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Sample records for sulfur dioxide dimethyl

  1. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

    1993-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  2. Monte Carlo predictions of phase equilibria and structure for dimethyl ether + sulfur dioxide and dimethyl ether + carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Ganesh; Ketko, MaryBeth; Baker, Gary A.; Potoff, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    A new force field for dimethyl ether (DME) based on the Lennard-Jones (LJ) 12-6 plus point charge functional form is presented in this work. This force field reproduces experimental saturated liquid and vapor densities, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization, and critical properties to within the statistical uncertainty of the combined experimental and simulation measurements for temperatures between the normal boiling and critical point. Critical parameters and normal boiling point are predicted to within 0.1% of experiment. This force field is used in grand canonical histogram reweighting Monte Carlo simulations to predict the pressure composition diagrams for the binary mixtures DME + SO2 at 363.15 K and DME + CO2 at 335.15 and 308.15 K. For the DME + SO2 mixture, simulation is able to qualitatively reproduce the minimum pressure azeotropy observed experimentally for this mixture, but quantitative errors exist, suggesting that multibody effects may be important in this system. For the DME + CO2 mixture, simulation is able to predict the pressure-composition behavior within 1% of experimental data. Simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble are used to determine the microstructure of DME + SO2 and DME + CO2 mixtures. The DME + SO2 shows weak pairing between DME and SO2 molecules, while no specific pairing or aggregation is observed for mixtures of DME + CO2.

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents regional and national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions data for 1990, 1996 to 2002, and 2005. SO2 emissions (combined with atmospheric fate and transport processes) determine corresponding ambient SO2 concentration levels ...

  5. Operational overview of the NASA GTE/CITE 3 airborne instrument intercomparisons for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcneal, Robert J.; Bendura, Richard J.; Drewry, Joseph W.; Barrick, John D.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Motta, Adauto G.; Navarro, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the overall experimental design and gives a brief overview of results from the third airborne Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) mission conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment. The primary objective of CITE 3 was to evaluate the capability of instrumentation for airborne measurements of ambient concentrations of SO2, H2S, CS, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. Ancillary measurements augmented the intercomparison data in order to address the secondary objective of CITE 3 which was to address specific issues related to the budget and photochemistry of tropospheric sulfur species. The CITE 3 mission was conducted on NASA's Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft and included a ground-based intercomparison of sulfur standards and intercomparison/sulfur science flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, followed by flights from Natal, Brazil. Including the transit flights, CITE 3 included 16 flights encompassing approximately 96 flight hours.

  6. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  7. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  12. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  13. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  15. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  16. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur...

  18. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

  1. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

  2. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

  3. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

  4. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

  7. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

  8. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

  10. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

  11. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

  12. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  13. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

  14. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

  16. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

  17. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  18. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  19. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an...

  20. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  1. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

  2. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  3. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  4. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

  5. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

  6. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  7. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  8. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  9. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  10. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  11. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The...

  12. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

  13. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

  14. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  15. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  16. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  18. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-print Network

    Weidner, John W.

    Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen. Unfortunately, during operation, sulfur dioxide can diffuse from the anode to the cathode. This has several

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  5. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides in the formation of aerosol species and certainly accelerates ozone formation.9­12 Sulfur dioxide released from

  6. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment... West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of §...

  7. 78 FR 28143 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air...for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) under the Clean Air...Oxides of Nitrogen (NO 2 ).'' Sulfur dioxide (SO2) On June 22, 2010,...

  8. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  9. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  10. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  11. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  12. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  13. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  14. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  15. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  16. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  19. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  20. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  1. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  3. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  4. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  5. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  7. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  10. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  13. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  16. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  19. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  3. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  4. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  5. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  7. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  8. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82... Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  9. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163...Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065...

  10. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183...Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping...CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173...Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  13. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183...Lead Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  14. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

  15. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173...Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  16. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173...Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  17. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163...Copper Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...copper converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065...

  18. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

  19. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

  20. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

  1. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

  2. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173...Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  3. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173...Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-print Network

    Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling Filter-Bioreactor System L I G Y P H of California, Riverside, California 92521 Complete treatment of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases in a two effectively treat the biotrickling filter effluent and produce elemental sulfur. The sulfur production

  5. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  6. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  7. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  8. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  9. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

  10. LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition velocities have been carried out in the laboratory with the use of a cylindrical flow reaction. Analysis of data from these experiments was performed with models that specifically account for diffusive transport in the system. Consequentl...

  11. RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

  12. SULFUR DIOXIDE OXIDATION REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the final report on a three year project to study the kinetics and mechanisms of some 105 reactions involving the aqueous oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in mixed catalyst-oxidant systems at low pH (0-3). The 105 systems involve six redox reaction types: S...

  13. SOLID SORBENT FOR COLLECTING ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid sorbent for collecting atmospheric SO2 was evaluated as part of an overall effort to develop a replacement method for the West-Gaeke method presently used to measure 24-hour ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in ambient air. Research showed that a solid sorbent, consis...

  14. Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io's surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. However, the deposition patterns and relation of the frost distribution to the volcanic activity is unknown, since prior measurements lacked the spatial resolution to accurately map the surface frost.

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained relatively high spatial and spectral resolution images during the C3 orbit, and the characteristic infrared absorptions of sulfur dioxide frost appearing in the spectra were used to produce the SO2 frost map shown on the right. The comparison image on the left (from 1979 Voyager measurements) shows the same view and indicates the surface brightness as seen in visible light.

    The frost map shows maximum SO2 concentration as white, lesser amounts as blue coloration, and areas with little or no SO2 as black. The resolution of this map is about 120 km (75 miles), which spans the latitude range 120 W to 270 W.

    It is interesting to compare this frost distribution with regions of volcanic activity. Volcanic hotspots identified from NIMS and SSI images occur in many of the dark - low SO2 - areas, a reasonable finding since sulfur dioxide would not condense on such hot regions. The Pele region (to the lower left), N. Colchis hot spots (upper center) and S. Volund (upper right) are good examples of hot spot areas depleted in sulfur dioxide. Much of the rest of this hemisphere of Io has varying amounts of sulfur dioxide present. The most sulfur dioxide-rich area is Colchis Regio, the white area to the right of center.

    Of particular interest is the dark area to the south of Colchis Regio. From the study of other NIMS images, it is seen that this region does not have any large, obvious hotspots. However, it is depleted in sulfur dioxide.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  15. Fluidized bed sulfur dioxide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, X.T.

