  18. Differing response of asthmatics to sulfur dioxide exposure with continuous and intermittent exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Roger, L.J.; Hazucha, M.J.; Horstman, D.H.

    1986-08-29

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 C, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and duration of exercise on the response to sulfur dioxide exposure, the subjects were then exposed to the same environmental conditions, while exercising continuously for 30 minutes. Specific airways resistance (SRaw) was measured by body plethysmography prior to exposures and after each exercise. All SRaw responses with sulfur dioxide exposure were significantly different than the clean air responses. It appears that asthmatics show an attenuated response to repetitive exercise in a 1.00 ppm sulfur dioxide atmosphere and that the response to sulfur dioxide exposure develops rapidly and is maintained during 30 minutes continuous exercise.

  19. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

  20. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

  1. A study of sulfur dioxide removal from flue gases with simultaneous generation of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, S.; Shen, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper concerns a study for sulfur dioxide removal from a simulating flue gas comprising of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen with simultaneous generation of hydrogen sulfide for the purpose of producing elemental sulfur by Claus reaction. Experiments were proceeded in an aqueous solution of sodium sulfide in a semi flow reactor in a set of operation parameters which are temperature, partial pressure of sulfur dioxide in feeding gas, initial concentration of sodium sulfide in solution and ratio of gas to liquid. A three stage model for the reaction system was observed in terms of the profiles of changes of both pH values of solution and composition of hydrogen sulfide in exit gas with the reaction time. In the first stage, sulfur dioxide was dissolved into solution and sulfide was converted into bisulfide; stage 2 was prominently conversion of bisulfide into hydrogen sulfide with simultaneously absorption of sulfur dioxide; the stage 3 came about as a sign of sulfur dioxide in exit gas was detected. It has been also found that temperature and initial sodium sulfide in solution positively effected on the conversion rate of sodium sulfide to hydrogen sulfide. On the other hand, with an increase of sulfur dioxide content in feeding gas, the duration of both stage 1 and 2 became shorter so that the system entered the second and final stages earlier.

  2. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  3. Sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide in polysulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.; Koros, W.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-25

    The sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in polymers is important in areas such as food packaging, polymer degradation, and sensors and monitoring devices. Another possible application is in pollution control for exhaust gases from power plants. Polysulfone is a polymer that is widely used for commercial gas separations with membranes. The authors have investigated the sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in a commercially available Bisphenol A polysulfone near room temperature. The results were interpreted using the dual-mode sorption model with partial immobilization. Although similar data on other polymers have been published in the literature, they are not aware of any studies of sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in polysulfone.

  4. Signal pathways involved in the biological effects of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Du, Jun-Bao; Cui, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Gasotransmitters, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, play important roles in life and have attracted great interest in scientists. In recent years, sulfur dioxide (SO2) has also been found to play important roles in mammals. The redox pathway is involved in the biological effects of SO2, such as the protective effect on myocardial ischemia reperfusion, myocardial injury, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ion channels, such as L-type calcium and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, as well as 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathways are also involved in the vasorelaxant effect of SO2. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays roles in vascular remodeling during pulmonary hypertension and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Understanding these signaling mechanisms would help to clarify the pathophysiological effect and therapeutic potential of SO2. PMID:26123845

  5. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S.

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  6. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  7. Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions. Emissions from smelters comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. -from Authors

  8. Real-time monitoring of sulfur dioxide using ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weijia; Lin, Hongze; Lou, Xiutao; Yan, Chunsheng; Mei, Liang

    2014-02-01

    A compact and low-cost light-emitting diode (LED) with center wavelength of 295 nm and high light density was used measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide, which has a strong structured absorption band in the ultraviolet region 300 nm. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used to determine the concentration of sulfur dioxide using reference absorption spectrum due to 1000 ppm SO2. A sensitivity of about 1.5 ppm was achieved with a gas cell in 1-s integration time, enabling real-time monitoring of sulfur dioxide.

  9. Continuous atomic spectrometric measurement of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in air by mercury displacement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1982-08-01

    The analytical atomic spectrometric technique of mercury displacement detection has been adapted so that sulfur dioxide can be determined at natural background levels in ambient air on a continuous basis with a 90% response time of 1-2 min. Sample air is drawn into the reaction vessel containing mercury (I) ion reagent and any sulfur dioxide present reacts to form elemental mercury which is measured, after being swept out of the solution by the same flow of sample air, by a mercury vapor detector. Reagent is continuously pumped through the analyzer and the instrument is calibrated with a permeation tube calibrator. The apparatus has a linear concentration range up to 100 ppB sulfur dioxide; this is much lower than can be obtained with existing commerical instruments. The apparatus is very precise and 6, 11, and 20 ppB sulfur dioxide can be measured with coefficients of variation of 1-2%.

  10. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary copper smelters in the western US

    SciTech Connect

    Mangeng, C.A.; Mead, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The body of information presented is directed to environmental scientists and policy makers without chemical or metallurgical engineering backgrounds. This paper addresses the problems of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from primary copper smelters in the western United States and projects the future impact of emissions within a framework of legal, technological, and economic considerations. Methodology used to calculate historical sulfur dioxide emissions is described. Sulfur dioxide emission regulations are outlined as they apply to primary copper smelters. A discussion of available sulfur dioxide control technology and copper smelting processes summarizes the technological and economic problems of reducing copper smelter emissions. Based upon these technological and economic considerations, projections of smelter emissions indicate that compliance with existing legislative requirements will be achieved by 1990. Three smelters are projected to close by 1985.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of wine polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Makhotkina, Olga; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2013-06-12

    Electrochemical oxidation of three representative wine polyphenols (catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin) in the presence of sulfur dioxide in a model wine solution (pH = 3.3) was investigated. The oxidation was undertaken using chronoamperometry at a rotating glassy carbon rod electrode, and the reaction products were characterized by HPLC-MS. The mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide was proposed to be an ECEC mechanism. The polyphenols first underwent a one-electron oxidation to a semiquinone radical, which can be reduced back to the original polyphenol by sulfur dioxide, or further oxidized to the quinone form. In the cases of caffeic acid and catechin, the quinone combined with sulfur dioxide and produced new derivatives. The quercetin quinone underwent further chemical transformations, producing several new compounds. The proposed mechanisms were confirmed by digital simulation of cyclic voltammograms. PMID:23692398

  12. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  13. GROUND-BASED SULFUR DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS WITHIN A COPPER SMELTER PLUME - ANACONDA, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Las Vegas developed a mobile sulfur dioxide (SO2) instrument package for use in the remote, rugged terrain surrounding The Anaconda Company's copper smelter at Anaconda, Montana. The...

  14. Chamber exposures of children to mixed ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Linn, W S; Gong, H; Shamoo, D A; Anderson, K R; Avol, E L

    1997-01-01

    To help assess acute health effects of summer air pollution in the eastern United States, we simulated ambient "acid summer haze" as closely as was practical in a laboratory chamber. We exposed young volunteers who were thought to be sensitive to this pollutant mixture on the basis of previous epidemiologic evidence. Specifically, we exposed 41 subjects aged 9-12 y to mixed ozone (0.10 ppm), sulfur dioxide (0.10 ppm), and 0.6-microm sulfuric acid aerosol (100 +/- 40 microg/m3, mean +/- standard deviation) for 4 h, during which there was intermittent exercise. Fifteen subjects were healthy, and 26 had allergy or mild asthma. The entire group responded nonsignificantly (p > .05) to pollution exposure (relative to clean air), as determined by spirometry, symptoms, and overall discomfort level during exercise. Subjects with allergy/asthma showed a positive association (p = .01) between symptoms and acid dose; in healthy subjects, that association was negative (p = .08). In these chamber-exposure studies, we noted less of an effect than was reported in previous epidemiologic studies of children exposed to ambient "acid summer haze." PMID:9169627

  15. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    PubMed Central

    Ginevan, M. E.; Lane, D. D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-01-01

    Three long-term (16-29 days) low-level (0.14-0.28 ppm) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure to this gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects. PMID:16592891

  16. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  17. Neonatal development altered by maternal sulfur dioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Singh, J

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the commonly encountered environmental contaminants. Experiments were carried out to test for neonatal behavioral alterations associated with maternal SO2 exposure. Pregnant CD-I mice were exposed to 0, 32, or 65 PPM SO2 in environmental chambers from gestation day 7 to 18 (plug = day 1). The SO2 air flow was set at 500 ml/min. Food and water were available at all times. The dams were allowed to deliver and neonatal behavioral development of the pups was studied. Maternal SO2 exposure did not affect the mean number of live pups born/litter; however, the exposure at the high level significantly decreased the mean pup weight on day 1 of birth. SO2 exposure at both levels significantly increased the time required for the righting reflex on day 1 of birth and negative geotaxis on day 10 of birth. The SO2 exposure did not affect the aerial righting score of the pups on day 12 of birth. The data suggest that maternal SO2 exposure can affect the neuromuscular coordination and may produce deficits in the functional capability of the developing offspring. The functional deficits appear to be associated with the birth weight of the offspring. PMID:2626216

  18. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  19. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  20. Sulfur dioxide removal process with gypsum and magnesium hydroxide production

    SciTech Connect

    College, J.W.; Benson, L.B.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes improvement in a method for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases wherein the flue gases are contacted in a wet scrubbing unit, in the absence of any substantial amount of calcium components, with an aqueous solution of magnesium components and magnesium sulfite produced, with aqueous solution, following the contact, collected and recycled to the wet scrubber for further contact with flue gases, and subjecting a portion of the aqueous discharge from the scrubbing unit, containing magnesium sulfite, to oxidation in an oxidation unit. The improvement comprises: adding calcium sulfate to the portion of aqueous discharge containing magnesium sulfite prior to oxidation in the oxidation unit to form an oxidized aqueous effluent containing calcium sulfate solids and dissolved magnesium sulfate; passing the oxidized aqueous effluent to a regeneration tank; adding lime to the regeneration tank to precipitate gypsum from and form an aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension in the oxidized aqueous effluent; separating the precipitated gypsum from the aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension; and returning at least a portion of the separated precipitated gypsum to the oxidizing unit as the added calcium sulfate.

  1. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, D.H. Jr.; Benson, L.B.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases in a wet scrubber, wherein an aqueous slurry formed from calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide is contacted in the wet scrubber with the flue gases, and the slurry, after the contact, contains calcium sulfite solids and dissolved magnesium sulfite, and is discharged from the wet scrubber and passed to a thickener wherein a thickened aqueous sludge containing calcium sulfite solids is separated from an overflow liquor. The improvement comprises: returning at least a portion of the overflow liquor to the wet scrubber; concentrating the thickened aqueous sludge by removal of a sulfite solution, comprising water containing dissolved magnesium sulfite, therefrom; returning a first portion of the sulfite solution to the thickener; oxidizing magnesium sulfite in a second portion of the sulfite solution to form a sulfate solution containing magnesium sulfate; adding lime to the sulfate solution following the oxidation, to precipitate calcium sulfate and form an aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension; and separating precipitated calcium sulfate from the aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension.

  2. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  4. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  5. Pulmonary effects of sulfur dioxide and respirable carbon aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Miller, W.R.; Green, D.J.; Shanty, F.

    1986-10-01

    Four-hour individual and combined exposures to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/ (1.5 ..mu..m mass median diameter) activated carbon aerosol (ACA) were studied in 20 healthy nonsmoking subjects to determine if activated carbon as a carrier aerosol can augment the pulmonary response to SO/sub 2/. Fifteen-minute exercise stints (V/sub E/ = 35 liters/min) were performed at commencement and completion of each 4-hr period. Significant increases in nose or throat irritation occurred with the SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ + ACA exposures and in eye irritation with the SO/sub 2/ + ACA exposure. Small, statistically significant decrements in spirometric function were observed following the first exercise (t = 17 min) for both the SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ plus ACA exposures: no significant changes were associated with the ACA exposure. Comparing function changes between the SO/sub 2/ and the SO/sub 2/ + ACA exposures demonstrated no statistically significant differences, thus a lack of SO/sub 2/ response enhancement by the carbon aerosol. The determination that the activated carbon sorbed only 1% of the SO/sub 2/ challenge concentration could explain the observed lack of SO/sub 2/ response enhancement.

  6. Acute hematologic and hemorheologic effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.

    1988-09-01

    Fifty male rats were exposed to 0.87 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 24 hr. Hematologic and hemorheologic parameters measured in this group were compared with the results of a control group of 51 male rats. Hematocrit values were found to be higher (p less than .005) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (43.55 +/- 0.41%, mean +/- standard error), when compared to the control group value (41.97 +/- 0.35%). Sulfhemoglobin values were also higher (p less than .0001) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (0.60 +/- 0.08%) than the control group (0.08 +/- 0.02%). Osmotic hemolysis ratio was slightly increased (p less than .05) in the 0.55% sodium chloride solution. However, whole blood and packed cell viscosities were lower in the SO/sub 2/-treated animals, while there was no significant difference in the plasma viscosities. The mechanism of these effects could not be clarified completely, but structural and functional effects of SO2 inhalation on peripheral erythrocytes were discussed.

  7. The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

    1993-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

  8. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  9. Remote sensing of ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide emissions from cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel Alexander

    This document describes the development of a remote sensor for mobile source ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) based on an instrument previously developed at the University of Denver. Significant optical upgrades allow for the detection of three new species. Detection and quantification of NH3 and SO 2 use wavelengths deeper into the ultraviolet region than previously possible. Currently NH3 is quantified from three peaks at 209 nm, 213 nm, and 217 nm; SO2 from three peaks at 219 nm, 221 nm, and 222 nm; NO2 using the spectral window 430--446 nm. The instrument was demonstrated in the measurement of emissions from both gasoline and diesel light duty vehicles and heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDT). The remote sensor was used for over 20,000 measurements of NH3 and SO2 emissions from motor vehicles in Denver and Tulsa in the summer of 2005. Nitrogen dioxide emissions were measured at the Denver site only. For the first time, on-road vehicle NH3 and SO2 emission trends versus model year were observed. Ammonia is a larger percentage of the exhaust than previously predicted for newer vehicles and its production reaches a maximum with approximately the 1996 model year. NH3 is the first pollutant observed to have lower emissions from the oldest model year. Sulfur dioxide emissions decrease with newer model year vehicles. Nearly 1200 NH3, SO2, and NO2 emission measurements with valid vehicle identification numbers were collected from in-use HDDTs in Golden and Dumont, CO. The Dumont weigh station site allowed emissions to be correlated with gross vehicle weight. No trends were apparent. The Golden site allowed emissions to be correlated with odometer and a trend of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions was apparent even near one million miles, when some vehicles should show lower emissions due to engine rebuild and computer reflash. For the first time HDDT on-road NO x emissions were shown versus vehicle model year and found to reach a maximum with model years in the mid to late 1990s. Gross emitting SO 2 emissions were found for 1% of the fleet possibly arising from the illegal use off-road diesel fuel.

  10. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur...

  11. Simultaneous sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide removal by calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids.

    PubMed

    Nelli, C H; Rochelle, G T

    1998-09-01

    At conditions typical of a bag filter exposed to a coal-fired flue gas that has been adiabatically cooled with water, calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids were exposed to a dilute, humidified gas stream of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a packed-bed reactor. A prior study found that NO2 reacted readily with surface water of alkaline and non-alkaline solids to produce nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO). With SO2 present in the gas stream, NO2 also reacted with S(IV), a product of SO2 removal, on the exterior of an alkaline solid. The oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by oxygen reduced the availability of S(IV) and lowered removal of NO2. Subsequent acidification of the sorbent by the removal of NO2 and SO2 facilitated the production of NO. However, the conversion of nitrous acid to sulfur-nitrogen compounds reduced NO production and enhanced SO2 removal. A reactor model based on empirical and semi-empirical rate expressions predicted rates of SO2 removal, NO2 removal, and NO production by calcium silicate solids. Rate expressions from the reactor model were inserted into a second program, which predicted the removal of SO2 and NOx by a continuous process, such as the collection of alkaline solids in a baghouse. The continuous process model, depending upon inlet conditions, predicted 30-40% removal for NOx and 50-90% removal for SO2. These results are relevant to dry scrubbing technology for combined SO2 and NOx removal that first oxidizes NO to NO2 by the addition of methanol into the flue duct. PMID:9775761

  12. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

  13. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  14. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  15. Seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over North Santa Clara, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alejo, Daniellys; Morales, Mayra C; de la Torre, Jorge B; Grau, Ricardo; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Van Espen, Piet; Sosa, Dismey; Nuñez, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels were monitored simultaneously by means of Radiello passive samplers at six sites of Santa Clara city, Cuba, in the cold and the warm seasons in 2010. The dissolved ionic forms of NO2 and SO2 as nitrate and sulfite plus sulfate, respectively, were determined by means of ion chromatography. Analysis of NO2 as nitrite was also performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. For NO2, significant t tests show good agreement between the results of IC and UV-Vis methods. The NO2 and SO2 concentrations peaked in the cold season, while their minimum levels were experienced in the warm season. The pollutant levels do not exceed the maximum allowable limit of the Cuban Standard 39:1999, i.e., 40 μg/m(3) and 50 μg/m(3) for NO2 and SO2, respectively. The lowest pollutant concentrations obtained in the warm season can be attributed to an increase in their removal via precipitation (scavenging) while to the decreased traffic density and industrial emission during the summer holidays (e.g., July and August). PMID:23208757

  16. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  17. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  18. Fecundability and parental exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dejmek, J; Jelínek, R; Solansky', I; Benes, I; Srám, R J

    2000-07-01

    Recently it has been observed that birth rates in Teplice, a highly polluted district in Northern Bohemia, have been reduced during periods when sulfur dioxide levels were high. This study, which is based on data from 2,585 parental pairs in the same region, describes an analysis of the impact of SO(2) on fecundability in the first unprotected menstrual cycle (FUMC). We obtained detailed personal data, including time-to-pregnancy information, via maternal questionnaires at delivery. We estimated individual exposures to SO(2) in each of the 4 months before conception on the basis of continual central monitoring. Three concentration intervals were introduced: < 40 microg/m(3 )(reference level); 40-80 microg/m(3); and [greater than or equal to] 80 microg/m(3). We estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of conception in the FUMC using logistic regression models. Many variables were screened for confounding. AORs for conception in the FUMC were consistently reduced only for couples exposed in the second month before conception to SO(2) levels as follows: 40-80 microg/m(3), AOR 0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.88; p < 0.011]; [greater than or equal to] 80 microg/m(3), AOR 0.49 (CI, 0.29-0.81; p < 0.006). The association was weaker in the second 2 years of the study, probably due to the gradual decrease of SO(2) levels in the region. The relationship between SO(2) and fecundability was greater in couples living close to the central monitoring station (within 3.5 km). The timing of these effects is consistent with the period of sperm maturation. This is in agreement with recent findings; sperm abnormalities originating during spermatid maturation were found in young men from Teplice region who were exposed to the increased levels of ambient SO(2). Alternative explanations of our results are also possible. PMID:10903619

  19. Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2–3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  20. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

  2. Ion-molecule reactions of O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate: evidence for intramolecular sulfur oxidation during VX perhydrolysis.