    1982-01-05

    A system is disclosed for reducing the emission of sulfur particularly for high sulfur coal combustion in a fluidized bed by injecting limestone into the bed and calcining the limestone in the bed to form lime. A portion of the lime so formed is reacted with a portion of the SO2 generated in the bed, removing the excess of material containing lime so generated from the bed. Excess lime is slaked in water, then contacted with the flue gases leaving the fluid bed and containing SO2 with the lime slurry so formed thereby removing a further significant portion of the generated SO2 from the flue gas.

  16. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

  17. Radio detection of interstellar sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Hollis, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Lovas, F. J.; Johnson, D. R.; Buhl, D.

    1975-01-01

    Interstellar sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been detected in emission from the direction of the Orion Nebula molecular cloud and from Sgr B2. SO2 is the heaviest interstellar molecule detected to date, and the only nonlinear triatomic molecule which does not contain hydrogen. The remarkable Orion emission profiles suggest that two components are supporting the SO2 emission: a dense circumstellar-type envelope, which may be in maser emission, and a warm galactic cloud component.

  18. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  19. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  1. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  3. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  5. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  6. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  7. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  8. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Board necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and...

  9. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  10. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  12. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide...the atmosphere from any stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide...subpart shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur...

  14. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide...the atmosphere from any stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide...subpart shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide...the atmosphere from any stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide...subpart shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide...the atmosphere from any stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide...subpart shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur...

  17. An unexpected reaction of 2-alkynylaryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate with sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Pan, Xiaolin; Chen, Chen; Yao, Liangqing; Wu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected result from the reaction of 2-alkynylaryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate with sulfur dioxide is described. In the presence of morpholin-4-amine, this transformation catalyzed by copper(i) bromide proceeds through insertion of sulfur dioxide and intramolecular 5-endo cyclization, leading to benzo[b]thiophene 1,1-dioxides in moderate to good yields. PMID:25387522

  18. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  19. The continuous crystallization of sulfur formed by the liquid-phase reaction of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.A.; Lynn, S.

    1989-09-01

    The crystallization of elemental sulfur is a unit operation in a process being developed to remove hydrogen sulfide from industrial gas streams. The sulfur is formed by the irreversible, liquid-phase reaction of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Low-temperature sulfur solubility data in triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (Triglyme) and diethylene glycol methyl ether (DGM) were collected. The effects of temperature and water concentration in the solvents on sulfur solubility were correlated. The thermal crystallization of sulfur from Triglyme was studied in a laboratory-scale experimental crystallizer. The dependence of crystal-size distribution on residence time, slurry density, impeller power input, and water concentration in the solvent was determined. A crystallization model, applicable to the experimental crystallizer, was derived from population balance theory and verified using the experimental data. The crystallization kinetics of the sulfur/Triglyme system were obtained from the crystallization model. The reactive crystallization of sulfur formed by the reaction between H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} was also studied. A reactor/crystallizer model was developed from the reaction kinetics and from the thermal crystallization kinetics. Reactive crystallization experiments verified the model. An industrial-sized reactor/crystallizer was designed from the model. 53 refs., 44 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Modeling sulfur dioxide absorption by fine water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Hsiung Huang

    2005-07-01

    A novel theoretical model was developed to determine the removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide using fine water spray. The droplet pH, diameter, S(IV) concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, and liquid-to-gas ratio are found to influence the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray. The results demonstrate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray increases as the droplet diameter falls. The concentration gradient between the interface of the gaseous and liquid phases causes the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the droplets to increase as the initial S(IV) concentration decreases or the sulfur dioxide concentration increases. The results indicate that the performance of the fine water spray in removing sulfur dioxide is generally improved by reducing the droplet diameter or the initial S(IV) concentration, or by increasing the sulfur dioxide concentration, the droplet pH or the liquid-to-gas ratio. The proposed model reveals the parameters that should be controlled in using a fine water spray device and a method for improving its performance in removing sulfur dioxide.

  1. Sulfur dioxide residue in sulfur-fumigated edible herbs: The fewer, the safer?

    PubMed

    Duan, Su-Min; Xu, Jun; Bai, Ying-Jia; Ding, Yan; Kong, Ming; Liu, Huan-Huan; Li, Xiu-Yang; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Chen, Hu-Biao; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The residual content of sulfur dioxide is frequently regarded as the exclusive indicator in the safety evaluation of sulfur-fumigated edible herbs. To examine the feasibility of such assessment criteria, here the variations in residual sulfur dioxide content during sulfur-fumigation and the potential mechanisms involved were investigated, using Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) as a model herb. The residual sulfur dioxide content and ten major bioactive components in sulfur-fumigated ASR samples were dynamically examined at 13 successive time points within 72 h sulfur-fumigation. The relationship between the content variation tendency of sulfur dioxide and the ten chemicals was discussed. The results suggested that sulfur dioxide-involved chemical transformation of the original components in ASR might cause large consumption of residual sulfur dioxide during sulfur-fumigation. It implies that without considering the induced chemical transformation of bioactive components, the residual sulfur dioxide content alone might be inadequate to comprehensively evaluate the safety of sulfur-fumigated herbs. PMID:26304328

  2. Sulfur dioxide removal from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.; Ginger, E.A.

    1986-11-11

    A process is described for removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant gas from gas stream which comprises contacting the gas stream with pretreated shale in the form of an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate including from about 0.1 to about 2.0% by weight of the pretreated shale. The pretreatment of the shale comprises the heating of the shale in the presence of a gas unable to support combustion at a temperature in a range of from about 340/sup 0/C. to about 480/sup 0/C.

  3. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  4. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  5. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  6. STORED-PRODU~AM) QUARANTINEENTOMOLOGY Low Temperature Storage Combined with Sulfur Dioxide Slow

    E-print Network

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    STORED-PRODU~AM) QUARANTINEENTOMOLOGY Low Temperature Storage Combined with Sulfur Dioxide Slow- aturesin packedgrapeclustersdecreasedfromambientto2°Cwithin -2 dafterplacementin storage. Sulfur dioxide Riverbend Avenue, Parlier, CA 93648. Sulfur dioxide fumigation is used to control fungal infections

  7. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  8. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  9. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

  10. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

  11. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77...6 Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected...

  12. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

  13. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

  14. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77...6 Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected...

  15. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77...6 Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected...

  16. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77...6 Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected...

  17. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

  18. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

  19. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

  20. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

  1. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

  2. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77...6 Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected...

  3. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur... Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) USEPA is approving, disapproving or taking no...

  5. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  6. The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

  7. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  8. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  12. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  15. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  16. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section... Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D... 81,339 (4.6) Rock Island International Harvester 1,643 (4.35)...

  17. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. Approval—On April 21, 1997, the...

  18. RESPONSE OF MAIZE AND WHEAT TO SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four hybrids of maize and seven cultivars of wheat were exposed to relatively low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0.1 to 0.6 ppm) for up to 100 hours. Maize was found to be tolerant to sulfur dioxide and only minor differences were observed in dry mass, foliar injury, and total...

  19. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY...implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) under the Clean Air Act. This...

  20. Carbon dioxide tolerance in the single-stage liquid-phase synthesis of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Sardesai, A.; Gunda, A.; Tartamella, T.; Lee, S.

    2000-01-01

    In the liquid-phase dimethyl ether process, methanol synthesis catalyst (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and methanol dehydration catalyst ({gamma}-alumina) are slurred in an inert liquid medium. The inert liquid medium used in this investigation is a white mineral oil, Witco-40. This multiphase reaction is conducted in a mechanically agitated slurry reactor. In this process, syngas conversion can be significantly improved by coproduction of dimethyl ether along with methanol. The coproduction strategy improves the thermodynamic and kinetic environment of the reaction system. The effects of catalyst loadings in the slurry and the roles played by carbon dioxide in dimethyl ether synthesis were studied by conducting kinetic experiments. The liquid-phase dimethyl ether synthesis process exhibits higher carbon dioxide tolerance as compared to the liquid-phase methanol synthesis process, whose optimal carbon dioxide concentration in the unbalanced syngas feed is around 8%. These results have been experimentally confirmed.

  1. Kinetics of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, D.W.; Lynn, S.

    1986-01-01

    Calorimetry was used to study the kinetics of the irreversible reaction between hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in mixtures of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DGM) and of DMA and triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (triglyne). The reaction was found to be first order in both H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ in the presence of DMA. The approximate heat of reaction is 28 kcal/mol of sulfur dioxide. The addition of DMA accelerates the reaction by an order of magnitude over that obtained in the glycol ethers alone. Rate constants are in the range of 1-20 L/(mol s). Hydroxylated species such as water, methanol, and other alcohols increase the rate still more dramatically when added to the DMA/ether mixtures. The results of these experiments show some of the effects of solvent composition on the kinetics of the reaction.

  2. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  3. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON DIMETHYL SULFUR IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is anticipated that under stress, the cellular DMSP concentration should drop, as sulfur is transferred from the DMSP pool to DMS. Sulfur in the DMS pool will be transferred to the DMSO pool as radicals are scavenged. Enzyme activities such as DMSP lyase, which converts D...

  5. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  6. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  7. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  8. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  9. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  10. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  11. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...Magisterial Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection on...

  12. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  13. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  14. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  17. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  18. Interaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide with clean silver in ultrahigh vacuum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that when a clean polycrystalline silver surface is subjected to sulfur dioxide at a pressure of 1 nanotorr, sulfur is chemisorbed to the silver. Heating the contaminated silver leads to an estimation of the minimum heat of desorption of 59 kcal/mol. Sulfur Auger peak height and relative function measurements of the surface during exposure show that adsorption occurs during 6 microtorr/sec exposure at 1 nanotorr.

  19. 75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection...sulfur dioxide State Implementation Plan revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment... § 52.2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules...

  1. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  2. Sulfur Dioxide variability in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Mahieux, A.; Wilquet, V.; Chamberlain, S.; Belayev, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Marcq, E.; Mils, F.; Parkinson, C.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Recent observations of sulfur oxides (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2 SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed u nexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Particularly intriguing are the layer of enhanced gas-phase SO2 and SO in the upper mesosphere, and variability in the maximum observed SO2 a bundance and the equator -to-pole SO2 abundance gradient, seemingly on multi-year cycles, that is not uniquely linked to local time variations. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Consequently, sulfur oxide observations provide important insight into the ongoing chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism.

  3. Detection of nitrogen and sulfur dioxides in the atmosphere by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, F.M.

    1983-11-01

    The ionization reactions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and mixtures of these two gases in air were examined by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. The ionization reactions of sulfur dioxide varied with the levels of water and nitrogen dioxide in the sample. The ionization reactions of nitrogen dioxide varied with the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. Accurate quantitative estimations were limited to the ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ range of concentrations for both dioxides. 4 figures.

  4. Coralline algae as a globally significant pool of marine dimethylated sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Heidi L.; Hatton, Angela D.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2015-10-01

    Marine algae are key sources of the biogenic sulfur compound dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a vital component of the marine sulfur cycle. Autotrophic ecosystem engineers such as red coralline algae support highly diverse and biogeochemically active ecosystems and are known to be high DMSP producers, but their importance in the global marine sulfur cycle has not yet been appreciated. Using a global sampling approach, we show that red coralline algae are a globally significant pool of DMSP in the oceans, estimated to be ~110 × 1012 moles worldwide during the summer months. Latitude was a major driver of observed regional-scale variations, with peaks in polar and tropical climate regimes, reflecting the varied cellular functions for DMSP (e.g., as a cryoprotectant and antioxidant). A temperate coralline algal bed was investigated in more detail to also identify local-scale temporal variations. Here, water column DMSP was driven by water temperature, and to a lesser extent, cloud cover; two factors which are also vital in controlling coralline algal growth. This study demonstrates that coralline algae harbor a large pool of dimethylated sulfur, thereby playing a significant role in both the sulfur and carbon marine biogeochemical cycles. However, coralline algal habitats are severely threatened by projected climate change; a loss of this habitat may thus detrimentally impact oceanic sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  6. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  7. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  8. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  9. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  10. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  11. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  12. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  13. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  14. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  15. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  16. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  17. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  18. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... paragraph (c)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in...

  19. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  20. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  1. Responses of Hawaiian plants to volcanic sulfur dioxide: stomatal behavior and foliar injury

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-14

    Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal conductance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.

  2. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

  3. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

  4. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

  5. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

  6. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

  7. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

  8. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

  9. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

  10. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

  11. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

  12. Sulfur dioxide inhibits calcium carbonate precipitation: Implications for early Mars and Earth

    E-print Network

    Schrag, Daniel

    Sulfur dioxide inhibits calcium carbonate precipitation: Implications for early Mars and Earth I. Schrag (2009), Sulfur dioxide inhibits calcium carbonate precipitation: Implications for early Mars; published 2 December 2009. [1] Recent studies have suggested a role for sulfur dioxide (SO2) in maintaining

  13. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  14. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  15. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN WA, OR, AND ID

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: USGS, Nat...