    PubMed

    McAnoy, Andrew M; Williams, Jilliarne; Paine, Martin R L; Rogers, Michael L; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2009-12-18

    The alkaline perhydrolysis of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) was investigated by studying the ion-molecule reactions of HOO(-) with O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate in a modified linear ion-trap mass spectrometer. In addition to simple proton transfer, two other abundant product ions are observed at m/z 125 and 109 corresponding to the S-methyl methylphosphonothioate and methyl methylphosphonate anions, respectively. The structure of these product ions is demonstrated by a combination of collision-induced dissociation and isotope-labeling experiments that also provide evidence for their formation by nucleophilic reaction pathways, namely, (i) S(N)2 at carbon to yield the S-methyl methylphosphonothioate anion and (ii) nucleophilic addition at phosphorus affording a reactive pentavalent intermediate that readily undergoes internal sulfur oxidation and concomitant elimination of CH(3)SOH to yield the methyl methylphosphonate anion. Consistent with previous solution phase observations of VX perhydrolysis, the toxic P-O cleavage product is not observed in this VX model system and theoretical calculations identify P-O cleavage to be energetically uncompetitive. Conversely, intramolecular sulfur oxidation is calculated to be extremely exothermic and kinetically accessible explaining its competitiveness with the facile gas phase proton transfer process. Elimination of a sulfur moiety deactivates the nerve agent VX and thus the intramolecular sulfur oxidation process reported here is also able to explain the selective perhydrolysis of the nerve agent to relatively nontoxic products. PMID:19919083

  3. PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...

  4. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  5. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  7. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  8. Infrared detection of Criegee intermediates formed during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and their reactivity towards sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jennifer; Carlsson, Philip T M; Hertl, Nils; Olzmann, Matthias; Pfeifle, Mark; Wolf, J Lennard; Zeuch, Thomas

    2014-01-13

    Recently, direct kinetic experiments have shown that the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide by reaction with stabilized Criegee intermediates (CIs) is an important source of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. So far, only small CIs, generated in photolysis experiments, have been directly detected. Herein, it is shown that large, stabilized CIs can be detected in the gas phase by FTIR spectroscopy during the ozonolysis of β-pinene. Their transient absorption bands between 930 and 830 cm(-1) appear only in the initial phase of the ozonolysis reaction when the scavenging of stabilized CIs by the reaction products is slow. The large CIs react with sulfur dioxide to give sulfur trioxide and nopinone with a yield exceeding 80%. Reactant consumption and product formation in time-resolved β-pinene ozonolysis experiments in the presence of sulfur dioxide have been kinetically modeled. The results suggest a fast reaction of sulfur dioxide with CIs arising from β-pinene ozonolysis. PMID:24402798

  9. Effect of water treatment chemicals on limestone/sulfur dioxide reaction in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    A simple laboratory test has been developed which simulates the reaction between limestone/water and sulfur dioxide in flue gas desulfurization systems. By adding various chemicals, in differing concentrations, to the limestone/water mixture, the quantitative impact on the sulfur dioxide/limestone reaction can be qualified and quantified. This paper will present the impact of several water treatment chemicals on the reaction of limestone and sulfur dioxide. An attempt has been made to predict the effect through mathematical correlations. All of the additive chemicals tend to decrease the rate of dissolution of limestone to various degrees. Some of the chemicals retard crystal growth thus adversely impacting solids separation in the thickener. The physical appearance of the crystal growth retarded limestone absorber slurry approaches a colloidal suspension.

  10. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on March 28 and April 3 and 4, 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nm). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 m/sec. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on April 3 and 4 is 3.3 million tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  11. Air pollution: Sulfur dioxide emissions from nonferrous smelters have been reduced

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the states have been effective in getting smelters to take the steps necessary to comply with the Clean Air Act requirements for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions and violations of national ambient air quality standards. The 1984 levels for both sulfur dioxide emissions and violations of standards for sulfur dioxide have been reduced by at least 75 percent of the levels experienced in the early or mid-1970s. An issue remains concerning EPA and sate review of applications for second-period nonferrous smelter orders. Three smelters have requested a second-period order. Two of those smelters, both located in Arizona, were unable to prevent violations of the standards, as required by the act, while operating under their first-period order. To qualify for a second-period order, EPA and Arizona have requested that these two smelters improve their intermittent control systems to ensure that future violations do not occur.

  12. Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henríquez, B.; López, D.; Cárdenas, C.; Galle, B.

    2007-12-01

    San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

  13. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  14. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  15. Evidence of Entrainment Impacting Surface Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haman, C.; Lefer, B. L.; Morris, G. A.; Flynn, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary boundary layer dynamics, such as entrainment of the residual layer, can have profound impacts on gaseous species due to changes in turbulent mixing. The lifetime of sulfur dioxide permits us to measure downward mixing of gases from the residual layer into the mixing layer after sunrise. During the 2009 SHARP campaign, elevated levels of sulfur dioxide were found during the morning hours at the Moody Tower (29.92°, -95.34°, 75 m AGL) measurement site on 19 May (22.9 ppbv), 20 May (35.7 ppbv), and 30 May (double peak: 18.7 and 13.8 ppbv). Easterly to east-southeasterly winds persisted between 1.8 and 3.2 ms-1 during these sulfur dioxide events. The Moody Tower site is west-southwest of the Houston Ship Channel Industrial Complex, a major source of sulfur dioxide. Dual ozone and sulfur dioxide balloon sonde profiles show a peak in sulfur dioxide just above the stable nocturnal inversion on days with similar meteorological conditions (e.g. 64 ppbv at 430 m on 30 May). As the nocturnal inversion begins to erode after sunrise, turbulent mixing increases and entrainment from the residual layer begins. An aerosol lidar used to determine mixing heights indicated the surface inversion breakup at approximately 1000 CDT on 19 May and 0845 CDT on 20 May. Corresponding peaks in sulfur dioxide immediately follow inversion erosion. The entrainment rate of sulfur dioxide can often be used to differentiate between increases in surface ozone due to photochemistry and downward mixing. Twenty-nine morning ozonesondes were launched between 2004 and 2010, fifteen of which were coincident with continuous mixing height measurements. The median integrated morning residual layer ozone was 57.5 ppbv*km for all sondes, which is substantial when compared to 81.0 ppbv*km of integrated afternoon fully developed boundary layer ozone. To reduce the importance of the horizontal ozone advection and ozone production terms, this study focused on the data between 0300 and 1000 CDT. Similarly, the calculated ozone entrainment values are compared to calculated photochemical box model net ozone production values during the morning hours. These analyses indicate the potentially large impact residual layer ozone can have on surface ozone values.

  16. Biological production and spatial variation of dimethylated sulfur compounds and their relation with plankton in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of dimethylated sulfur compounds and chlorophyll a, as well as biological production and consumption rates of dimethylsulfide (DMS), were measured in the surface water of the North Yellow Sea (NYS, 37-40°N to 121-124°E) in winter 2007. Surface DMS, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) concentrations in the study area increased significantly from offshore to inshore sites, with the average values of 2.00, 4.52 and 7.21 nM, respectively. The biological production and consumption rates of DMS were estimated, with the average values of 5.41 and 3.84 nM d-1, respectively. The spatial variation of chlorophyll a was consistent with that of DMS and DMSP, as well as with that of DMS biological production, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMS and DMSP in the study area. According to the collective data of dimethylated sulfur compounds and DMS biological conversion in China Seas, the dimethylated sulfur compounds concentrations in the NYS during winter were a factor of 2 and 1.3 higher than those in the East China Sea and South China Sea, respectively. Less DMS (DMSP) in NYS was released in winter than that in spring and summer, which could be attributed to the shift in phytoplankton community composition dominated by diatoms to non-diatoms from winter to summer. Quantitative comparison analysis pointed to DMSPp rather than DMSPd as an important precursor of DMS in the surface water. The estimated sea-to-air fluxes of DMS using Liss and Merlivat (LM86), Wanninkhof (W92) and Nightingale (N2000) formulae were 2.72, 5.12 and 4.28 μmol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the surface water, the biological turnover time of DMS varied from 0.21 to 1.73 d with an average of 0.83 d, which was about 5.43-fold faster than the mean DMS sea-air turnover time (3.12 d), implying that microbial consumption was a main sink of DMS in the surface water.

  17. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  18. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  3. PULMONARY RESPONSE TO THRESHOLD LEVELS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE (1.0 PPM) AND OZONE (0.3 PPM) (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors exposed 22 healthy adult non-smoking men for 2 hours to either filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide, 0.30 ppm ozone or the combination of 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide plus 0.30 ppm ozone. It was hypothesized that exposure to near threshold concentrations of these pollutants...

  4. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  5. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has negligible UV absorbance at 276 nm, and the UV absorbance is attributed only to sample matrix. Quantitation of sulfur dioxide is achieved by subtracting the UV absorbance of sample solution at pH 4.0 from that at pH 1.3. The method is simple but sensitive, with a limit of quantitation of 80 μg L(-1). The method linearity was demonstrated from 2 mg L(-1) to 40 mg L(-1) with an R(2) of 0.998, and the spiked recovery ranges from 94% to 105% within the same range. The results are comparable with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), suggesting that this method is accurate. PMID:26388384

  6. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S.; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-01

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms.

  7. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  8. 78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... availability published February 15, 2013 (78 FR 11124) must be received on or before April 8, 2013. Please... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations... comment period for the EPA's responses to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010...

  9. 78 FR 11124 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... rulemaking that revised the primary SO 2 NAAQS (75 FR 35520, published on June 22, 2010) after review of the existing two primary SO 2 standards promulgated on April 30, 1971 (36 FR 8187). The EPA established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation...

  10. Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megonnell, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

  11. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

  12. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in..., or a mixture of coal and oil is combusted in an affected facility, the procedures in Method 19...

  13. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... owner or operator shall use the methods and procedures in appendix A (including fuel certification...

  14. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in..., or a mixture of coal and oil is combusted in an affected facility, the procedures in Method 19...

  15. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in..., or a mixture of coal and oil is combusted in an affected facility, the procedures in Method 19...

  16. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... owner or operator shall use the methods and procedures in appendix A (including fuel certification...

  17. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance and performance test methods... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... owner or operator shall use the methods and procedures in appendix A (including fuel certification...

  18. ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

  19. The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

  20. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either.../MWh)) gross output; (2) You must not burn in the subject stationary combustion turbine any fuel which... turbine is located in a noncontinental area or a continental area that the Administrator determines...

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE DURATION AND SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine the shortest duration of exposure to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) sufficient to induce bronchoconstriction significantly greater than that observed with exposure to clean air (CA) in exercising SO2 sensitive asthmatics. Asymptomatic, nonm...

  3. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.5 Deduction of allowances to...

  4. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.6 Penalties for excess emissions...

  5. OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATES, SULFUR DIOXIDE, AND WATER VAPORS FIELD MEASUREMENTS, JULY 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen isotope ratios were determined for atmospheric samples of sulfate aerosols, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor collected simultaneously during a six-day period in July, 1975, at St. Louis, MO; Auburn, IL; and Glasgow, IL. The collection sites were located about 100km apart. C...

  6. COST COMPARISONS OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONTROL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM COPPER SMELTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. nonferrous metals production industry is a significant contributor of sulfur dioxide, trace metal, and particulate air emissions. Most of the domestic copper smelting capacity is based on obsolescent technology that is both capital-and energy-intensive and hampered by co...

  7. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. VOLUME I. SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and computer ana...

  8. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME I: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO sub 2 ) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and comput...

  9. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  11. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  12. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  13. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  14. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section 60.42b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam...

  15. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  16. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42c Section 60.42c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Industrial-Commercial-Institutional...

  19. CALCINATION AND SINTERING OF SORBENTS DURING BOILER INJECTION FOR DRY SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the calcination and sintering of sorbents during boiler injection for dry sulfur dioxide (S02) control, with emphasis on calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--because of its superior reactivity with S02 and its wide commercial availability. Calcination and sintering are...

  20. PORE DISTRIBUTION CHANGES OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS REACTING WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a determination of changes in the pore structure of calcium oxide sorbents derived from calcium carbonate (termed c-CaO) and calcium hydroxide (termed h-CaO) reacting with sulfur dioxide (SO2). Results show that the pore shape of c-CaO approximates a cy...

  1. PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

  2. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  3. COMBINED EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON BEAN AND TOBACCO PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris and one cultivar of Nicotiana tabacum were exposed to a replicated series of concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (03), and combinations of these two air pollutants for single four-hour periods. Experiments were performed in ...

  4. DIFFERING RESPONSE OF ASTHMATICS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE WITH CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 c, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and dura...

  5. ACID PRECIPITATION: EFFECTS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SULFATE AEROSOL PARTICLES ON HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    While human health impairment has been attributed to pollution by sulfur dioxide (SO2), data from inhalation studies in animals show that its oxidation products are more irritating. Population surveys in which suspended sulfate was a co-variant suggest that certain health paramet...

  6. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the middle ear mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Esaki, Y.

    1989-04-01

    A variety of atmospheric pollutants are known to depress mucociliary function in the respiratory system. Since the mucociliary function in the middle ear is similar, and the middle ear may be invaded by atmospheric pollutants, we decided to investigate the possible contribution of sulfur dioxide to middle ear effusion. Guinea pigs were exposed for 24 hours to 300 ppm of sulfur dioxide or air. Immediately after exposure, ciliary activity and epithelial structure were examined close to the tympanic orifice (proximal site) and more distal to it (distal site). In the animals exposed to sulfur dioxide, no effusion was found in the tympanic cavity. Ciliary activity was reduced only in the distal site. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypersecretion in the proximal site and severe pathologic changes in the distal site. Although the normally functioning cilia in the proximal site may prevent retention of surplus secretions in the ear, sulfur dioxide may promote middle ear effusion when combined with other detrimental factors, because it stimulates mucus secretion in the proximal site and impairs ciliary function in the distal site.

  7. EQUILIBRIUM PARTIAL PRESSURE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE IN ALKALINE SCRUBBING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of IERL-RTP in-house studies in which equilibrium partial pressure of SO2 was measured as a function of pH, temperature, and concentration of sulfur (IV) on various scrubber liquors. These studies were done for potassium-, sodium-, and citrate-based scrub...

  8. THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

  9. Kinetic equation of the oxidation of sulfur dioxide on polymetallic catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyn, B.V.; Dobkina, E.I.; Denisov, V.V.; Kuznetsova, S.M.; Larionov, A.M.

    1988-04-10

    Nonvanadium contact masses are being increasingly widely applied in the conversion of SO/sub 2/, especially at low concentrations of sulfuric anhydride. It is thus advantageous to use the polymetallic catalyst that has been developed for the purification of effluent gases from thermoelectric power stations and other SO/sub 2/-containing discharges. A study of the mechanism of the oxidation of sulfur dioxide on this catalyst showed that it cannot be described by the existing kinetic equations. Therefore, a detailed kinetic experiment was carried out for deriving a suitable equation. The limiting stage in the oxidation process of SO/sub 2/ on a polymetallic catalyst is the adsorption of sulfur dioxide on its surface. The kinetic equation of the oxidation of SO/sub 2/ on this catalyst is zero order with respect to oxygen.

  10. Laboratory Measurements of the Millimeter-Wavelength Sulfur Dioxide Absorption Spectrum under Simulated Venus Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2014-11-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 millimeter wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308-343 K and pressures between 0.03- 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Icarus, 2014, in press) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd and Steffes Icarus 97, 1992 and Suleiman et al. JGR 101, E2 1996). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, et al. JQSRT 60, 1998) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This model was implemented in the new Georgia Tech Venus Radiative Transfer Model (GT-VRTM) which is capable of computing both disk-averaged and localized brightness temperatures of Venus. These are compared to observations. This work will improve retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from observations of the Venus atmosphere. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under Grant NNX11AD66G.

  11. The millimeter-wavelength sulfur dioxide absorption spectra measured under simulated Venus conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2015-07-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308 and 343 K and pressures between 0.03 and 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Steffes, P.G. et al. [2015]. Icarus 245, 153-161) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97(2), 200-210; Suleiman, S.H. et al. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 101(E2), 4623-4635). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, H. et al. [1998]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 499-890) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This work will improve the confidence in retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from millimeter-wavelength observations of the Venus atmosphere.

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  14. Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, George E.; Tingey, David T.

    1983-01-01

    The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO2 flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) RsSO2′ from SO2 data using analog modeling techniques and (b) RsSO2 from analogy to H2O (i.e. 1.89 RsH2o). The emission of H2S was positively correlated with the rate of SO2 flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO2 flux data (i.e. ignoring H2S emissions). The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO2 data (RsSO2′) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H2O vapor (RsSO2). The resultant of RsSO2′ — RsSO2, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO2 flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO2 molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H2O molecules. It is proposed that the SO2:H2O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H2O and SO2 in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. PMID:16662968

  15. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in pressurization of the shallow magma system and an increase in earthquake activity. Unlike the short-term SO2 decrease in March 1990, the long-term decrease of sulfur dioxide emission rates from March 1990 through May 1991 was coincident with low rates of seismic energy release and was interpreted to reflect gradual depressurization of the shallow magma reservoir. The long-term declines in seismic energy release and in SO2 emission rates led AVO scientists to conclude on April 19, 1991 that the potential for further eruptive activity from Redoubt Volcano had diminished, and on this basis, the level of concern color code for the volcano was changed from code yellow (Volcano is restless; earthquake activity is elevated; activity may include extrusion of lava) to code green (Volcano is in its normal 'dormant' state). ?? 1994.

  16. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... citations affecting § 52.1881, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... citations affecting § 52.1881, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides...

  18. Passive samplers for ambient ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide: Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E.

    1994-12-31

    Time-integrated measurements of air pollutants have many applications in the context of regulations pertaining to indoor air quality, outdoor (ambient) monitoring, and personal exposure assessment. For several years, the passive samplers developed at DGA have been applied to cost-effective measurements of parts per billion levels of ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide. Examples of applications will be described. These include (a) formaldehyde measurements in indoor settings including museums, public buildings and personal exposure; (b) ozone measurements indoor (museums, cultural heritage buildings) and outdoor (Class 1 Wilderness areas; air quality surveys in Europe, Canada and Latin America, long-term monitoring of ozone exposure in forests) and (c) surveys of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in several eastern European countries.

  19. Implementing a market-based environmental policy: Utility behavior in the sulfur dioxide allowance trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Lober, D.J.; Bailey, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study examines the variables which influenced utility participation in the 1994 spot and forward auctions of the sulfur dioxide allowance trading program. The method is a survey of the attitudes of managers at 142 utilities. The results indicate that utility management uncertainty over the treatment of allowances by its public utility commission is an important determinant of a utility`s participation in the allowance auctions. The relative costs of the allowances compared to other sulfur dioxide control strategies also were correlated with bidding behavior. A number of other variables, such as public opinion in the utility`s region, demand growth, innovativeness of the utility, and participation in the 1993 auctions, were also determinants of utility participation in the allowance trading program.

  20. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation. PMID:26304316

  1. Protective effects of seabuckthorn seed oil on mouse injury induced by sulfur dioxide inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Aidong; Min, Hang; Meng, Ziqiang; Lü, Zhenmei

    2003-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common but important air pollutant. Micronuclei (MN) in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow and the ratio between organ and body weight of treatment mouse were determined and analyzed in vivo in order to study injury of sulfur dioxide inhalation on organs and germ plasm of mouse as well as protective effect of seabuckthorn seed oil against this injury. It was showed that SO2 inhalation induced the change of the ratio between organ and body of mouse organs, such as liver, lung, kidney, and spleen, and a significant increase of number of MNPCE, while seabuckthorn seed oil offered a protection against such injury. PMID:12928980

  2. CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 2. ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROL OF WEAK SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the second phase of a three phase effort evaluating (1) characterization of particulate control of a molybdenum sulfide roasters, (2) assessment of sulfur dioxide abatement alternatives for nonferrous smelting and, in particular, for molybdenum roasting, and (3...

  3. The Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide and Other Infrared Adsorbers on the Surface of Io from Galileo NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. W.; Carlson, W. D.; Smythe, R. M. C.; Davies, L. W.; Kamp, J. A.; Mosher, J. A.; Soderblom, F. E.; Leader, R.; Mehlman, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) was used to investigate the distribution and relative particle size variations of sulfur dioxide over one hemisphere of Io, centered at 210(deg)W.

  4. Study of volume swelling and interfacial tension of the polystyrene-carbon dioxide-dimethyl ether system.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S H; Xin, C L; Lee, J H; Park, C B

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the interaction of blended carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) with polystyrene (PS) through volume swelling and interfacial tension. The experiments were carried out over a temperature range of 423-483 K, and the pressure was varied from 6.89 MPa to 20.68 MPa. With an incremental concentration of DME in the blend, the volume swelling increased while the interfacial tension between the PS/blend gas mixture and the blend gas decreased. The validity of the Simha-Somcynsky (SS) equation of state (EOS) for the ternary system was established by comparing experimentally measured volume swelling to that obtained via SS-EOS. PMID:26122798

  5. Study of a QCM dimethyl methylphosphonate sensor based on a ZnO-modified nanowire-structured manganese dioxide film.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO(2) nanofibers and pure MnO(2) nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO(2) film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO(2) nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  6. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  7. Effects of sulfur dioxide on resistance to bacterial infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Bouley, G.; Blayo, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    Continuous exposure to approximately a 10-ppm concentration of sulfur dioxide for periods of up to 3 weeks reduced the resistance of female mice to infection by aerosol inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate rose and survival time shortened in SO/sub 2/-exposed animals compared to controls. Insofar as these results can be extrapolated to humans, the SO/sub 2/ concentration used in this work is only found on certain industrial premises.

  8. 77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...The EPA is announcing that it is using its authority under the Clean Air Act (CAA) to extend by up to 1 year the deadline for promulgating initial area designations for the primary sulfur dioxide (SO2) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) that was promulgated in June 2010. With this extension, the EPA is now required to complete initial designations for this NAAQS by June......

  9. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on the ultrastructure of the chloroplasts of hybrid poplar leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Pechak, D.G.; Noble, R.D.; Dochinger, L.

    1986-03-01

    This report is concerned with the effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, on leaf chloroplasts of a deciduous woody plant. Populus deltoides represents one of the few deciduous plants to be studied for the effects of these two common air pollutants. This report details the results of these pollutants on hybrid poplar leaf mesophyll cells under similar experimental conditions as above, but processed for conventional transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Bonding of eta/sup 2/-sulfur dioxide: structures of tricarbonyl(1,10-phenanthroline) (eta/sup 2/-sulfur dioxide)molybdenum(0) and dicarbonyl(2,2'-bipyridyl)bis(eta/sup 2/-sulfur dioxide)molybedenum(0)

    SciTech Connect

    Kubas, G.J,; Ryan, R.R.; McCarty, V.

    1980-10-01

    The structures of the title complexes have been determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. Tricarbonyl(1,10-phenanthroline)(eta/sup 2/-sulfur dioxide)molybdenum(0) crystallizes in the space group C2/m with cell constants of a = 19.206 (5) A, b = 12.695 (2) A, c = 8.025 (1) A, ..beta.. = 129.00 (5)/sup 0/ and refines to an unweighted R value of 3.4% on the basis of 945 observations. Dicarbonyl(2,2'-bipyridyl)bis(eta/sup 2/-sulfur dioxide)molybdenum(0) crystallizes in P anti l with cell parameters of a = 11.070 (5) A, b = 7.096 (1) A, c = 11.043 (6) A, ..cap alpha.. = 111.97 (2)/sup 0/, ..beta.. = 98.25 (4)/sup 0/, and ..gamma.. = 100.02 (3)/sup 0/. Full-matrix refinemwnts based on 1190 observations resulted in an R value of 3.0%. Both structures contain eta/sup 2/-type Mo-SO/sub 2/ linkages. The first of these complexes exhibits Mo-O and Mo-S distances of 2.223 (7) and 2.532 (3) A with dihedral angle between the SO/sub 2/ and c-MSO/sub M/ planes of 108.1/sup 0/. The SO/sub 2/ is trans to a carbonyl. The corresponding distances in the trans-(SO/sub 2/)/sub 2/ complex are 2.113 (4) and 2.109 (4) A for Mo-O and 2.496 (3) A for both Mo-S distances with dihedral angles of 103.6 and 103.3/sup 0/, respectively. The two bound S-O bonds are perpendicular to one another and are in the same plane with a cis carbonyl. The eta/sup 2/-SO/sub 2/ bonding is discussed in relationship to these structures.

  11. Incorporation of sulfur dioxide into snow and depositing ice

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Depth profiles of S(IV) and S(VI) in snow exposed to 20-140 ppbv SO/sub 2/ for 6 to 12 hours were determined in 48 laboratory experiments. Surface deposition velocity (V/sub d/) averaged 0.06 cm s/sup -1/. Well-metamorphosed snow, longer run times, higher SO/sub 2/ concentrations and colder snow were associated with lower values of V/sub d/, and vice versa. Melting followed by draining increased v/sub d/ greatly (0.14 cm s/sup -1/). Any effect of ozone on SO/sub 2/ v/sub d/ was undetectable. Most sulfur in the snow was a S(VI), even without added ozone, indicating the presence of other oxidants, especially in new snow. The deposition of SO/sub 2/ into a snowpack is modeled as an aqueous system, where the liquid water is considered to be present on snow grain surfaces. Gas transport into the snow, air-water partitioning,and aqueous-phase reactions are explicitly considered. Experiments were also conducted on the incorporation of SO/sub 2/ into ice depositing from the vapor at -7 and -15/sup 0/C. Remarkably, SO/sub 2/ is captured in deposited ice at concentrations comparable to Henry's Law equilibrium with water at 0/sup 0/C. Ozone and HCHO appear to inhibit, not enhance, SO/sub 2/ capture. An aqueous-film model accounting for the capture of SO/sub 2/ by depositing ice was developed.

  12. SOA FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF A-PINENE-NOX IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important constituent in the polluted atmosphere. It is emitted from combustion sources using fuels that contain sulfur. Emissions of SO2 in the United States were reportedly 17 Tg in 1996 with most coming from coal and petroleum combustion. The pr...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  18. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-06-01

    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  19. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  20. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  1. Upper Water Column Dimethylated Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycling in the Sargasso Sea - Assessing the Oceanic DMS Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toole, D. A.; Dacey, J. W.; Bates, N. R.; Levine, N. M.; Neeley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Once ventilated to the atmosphere, the oxidation products of biologically produced DMS are non sea salt sulfate and methane sulfonate aerosols which potentially exert considerable control on the global climate via alterations in radiative properties, acid-base chemistry, halogen cycles, and aerosol iron availability. The most significant obstacle to assessing and quantifying any associated climate feedbacks, beyond uncertainties associated with flux parameterizations, is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that regulate oceanic near surface DMS concentrations. To assess the seasonal variability in the oceanic DMS source, monthly vertical profiles of DMS and particulate and dissolved DMSP (DMSPp and DMSPd) concentrations and biogeochemical cycling rates were sampled in the Sargasso Sea commencing in September 2005 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS). Clear seasonal cycles are evident for DMS and DMSPp concentrations, although they are poorly correlated to available biomass indicators. DMSPd was consistently low and did not exhibit a clear seasonality. Biological DMS consumption is characterized by seasonal minima and maxima observed above and below the mixed layer depth respectively during strong summertime stratification. No clear seasonal cycles are evident in microbial DMSPd consumption rates or DMS yield but they vary within a relatively narrow range. Modeled phytoplankton DMS production rates are extremely large, negatively correlated to phytoplankton biomass indicators, and peak in the summer confirming that DMS concentrations and turnover processes are also affected by the physical dynamics of the surface mixed layer and by meteorological forcing such as total solar radiation, UV radiation, and wind speed. This research provides the first time-series of open-ocean organic sulfur cycling rates which will not only refine our understanding of the controlling mechanisms but will also serve as a basis for future oceanic and atmospheric modeling endeavors.

  2. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel A.; Dalton, Thomas R.; Bishop, Gary A.; Starkey, John R.; Stedman, Donald H.

    2006-01-01

    A remote sensor for measuring on-road vehicles passing the sensor in real time is described. This sensor expands upon previous technology that measured carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and exhaust hydrocarbons in the IR and nitric oxide in the UV. The design adds the capability to measure nitrogen dioxide in the UV with one spectrometer and to measure SO2 and NH3 along with NO in a second UV spectrometer. With these units operating side by side, the major mobile source precursors to secondary aerosol production can be measured simultaneously and in real time. Detection limits for NO2, SO2, and NH3 are 1.2, 0.72, and 0.78 g pollutant per kilogram of fuel, respectively.

  3. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stomatal Conductance and Sulfur Uptake of Five Clones of Populus tremuloides Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Kozlowski, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    Plants of five clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 for 8 hours in controlled environment chambers. In the absence of the pollutant, two pollution-resistant clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance (LDC) than did a highly susceptible clone or two moderately resistant clones. Differences in LDC among the latter three clones were not significant. At 0.2 microliter per liter SO2, LDC decreased in the susceptible clone after 8 hours fumigation while the LDC of the other clones was not affected. Fumigation with 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 decreased LDC of all five clones during the fumigation. Rates of recovery following fumigation varied with the clone, but the LDC of all clones had returned to control values by the beginning of the night following fumigation. Night LDC was higher in the susceptible clone than in the other clones. Fumigation for 16 hours (14 hours day + 2 hours night) with 0.4 microliter per liter SO2 decreased night LDC by half. Sulfur uptake studies generally confirmed the results of the conductance measurements. The results show that stomatal conductance is important in determining relative susceptibility of the clones to pollution stress. PMID:16661807

  5. A study of the total atmospheric sulfur dioxide load using ground-based measurements and the satellite derived Sulfur Dioxide Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, A. K.; Balis, D.; Koukouli, M. E.; Meleti, C.; Bais, A.; Zerefos, C.

    We present characteristics of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) loading over Thessaloniki, Greece, and seven other selected sites around the world using SO 2 total column measurements from Brewer spectrophotometers together with satellite estimates of the Version 8 TOMS Sulfur Dioxide Index (SOI) over the same locations, retrieved from Nimbus 7 TOMS (1979-1993), Earth Probe TOMS (1996-2003) and OMI/Aura (2004-2006). Traditionally, the SOI has been used to quantify the SO 2 quantities emitted during great volcanic eruptions. Here, we investigate whether the SOI can give an indication of the total SO 2 load for areas and periods away from eruptive volcanic activity by studying its relative changes as a correlative measure to the SO 2 total column. We examined time series from Thessaloniki and another seven urban and non-urban stations, five in the European Union (Arosa, De Bilt, Hohenpeissenberg, Madrid, Rome) and two in India (Kodaikanal, New Delhi). Based on the Brewer data, Thessaloniki shows high SO 2 total columns for a European Union city but values are still low if compared to highly affected regions like those in India. For the time period 1983-2006 the SO 2 levels above Thessaloniki have generally decreased with a rate of 0.028 Dobson Units (DU) per annum, presumably due to the European Union's strict sulfur control policies. The seasonal variability of the SO 2 total column exhibits a double peak structure with two maxima, one during winter and the second during summer. The winter peak can be attributed to central heating while the summer peak is due to synoptic transport from sources west of the city and sources in the north of Greece. A moderate correlation was found between the seasonal levels of Brewer total SO 2 and SOI for Thessaloniki, Greece ( R = 0.710-0.763) and Madrid, Spain ( R = 0.691) which shows that under specific conditions the SOI might act as an indicator of the SO 2 total load.

  6. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  7. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  8. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process. PMID:23768401

  9. Safety hazards associated with the charging of lithium/sulfur dioxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Lawson, D. D.; Barnes, J. A.; Bis, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A continuing research program to assess the responses of spirally wound, lithium/sulfur dioxide cells to charging as functions of charging current, temperature, and cell condition prior to charging is described. Partially discharged cells that are charged at currents greater than one ampere explode with the time to explosion inversely proportional to the charging current. Cells charged at currents of less than one ampere may fail in one of several modes. The data allows an empirical prediction of when certain cells will fail given a constant charging current.

  10. Design and construction of a simple, continuous flow sulfur dioxide exposure chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Leetham, J.W.; Ferguson, W.; Dodd, J.L.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    For experimental purposes, a reasonably large capacity, low cost, low maintenance chamber was needed to study the long-term (2-4 months) effects of sulfur dioxide on developmental rates of grasshoppers and decomposition rates of plant litter. Internal temperature, humidity, and light controls were not required since the chamber would be used in externally controlled environments. The controlled exposure chamber herein described has proved to be adequate for such studies and satisfied most of the conditions discussed by Heagle and Philbeck. Its utility could be increased by use within an environmentally controlled greenhouse. It is comparatively simple and inexpensive to contruct and maintain.

  11. Technological change for sulfur dioxide scrubbers under market-based regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.; Bellas, A.

    2005-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) introduced tradable permits for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from coal-burning power plants and forced scrubbers to compete with other SO{sub 2} abatement options. While the flexibility of permits reduced overall compliance costs, a secondary benefit would exist if there were resulting advances in scrubber technology. A hedonic model is used to estimate the effect of changing regulatory regimes on scrubber costs. While scrubbers installed under the 1990 CAAA are cheaper to purchase and operate than older scrubbers, these cost reductions seem to be a one-time drop rather than a continual decline.

  12. Study of ozone and sulfur dioxide using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumrid

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a vertical column of the atmosphere in Thailand were obtained from the Brewers#121 and #120. There are similarities between the O3 patterns obtained from the two sites, which are higher in the summer and rainy season compared with winter, although the magnitude of the change in Bangkok is greater than that in Songkhla. SO2 values showed the summer months provide the higher SO2 values in Bangkok, in contrast to Songkhla where the summer months give lower SO2 values.

  13. Effects of breathing sulfur dioxide and an acidic sulfate aerosol during exercise on selected pulmonary function measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of ambient air, acidic sulfate aerosol, sulfur dioxide, and the combination of sulfur dioxide and aerosol on selected pulmonary function measurements after 20 minutes of exercise at 75%-80% maximal heart rate in a hot (36-19/sup 0/C) and humid (70-90% RH) environment. Six male subjects between the ages 26 and 33 years with no pre-existing pulmonary or cardiovascular problems rode a stationary bicycle for 20 minutes during each exposure condition at a workload pre-set to assure that each subject would attain an average minute ventilation of 50-60 1/min (BTPS). Exposure to 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide alone led to a significant lowering of FVC, FEV1, and FEF50. Exposure to sulfur dioxide plus aerosol led to a significant decrease of FVC. Baseline comparisons reflected a significant decline in FVC, FEV1, FEF25, FEF50, FEF75, and FEF25-75 between the pre-ambient and post-exposure. This decline suggests a residual effect of the air pollutant exposures. Significant differences were also observed between the pre-aerosol and pre-sulfur dioxide exposures for FVC, FEV1, FEF50, and FEF25-75.