  16. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN CLASS I WILDERNESS AREAS, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the state of Washington. Different plot symbols are used for sources which emit less than 100 tons/year, between 100 and 1000 tons/year, and over 1000 tons/year of SO2. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background...

  17. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION: SPECTRORADIOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO2 was...

  18. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  19. LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

  20. A Computational Re-examination of the Criegee Intermediate-Sulfur Dioxide Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Keith T; Guinn, Emily J; Hermes, Matthew R; Fernandez, Jenna A; Mathison, Jon M; Huang, Ke

    2015-10-15

    The atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the parent and dimethyl Criegee intermediates (CIs) may be an important source of sulfuric acid aerosol, which has a large impact on radiative forcing and therefore upon climate. A number of computational studies have considered how the CH2OOS(O)O heteroozonide (HOZ) adduct formed in the CI + SO2 reaction converts SO2 to SO3. In this work we use the CBS-QB3 quantum chemical method along with equation-of-motion spin-flip CCSD(dT) and MCG3 theories to reveal new details regarding the formation and decomposition of the endo and exo conformers of the HOZ. Although ?75% of the parent CI + SO2 reaction is initiated by formation of the exo HOZ, hyperconjugation preferentially stabilizes many of the endo intermediates and transition structures by 1-5 kcal mol(-1). Our quantum chemical calculations, in conjunction with statistical rate theory models, predict a rate coefficient for the parent CI + SO2 reaction of 3.68 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in good agreement with recent experimental measurements. RRKM/master equation simulations based on our quantum chemical data predict a prompt carbonyl + SO3 yield of >95% for the reaction of both the parent and dimethyl CI with SO2. The existence of concerted cycloreversion transition structures 10-15 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than the HOZ accounts for most of the predicted SO3 formation. PMID:26397164

  1. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  2. Direct extraction of sulfur dioxide from sulfates for isotopic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halas, S.; Wolacewicz, W.P.

    1981-04-01

    A convenient method of extraction of sulfur dioxide from natural sulfates (BaSO/sub 4/, SrSO/sub 4/, and CaSO/sub 4/) for sulfur isotopic analysis is described. A sulfate is reacted with NaPO/sub 3/ under vacuum at 850/sup 0/C; SO/sub 3/ thus obtained is then reduced to sulfur dioxide on copper heated to 750/sup 0/C. It has been experimentally shown that the reaction takes place with complete yield and provides very good reproducibility of measurements despite a remarkable variation in /sup 18/O content of analyzed sulfates. The long-term reproducibility of /sup 34/S//sup 32/S ratios is about 0.05 per mil.

  3. THE MECHANISM OF SULFUR DIOXIDE INITIATED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric sulfur oxides exist in chemically complex particulates of the respirable size range. Inhalation of these particulates represents a potential health hazard. This report provides the results of a series of experiments into the uptake of sulfate salts by the lung, the in...

  4. Sulfur Dioxide variability in the Venus Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Esposito, Larry W.; Lefevre, Franck; Mills, Franklin; Limaye, Sanjay; Mahieux, Arnaud; Belyaev, Denis; Encrenaz, Therese; Marcq, Emmanuel; Korablev, Oleg; Parkinson, Christopher; Wilson, Colin; Wilquet, Valérie; Chamberlain, Sarah; Jessup, Kandis Lea; Stolzenbach, Aurelien

    The recent observations of SO _{2} by SOIR and SPICAV-UV on board Venus Express and ground-based observations of SO _{2} and SO have provoked much reaction in the scientific community. SO _{2} is strongly related to the formation of the clouds and haze on Venus, which are composed of sulfuric acid combined to water complexes. Presence and variations of SO _{2} could be the proof of a possible volcanism on Venus. The most intriguing are discrepancies among different observations, and the suspected long-term variations of the SO _{2} abundance observed on the scales of several years, in particular during Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Venus Express missions. Similar trends are also observed in the super-rotation period and circulation patterns, which suggest that these aspects may be more strongly coupled than expected. An ISSI international team has been built in view of considering different aspects of sulfur chemistry on Venus. This includes comparison and validation of observations, from past missions, from Venus Express, from the Earth, and from Hubble Space Telescope, modeling of photochemistry and of other processes in which the sulfur family is involved. We will consider not only SO _{2}, but also SO and other constituents involved in its cycle. Reference density and vmr fields will be constructed from the detailed analysis and comparison of data. These will be included into the next generation of the VIRA references atmosphere.

  5. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  6. Analysis of sulfur in deposited aerosols by thermal decomposition and sulfur dioxide analyzer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masatoshi

    2005-07-15

    A thermal decomposition method that measures aerosol sulfur at the nanogram level directly from the collection substrate is described. A thermal decomposition apparatus was designed. A stainless steel strip was used as the aerosol collection substrate. A 0.1 mol/L MnCl2 solution was added as the thermal decomposition catalyst. Currents were passed through the strip where aerosol particles had been deposited. In this way, the strip was heated at 780 +/- 10 degrees C, and particulate sulfur was evaporated. A sulfur dioxide analyzer (SDA) with flame photometric detector (FPD) was used to detect gaseous sulfur. High sulfur recoveries from (NH4)2SO4 and other inorganic sulfates, such as NH4HSO4, K2SO4, MgSO4, and CaSO4, were obtained. From the sulfur blank and the calibration, a lower limited detection of 0.2 ng of sulfur and the determination range of 3.3-167 ng of sulfur were estimated. The method is effective for measuring the sulfate size distributions of urban aerosols in a small sample air volume of 50-60 L. The method is applicable to measuring the sulfur in aqueous extracts of size-segregated urban aerosols collected by impactor and comparing the results with the sulfate data measured by ion chromatography. PMID:16013855

  7. MARINE SULFUR CYCLE. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-26

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms. PMID:26113722

  8. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  9. Io - Longtudinal distribution of sulfur dioxide frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Lane, A. L.; Matson, D. L.; Fanale, F. P.; Nash, D. B.; Johnson, T. V.

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal variation in the distribution of SO2 frost on Io is examined. Twenty spectra of Io (0.26 to 0.33 micrometer) are presented and a strong ultraviolet absorption is found shortward of 0.33 micrometer. The abundance of frost is greatest at orbital longitudes 72 to 137 degrees. Longitudes 250 to 323 degrees are least abundant in SO2. Comparisons are made with a Voyager color relief map, which suggest that SO2 frost is in greatest concentration in the white areas of Io and other sulfurous materials are in greatest concentration in the red areas.