  14. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, P.J.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO2 released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO2 is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO2-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO2 that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  15. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, P.J. ); Gerlach, T.M. )

    1994-07-22

    Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO[sub 2] released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO[sub 2] is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO[sub 2]-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO[sub 2] that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  16. On the Decadal Variation of sulfur dioxide at the Cloud Top of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi

    Venus atmosphere is a natural laboratory of sulfur chemistry. As one of the parent species of sulfur, sulfur dioxide (SO_2) is generated in the lower atmosphere and transported upward to the middle atmosphere, where it is further oxidized and eventually produces sulfuric acid cloud. The 30-year observations from the Pioneer Venus (Esposito et al., 1988) and the Venus Express (Marcq et al., 2012) show a decadal variation of total column abundance of SO_2 above the cloud top. The amplitude varies in about two orders of magnitude and therefore poses a question on what causes such a dramatic change on the sulfur budget. Previous interpretations include episodic volcanic eruption (Esposito 1984) and long-time dynamical oscillations (Marcq et al., 2012) that supported by a recent general circulation model on Venus (Parish et al., 2011). Here we attempt to understand the secular variation of SO_2 using a one-dimensional (1D) time-evolving photochemistry-diffusion model which includes about 50 species and about 350 reactions (Zhang et al., 2010; 2011). Specifically for this study, we perturb the mean steady state of the middle atmosphere of Venus by adding forcings at the bottom layer (at about 58 km). Two types of forcing are considered here: (1) the volcanic eruption is simulated by a mass flux injected from the bottom layer; and (2) a wavy structure is provided on the eddy diffusion profile to approximate the dynamical perturbations. Important parameters such as the amplitude and timescale of the forcings are constrained by the observation secular patterns. Possible consequences are discussed and the variations for other species are predicted to guide the future observations. This research was supported by the Bisgrove scholar Program in the University of Arizona.

  17. Biological effects of short, high-level exposure to gases: sulfur dioxide. Phase report, May 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Normandy, M.J.; Szlyk, P.; Brienza, B.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents an analysis and synthesis of the available literature concerned with possible health effects of exposures to sulfur dioxide. The U.S. Army is concerned with short, high-level exposures to sulfur dioxide that may exceed present threshold limit values of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (5 ppm, 13 mg/cu m as a time-weighted average. The organ systems primarily affected by exposure to sulfur dioxide are the respiratory tract and the eyes. Certain neurologic effects (including suppression of dark adaptation and decreased light sensitivity) are of unknown significance and warrant further study. Below about 5 ppm, there are no significant irritant or pulmonary effects. Between 5 and 8 ppm (13 and 20.8 mg/cu m), most people will experience coughing, moderate irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and bronchoconstriction. At about 10 ppm (26 mg/cu m), moderate to severe eye irritation.

  18. The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Comparison of biooxidation with carbon dioxide assimilation during bacterial growth on ferrous ion or elemental sulfur.

    PubMed

    Lizama, H M; Zielinski, P A; Kerby, L D; Abraham, C C

    2002-01-01

    Biomass and oxygen uptake activity profiles of a mixed bioleaching culture were studied and compared at various temperatures. Bacteria were grown on ferrous ion or elemental sulfur in a Micro-Oxymax respirometer apparatus that allowed measurement of both oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide assimilation. Balanced growth was observed between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, with an optimum at 30 degrees C, on both energy sources. No significant growth was observed at the lowest temperature used, 5 degrees C, or at the highest temperature used, 40 degrees C. The oxygen to carbon dioxide molar yield was 50:1 when growing on ferrous ion but only 17:1 when growing on elemental sulfur. Upon transfer from a sulfide ore to a new energy source, greater numbers in the inoculum reduced the duration of the lag phase. Lag phase duration was also reduced by proximity to the optimum growth temperature. A longer lag phase decreased the achievable growth rate of the cells exponentially, significantly affecting biooxidation activity. PMID:11745179

  20. Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, M.P.; Watson, I.M.; Nadeau, P.A.; Werner, C.; Morrow, W.; Shannon, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of some user-controlled parameters, including image exposure duration, the diameter of the lens aperture, the frequency of calibration cell imaging, and the use of the single or paired bandpass filters, have not yet been addressed. In order to clarify methodological consequences and quantify accuracy, laboratory and field experiments were conducted. Images were collected of calibration cells under varying observational conditions, and our conclusions provide guidance for enhanced image collection. Results indicate that the calibration cell response is reliably linear below 1500 ppm m, but that the response is significantly affected by changing light conditions. Exposure durations that produced maximum image digital numbers above 32 500 counts can reduce noise in plume images. Sulfur dioxide retrieval results from a coal-fired power plant plume were compared to direct sampling measurements and the results indicate that the accuracy of the UV camera retrieval method is within the range of current spectrometric methods. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of metaproterenol sulfate on mild asthmatics' response to sulfur dioxide exposure and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.; Spier, C.E.; Smith, M.N.; Hackney, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Twenty asthmatic volunteers, most with mild disease, underwent dose-response studies with sulfur dioxide (SO2) under three pretreatment conditions: (1) drug (metaproterenol sulfate in aerosolized saline solution), (2) placebo (aerosolized saline only), and (3) no pretreatment. Sulfur dioxide exposure concentrations were 0.0, 0.3, and 0.6 ppm. Experimental conditions were presented in random order at 1-wk intervals. Exposures lasted 10 min with heavy continuous exercise. Lung function was measured at baseline, after pretreatment (immediately pre-exposure), immediately post-exposure, and during a 2-hr follow-up. Subjects could elect to take bronchodilators during follow-up. Symptoms were monitored before, during, and for 1 wk after exposure. With no pretreatment, subjects exhibited typical exercise-induced bronchospasm at 0.0 ppm, slightly increased responses at 0.3 ppm, and more marked increases at 0.6 ppm. Seven subjects took bronchodilator after 0.6-ppm exposures, compared to 2 at lower concentrations. Within 30 min post-exposure, most subjects' symptoms and lung function had returned to near pre-exposure levels. A similar sequence was observed when subjects received placebo. Drug pretreatment improved lung function relative to baseline, prevented bronchoconstrictive responses at 0.0 and 0.3 ppm, and greatly mitigated responses at 0.6 ppm. Thus, typical bronchodilator usage by asthmatics is likely to reduce their response to ambient SO2 pollution.

  2. Effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation on antioxidant enzyme activities in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gümüşlü, S; Akbaş, H; Alicigüzel, Y; Ağar, A; Küçükatay, V; Yargiçoğlu, P

    1998-01-01

    Swiss-Albino male rats were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO2) (10 ppm) one hour daily for 60 days and the effect on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities was studied. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of 30 rats (14 controls and 16 sulfur dioxide groups) were measured. There were no significant differences in the catalase and G-6-PD activities of SO2 group as compared with controls. GSH-Px and GST activities in SO2 group were significantly higher than those in the control group. But, there was a significant decrease in the SOD activity. The rate of TBARS formation was enhanced significantly in erythrocytes of the SO2 group relative to the control group. These results reveal that SO2 inhalation enhanced lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte and influence the antioxidant enzymes of erythrocyte. PMID:9473862

  3. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide in nonaqueous electrolytes. polarization curves at porous Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shembel, E.M.; Danilova, N.P.; Ksenzhek, O.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes some results obtained from studying the poloarization characteristics of cathodic sulfur dioxide reduction at porous electrodes made by applying a mixture of carbon black, graphite, and binder to a metal screen serving as current collector. Solutions of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate and in a mixture of propylene carbonate and acetonitrile were used as the electrolytes. Some typical galvanostatic discharge curves are shown for sulfur dioxide reduction at porous electrodes. The discharge capacity increases with increasing electrode porosity and decreasing current density. One can see when comparing the curves that the discharge capacities differ substantially for highly porous electrodes which had practically the same porosity of about 70%. The effect of current density is more important in solutions with a high SO/sub 2/ concentration. The operating efficiency of porous electrodes which serve as cathodes in high power Li-SO/sub 2/ power sources can be predicted on the basis of polorization curves for the porous electrodes which reflect the influence of macrostructure on the cathodic process.

  4. Influence of sulfur dioxide on the selective catalytic reduction of NO by decane on Cu catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Figueras, F.; Coq, B.; Tachon, D.

    1996-12-31

    The selective catalytic removal of NO in oxygen rich atmospheres has been investigated in the presence of sulfur dioxide on a series of Cu catalysts. The reactivities correlated with the reducibility of Cu species determined by temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen. Without sulfur dioxide in the feed, the activity is related to the reducibility of Cu species. The addition of SO{sub 2} to the solid shifts the TPR peaks to higher temperatures. The magnitude of this effect is lower for acid zeolites such as MFI and BEA. Sulfation results in a small inhibition of the reactivity for deNOx in the case of Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, no or little change in the case of Cu/zeolites, and a promotion of activity in the case of Cu/TiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation of decane on Cu/TiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZrO{sub 2} is inhibited by SO{sub 2} at low temperatures, but remains close to 100% in presence or absence of SO{sub 2} on Cu/TiO{sub 2} above 600K. In the case of Cu/ZrO{sub 2} the addition Of SO{sub 2} increases the rate of oxidation above 640 K The positive effect of SO{sub 2} on deNOx is attributed to the promotion of a bifunctional mechanism in presence of strong acid sites.

  5. New analytical reagents for the determination of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four solid reagent methods were developed for the determination of sulfur dioxide in air, and one method was developed to measure carbon monoxide. When applied to filter paper with acetamide as the humectant and 4-phenylcyclohexanone as a bisulfite absorbent, oxohydroxybis(8-hydroxyquinolinyl-) vanadium (V) changes from yellow to black in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The three other methods, also on a filter paper support, utilized the reduction of bromate to bromine which then changed 3-,3'-, 5-,5'-tetramethylbenzidine from yellow to blue, phenothiazine from white to green, and 4-dimethylamino-4'-,4/double prime/-dimethoxytriphenylmethanol from colorless to red-purple. Quantitative measurements were made by reflectance spectroscopy. The method for carbon monoxide involved the use of tetrakis (acetamide-) Pd(II) ditetrafluoroborate, sodium iodate, and leuco crystal violet all together on a filter paper support. Carbon monoxide reduced the Pd(II)-acetamide complex to metallic palladium. The metallic palladium then reduced iodate to hypoiodous acid, HOI, which, in turn, oxidized leuco crystal violet to crystal violet. The crystal violet color was then measured by reflectance.

  6. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20-32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence. PMID:26107389

  7. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20–32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence. PMID:26107389

  8. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1980 PROFICIENCY SURVEY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on authority granted by provisions of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7410, et seq.), the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC administers periodic surveys of analytical proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitroge...

  9. New instrumentation for the detection of sulfur dioxide in the remote atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicks, Dennis Keith, Jr.

    Sulfur gases are an important chemical component of the atmosphere. Gaseous sulfur compounds effect the acidity of rainwater and are important precursors to aerosol particles which affect public health, climate and visibility of scenic vistas such as the Grand Canyon. Sulfate aerosols are also known to participate in ozone catalysis in the stratosphere. A vast majority of the gaseous sulfur cycling through the atmosphere will exist as sulfur dioxide (SO2) at some time during its atmospheric lifetime. Since SO 2 is a primary component of the atmospheric sulfur cycle, quality measurements of this gas are important to understanding the cycling of sulfur through the atmosphere. The mixing ratio of SO2 in the atmosphere can be as low as a few 10's of parts-per- trillion by volume (pptv) in unpolluted areas and as high as 100's of parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) near industrial centers. Obtaining SO2 measurements with mixing ratios that can differ by 105 in magnitude is a difficult task, especially for mixing ratios less than a few hundred pptv. The Diffusion Denuder/Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (DD/SCD) was developed further and tested in a rigorously blind comparison under controlled laboratory conditions. The DD/SCD exhibited excellent sensitivity and little-to- no interference from other trace gases. The DD/SCD performance was comparable to that of other state-of-the- art instruments developed for measuring SO 2 in the remote atmosphere. The Continuous SO2 Detector was developed to overcome the limitation of long sampling times (4 to 90 minutes) inherent in the DD/SCD and other state-of-the- art techniques. The Continuous SO2 Detector (CSD) was developed based on the design of the DD/SCD, but has been optimized for sensitive, high-time resolved measurements of SO2 in air. Sensitive, high- time resolved measurements would be beneficial for studying atmospheric SO2 over large geographical areas from a moving sampling platform such as an aircraft. The current prototype of the CSD is capable of measuring SO2 at mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv on the order of seconds. The DD/SCD, CSD and an automated, computer controlled dynamic dilution system described in this thesis represent a suite of instruments for the measurement of SO2 in the remote atmosphere.

  10. Global dry deposition of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide inferred from space-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Marais, E. A.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-10-01

    A method is developed to estimate global NO2 and SO2 dry deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution (0.1°×0.1°) using satellite measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite, in combination with simulations from the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). These global maps for 2005-2007 provide a data set for use in examining global and regional budgets of deposition. In order to properly assess SO2 on a global scale, a method is developed to account for the geospatial character of background offsets in retrieved satellite columns. Globally, annual dry deposition to land estimated from OMI as NO2 contributes 1.5 ± 0.5 Tg of nitrogen and as SO2 contributes 13.7 ± 4.0 Tg of sulfur. Differences between OMI-inferred NO2 dry deposition fluxes and those of other models and observations vary from excellent agreement to an order of magnitude difference, with OMI typically on the low end of estimates. SO2 dry deposition fluxes compare well with in situ Clear Air Status and Trends Network-inferred flux over North America (slope = 0.98, r = 0.71). The most significant NO2 dry deposition flux to land per area occurs in the Pearl River Delta, China, at 13.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while SO2 dry deposition has a global maximum rate of 72.0 kg S ha-1 yr-1 to the east of Jinan in China's Shandong province. Dry deposition fluxes are explored in several urban areas, where NO2 contributes on average 9-36% and as much as 85% of total NOy dry deposition.

  11. [Spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide around a tobacco bulk-curing workshop cluster].

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Wang, Mei; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jian-Feng; Huang, Wu-Xing; Tian, Bin-Qiang; Gong, Chang-Rong

    2014-03-01

    In order to manifest lower energy consumption and less labor employment, and provide the theoretical basis for constructing environmentally friendly modem tobacco agriculture, this paper analyzed gas composition of the chimney from a bulk-curing barn and the dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) around the workshop cluster using ecom-J2KN flue gas analyzer and air sampler. During curing, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 in the chimney were both highest at 38 degrees C, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was highest at 42 degrees C. The emission concentration of SO2 from the chimney was 1327.60-2218.40 mg x m(-3). Average SO2 emission would decrease by 49.7% through adding 4.0% of a sulfur-fixed agent. The highest concentrations of SO2 in the surface soil appeared at the yellowing stage. SO2 concentration in horizontal direction localized at 43-80 m exceeded 0.5 mg x m(-3). The highest concentration of SO2 (0.57 mg x m(-3)) was observed at 50 m. At 50 m in the downstream wind direction of the workshop cluster, SO2 concentration in vertical direction localized at 0.9-1.8 m exceeded 0.5 mg x m(-3), and the highest concentration of SO2 in vertical direction was 0.65 mg x m(-3) at 1.6 m. During curing, the average concentration of SO2 was decreased by 0.43 mg x m(-3) by using the sulfur-fixed agent. The polluted boundary was localized at 120 m in the downstream wind direction of the workshop cluster. PMID:24984508

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of section 7 of 40 CFR part 58, appendix E (Teflon ® or glass with residence time less than 20 sec... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) A Appendix A-2 to Part 50 Protection of... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1 This...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of section 7 of 40 CFR part 58, appendix E (Teflon ® or glass with residence time less than 20 sec... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) A Appendix A-2 to Part 50 Protection of... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1 This...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of section 7 of 40 CFR part 58, appendix E (Teflon ® or glass with residence time less than 20 sec... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) A Appendix A-2 to Part 50 Protection of... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1 This...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A-2 to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of section 7 of 40 CFR part 58, appendix E (Teflon ® or glass with residence time less than 20 sec... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) A Appendix A-2 to Part 50 Protection of... of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1 This...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0 Applicability 1.1 This ultraviolet fluorescence... method components to reduce interference. 4.0 Calibration Procedure Atmospheres containing...

  17. Improvement in the capacity and safety of lithium/inorganic electrolyte sulfur dioxide rechargeable cells, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.; Jones, Medlinda D.; Johnson, Arden P.; Torkelson, James E.; Vanschalkwijk, Walter

    1990-11-01

    The objective was to develop a prototype rechargeable lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon cell, using practical AA size hardware, in which the electrolyte was to be a sulfur dioxide solution of lithium bromide or thiocyanate, together with a highly soluble cosolute, a second non-lithium salt of the same anion. The cosolute was intended to replace the organic cosolvents familiar from the primary cells, and hopefully, to improve lithium plating efficiency and electrolyte stability during cycling. The primary discharge capacities for AA size cells containing 1.25M CsBr/0.12 M LiBr/SO2 were only about 400mAh, while secondary and subsequent capacities were less than 200 mAh. The rates of solvolysis of bromide and of thiocyanate were exacerbated apparently both by the high anion concentrations and by increased lithium ion concentration. Lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon rechargeable cells were examined in which the electrolytes were mixtures of tetrachloro aluminate salts in sulfur dioxide, to take advantage of the better performance, but to face the problem of limited capacity. It was determined that the capacity of lithium/bromine soluble positive cells was being limited by the loss of electrical contact between the carbon and the positive electrode current collector. Also, lithium plating efficiency was poor.