  10. Dimethyl sulfide air-sea fluxes and biogenic sulfur as a source of new aerosols in the Arctic fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempillo, Ofelia; Seguin, Alison Michelle; Norman, Ann-Lise; Scarratt, Michael; Michaud, Sonia; Chang, Rachel; Sjostedt, Steve; Abbatt, Jon; Else, Brent; Papakyriakou, Tim; Sharma, Sangeeta; Grasby, Steve; Levasseur, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and its oxidation products, which have been proposed to provide a climate feedback mechanism by affecting aerosol and cloud radiative properties, were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard ship Amundsen in sampling campaigns in the Arctic in the fall of 2007 and 2008. DMS flux was calculated based on the surface water measurements and yielded 0.1-2.6 ?mol m-2 d-1 along the Northwest Passage in 2007 and 0.2-1.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 along Baffin Bay in 2008. DMS oxidation products, sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane sulfonic acid (MSA), and sulfate in aerosols were also measured. The amounts of biogenic SO2 and sulfate were approximated using stable isotope apportionment techniques. Calculating the threshold amount of SO2 needed for significant new particle formation from the formulation by Pirjola et al. (1999), the study suggests that instances of elevated biogenic SO2 concentrations (between 8 and 9 September 2008) derived using conservative assumptions may have been sufficient to form new aerosols in clean air conditions in the Arctic region.

  11. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  12. Resistance to injury by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, J.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO/sub 2/, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO/sub 2/ at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H/sub 2/S. Young leaves emit H/sub 2/S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 2/ to emitted (/sup 35/S)H/sub 2/S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/S and emission of the H/sub 2/S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO/sub 2/.

  13. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  14. IUE detection of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, R. R.; Mccoy, R. P.; Barth, C. A.; Lane, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption bands of sulfur dioxide have been detected in the reflectance spectrum of Venus using the high resolution spectrometer of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The identification of these bands in the 2080 to 2180 A range has been verified by comparison with laboratory absorption spectra. An estimate of the SO2 vertical column density using a reflecting layer model is 4 x 10 to the 16th sq cm.

  15. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  17. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this...

  18. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  19. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under this...

  20. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  1. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  2. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur oil. Percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under paragraphs...

  3. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under...

  4. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  5. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  6. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur oil. Percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under paragraphs...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  8. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur oil. Percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under paragraphs...

  9. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  10. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  11. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  14. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under...

  15. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under...

  16. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  17. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  18. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur oil. Percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under paragraphs...

  19. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  2. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... sulfur oil. Percent reduction requirements are not applicable to affected facilities under paragraphs...

  4. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  5. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

  6. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

  7. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  8. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

  9. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  10. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  13. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  14. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  15. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  16. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  17. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  18. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  19. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

  1. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  2. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  3. Sulfur dioxide control: Sulfur dioxide from coal burning sources. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning air pollution control technology and various methods for desulfurization of coal combustion streams. Examples include fluidized bed and other combustion modifications, and the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. Proper monitoring of the effluent to meet the established atmospheric standards is also discussed. Applications in powerplants, steam boilers, furnaces, kilns, and gas turbines are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S.

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  5. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Bennett, J.H.

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury. 16 referances, 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. Gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide measurements in the arctic troposphere and lower stratosphere: Implications for hydroxyl radical abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Moehler, O.; Arnold, F. )

    1992-09-04

    The authors interpret their measurements of sulfur gas densities in terms of hydroxyl densities. These measurements are the first to show a steep drop in sulfur dioxide densities above the tropopause, consistent with the expectation of one dimensional models. The low densities of sulfur dioxide relative to sulfuric acid can be interpreted as due to interactions with hydroxyl radicals, since the reaction chain has the hydroxyl step as the limiting reaction in the chain. Looked at in this manner, the inferred hydroxyl densities are consistent with densities expected from model predictions.

  7. Genotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Uren, Nihal; Yuksel, Sengul; Onal, Yunus

    2014-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is used as food preservative in apricot sulfurization and several fabricated foods, is a common air pollutant. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible genotoxic effects of SO2 using in vitro human lymphocytes. The different endpoints of genotoxicity: sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei (MN) tests and cell growth kinetics such as mitotic index (MI) and replication index (RI) were studied. The cells were treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm concentrations of SO2. It was shown that SO2 caused significant increases in the frequency of SCE and MN in the middle and high dosage groups and also induced mitotic delays and decreased MI and RI. In conclusion, the results have confirmed that SO2 has potent mutagenicity and it can cause genetic damage leading to a malignancy. PMID:22903179

  8. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries on Mars rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Kindler, A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions of Mars, These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during the critical entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers. These batteries were located on the petals of the lander, which, unlike in the Mars Pathfinder mission, was designed only to carry the rover. The selection of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery system for this application was based on its high specific energy and high rate discharge capability, combined with low heat evolution, as dictated by this application. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries exhibit voltage delay, which tends to increase at low discharge temperatures, especially after extended storage at warm temperatures, In the absence of a depassivation circuit, as provided on earlier missions, e.g., Galileo, we were required to depassivate the lander primary batteries in a unique manner. The batteries were brought onto a shunt-regulated bus set at pre-selected discharge voltages, thus affecting depassivation during constant discharge voltages. Several ground tests were preformed, on cells, cell strings and battery assembly with five parallel strings, to identify optimum shunt voltages and durations of depassivation. We also examined the repassivation of lithium anodes, subsequent to depassivation. In this paper, we will describe these studies, in detail, as well as the depassivation of the lander flight batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity rover prior to the EDL sequence and their performance during landing on Mars.

  9. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  10. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  11. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  12. A sensitive method for measuring atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    A new method for measuring tropospheric sulfur dioxide concentrations is proposed which is based on the mist chamber sampling method. At the present stage of development, the detection limit of the method is approximately 20 parts per trillion for a 45-min sampling time, with lower concentrations detectable with lower precision. The overall reproducibility of the method (+/-95 percent confidence intervals) is estimated at +/-10 percent. The technique is relatively simple, inexpensive, and lightweight, making it ideally suited for numerous field applications in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical studies from both ground-based and airborne platforms.