  18. Limestone treatment for sulfur dioxide removal. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of limestone for the control of sulfur dioxide emmisions in flue gases. The various designs for flue gas desulfurization are discussed, including dry fluidized beds and wet scrubbers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  20. Fluorescence fingerprinting of bottled white wines can reveal memories related to sulfur dioxide treatments of the must.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Christian; Aron, Alissa; Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Gonsior, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gougeon, Régis D

    2015-08-18

    For the first time, Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was combined with parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC) and applied to a set of 320 dry white wines of the Chardonnay grape variety. A four component PARAFAC model (C1, C2, C3 and C4) best explained the variability of fluorescence signatures of white wines. Subtle changes were observed in EEMs of white wines from two different vintages (2006 and 2007), where different concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0, 4, and 8 g·hL(-1)) were added to the grape must at pressing. PARAFAC results clearly indicated that sulfur dioxide added to the must subsequently influenced white wine chemistry into three distinct sulfur dioxide dose-dependent aging mechanisms. For both vintages, C1 and C2 were the dominant components affected by sulfur dioxide and likely reacting with phenolic compounds associated with some presumably proteinaceous material. Distinct component combinations revealed either SO2 dependent or vintage-dependent signatures, thus, showing the extent of the complex versatile significance underlying such fluorescence spectra, even after several years of bottle aging. PMID:26190639

  1. FLUX DETERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN THE EXPOSURE OF RED SPRUCE TO GASEOUS HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, OZONE, AND SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on the 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. ozone, and sulfur dioxide. he exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H2O2, O3, and SO2 that have been observed du...

  2. SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED FOR SHORT DURATIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS: A SELECTED REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to 1980, essentially no health related effects had been observed for short-term ( < 1 hr) exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels similar to those found in the ambient environment (= or < 1 ppm). In 1980 and 81, the results from several studies indicated that asthmatics' a...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... values for normal operation as specified in the manufacturer's written instructions. In the case of... testing periods, determine the average sulfur dioxide concentration reported by the continuous measurement... method testing periods. Report the moisture test method and the correction procedure employed. For...

  4. UTILIZATION OF A RESPONSE-SURFACE TECHNIQUE IN THE STUDY OF PLANT RESPONSES TO OZONE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-di...

  5. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  6. Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

  7. Developing an Alternative to Sulfur Dioxide for Maintaining Quality and Reducing Decay of Table Grapes during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, SO2 is dangerous to people who are allergic to sulfites and its application has been rest...

  8. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces

  9. Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Thompson inoculated on freshly-harvested table grapes under standard cold storage with initial and weekly sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation. L. monocytogenes and S. enterica Thompson were much more...

  10. Impact of ozone and sulfur dioxide on the yield of agricultural crops. Technical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerville, M.C.; Spruill, S.E.; Rawlings, J.O.; Lesser, V.M.

    1989-11-01

    The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) was formed in 1980 to assess the effects of air pollutants on major agricultural crop yields. NCLAN consisted of U. S. government and non-government organizations that conducted field experiments, crop yield modeling, and economic analyses. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were selected as the air pollutant treatments for NCLAN studies because they were known to cause damage to vegetation. Experimental methods and results from individual studies have been reported by the principal investigators in many publications. The purpose of the publication is to summarize the statistical methods used in the combined analyses, to present the polynomial and Weibull ozone dose-response equations determined in the combined analyses, and to summarize the effects of ozone on crop yields by presenting estimated relative yield losses for postulated levels of ozone pollution.

  11. Chemical transformations and disproportionation of sulfur dioxide on transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kubas, G.J.

    1994-07-01

    Aside from its renown as a source of acid precipitation, sulfur dioxide is remarkable in possessing physicochemical and coordination properties that are more diverse than those of any other small molecule. SO{sub 2} is amphoteric, behaving as a Lewis acid or base, mild oxidant or reductant, or oxygen donor or acceptor. It is an excellent nonaqueous solvent when liquefied at -10{degrees}C and coordinates to many types of compounds, including metal complexes at both metal and ligand sites, strong Lewis acids, and virtually all nucleophiles, even halide ion. SO{sub 2} can bind strongly to low-valent metals like CO or NO or completely reversibly like O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The diversity of metal-SO{sub 2} bonding geometries is unmatched and has been reviewed. This Account will focus on the reactivity of SO{sub 2} e.g. SO double bond cleavage. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Modeling of atmospheric corrosion behavior of weathering steel in sulfur dioxide-polluted atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C.; Wei, F.I.

    1996-12-01

    Atmospheric corrosion resistance of carbon steel (CS) and high-phosphorus weathering steel (WS, Acr-Ten A) was compared after exposure for up to 6 years in Taiwan. In an industrial atmosphere, corrosion kinetics of WS after 3 years of exposure deviated from behavior predicted by the well-known bilogarithmic law. This deviation was simulated using a laboratory accelerated test under cyclic wet/dry conditions with addition of 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). In-situ electrochemical impedance measurements also were carried out in a modified three-electrode cell covered by a thin electrolyte layer to investigate corrosion behavior of WS in SO{sub 2}-polluted environments. Three impedance models were proposed to explain the characteristic corrosion behavior of WS in various stages of exposure.

  13. The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.; Murdy, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in vitro to asses the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction in vivo is not valid.

  14. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P < 0.01). In the meantime, more than 90% of hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P < 0.01). Those disappeared hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications. PMID:25404540

  15. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

  16. Effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation on plasma vitamin C and ceruloplasmin in ageing rats.

    PubMed

    Gümüşlü, S; Korgun, D K; Bilmen, S; Yargiçoğlu, P; Ağar, A

    2000-07-01

    Ageing is associated with changes in physical characteristics and decline of many physiological functions. It has been accepted that the oxidative stress or damage induced by free radicals is related to ageing. Three age groups, 3, 12 and 24 months, were used to investigate whether age-associated changes in some parameters (vitamin C and ceruloplasmin) in the plasma of male Swiss-Albino rats and to observe possible effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for 6 weeks on the same parameters. Rats were exposed to 10 ppm SO2 1 hr/day, 7 days/week for 6 weeks. Control groups were exposed to filtered air in the same conditions. An effect of SO2 on those parameters was observed. The level of vitamin C and ceruloplasmin in plasma were decreased in young, middle-aged and old groups in response to SO2. PMID:10943080

  17. Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

    1996-02-01

    Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

  18. Effects of sulfur dioxide and ozone on yield and quality of potatoes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pell, E.J.; Pearson, N.S.; Vinten-Johansen, C.; McGruer, G.; Yang, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop an outdoor fumigation facility designed to expose plants to ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and to conduct experiments that would examine the impact of the two gases alone and in combination on field grown potato plants. Two systems of dispensing and monitoring pollutants were contrasted, one using miniature solenoid valves and the other using critical orifices. Both systems provided excellent pollutant control. The orifices were relatively inexpensive and required less maintenance than did the solenoid valve system. Two field experiments were conducted, one in 1985 and and the other in 1986. Potato plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air, nonfiltered air, nonfiltered air supplemented with O3 at levels which resulted in 1.33, 1.66 or 1.99 times ambient O3 concentrations or charcoal filtered air plus 0.14, 0.28 or 0.56 ppM SO2. There were additional treatments combining the two pollutant regimes. Ozone induced a linear reduction in yield reflected by decreases in weight and number of tubers > 6.35 cm in diameter. In general effects on number and weight of smaller tubers were not detected. Ozone also induced a decrease in the percent dry matter and reducing sugar content of potato tubers. Sulfur dioxide affected number of Grade One tubers in both years and percent dry matter and sucrose content in 1986 only. While dose-response curves for all SO2 effects fit quadratic curves the impact of SO2 doses used in these experiments were stimulatory. No important interactions were observed between O3 and SO2. 36 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on tall fescue. II. Alteration of quality constituents. [Festuca arundinacea

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine whether ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) might alter forage quality parameters of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Alta). Plants were exposed weekly to four O/sub 3/ treatments, 0, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 ..mu..L L/sup -1/; with or without 0.10 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/, 6 h d/sup -1/ for 12 weeks. Ozone had a much greater impact on forage quality than did SO/sub 2/. Ozone increased protein content on a g kg/sup -1/ basis and decreased protein on a weight per plant basis. Ozone reduced crude fat, crude fiber, and total nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the forage. Crude ash content increased due to O/sub 3/ exposure. On a weight per plant basis, O/sub 3/ decreased the forage concentration of Ca, Mg, and P. Ozone increased Ca concentration of herbage. Sulfur dioxide increased ash content of the forage. Phosphorus concentration and weight per plant of Mg and P were all reduced by SO/sub 2/ Significant pollutant interactions occurred for crude fiber, crude ash, total Mg, and total P contents of forage. While treatments resulted in some apparent increases in forage quality, these were at the expense of yield. The most adverse effects on forage quality were an increase in ash content which resulted from an interaction of SO/sub 2/ with O/sub 3/, and a reduction in soluble carbohydrate content of shoots due to O/sub 3/.

  20. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures on forest vegetation of the southern Sierra Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O.C.; Miller, P.R.; Page, A.L.; Lund, L.J.

    1986-03-01

    In 1981 and 1982, a multidisciplinary study was conducted within a 32-mile zone from Oildale, CA eastward to points in the southern Sierra Nevada. Concentrations of sulfur in pine needles and lichens along transects tended to decrease with increasing elevation. Stable isotope ratios in soils and plant tissue ran counter to expectations because natural isotopic composition at greater distances is similiar to the source area. Recently germinated pine seedlings exposed to ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures showed significant differences in root dry weight, suggesting that pollutant mixtures may affect seedling establishment. Surveys of the study area showed increased ozone damage to pines between 1977 and 1981. Sulfur dioxide did not appear to be acting jointly with ozone to cause existing injury.

  1. Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  2. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  3. Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus 1 sounding rocket observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in that spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary spectral absorber in the 190 - 230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et. al. (1994) show that sulfur monoxide features are also present in these data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targets within 18 deg of the sun while earth orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

  4. Catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from dibenzothiophene sulfone over Mg-Al mixed oxides supported on mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    You, Nansuk; Kim, Min Ji; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2010-05-01

    Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTS), one of the products of the oxidative desulfurization of heavy oil, can be removed through extraction as well as by an adsorption process. It is necessary to utilize DBTS in conjunction with catalytic cracking. An object of the present study is to provide an Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst for the removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The characteristics of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst were investigated through N2 adsorption, XRD, ICP, and XRF. An Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst formulated in a direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance compared to pure MgO during the catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The higher dispersion of Mg as well as the large surface area of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst strongly influenced the catalyst basicity in DBTS cracking. PMID:20359023

  5. Temporary Disturbance of Translocation of Assimilates in Douglas Firs Caused by Low Levels of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Gorissen, Antonie; van Veen, Johannes A.

    1988-01-01

    Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are suffering strongly from air pollution in western Europe. We studied the effect of low concentrations of ozone (200 micrograms per cubic meter during 3 days) and sulfur dioxide (53 micrograms per cubic meter during 28 days) on translocation of assimilates in 2 year old Douglas firs. The trees were exposed to the pollutants and afterward transferred to a growth chamber adapted to the use of 14CO2. Root/soil respiration was measured daily. The results showed a significant decrease of the 14CO2 root/soil respiration during the first 1 to 2 weeks after exposure to either ozone or sulfur dioxide. The ultimate level of 14CO2 root/soil respiration did not differ significantly, which suggests a recovery of the exposed trees during the first weeks after exposure. PMID:16666348

  6. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  7. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions from biomass burning in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2003-05-01

    We identify dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the major reduced sulfur-containing gas emitted from bushfires in Australia's Northern Territory. Like dimethyl sulfide (DMS), DMDS is oxidized in the atmosphere to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), which are intermediates in the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The mixing ratios of DMDS and DMS were the highest we have ever detected, with maximum values of 113 and 35 ppbv, respectively, whereas background values were below the detection limit (10 pptv). Molar emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were [1.6 +/- 0.1] × 10-5 and [6.2 +/- 0.3] × 10-6, for DMDS and DMS respectively, while molar emission ratios relative to carbon dioxide (CO2) were [4.7 +/- 0.4] × 10-6 and [1.4 +/- 0.4] × 10-7, respectively. Assuming these observations are representative of biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning could yield up to 175 Gg/yr of DMDS (119 Gg S/yr) and 13 Gg/yr of DMS.

  8. Evaluation of the first phase of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act: a plant-based approach.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Martin; Jaggi, Bikki

    2002-03-01

    Electric power generating plants that use coal were among the key targets of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act. Under the first phase of the act, 110 coal-fired electric power plants were required to reduce their sulfur dioxide emissions by 1995 and nitrogen oxide emissions by 1996. Phase 2 of the act requires even greater reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions by 2000 and nitrogen oxide emissions by 2008. This study examines whether the 107 targeted plants (three plants went off-line) have achieved the desired sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission levels. The analysis of sulfur dioxide is based on data from 1990, 1995, and 1999. The findings show that although sulfur oxide increased by 3% from 1995 to 1999, it decreased by 45% over the 1990-1999 period at the firm level for the targeted firms. The findings also indicate that the overall reduction in sulfur dioxide was achieved by utilizing low sulfur coal and by purchasing emission allowances. So far as nitrogen oxides are concerned, there has been a reduction of 14% over the 1990-1999 period, of which 7% was achieved during the 1995-1999 period. An evaluation of emissions at the plant level indicates that several plants do not meet the emissions level for sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides. These results provide a mixed scorecard for reduction in emissions both for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Even though there is reduction in the emissions on an overall basis at the firm level, several plants that have not been able to reduce emissions deserve special attention to meet the goals of the act in reducing emissions. PMID:11830772

  9. Human nasal epithelium: Characterization and effects of in vitro exposure to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, M.S.; Altman, L.C.; Koenig, J.Q.; Luchtel, D.L.; Covert, D.S.; Virant, F.S.; Baker, C. )

    1989-12-01

    Human nasal turbinate tissue from surgical specimens was dissected free of connective tissue, and primary epithelial cultures were established by explant techniques. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cultured cells retained homogeneous cytoplasmic granules, tonofilaments, and desmosomes and formed a homogeneous monolayer. The epithelial cells stained positively with cytokeratin antibodies AE1, AE3, and 35BH11 but failed to stain with two other cytokeratin antibodies, AE2 and 34BE12. Staining was also positive with anti-desmoplakin I and II but negative with antivimentin (43BE8), anti-desmin, and anti-human factor VIII antibodies. Cultured cells were exposed to filtered air or sulfur dioxide at 1-5 ppm for 30-60 min. Although there was no increase in cell lysis as measured by chromium-51 release, SO{sub 2} exposure significantly inhibited (3H)leucine incorporation compared to air exposure. This effect was dependent on both SO{sub 2} concentration and exposure duration. Control experiments revealed that these SO{sub 2} effects were not caused by the (H+) load produced by SO{sub 2} exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to air or SO{sub 2} did not show any significant morphological differences.

  10. Relationship between ambient sulfur dioxide levels and neonatal mortality near the Mt. Sakurajima volcano in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinkura, R; Fujiyama, C; Akiba, S

    1999-11-01

    We examined the association between neonatal mortality and ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, Yamashita public health district of Kagoshima City, during the period between 1978 and 1988. The analysis using Poisson regression models showed that the monthly average level of SO2 was positively associated with the neonatal mortality (P = 0.002). When the SO2 levels were categorized into four groups to estimate the relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality using the lowest exposure category as a reference, the RR increased with elevated exposure levels (P for trend < 0.001) and was the highest in the group with the highest level of exposure (RR = 2.2, 95% confidence interval; 1.2-4.1). Other than SO2, we also examined the number of eruptions, the amount of ashfall, and the average level of suspended particulate matter. None of these factors was associated with neonatal mortality. Although the present study suggests that increase in SO2 levels has had an adverse effect on neonatal mortality in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, it is difficult to determine the source of the SO2. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of the excess neonatal mortality probably associated with the volcanic SO2 levels. PMID:10616268

  11. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO₂) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl₂. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO₂/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO₂ supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO₂/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO₂ treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO₂ significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  12. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  13. Time course of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Bailey, R.M.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.

    1984-08-01

    Young adult asthmatic volunteers (N = 17) were exposed to 0.75 ppM sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 3-hr periods, exercising vigorously for the first 10 min and resting thereafter. Specific airway resistance (SR/sub aw/) and symptoms were recorded preexposure, immediately postexercise, and after 1, 2, and 3 hr of exposure. Symptoms and SR/sub aw/ were significantly increased after exercise, relative to preexposure measurements. Group mean SR/sub aw/ and symptom increases were no longer significant at 1 hr. In a few individuals, effects may have persisted for 2 hr or more. On separate occasions, comparable exposures were conducted, and forced expiratory spirometry was performed preexposure and postexercise, in addition to the other tests. Inclusion of spirometry did no significantly affect the other results. Spirometry and SR/sub aw/ showed nearly equal significance in changes postexercise. Thus, in general, asthmatics bronchoconstriction induced by exercise in SO/sub 2/ seems to reverse quickly with rest, even if SO/sub 2/ exposure continues. Spirometry may be useful for studying pollution-induced bronchoconstriction when SR/sub aw/ measurements are impractical.

  14. Satellite measurements oversee China’s sulfur dioxide emission reductions from coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Martin, Randall V.; Philip, Sajeev; Liu, Fei; Li, Meng; Jiang, Xujia; He, Kebin

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the real reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in China, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing SO2 columns were used to inversely model the SO2 emission burdens surrounding 26 isolated power plants before and after the effective operation of their flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. An improved two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method was developed to estimate SO2 burdens under complex background conditions, by using the accurate local background columns and the customized fitting domains for each target source. The OMI-derived SO2 burdens before effective FGD operation were correlated well with the bottom-up emission estimates (R = 0.92), showing the reliability of the OMI-derived SO2 burdens as a linear indicator of the associated source strength. OMI observations indicated that the average lag time period between installation and effective operation of FGD facilities at these 26 power plants was around 2 years, and no FGD facilities have actually operated before the year 2008. The OMI estimated average SO2 removal equivalence (56.0%) was substantially lower than the official report (74.6%) for these 26 power plants. Therefore, it has been concluded that the real reductions of SO2 emissions in China associated with the FGD facilities at coal-fired power plants were considerably diminished in the context of the current weak supervision measures.

  15. Bioassay for assessing the effect of sulfur dioxide on oat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesani, V.J.; Leone, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    A bioassay technique was developed to evaluate the effect of sulfur dioxide air pollution on the growth rates of oat seedlings. The system was designed to measure small changes in shoot length of seedlings in vivo by use of a millimeter rule. The data, subjected to appropriate statistical evaluation, lead to the conclusion that oat seedlings experienced subtle injury in the form of growth retardation during exposure to SO/sub 2/ at concentrations close to ambient levels. Recovery of the seedlings was relatively rapid and indirectly proportional to SO/sub 2/ concentration. However, recovery generally did not reach the rate of growth that existed prior to fumigation, indicating the possibility of permanent growth impairment or that the stationary phase of growth was being approached. Knowledge of subtle injury of vegetation as seen in this study could possibly lead to in vivo systems for the direct evaluation of air pollution effects on vegetation, help to expand knowledge in the areas of economic loss, or possibly aid in the selection of tolerant species as buffer zones in land use planning.

  16. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  17. Removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas using the sludge sodium humate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m(3)/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g(-1) SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  18. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl2. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO2 supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO2/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO2 treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO2 significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  19. Estimation of sulfur dioxide air pollution concentrations with a spatial autoregressive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.; Adams, Matthew D.; De Luca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Sohel, Nazmul

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a land-use regression model for sulfur dioxide air pollution concentrations. We make use of mobile monitoring data collected in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, between 2005 and 2010 inclusive. The observed SO2 concentrations are regressed against a comprehensive set of land use and transportation variables. Land use and transportation variables are assessed as the amount of each characteristic within buffers of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 m around pollution observation locations. In the first instance of regression modeling, we apply ordinary least-squares regression. The OLS model R2 for training data was 0.38, and an R2 of 0.3 for a 50% held out cross-validation data set. The residuals are spatially correlated with the OLS model as determined with Moran's I. We thus applied a simultaneous autoregressive model, specifically the spatial error model. The resulting model slightly improved fit as determined by a pseudo R2 = 0.4, improved log-likelihood, and reduced MSE, RMSE, and MAE. The spatial error model residuals were not spatially auto-correlated, resulting in a valid model. SAR modeling is a natural extension to OLS regression models and solves the issue of spatial autocorrelation in model residuals with a one-stage model.

  20. Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1980-07-01

    Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

  1. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.

  2. Exploring the Capabilities of Satellite Observation of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as fuel combustion, oil refining, and metal smelting, emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions. SO2 in the air is oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, which may have a significant impact on regional air quality and climate. Sulfate aerosols are usually removed from the atmosphere through acid deposition, which can damage the environment and ecosystems. SO2 and sulfate aerosols are sometimes lifted into the middle or upper troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. Space-borne UV instruments, such as Aura/OMI, MetOp/GOME-2, and NPP/OMPS, provide a unique perspective on the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. In this presentation, we will describe the recent advances in retrieval algorithm that provide improved detection and quantification of PBL SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We will also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

  3. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Balya, D R

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride. PMID:1927909

  4. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters

    SciTech Connect

    Balya, D.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride.

  5. Core localization and {sigma}* delocalization in the O 1s core-excited sulfur dioxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Andreas; Kivimaeki, Antti; Sorensen, Stacey L.; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Burmeister, Florian; Naves de Brito, Arnaldo

    2008-03-21

    Electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements of sulfur dioxide at discrete resonances near the O 1s ionization edge are reported. The spectra are analyzed using a model based upon molecular symmetry and on the geometry of the molecule. We find clear evidence for molecular alignment that can be ascribed to symmetry properties of the ground and core-excited states. Configuration interaction (CI) calculations indicate geometry changes in accord with the measured spectra. For the SO{sub 2} molecule, however, we find that the localized core hole does not produce measurable evidence for valence localization, since the transition dipole moment is not parallel to a breaking {sigma}* O-S bond, in contrast to the case of ozone. The dissociation behavior based upon the CI calculations using symmetry-broken orbitals while fixing a localized core-hole site is found to be nearly equivalent to that using symmetry-adapted orbitals. This implies that the core-localization effect is not strong enough to localize the {sigma}* valence orbital.

  6. Core localization and sigma* delocalization in the O 1s core-excited sulfur dioxide molecule.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Andreas; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Kivimäki, Antti; Burmeister, Florian; Naves de Brito, Arnaldo; Sorensen, Stacey L

    2008-03-21

    Electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements of sulfur dioxide at discrete resonances near the O 1s ionization edge are reported. The spectra are analyzed using a model based upon molecular symmetry and on the geometry of the molecule. We find clear evidence for molecular alignment that can be ascribed to symmetry properties of the ground and core-excited states. Configuration interaction (CI) calculations indicate geometry changes in accord with the measured spectra. For the SO(2) molecule, however, we find that the localized core hole does not produce measurable evidence for valence localization, since the transition dipole moment is not parallel to a breaking sigma* O-S bond, in contrast to the case of ozone. The dissociation behavior based upon the CI calculations using symmetry-broken orbitals while fixing a localized core-hole site is found to be nearly equivalent to that using symmetry-adapted orbitals. This implies that the core-localization effect is not strong enough to localize the sigma* valence orbital. PMID:18361575

  7. The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

  8. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases. PMID:18200931

  9. Manipulating the Surface Chemistry of Quantum Dots for Sensitive Ratiometric Fluorescence Detection of Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Zhu, Houjuan; Sun, Mingtai; Yan, Yehan; Zhang, Kui; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2015-08-11

    Herein, we report a novel approach to the rapid visual detection of gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) by manipulating the surface chemistry of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-modified quantum dots (QDs) using fluorescent coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (CCA) for specific reaction with SO2. The CCA molecules are attached to the surface amino groups of the QDs through electrostatic attraction, thus the fluorescence of CCA is greatly suppressed because of the formation of an ion-pair complex between the ATPS-modified QDs and CCA. Such an interaction is vulnerable to SO2 because SO2 can readily react with surface amino groups to form strong charge-transfer complexes and subsequently release the strongly fluorescent CCA molecules. The mechanism has been carefully verified through a series of control experiments. Upon exposure to different amounts of SO2, the fluorescent color of the nanoparticle-based sensor displays continuously changes from red to blue. Most importantly, the approach owns high selectivity for SO2 and a tolerance of interference, which enables the sensor to detect SO2 in a practical application. Using this fluorescence-based sensing method, we have achieved a visual detection limit of 6 ppb for gaseous SO2. PMID:26177445

  10. Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on erythrocyte antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Agar, A; Küçükatay, V; Yargicoglu, P; Bilmen, S; Gümüşlü, S; Yücel, G

    2000-04-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO(2) ) on red cell antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation was examined in this research. Forty healthy male albino rats, aged three months, were divided into four equal groups: Control (C), SO(2) +C (CSO(2) ), diabetic (D) and SO(2) +D (DSO(2) ). Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by i.v injection of alloxan with a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm SO(2) was administered to the animals of SO(2) exposed groups in an exposure chamber for one hr/day x 7 days/wk x 6wks while other groups were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. SO(2) exposure, while markedly decreasing Cu, Zn-Superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) activity, significantly increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities and TBARS values in CSO(2) and DSO(2) groups compared with their respective control groups. From these results, it could be concluded that adaptative changes occurred in antioxidant systems that may counteract the free radical effect of SO(2) in the experimental groups. PMID:10804329

  11. Analysis of airway secretions in a model of sulfur dioxide induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Ulrich; Staats, Petra; Fehmann, Hans-Christoph; Fischer, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Groneberg, David A

    2006-01-01

    Hypersecretion and chronic phlegm are major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but animal models of COPD with a defined functional hypersecretion have not been established so far. To identify an animal model of combined morphological signs of airway inflammation and functional hypersecretion, rats were continuously exposed to different levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2, 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 80 ppm) for 3 (short-term) or 20–25 (long-term) days. Histology revealed a dose-dependent increase in edema formation and inflammatory cell infiltration in short-term-exposed animals. The submucosal edema was replaced by fibrosis after long-term-exposure. The basal secretory activity was only significantly increased in the 20 ppm group. Also, stimulated secretion was significantly increased only after exposure to 20 ppm. BrdU-assays and AgNOR-analysis demonstrated cellular metaplasia and glandular hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia as the underlying morphological correlate of the hypersecretion. In summary, SO2-exposure can lead to characteristic airway remodeling and changes in mucus secretion in rats. As only long-term exposure to 20 ppm leads to a combination of hypersecretion and airway inflammation, only this mode of exposure should be used to mimic human COPD. Concentrations less or higher than 20 ppm or short term exposure do not induce the respiratory symptom of hypersecretion. The present model may be used to characterize the effects of new compounds on mucus secretion in the background of experimental COPD. PMID:16759388

  12. Detecting sulfur dioxide stress in red maple foliage by changes in membrane permeability and ethylene evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M.

    1989-04-01

    Two-yr-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) pollution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm 8 hr daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Alterations in membrane permeability caused by SO{sub 2} stress were measured by electrolyte leakage of incubated leaf discs, and changes in ethylene biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography using intact leaves. Ethylene increased 62% as SO{sub 2} concentration changed from 0 to 0.5 ppm, suggesting that ethylene may be a useful indicator for determining the onset of acute SO{sub 2} stress in maple. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the onset of SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited incremental changes associated with increasing levels of SO{sub 2}. These data suggest that membrane permeability may serve as a useful index for monitoring changes caused by SO{sub 2} at the cellular level.

  13. Foliar response and growth of apple trees following exposure to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shertz, R.D.; Kender, W.J.; Musselman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Three cultivars of greenhouse-grown apple trees (Malus domestica, Borkh.) were fumigated for single, 4-hour exposures with ozone (O/sub 3/) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0.40 and 0.80 ppm. Fumigations were performed in a plexiglass chamber situated within a controlled environment walk-in growth chamber. All 3 cultivars responded to treatments in a similar manner. When applied separately both gases induced characteristic foliar injury. In general, apple trees were more sensitive to 0.40 ppm O/sub 3/ than to 0.40 ppm SO/sub 2/; but they responded similarly to 0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/. Foliar injury, leaf abscission, and shoot growth reduction were greatest when 0.80 ppm O/sub 3/ and 0.80 ppm SO/sub 2/ were combined. The data showed a less-than additive response when the 2 pollutants were combined; a response due, in part, to the high amount of injury induced by single pollutants at these concentrations. All O/sub 3/ and/or SO/sub 2/ fumigations resulted in stomatal closure.

  14. Pulmonary response to threshold levels of sulfur dioxide (1. 0 ppm) and ozone (0. 3 ppm) (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors exposed 22 healthy adult non-smoking men for 2 hours to either filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide, 0.30 ppm ozone, or the combination of 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide plus 0.30 ppm ozone. It was hypothesized that exposure to near-threshold concentrations of these pollutants would show any interaction between the two pollutants that might have been masked by the more-obvious response to the higher concentrations of ozone used in previous studies. Each subject alternated 30-minute treadmill exercise with 10-minute rest periods for the 2 hours. Following ozone exposure alone, forced expiratory measurements (FVC, FEV-1, and FEF25-75%) were significantly decreased. The combined exposure to SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ produced similar but smaller decreases in these measures. There were small but significant differences between the ozone and the ozone plus sulfur dioxide exposure for FVC, FEV-1,-2,-3, and FEF25-75% at the end of the 2-hour exposure. It was concluded that, with these pollutant concentrations, there is no additive or synergistic effect of the two pollutants on pulmonary function.

  15. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products. PMID:19063591

  16. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals, the risk is very low. However, the fact that volcanic ash and sulfur species are not always collocated and that passenger comfort could be compromised might be incentives to provide real-time information on the presence or absence of volcanic SO2. Such information could aid aviation risk management during and after volcanic eruptions.

  17. Effects of sulfur dioxide on apoptosis-related gene expressions in lungs from rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, J.L.; Meng, Z.Q.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2},) is an air pollutant in densely populated areas as well as in areas polluted by coal-fired power plants, smelters, and sulfuric acid factories. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00 {+-} 1.01, 28.00 {+-} 1.77, and 56.00 {+-} 3.44mg/m{sup 3} SO{sub 2} for 6h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNA and protein levels of three apoptosis-related genes (p53 and bax are promoters of apoptosis, whereas bcl-2 is apoptotic suppressor) were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerise chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemistry method, and caspase-3 activities were detected. The results showed that mRNA levels of p53 and bax were increased in a dose-dependent manner and at the concentrations of 28.00 and 56.00mg/m{sup 3} SO{sub 2} the increases were significant (for p53: 1.23-fold at 28 mg/m{sup 3} and 1.39-fold at 56 mg/m{sup 3}; for bax: 1.77-fold at 28 mg/m{sup 3} and 2.26-fold at 56 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively), while mRNA levels of bcl-2 were decreased significantly (0.78-fold at 28 mg/m{sup 3} and 0.73-fold at 56 mg/m{sup 3}) in lungs of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. Dose-dependent increase of p53 and bax proteins in the lungs was observed after SO{sub 2} inhalation, while decrease of bcl-2 protein levels was obtained using immunohistochemistry method. Caspase-3 activities were increased in lungs of rats after SO{sub 2} inhalation. These results lead to a conclusion that SO{sub 2}, exposure can change the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and it suggests that SO{sub 2} can induce apoptosis in lung of rat and may have relations with some apoptosis-related diseases. Elucidating the expression patterns of those factors after SO{sub 2} inhalation may be critical to our understanding mechanisms of SO{sub 2} toxicity and helpful for the therapeutic intervention.

  18. Proposal for novel metabolic pathway of highly toxic dimethylated arsenics accompanied by enzymatic sulfuration, desulfuration and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yasuyo; Kurosawa, Hidetoshi; Kato, Koichi; Endo, Yoko; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Endo, Ginji

    2015-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that dimethylarsinic acid [(CH3)2AsO(OH), DMA(V)], a main metabolite of inorganic arsenic, is responsible for carcinogenesis in urinary bladder and lung in rodents, and various modes of carcinogenic action have been proposed. One theory concerning the mode of action is that the biotransformation of dimethylarsinous acid [(CH3)2AsOH, DMA(III)] from DMA(V) plays an important role in the carcinogenesis by way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, dimethylmonothioarsinic acid [(CH3)2AsS(OH), DMMTA(V)], a metabolite of DMA(V), has also been noted because of its higher toxicity. However, the metabolic mechanisms of formation and disappearance of DMA(III) and DMMTA(V), and their toxicity are not fully understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to clarify the mechanism of metabolic formation of DMMTA(V) and DMA(V) from DMA(III). The in vitro transformation of arsenicals by treatment with liver homogenate from rodents and sulfur transferase was detected by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-tandem MS. DMMTA(V) is produced from DMA(III) but not DMA(V) by cellular fractions from mouse liver homogenates and by rhodanese from bovine liver in the presence of thiosulfate, a sulfur donor. Not only DMMTA(V) thus produced but also DMA(III) are re-converted into DMA(V) by an in vitro addition of S9 mix. These findings indicate that the metabolic process not only of DMA(III) to DMA(V) or DMMTA(V) but also of DMMTA(V) to DMA(V) consists of a complicated mode of interaction between monooxygenase including cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or sulfur transferase. PMID:25559201

  19. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of detectable sulfur-organic compounds: ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Senent, M L; Puzzarini, C; Domínguez-Gómez, R; Carvajal, M; Hochlaf, M

    2014-03-28

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used for the spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2 (32)SH, ETSH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH3 (32)SCH3, DMS), considering them on the vibrational ground and excited torsional states. Since both molecules show non-rigid properties, torsional energy barriers and splittings are provided. Equilibrium geometries and the corresponding rotational constants are calculated by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and core-correlation effects. The ground and excited states rotational constants are then determined using vibrational corrections obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ force-field calculations, which are also employed to determine anharmonic frequencies for all vibrational modes. CCSD(T) and CCSD force fields are employed to predict quartic and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. Equilibrium rotational constants are also calculated using CCSD(T)-F12. The full-dimensional anharmonic analysis does not predict displacements of the lowest torsional excited states due to Fermi resonances with the remaining vibrational modes. Thus, very accurate torsional transitions are calculated by solving variationally two-dimensional Hamiltonians depending on the CH3 and SH torsional coordinates of ethyl mercaptan or on the two methyl groups torsions of dimethyl-sulfide. For this purpose, vibrationally corrected potential energy surfaces are computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For ethyl mercaptan, calculations show large differences between the gauche (g) and trans (t) conformer spectral features. Interactions between rotating groups are responsible for the displacements of the g-bands with respect to the t-bands that cannot therefore be described with one-dimensional models. For DMS, the CCSD(T) potential energy surface has been semi-empirically adjusted to reproduce experimental data. New assignments are suggested for the methyl torsion bands of ETSH and a reassignment is proposed for the infrared bands of DMS (0 3 → 0 4 and 1 0 → 1 1). Our accurate spectroscopic data should be useful for the analysis of the microwave and far infrared spectra of ETSH and DMS recorded, at low temperatures, either in laboratory or in the interstellar medium. PMID:24697436

  20. Effects of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on Phyllosphere Fungi from Three Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Mark E.; Dunn, Paul H.; Durall, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O3) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O3 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of California, Riverside, for 4 years with filtered air, ambient air plus filtered air (1:1), ambient air, or filtered air plus SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million. Populations of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, two of the four most common fungi isolated from orange leaves, were significantly reduced by chronic exposure to ambient air. In the short-term experiments, seedlings of giant sequoia or California black oak were fumigated in open-top chambers in Sequoia National Park for 9 to 11 weeks with filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air plus O3. These short-term fumigations did not significantly affect the numbers of phyllosphere fungi. Exposure of Valencia orange trees to SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million for 4 years reduced the number of phyllosphere fungi isolated by 75% compared with the number from the filtered-air treatment and reduced the Simpson diversity index value from 3.3 to 2.5. A significant chamber effect was evident since leaves of giant sequoia and California black oak located outside of chambers had more phyllosphere fungi than did seedlings within chambers. Results suggest that chronic exposure to ambient ozone or SO2 in polluted areas can affect phyllosphere fungal communities, while short-term exposures may not significantly disturb phyllosphere fungi. PMID:16347849

  1. Sulfur dioxide emissions related to volcanic activity at Asama volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwada, Michiko; Kazahaya, Kohei; Mori, Toshiya; Kazahaya, Ryunosuke; Hirabayashi, Jun-ichi; Miyashita, Makoto; Onizawa, Shin'ya; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-12-01

    A 40-year-long record of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of Asama volcano, Japan, is presented including high-temporal-resolution data since the 2004 eruption. The 2004 and 2008-2009 eruptive activities were associated with high SO2 emission, and SO2 emission rates markedly fluctuated. In contrast, stable and weak SO2 emissions have been observed for the rest of the investigated interval. The fluctuation of the SO2 emission rates is correlated with the number of shallow low-frequency B-type earthquakes, implying that increased flows of gas and/or magma induced the B-type earthquakes along the shallow conduit. The total volumes of outgassed magma during the 2004 and 2008-2009 eruptive activities are estimated to be 1.9 × 108 and 1.5 × 108 m3, respectively. These volumes are about 100-200 times larger than those of the erupted magma, indicating that the large volumes of the magma were outgassed without being erupted (i.e., excess degassing/outgassing). Degassing and outgassing driven by magma convection rather than by permeable gas flow in the conduit is concluded as the probable degassing/outgassing process of Asama volcano based on model examinations, and is thought to occur regardless of the outgassing intensity. Production rates of outgassed magma related to the 2004 and 2008-2009 eruptive periods are estimated to have been 7.4 × 103 and 6.7 × 103 kg/s, respectively. These values are one order of magnitude higher than the average production rate of 0.92 × 103 kg/s for the inactive periods. Increased supply of fresh magma is thought to activate magma convection in the conduit and to thereby increase magma degassing/outgassing.