  13. Absolute integrated intensity for the nu-1 sulfur dioxide band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, P. J.; Young, C.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the IR vibration-rotation nu-1 SO2 band was measured using the linear portion of the curve of growth. Infrared spectroscopic-absorption cell measurements were performed on sulfur dioxide at partial pressures less than 0.15 torr with nitrogen added to give a total pressure of 705 torr, the path length being 4 mm. The absolute integrated intensity was determined to be 112.0 plus or minus 2.6/cm/sq (atm cm) at 296 K at the 95% confidence level.

  14. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  15. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  16. Sulfur Dioxide and Emergency Department Visits for Stroke and Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Szyszkowicz, Mieczys?aw; Porada, Eugeniusz; Tremblay, Neil; Grafstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess an association between ambient sulfur dioxide and the number of emergency department (ED) visits for ischemic stroke and seizure. The study used data collected in a Vancouver (Canada) hospital in the years 1999–2003. Daily ED visits diagnosed as ministroke, stroke, or seizure were investigated using the case-crossover technique. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The models included temperature and relative humidity in the form of natural splines. The results were reported for an increase in interquartile range ((IQR), IQR = 1.9 ppb for SO2). Positive and statistically significant associations were obtained for SO2 and ischemic stroke for all patients (OR = 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23; lag 3) and for female patients (OR = 1.17; CI 1.01, 1.33; lag 0). In the case of ED visits for seizure, for female patients the results were also statistically significant (OR = 1.15; CI 1.02, 1.28; lag 1 and OR = 1.18; CI 1.05, 1.32; lag 2). These findings suggest that cases of ischemic cerebrovascular accidents are associated with acute exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide. PMID:22577602

  17. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  20. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under...

  1. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  3. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, on and after the...

  4. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur... Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) under...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  6. 40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43 Section 60.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as provided under...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  8. A four-component reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, sulfur dioxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, and hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Danqing; Kuang, Yunyan; Wu, Jie

    2015-10-14

    A four-component reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, sulfur dioxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, and hydrazines under metal-free conditions is described, providing a novel and efficient approach to 2-arylsulfonyl hydrazones. This transformation proceeds smoothly via insertion of sulfur dioxide under mild conditions with good functional group tolerance. PMID:26324879

  9. 78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0233; FRL-9793-7] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability...to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The EPA...

  10. 78 FR 11124 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0233; FRL-9781-3] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability...certain state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality...

  11. Nitrogen fixation rate and chlorophyll content of the lichen Peltigera canina exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksson, E.; Pearson, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    In general, the rate of nitrogen fixation decreased when the lichen Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. was exposed to sulfur dioxide gas at levels from 0.1 to 500 ppm; at 30 ppm, however, nitrogen fixation was stimulated. The chlorophyll content decreased as the level of sulfur dioxide increased.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method...Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method...interference. 4.0Calibration Procedure Atmospheres containing accurately known...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method...Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method...interference. 4.0Calibration Procedure Atmospheres containing accurately known...

  14. Air pollutant sensitivity of pea plants when simulating conditions around sulfur dioxide point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kobriger, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Peas (Pisum sativum L.) are often grown in areas where coal-powered generating stations are present and are exposed to sulfur dioxide from these stations. In addition to sulfur dioxide, ozone is nearly always present in these areas. Present studies were designed to determine sensitivity of peas to sulfur dioxide and ozone at dosages simulating those around stations in Wisconsin. Peas were exposed to several concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide, singly or in combination, for two hours. Injury was observed with ozone concentrations above 0.09 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ and sulfur dioxide concentrations above 0.66 ..mu..l l/sup -1/. Injury was increased by concentrations of ozone as low as 0.02 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ when in combination with sulfur dioxide, and by concentrations of sulfur dioxide as low as 0.12 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ when in combination with ozone. Peas pretreated with ozone at non-injurious concentrations prior to exposure with ozone-sulfur dioxide mixtures at injurious concentrations had less injury than those not pretreated. Reduced injury in pretreated plants was associated with stomatal closure. Plants exposed to ozone-sulfur dioxide mixtures for two hours at different times of the day were injured most at midday. Increased injury at midday was associated with increases in stomatal conductances. However, changes in injury and conductance were not associated with abscisic acid concentrations. Peas preconditioned for six days at 77% relative humidity prior to exposure with ozone and/or sulfur dioxide were injured more than those preconditioned at 36% relative humidity. Increased injury at the higher humidity was associated with greater stomatal conductances. When peas were subjected to 31 or 67% relative humidities during pollutant exposures, injury was similar.

  15. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. CARBON DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON RAMS (REGIONAL AIR MONITORING SYSTEM) SULFUR MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the air on the response of flame photometric sulfur gas analyzers of two types, the Tracor model 270 HA sulfur chromatograph and the Meloy model SA 185 total sulfur analyzer, were studied. These analyzers were used in the Regional Air Mo...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of Sulfur Dioxide... PLANS (CONTINUED) Pt. 52, App. D Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From....2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which the measurement system is set to produce...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...effluent. 1.2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...effluent. 1.2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...effluent. 1.2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...effluent. 1.2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources...effluent. 1.2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which...

  2. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  3. Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-07-01

    Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

  4. Methane sulfonic acid-enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-11-01

    Over oceans and in coastal regions, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation into the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid- and dimethyl amine (DMA)-based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well-tested ab initio methods, we optimise the structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data are used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code, and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to 1 order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300 % at 258 K, less than 100 % at 278 K and less than 15 % at 298 K. The results are rationalised by a detailed analysis of the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA-enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

  5. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

  6. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

  7. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  8. Sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide in polysulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.; Koros, W.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-25

    The sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in polymers is important in areas such as food packaging, polymer degradation, and sensors and monitoring devices. Another possible application is in pollution control for exhaust gases from power plants. Polysulfone is a polymer that is widely used for commercial gas separations with membranes. The authors have investigated the sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in a commercially available Bisphenol A polysulfone near room temperature. The results were interpreted using the dual-mode sorption model with partial immobilization. Although similar data on other polymers have been published in the literature, they are not aware of any studies of sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in polysulfone.

  9. Signal pathways involved in the biological effects of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Du, Jun-Bao; Cui, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Gasotransmitters, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, play important roles in life and have attracted great interest in scientists. In recent years, sulfur dioxide (SO2) has also been found to play important roles in mammals. The redox pathway is involved in the biological effects of SO2, such as the protective effect on myocardial ischemia reperfusion, myocardial injury, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Ion channels, such as L-type calcium and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, as well as 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathways are also involved in the vasorelaxant effect of SO2. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays roles in vascular remodeling during pulmonary hypertension and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Understanding these signaling mechanisms would help to clarify the pathophysiological effect and therapeutic potential of SO2. PMID:26123845

  10. Effect of sulfur dioxide on cytokine production of human alveolar macrophages in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Knorst, M.M.; Kienast, K.; Mueller-Quernheim, J.; Ferlinz, R.