  2. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  3. Effects of sulfur dioxide fumigation on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content of selected lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Beekley, P.K.; Hoffman, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four lichens - Parmelia bolliana Mull. Arg., Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl., Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn., and Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt - listed in order of decreasing mesophytism, were fumigated for 4 hr at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide to determine the effects on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis decreased after fumigation at 1.0 and 2.5 ppm, but significant decreases occurred only after fumigation at 2.5 ppm. Expressed on the basis of per unit weight chlorophyll content, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by that of Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana. Expressed on the basis of per unit dry weight of lichen sample, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris, and Parmelia bolliana. In both cases, the more xerophytic species were more sensitive. Chlorophyll content in these species was not measurably altered by fumigation. Comparison of chlorophyll a and b absorption spectra peaks for fumigated and control samples indicated that no phaeophytinisation occurred. Insignificant and inconsistent differences in chlorophyll a/b ratios were observed. Respiration of Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana decreased significantly following fumigation with 2.5 ppm SO/sub 2/; both species were more sensitive than Xanthoria fallax. Physconia grisea was not tested for respiratory response. The effects of SO/sub 2/ fumigation on measured metabolic rates differed with the species. Photosynthetic rates of the xerophytic Xanthoria fallax and Physconia gresea were more sensitive than the more mesophytic Parmelia bolliana and Physcia stellaris. In contrast, respiratory sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ fumigation were greater for P. bolliana and P. stellaris.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Plume During the Continuing Eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows the sulfur dioxide plume (in purple) originating form the summit, drifting over the city of Catania, and continuing over the Ionian Sea. ASTER's unique combination of multiple thermal infrared channels and high spatial resolution allows the determination of the thickness and position of the SO2 plume. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km.

    The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  5. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale ensemble simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Y.; Hoffmann, L.; Griessbach, S.; Rößler, T.; Stein, O.

    2015-10-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often can not be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i. e., large-scale ensemble simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final transport simulations. The transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final transport simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. The SO2 column densities from the simulations are in good qualitative agreement with the AIRS observations. Our new inverse modeling and simulation system is expected to become a useful tool to also study other volcanic eruption events.

  6. Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure alters brainstem parasympathetic control of heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an air pollutant that impedes neonatal development and induces adverse cardiorespiratory health effects, including tachycardia. Here, an animal model was developed that enabled characterization of (i) in vivo alterations in heart rate and (ii) altered activity in brainstem neurons that control heart rate after perinatal SO2 exposure. Methods and results Pregnant Sprague–Dawley dams and their pups were exposed to 5 parts per million SO2 for 1 h daily throughout gestation and 6 days postnatal. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups at 5 days postnatal to examine changes in basal and diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate following perinatal SO2 exposure. In vitro studies employed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons within the nucleus ambiguus upon SO2 exposure using a preparation that maintains fictive inspiratory activity recorded from the hypoglossal rootlet. Perinatal SO2 exposure increased heart rate and blunted the parasympathetic-mediated diving reflex-evoked changes in heart rate. Neither spontaneous nor inspiratory-related inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons was altered by SO2 exposure. However, excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission was decreased by 51.2% upon SO2 exposure. This diminished excitatory neurotransmission was tetrodotoxin-sensitive, indicating SO2 exposure impaired the activity of preceding glutamatergic neurons that synapse upon cardiac vagal neurons. Conclusions Diminished glutamatergic, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons provides a mechanism for the observed SO2-induced elevated heart rate via an impairment of brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity to the heart. PMID:23504550

  7. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

  8. Involvement of NO and ROS in sulfur dioxide induced guard cells apoptosis in Tagetes erecta.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aili; Fu, Baocun; Wang, Yunshan; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xin, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2015-04-01

    Both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very important signal molecules, but the roles they play in signal transduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) induced toxicities on ornamental plants is not clear. In this study, the functions of NO and ROS in SO2-induced death of lower epidermal guard cells in ornamental plant Tagetes erecta were investigated. The results showed that SO2 derivatives (0.4-4.0 mmol L(-1) of final concentrations) could reduce the guard cells' viability and increase their death rates in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the significant increase of cellular NO, ROS, and Ca(2+) levels (P<0.05) and typical apoptosis features including nucleus condensation, nucleus break and nucleus fragmentation were observed. However, exposure to 2.0 mmol L(-1) of SO2 derivatives combined with either NO antagonists (NO scavenger c-PTIO; nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN3; NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME), ROS scavenger (AsA or CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (Ca(2+) scavenger EGTA or plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel blocker LaCl3) can effectively block SO2-induced guard cells death and corresponding increase of NO, ROS and Ca(2+) levels. In addition, addition of L-NAME or AsA in 2.0 mmol L(-1) of SO2 derivatives led to significant decrease in the levels of NO, ROS and Ca(2+), whereas addition of LaCl3 in them just resulted in the decrease of Ca(2+) levels, hardly making effects on NO and ROS levels. It was concluded that NO and ROS were involved in the apoptosis induced by SO2 in T. erecta, which regulated the cell apoptosis at the upstream of Ca(2+). PMID:25645141

  9. Absorption removal of sulfur dioxide by falling water droplets in the presence of inert solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-Hung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Liu, Su-Chin; Chang, I.-Cheng; Shih, Shin-Min

    An experimental analysis of the absorption removal of sulfur dioxide by the free falling water droplets containing the inert solid particles is presented. The wheat flour powder is introduced as the inert solid particles. Tests with and without the flour powder in the water droplets are examined. The mass fluxes and mass transfer coefficients of SO 2 for the cases with and without the flour powder are compared to elucidate the effects of the inert solid particles contained in the water droplets on the gas absorption. The results indicate aignificant difference between the two cases for the concentrations of the flour powder in the absorbent droplets ( Cs) within the ranges of the experimental conditions, namely 0.1 to 10 wt% flour powder in the absorbent droplets. In general, the inert solid particles of the flour powder as the impurities in the water droplets tend to decrease the SO 2 absorption rate for the experimental absorption system under investigation. Various values of Cs cause various levels of the interfacial resistance and affect the gas absorption rate. The interfacial resistance is recognized by introducing an interfacial mass transfer coefficient ks with its reciprocal being proportional to the magnitude of the interfacial resistance. The values of 1/ ks may be computed by the use of the equation 1/ ks=(1/ KOLs-1/ KOL), where KOLs and KOL are the overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients with and without the inert solid particles, respectively. The values of ks with Cs of 0.1 to 10 wt% are about 0.295-0.032 cms -1 for absorbing 1000-3000 ppmv SO 2 with the water droplets. This kind of information is useful for the SO 2 removal and the information of acid rain that the impurities of the inert solid particles contaminate the water droplets.

  10. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  11. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on phyllosphere fungi from three tree species.

    PubMed

    Fenn, M E; Dunn, P H; Durall, D M

    1989-02-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O(3)) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O(3) and sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of California, Riverside, for 4 years with filtered air, ambient air plus filtered air (1:1), ambient air, or filtered air plus SO(2) at 9.3 parts per hundred million. Populations of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, two of the four most common fungi isolated from orange leaves, were significantly reduced by chronic exposure to ambient air. In the short-term experiments, seedlings of giant sequoia or California black oak were fumigated in open-top chambers in Sequoia National Park for 9 to 11 weeks with filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air plus O(3). These short-term fumigations did not significantly affect the numbers of phyllosphere fungi. Exposure of Valencia orange trees to SO(2) at 9.3 parts per hundred million for 4 years reduced the number of phyllosphere fungi isolated by 75% compared with the number from the filtered-air treatment and reduced the Simpson diversity index value from 3.3 to 2.5. A significant chamber effect was evident since leaves of giant sequoia and California black oak located outside of chambers had more phyllosphere fungi than did seedlings within chambers. Results suggest that chronic exposure to ambient ozone or SO(2) in polluted areas can affect phyllosphere fungal communities, while short-term exposures may not significantly disturb phyllosphere fungi. PMID:16347849

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Contributes to the Cardiac and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Wu, Meiqiong; Wang, Jiaoxia; Xu, Zhifang; Xia, Jin; Sang, Nan

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between sulfur dioxide (SO2) and an increase of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. Mitochondrion is the most sensitive organelle in myocardium of animals exposed to SO2 Here we study the molecular characterization of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac muscles of rat after SO2 exposure. We found that the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP contents, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and mRNA expression of complexes IV and V subunits encoded by mtDNA were decreased after NaHSO3 treatment in vitro or SO2 inhalation in vivo The mitochondrial dysfunctions were accompanied by depressions of co-activator of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) mRNA and protein. We observed swollen mitochondria and lower amounts of cristae in hearts of rats after 3.5 mg/m(3) SO2 inhalation for 30 days. Interestingly, NaHSO3 induced mitochondrial dysfunctions marked by ΔΨm and ATP reduction could be inhibited by an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), accompanied by the restoration of transcriptional factors expressions. The cardiac mitochondrial dysfunctions could also be alleviated by overexpression of TFAM. SO2 induced abnormal left ventricular function was restored by NALC in vivo Our findings demonstrate that SO2 induces cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction. And inhibition of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the transcriptional network controlling mitochondrial biogenesis can mitigate the SO2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26980303

  13. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  14. Differences in airway reactivity in normal and allergic sheep after exposure to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.M.; Oliver, W. Jr.; Welker, M.J.; King, M.M.; Wanner, A.; Sackner, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of breathing 5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on airway reactivity was studied in both normal and allergic conscious sheep. Allergic sheep were defined as animals in which inhalation of Axcaris suum extract resulted in bronchospasm as evidenced by an increase in mean pulmonary flow resistance (RL), hyperinflation, and a fall in dynamic compliance. Airway reactivity was assessed by measuring the increase of RL after 18 breaths of 0.25% carbachol (c), from an initial RL value obtained after 18 breaths of buffered saline (s) (RL(c-s)). RL and RL(c-s) were determined prior to, immediately after, and 24 h after exposure to 5 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 4 h. In both groups RL remained unchanged after SO/sub 2/ exposure. Prior to exposure, RL(c-s) was not significantly different in seven normal (0.3 +/- 0.1) and seven allergic sheep (0.4 +/- 0.2 (SD) cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s), and there was no significant change in RL (c-s) immediately after SO/sub 2/ exposure in either group. Twenty-four h later, RL(c-s) RL(c-s) increased to 0.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.2) in normal and to 1.8 +/- 0.9 cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s (P < 0.01) in allergic sheep. Because the increase in RL(c-s) after 24 h was greater (P < 0.01) in allergic than in normal sheep, we conclude that SO/sub 2/ exposure increased airway reactivity more in the former than in the latter.

  15. Relationship between exposure duration and sulfur dioxide-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Horstman, D.H.; Seal, E.; Folinsbee, L.J.; Ives, P.; Roger, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the shortest duration of exposure to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) sufficient to induce bronchoconstriction significantly greater than that observed with exposure to clean air (CA) in exercising SO/sub 2/ sensitive asthmatics. Asymptomatic, nonmedicated, male asthmatics (n=12) with airway hyperresponsiveness to both methacholine and SO/sub 2/ were exposed in a chamber (20/sup 0/C, 40% relative humidity) for 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 min to both CA and 1.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ on separate days (10 exposures). Just prior to each exposure, subjects walked on a treadmill in CA for 5 min at a predetermined speed/elevation to elicit a target ventilation of about 40 L/min. i.e., a brisk pace up a slight incline. After this walk, subjects rapidly entered adjoining exposure chamber containing either CA or SO/sub 2/ and immediately walked at the same speed/elevation for the specified exposure duration. Subjects then rapidly exited the chamber. Postexposure SRaw and symptom ratings increased with increased exposure duration in SO/sub 2/; pstexposure SRaw also was increased with increased exposure duration in CA but to a lesser extent. After adjusting for the CA response, significantly greater SO/sub 2/ induced bronchoconstriction was observed for the 2.0 and 5.0 min exposures as indicated by substantially greater increases in SRaw and substantially higher ratings of respiratory symptoms. The authors conclude that with the above exposure conditions, on average, SO/sub 2/ sensitivie asthamtics exhibit significant brochoconstriction at exposure durations of 2.0 min or more.

  16. Pulmonary response to threshold levels of sulfur dioxide (1. 0 ppm) and ozone (0. 3 ppm)

    SciTech Connect

    Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M.

    1985-06-01

    The authors exposed 22 healthy adult nonsmoking male subjects for 2 h to filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), 0.3 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/), or the combination of 1.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ + 0.3 ppm O/sub 3/. They hypothesized that exposure to near-threshold concentrations of these pollutants would allow them to observe any interaction between the two pollutants that might have been masked by the more obvious response to the higher concentrations of O/sub 3/ used in previous studies. Each subject alternated 30-min treadmill exercise with 10-min rest periods for the 2 h. The average exercise ventilation measured during the last 5 min of exercise was 38 1/min (BTPS). Forced expiratory maneuvers were performed before exposure and 5 min after each of the three exercise periods. Maximum voluntary ventilation, He dilution functional residual capacity, thoracic gas volume, and airway resistance were measured before and after the exposure. After O/sub 3/ exposure alone, forced expiratory measurements (FVC, FEV1.0, and FEF25-75%) were significantly decreased. The combined exposure to SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 3/ produced similar but smaller decreases in these measures. There were small but significant differences between the O/sub 3/ and the O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/ exposure for FVC, FEV1.0, FEV2.0, FEV3.0, and FEF25-75% at the end of the 2-h exposure. The authors conclude that, with these pollutant concentrations, there is no additive or synergistic effect of the two pollutants on pulmonary function.

  17. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-07-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

  18. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

  19. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol. PMID:26000788

  20. Sulfur dioxide oxidation induced mechanistic branching and particle formation during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and 2-butene.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Philip T M; Keunecke, Claudia; Krüger, Bastian C; Maaß, Mona-C; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the reaction of stabilised Criegee Intermediates (CIs) with sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), leading to the formation of a carbonyl compound and sulfur trioxide, is a relevant atmospheric source of sulfuric acid. Here, the significance of this pathway has been examined by studying the formation of gas phase products and aerosol during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and 2-butene in the presence of SO(2) in the pressure range of 10 to 1000 mbar. For β-pinene at atmospheric pressure, the addition of SO(2) suppresses the formation of the secondary ozonide and leads to highly increased nopinone yields. A complete consumption of SO(2) is observed at initial SO(2) concentrations below the yield of stabilised CIs. In experiments using 2-butene a significant consumption of SO(2) and additional formation of acetaldehyde are observed at 1 bar. A consistent kinetic simulation of the experimental findings is possible when a fast CI + SO(2) reaction rate in the range of recent direct measurements [Welz et al., Science, 2012, 335, 204] is used. For 2-butene the addition of SO(2) drastically increases the observed aerosol yields at higher pressures. Below 60 mbar the SO(2) oxidation induced particle formation becomes inefficient pointing to the critical role of collisional stabilisation for sulfuric acid controlled nucleation at low pressures. PMID:23090096

  1. On-site measurements of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions from tidal flat sediments of Ariake Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abul Kalam Azad, Md.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Oda, Mitsutomo; Toda, Kei

    Emission variability of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide from tidal flat sediments to atmosphere in Ariake Sea, Japan was studied using a diffusion scrubber-based portable instrument. Ariake Sea is a typical closed sea consisting of a huge marsh area along the coast. Seasonal, spatial and diurnal variability in emission rates were examined. In addition, depth profiles of the gas emissions were examined with the profiles of anions, heavy metals, water and organic contents. Unexpectedly, SO 2 emission was much higher than H 2S in all measurements, while an opposite emission trend was observed in diurnal and spatial patterns of H 2S and SO 2 emissions. The mechanisms of these gas emissions are discussed. Total sulfur fluxes to the atmosphere as H 2S and SO 2 during the study averaged 7.1 μg S m -2 h -1 for muddy sites and 28 μg S m -2 h -1 for sandy sites. Sulfur fluxes from tidal flats were comparable to the artificial sulfur emission from the neighboring towns.

  2. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, John E

    2007-08-01

    Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations. PMID:17824280

  3. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  4. A simple inversion method for determining optimal dispersion model parameters from satellite detections of volcanic sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidikheri, Meelis J.; Potts, Rodney J.

    2015-09-01

    A simple inversion scheme for optimizing volcanic emission dispersion model parameters with respect to satellite detections is presented in this paper. In this scheme, multiple dispersion model simulations, obtained by varying relevant model parameters, are created and compared against satellite detections using pattern correlation as a measure of model agreement with observations. It is shown that the scheme is successful in inferring emission source parameters such as those describing the vertical extent of the nascent sulfur dioxide emissions in the November 2010 Mount Merapi eruption in Java, Indonesia. These optimal parameter values then become a basis for improved forecasts of the transport of volcanic emissions.

  5. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  6. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  7. Mortality from lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Jin; Teschke, Kay; Kauppinen, Timo; Andersen, Aage; Jäppinen, Paavo; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Pearce, Neil; Persson, Bodil; Bergeret, Alain; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Kishi, Reiko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Rix, Bo Andreassen; Henneberger, Paul; Sunyer, Jordi; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Boffetta, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the mortality of workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry. The cohort included 57,613 workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 12 countries. We assessed exposure to SO(2) at the level of mill and department, using industrial hygiene measurement data and information from company questionnaires; 40,704 workers were classified as exposed to SO(2). We conducted a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on age-specific and calendar period-specific national mortality rates. We also conducted a Poisson regression analysis to determine the dose-response relations between SO(2) exposure and cancer mortality risks and to explore the effect of potential confounding factors. The SMR analysis showed a moderate deficit of all causes of death [SMR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.96] among exposed workers. Lung cancer mortality was marginally increased among exposed workers (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.18). After adjustment for occupational coexposures, the lung cancer risk was increased compared with unexposed workers (rate ratio = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.14-1.96). There was a suggestion of a positive relationship between weighted cumulative SO(2) exposure and lung cancer mortality (p-value of test for linear trend = 0.009 among all exposed workers; p = 0.3 among workers with high exposure). Neither duration of exposure nor time since first exposure was associated with lung cancer mortality. Mortality from non-Hodgkin lymphoma and from leukemia was increased among workers with high SO(2) exposure; a dose-response relationship with cumulative SO(2) exposure was suggested for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For the other causes of death, there was no evidence of increased mortality associated with exposure to SO(2). Although residual confounding may have occurred, our results suggest that occupational exposure to SO(2) in the pulp and paper industry may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:12361923

  8. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Yi; Hoffmann, Lars; Griessbach, Sabine; Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf

    2016-05-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often cannot be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i.e., unit simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final forward simulations. Both types of transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final forward simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. By using the critical success index (CSI), the simulation results are evaluated with the AIRS observations. Compared to the results with an assumption of a constant flux of SO2 emissions, our inversion approach leads to an improvement of the mean CSI value from 8.1 to 21.4 % and the maximum CSI value from 32.3 to 52.4 %. The simulation results are also compared with those reported in other studies and good agreement is observed. Our new inverse modeling and simulation system is expected to become a useful tool to also study other volcanic eruption events.

  9. On the Separation of Ash and Sulfur Dioxide in Volcanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Schneider, D. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Kobs, S. E.; Rose, W. I.; Ernst, G. G.

    2002-05-01

    Detection and tracking of the hazardous components present in erupting and drifting volcanic clouds (chiefly ash and sulfur dioxide, SO2) is of major importance to airborne hazard mitigation. Satellite observations made by ultraviolet (TOMS) and thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, GMS, MODIS) sensors over the past few decades have revealed that ash and SO2 often exhibit a vertical separation in the volcanic clouds produced by explosive eruptions, typically with the SO2-rich portion at higher altitude. Windshear causes the ash and SO2 to follow different trajectories in the atmosphere thus producing further separation of the two components in a horizontal sense. TOMS is well suited to the study of this phenomenon since it is capable of detecting ash and SO2 simultaneously at all stages of an eruption during daylight hours, whereas infrared (IR) detection algorithms fail when clouds are opaque. However, IR sensors have higher spatial and temporal resolution than TOMS, which can only resolve separations in excess of ~40-50 km once per day in mid-latitudes. Proposed mechanisms to account for ash- SO2 separation include density-driven sedimentation of ash [Holasek et al., 1996, JVGR, 70:169-181], preferential scavenging of SO2 at lower levels of volcanic clouds [Rose et al., 1995, Nature, 375:477-479] or a pre-eruptive stratification of the magmatic system, with a cupola of gas-rich magma situated between the volcanic vent and the magma chamber [Giggenbach, 1990, JVGR, 42:13-40; Wallace, 2001, JVGR, 108:85-106]. Eruptions known to have exhibited separation of ash and SO2 include Mt St Helens (1980), El Chich\\?{o}n (1982), Galunggung (1982), Lopevi (1982), Colo (1983), Ruiz (1985), Kliuchevskoi (1990), Pinatubo (1991), Hudson (1991), Lascar (1993), Soufriere Hills (1997, 1999), Shishaldin (1999) and Miyakejima (2000). These eruptions encompass a range of atmospheric conditions, volcano types and eruption magnitudes. Clearly the timing of the satellite image in relation to the eruptive event is a critical factor in assessing the contribution of the mechanisms listed above to the observed ash-SO2 distribution, particularly when density-driven sedimentation is involved. An `instantaneous' phase separation at the time of eruption may support the theory of pre-eruptive stratification, but this is also the time when eruption clouds are least dispersed and thus difficult to resolve in satellite imagery. We will examine the many documented examples of ash-SO2 separation and assess the potential contributory factors on a case-by-case basis.

  10. 75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal updates the...

  11. Mercury displacement detection for the determination of picogram amounts of sulfite ion or sulfur dioxide by atomic spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1981-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed that can determine picogram amounts of sulfite in aqueous solution or sulfur dioxide in solution. The technique is based on the reaction of sulfite ion in solution with mercury(I) ion to promote its disproportionation to metallic mercury and mercury(II) ions. By monitoring the Hg/sup 0/ released it is possible to determine the concentration of sulfite added. The method gives a linear calibration over the range tested (0 to 5 ng of sulfite) and the within-batch cefficients of variation for the determination of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 ng of sulfite are 4, 3, 2.5, and 1.8%, respectively. Fifteen analyses can be carried out each hour. The limit of detection is 30 pg of sulfite, which is several orders of magnitude lower than can be obtained by other manual methods of sulfite determination. The method is very selective. Sulfate ion does not interfere, which is especially important in the determination of atmospheric sulfur dioxide.

  12. Knudsen cell and smog chamber study of the heterogeneous uptake of sulfur dioxide on Chinese mineral dust.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Weigang; Gai, Yanbo; Ge, Maofa

    2014-12-01

    The heterogeneous uptake processes of sulfur dioxide on two types of Chinese mineral dust (Inner Mongolia desert dust and Xinjiang sierozem) were investigated using both Knudsen cell and smog chamber system. The temperature dependence of the uptake coefficients was studied over a range from 253 to 313 K using the Knudsen cell reactor, the initial uptake coefficients decreased with the increasing of temperature for these two mineral dust samples, whereas the steady state uptake coefficients of the Xinjiang sierozem increased with the temperature increasing, and these temperature dependence functions were obtained for the first time. In the smog chamber experiments at room temperature, the steady state uptake coefficients of SO2 decreased evidently with the increasing of sulfur dioxide initial concentration from 1.72 × 10¹² to 6.15 × 10¹² mol/cm³. Humid air had effect on the steady state uptake coefficients of SO₂onto Inner Mongolia desert dust. Consequences about the understanding of the uptake processes onto mineral dust samples and the environmental implication were also discussed. PMID:25499490

  13. Alteration of extracellular enzymes in pinto bean leaves upon exposure to air pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.L.; Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter {times} hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

  14. Effect of sulfur dioxide on active and passive avoidance in experimental diabetes mellitus: relation to oxidant stress and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kucukatay, Vural; Ağar, Aysel; Gumuslu, Saadet; Yargiçoğlu, Piraye

    2007-08-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on hippocampus antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and learning and memory was investigated in diabetic rats. A total of 40 rats were divided into four equal groups: Control (C), SO(2) + C (SO(2)), diabetic (DM) and SO(2) + D (DMSO(2)). Experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by i.v injection of alloxan with a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm SO(2) was administered to the rats in the sulfur dioxide groups in an exposure chamber. Exposure occurred 1 h/d, 7 d/wk, for 6 wk; control rats were exposed to filtered air during the same time periods. SO(2) exposure, while markedly increasing Cu-Zn Superoxide dismutase activity, significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic and non-diabetic groups compared with the C group; hippocampus catalase activity was unaltered. Hippocampus thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were found to be elevated in all experimental groups with respect to control group. The active avoidance training results indicated that diabetic condition has been associated with learning and memory impairment. SO(2) exposure caused deficits of learning and memory. Diabetes mellitus-induced impairment of learning and memory were potentiated by SO(2) exposure. These findings suggest that exposure to SO(2) by increasing lipid peroxidation, can change antioxidant enzyme activities and can elevated intensity of deficits of learning and memory in diabetic rats. PMID:17613116

  15. Changes in somatosensory evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes: effect of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Küçükatay, Vural; Ağar, Aysel; Yargiçoğlu, Piraye; Gümüşlü, Saadet; Aktekin, Berrin

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on brain antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was investigated in diabetic rats. A total of 40 rats were divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), SO2 + C (SO2), diabetic (D), and SO2 + D (DSO2). Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by i.v. injection of alloxan at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm SO2 was administered to the rats in the sulfur dioxide groups (SO2 and DSO2) in an exposure chamber. Exposure occurred 1 hr/day, 7 days/wk, for 6 wk; control rats were exposed to filtered air during the same time periods. Although SO2 exposure markedly increased copper, zinc Superoxide dismutase activity, it significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, compared with the C group. Brain catalase activity was unaltered; however, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in all experimental groups with respect to the C group. SEP components P1, N1, P2, and N2 were significantly increased in all experimental groups, compared with the C group, and these components were also prolonged in the DSO2 group with respect to the other groups. The authors' findings suggest that exposure to SO2, because it increases lipid peroxidation, can change antioxidant enzyme activities and affect SEP components in diabetic rats. PMID:12747514

  16. Sulfur dioxide and other cloud-related gases as the source of the microwave opacity of the middle atmosphere of Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Steffes, P.G.; Eshleman, V.R.

    1981-04-01

    Spacecraft radio occultation measurements imply the presence of a nonuniformly mixed gaseous absorber within, but mostly below, the main cloud layer of sulfuric acid-water droplets measured by Pioneer-Venus. Preliminary considerations of the amount, distribution, and effects of sulfur dioxide and other gases, which apparently are associated with and produce the cloud, indicate that they constitute an important, and probably the predominant, source of the observed microwave opacity of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

  17. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  18. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, E.; Sinha, B.; Hoppe, P.; Crowley, J. N.; Ono, S.; Foley, S.

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to investigate sources and chemical processes of sulfur dioxide and sulfate in the atmosphere, however interpretation of measured sulfur isotope ratios is challenging due to a lack of reliable information on the isotopic fractionation involved in major transformation pathways. This paper presents laboratory measurements of the fractionation factors for the major atmospheric oxidation reactions for SO2: Gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals, and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and a radical chain reaction initiated by iron. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during the gas-phase reaction is αOH = (1.0089±0.0007)-((4±5)×10-5) T(°C). The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during aqueous oxidation by H2O2 or O3 is αaq = (1.0167±0.0019)-((8.7±3.5) ×10-5)T(°C). The observed fractionation during oxidation by H2O2 and O3 appeared to be controlled primarily by protonation and acid-base equilibria of S(IV) in solution, which is the reason that there is no significant difference between the fractionation produced by the two oxidants within the experimental error. The isotopic fractionation factor from a radical chain reaction in solution catalysed by iron is αFe = (0.9894±0.0043) at 19 °C for 34S/32S. Fractionation was mass-dependent with regards to 33S/32S for all the reactions investigated. The radical chain reaction mechanism was the only measured reaction that had a faster rate for the light isotopes. The results presented in this study will be particularly useful to determine the importance of the transition metal-catalysed oxidation pathway compared to other oxidation pathways, but other main oxidation pathways can not be distinguished based on stable sulfur isotope measurements alone.

  19. Sulfur dioxide estimations in the planetary boundary layer using dispersion models and satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarauz, Jorge V.

    The health and environmental conditions in the Central Andes city La Oroya, Peru, have been seriously damaged by the heavy metal mining activities in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the complex topography, which prevents proper mixing and dissolution of particles and gases released into the atmosphere. Understanding how pollutants are dispersed in populated regions, especially in complex terrain, would help to create mitigation strategies. The present study uses CALPUFF and HYSPLIT dispersion/deposition models to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2) dispersion from the main stack of the La Oroya metallurgical plant. Due to the lack of meteorological data in the area, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used with observational nudging for temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields of three surface meteorological stations specifically installed for the study. The pollutant dispersion models are sensitive to a precise estimation of the turbulent vertical transport of mass, energy and moisture in the low atmosphere; therefore, two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are tested, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic and Yonsei University models. The dispersion models are run and results compared with field measurements at La Oroya, and Huancayo. The observation-nudging and YSU scheme considerably improved the prognostic variables. CALPUFF and HYSPLIT models showed similar patterns; however, HYSPLIT overestimated SO2 concentrations for low PBLs. Moreover, recent enhancements on spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric scanning sensors of chemical constituents from the space, have led to detecting trace gases of anthropogenic origin in the lower troposphere. This contribution also explores the SO2 level 2 dataset from Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with atmospheric optical depth and Angstrom coefficient data products, extracted from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate SO2 loads in the PBL for clear and turbid atmospheric conditions. A narrow temporal sampling (three days) with no clear atmospheres and best sensor viewing geometry are examined and compared with a pollutant dispersion and deposition model (CALPUFF) and field observations. The efficacy of the developed method is further examined incorporating synchronous wind vectors, and daily accumulated precipitation derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. The source and trajectories of SO2 concentrations are detected by satellite based observations, and the pollutant plume is correctly traced downwind. Then, the spatial patterns of SO2 loads are analyzed for clear atmospheres and optimal viewing conditions (for 55 samples found in 467 days) and compared with field measurements. A logarithmic model is found between in situ observations and OMI estimations. The correlation can be increased when Angstrom exponents are between 0.7 and 1 and a linear relationship obtained when very high SO2 loads are extracted. Results show that the spatio-temporal dynamics of SO2 as monitored from space is in agreement with both field measurements and CALPUFF, which takes into account topography and wind field patterns. The study concludes that anthropogenic pollutants, i.e., SO2, and its trajectory can be monitored from OMI sensor even for turbid sky conditions. Findings of the research have great potential in public health managements and predictions.

  20. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao

    2007-08-18

    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was increased to 721.98+/-30.11 micromol/L at the end of 30 seconds, while the blood pressure was decreased to the lowest point 65.0+/- 4.9 mm Hg at the end of 1 minute. The above results showed that endogenous SO(2) might be involved in the maintenance of blood pressure and normal vascular structure. In spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model, exogenous supplement of SO(2) donor decreased the BP, the media cross-sectional area, and pressure of the media and the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius in the SHR. Moreover, the proliferative index of aortic smooth muscle cells was decreased in the SHR treated with SO(2) donor compared with that in SHR. The above data showed that SO(2) could prevent the aortic structural remodeling by inhibiting the proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells. The authors observed the direct vasorelaxant effects of SO(2) on the aortic ring pre-treated with norepinephrine (NE). SO(2) donor at a concentration of 25-100 micromol/L relaxed the aortic ring temporarily and slightly, but SO(2) donor at a concentration of 1-12 mmol/L induced relaxation of the ring in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration with nicardipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker other than glibenclamide, an ATP sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP) channel) blocker or removal of vascular endothelium could decrease the SO(2)-induced vasorelaxation. In hypoxic pulmonary hypertension animal model, SO(2) donor decreased the mean pulmonary artery pressure and the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (P<0.01), respectively as compared with hypoxic group, and alleviated obviously the hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling. The percentage of muscularized arteries of small pulmonary vessels was significantly decreased in hypoxia+SO(2) donor-treated rats compared with that of hypoxic rats (P<0.01), while the percentage of non-muscularized vessels was obviously higher in hypoxia with SO(2) donor-treated rats than that of hypoxic rats (P<0.01). Similarly, SO(2) obviously decreased relative media area and relative media thickness of small muscularized pulmonary arteries in hypoxic rats (P<0.01). The above data showed that SO(2) might play an important role in development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Perfusion with SO(2) donor (10(-6)-10(-3) mol/L) to the isolated rat heart obviously inhibited the left ventricular peak rate of contraction ( + LV dp/ dtmax) , peak rate of relaxation (-LV dp/ dtmax) and difference of left ventricular pressure ( DeltaLVP) in a concentration dependent manner. Nicardipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, could partly antagonize the inhibitory effect of SO(2) on the heart function. In a word, SO(2) could be endogenously generated in cardiovascular tissues and exert important cardiovascular effects such as vasorelaxant effect and negative inotropic effects. Moreover, SO(2) might play considerable roles in the regulation of systemic circulatory pressure, pulmonary circulatory pressure and vascular structural remodeling in the pathogenesis of hypertension and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. On the basis of the above findings, we presumed that endogenous SO(2) might be a novel cardiovascular functional regulatory gasotransmitter. More studies on the significance of endogenous SO(2) in cardiovascular system under physiological and pathophysiological conditions need to be investigated. PMID:17657274