    1996-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{Beta}, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-{Beta} are cytokines synthesized by alveolar macrophages. We investigated the effect of sulfur dioxide, a major air pollutant, on the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages. The cells were layered on a polycarbonate membrane and exposed for 30 min to 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 ppm sulfur dioxide at 37 {degrees}C and 100% air humidity. The cells were incubated for 24 h after exposure, thus allowing cytokine release. Cytotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide were evaluated by trypan flue exclusion. Cytokine release. Cytotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide were evaluated by trypan blue exclusion. Cytokines were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{Beta}, and interleukin-6) or by use of a specific bioassay (i.e., transforming growth factor-{Beta}). The toxicity of sulfur dioxide for alveolar macrophages ranged from 3.1% to 9.5%. A 30-min exposure to sulfur dioxide induced a significant decrease in spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (p < .001) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-1{Beta} release (p < .05). The release of interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-{Beta} was not affected significantly by sulfur dioxide exposure. Our results demonstrated a functional impairment of alveolar macrophages after sulfur dioxide exposure (i.e., release of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-1{Beta}). Neither spontaneous nor stimulated release of interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-{Beta} were influenced by exposure to sulfur dioxide. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on hematite and goethite particle surfaces.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Cwiertny, David M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2007-11-01

    The adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on iron oxide particle surfaces at 296 K has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A custom-designed XPS ultra-high vacuum chamber was coupled to an environmental reaction chamber so that the effects of adsorbed water and molecular oxygen on the reaction of SO(2) with iron oxide surfaces could be followed at atmospherically relevant pressures. In the absence of H(2)O and O(2), exposure of hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) and goethite (alpha-FeOOH) to SO(2) resulted predominantly in the formation of adsorbed sulfite (SO(3)(2-)), although evidence for adsorbed sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) was also found. At saturation, the coverage of adsorbed sulfur species was the same on both alpha-Fe(2)O(3) and alpha-FeOOH as determined from the S2p : Fe2p ratio. Equivalent saturation coverages and product ratios of sulfite to sulfate were observed on these oxide surfaces in the presence of water vapor at pressures between 6 and 18 Torr, corresponding to 28 to 85% relative humidity (RH), suggesting that water had no effect on the adsorption of SO(2). In contrast, molecular oxygen substantially influenced the interactions of SO(2) with iron oxide surfaces, albeit to a much larger extent on alpha-Fe(2)O(3) relative to alpha-FeOOH. For alpha-Fe(2)O(3), adsorption of SO(2) in the presence of molecular oxygen resulted in the quantitative formation of SO(4)(2-) with no detectable SO(3)(2-). Furthermore, molecular oxygen significantly enhanced the extent of SO(2) uptake on alpha-Fe(2)O(3), as indicated by the greater than two-fold increase in the S2p : Fe2p ratio. Although SO(2) uptake is still enhanced on alpha-Fe(2)O(3) in the presence of molecular oxygen and water, the enhancement factor decreases with increasing RH. In the case of alpha-FeOOH, there is an increase in the amount of SO(4)(2-) in the presence of molecular oxygen, however, the predominant surface species remained SO(3)(2-) and there is no enhancement in SO(2) uptake as measured by the S2p : Fe2p ratio. A mechanism involving molecular oxygen activation on oxygen vacancy sites is proposed as a possible explanation for the non-photochemical oxidation of sulfur dioxide on iron oxide surfaces. The concentration of these sites depends on the exact environmental conditions of RH. PMID:17957310

  12. Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions. Emissions from smelters comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. -from Authors

  13. GROUND-BASED SULFUR DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS WITHIN A COPPER SMELTER PLUME - ANACONDA, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Las Vegas developed a mobile sulfur dioxide (SO2) instrument package for use in the remote, rugged terrain surrounding The Anaconda Company's copper smelter at Anaconda, Montana. The...

  14. 75 FR 81471 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental...State Implementation Plan revision for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park. This submittal...Implementation Plan (SIP) revision request for Marathon Petroleum Co, LLC, (Marathon)...

  15. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  16. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-print Network

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  17. 77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...initial area designations for the primary sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) national ambient...to these commenters, we explained our modified expectations at that time for issuing...tribal agencies that described the EPA's modified expectations regarding some SO 2...

  18. Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?

    E-print Network

    Greenstone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. ...

  19. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  20. Acute hematologic and hemorheologic effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.

    1988-09-01

    Fifty male rats were exposed to 0.87 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 24 hr. Hematologic and hemorheologic parameters measured in this group were compared with the results of a control group of 51 male rats. Hematocrit values were found to be higher (p less than .005) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (43.55 +/- 0.41%, mean +/- standard error), when compared to the control group value (41.97 +/- 0.35%). Sulfhemoglobin values were also higher (p less than .0001) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (0.60 +/- 0.08%) than the control group (0.08 +/- 0.02%). Osmotic hemolysis ratio was slightly increased (p less than .05) in the 0.55% sodium chloride solution. However, whole blood and packed cell viscosities were lower in the SO/sub 2/-treated animals, while there was no significant difference in the plasma viscosities. The mechanism of these effects could not be clarified completely, but structural and functional effects of SO2 inhalation on peripheral erythrocytes were discussed.

  1. The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

    1993-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

  2. Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere - Distribution and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Winick, J. R.; Stewart, A. I.

    1979-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer sees variable disk brightness features similar to the well-known 'UV markings' seen at longer wavelengths. The bright features are consistent with a homogeneous cloud of H2SO4 aerosols. The darker features show the presence of a broad-band absorber, which is at some depth in the cloud layer. Additional contrast arises from SO2 absorption. The observed strength of the SO2 absorption as a function of wavelength rules out a uniform mixing ratio for the SO2. The data are well fitted by an inhomogeneous light scattering model in which the SO2 scale height is one-fifth of the CO2 scale height, and the mixing ratio of SO2 at 40 mb is 10 to the -7th. A model of the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the upper cloud reproduces the observed vertical distribution of SO2 and indicates that SO2 alone is sufficient to produce the observed amount of H2SO4 in this region.

  3. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  5. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

  6. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0434; FRL-8826-6] Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft Ecological...registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide, and gas cartridge uses of...

  7. [Effect of different processing methods on active ingredient contents and sulfur dioxide residue in Astragali Radix].

    PubMed

    Ji, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Lin; Ji, De; Ning, Zi-Wan; Liu, Jing

    2014-08-01

    To compare the differences of the active ingredient contents and the sulfur dioxide residue in Astragali Radix before and after sulfur fumigation and provide a basis for establishing an alternative processing method. Astragali Radix, harvested at the same time in Longxi Gansu, were processed with different methods. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of the active ingredients in Astragali Radix and the revised method of the pharmacopoeia of China in 2011 was applied to determine the sulfur dioxide residue. The results show that the three-fold sulfur-fumigation group has the highest level of astragaloside IV and the dried sulfur-fumigation group with 10% water has the lowest level; the content of calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside is the highest in naturally dried group and the lowest in the group of sulfur fumigating for 3 times; the sulfur dioxide residue of all sulfur-fumigation groups exceeds certain limit significantly and the group of sulfur fumigating for 3 times reaches the highest level. PMID:25423815

  8. [Effect of different processing methods on active ingredient contents and sulfur dioxide residue in Astragali Radix].

    PubMed

    Ji, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Lin; Ji, De; Ning, Zi-Wan; Liu, Jing

    2014-08-01

    To compare the differences of the active ingredient contents and the sulfur dioxide residue in Astragali Radix before and after sulfur fumigation and provide a basis for establishing an alternative processing method. Astragali Radix, harvested at the same time in Longxi Gansu, were processed with different methods. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of the active ingredients in Astragali Radix and the revised method of the pharmacopoeia of China in 2011 was applied to determine the sulfur dioxide residue. The results show that the three-fold sulfur-fumigation group has the highest level of astragaloside IV and the dried sulfur-fumigation group with 10% water has the lowest level; the content of calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside is the highest in naturally dried group and the lowest in the group of sulfur fumigating for 3 times; the sulfur dioxide residue of all sulfur-fumigation groups exceeds certain limit significantly and the group of sulfur fumigating for 3 times reaches the highest level. PMID:25507537

  9. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  10. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur...atmosphere from any stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur...subpart shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains...

  11. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  12. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  13. The 1982 El Chichon Eruption: The Birth of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, A. J.; Krotkov, N.; Carn, S.

    2007-05-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichon inspired a new technique for monitoring volcanic clouds using satellites. Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite were used to identify sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud and to map the extent of the cloud. For the first time the sulfur dioxide mass in even the largest explosive eruption plumes could be determined. The sizes of eruptions could be measured over 4 orders of magnitude. The position and area of volcanic clouds was determined as the clouds drifted globally with the winds over weeks of time after the eruption. The loss of sulfur dioxide by conversion to sulfate was observed. In addition, volcanic ash clouds were mapped using the TOMS aerosol data. Using sulfur dioxide as a tracer, magmatic eruptions could be discriminated from steam-driven, phreatic eruptions. The data from the El Chichon eruption are reanalyzed using the latest version of the TOMS instrument calibration (V8). They show the shearing of the eruption clouds in three weeks into a globe-circling band while still anchored over Mexico. The measured sulfur dioxide mass in the initial March 28 eruption was 1.6 Tg; a second eruption on April 3 produced 0.3 Tg more, and the climactic April 4 eruption added 5.6 Tg, for a cumulative total of 7.5 Tg, in substantial agreement with estimates from prior TOMS data versions. The TOMS derived sulfur dioxide mass is an order of magnitude higher than the petrologic estimate that is based on the lost sulfur in glass phases of the tephra. This "excess sulfur" brought rise to a reevaluation of the pre-eruptive magmatic processes in volcanoes and a better understanding of eruptions.

  14. Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2–3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  15. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure reversibly alters parasympathetic regulation of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-08-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation and with their pups after birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and after delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. ECGs were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus on sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6 and returned to basal levels by day 7. ECGs showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. On activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2 to 3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  16. On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 gSO2/kg 2005200019951990 Model Year San Jose Fresno West LA Sulfur Dioxide reductions of regulated emissions 1999-2008. Less dependence upon VSP. Sulfur dioxide: new vehicles

  17. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

  18. Biological production and spatial variation of dimethylated sulfur compounds and their relation with plankton in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of dimethylated sulfur compounds and chlorophyll a, as well as biological production and consumption rates of dimethylsulfide (DMS), were measured in the surface water of the North Yellow Sea (NYS, 37-40°N to 121-124°E) in winter 2007. Surface DMS, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) concentrations in the study area increased significantly from offshore to inshore sites, with the average values of 2.00, 4.52 and 7.21 nM, respectively. The biological production and consumption rates of DMS were estimated, with the average values of 5.41 and 3.84 nM d-1, respectively. The spatial variation of chlorophyll a was consistent with that of DMS and DMSP, as well as with that of DMS biological production, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMS and DMSP in the study area. According to the collective data of dimethylated sulfur compounds and DMS biological conversion in China Seas, the dimethylated sulfur compounds concentrations in the NYS during winter were a factor of 2 and 1.3 higher than those in the East China Sea and South China Sea, respectively. Less DMS (DMSP) in NYS was released in winter than that in spring and summer, which could be attributed to the shift in phytoplankton community composition dominated by diatoms to non-diatoms from winter to summer. Quantitative comparison analysis pointed to DMSPp rather than DMSPd as an important precursor of DMS in the surface water. The estimated sea-to-air fluxes of DMS using Liss and Merlivat (LM86), Wanninkhof (W92) and Nightingale (N2000) formulae were 2.72, 5.12 and 4.28 ?mol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the surface water, the biological turnover time of DMS varied from 0.21 to 1.73 d with an average of 0.83 d, which was about 5.43-fold faster than the mean DMS sea-air turnover time (3.12 d), implying that microbial consumption was a main sink of DMS in the surface water.

  19. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  20. Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis

    E-print Network

    Lyons, J. R.

    Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

  1. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S.; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-01

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms.

  2. PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...

  3. Modelling and Remote Sensing of Ash and Sulfur Dioxide from the 2008 Kasatochi Volcano Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, S.; Stuefer, M.

    2013-12-01

    We simulated the formation, evolution and transport of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) with inline Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The volcano is located at the western Aleutian arc, and the ash and SO2 plume dispersed well over the North American continent. Using the Regional Acid Deposition Model, version 2 (RADM2) within WRF-Chem, we describe the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosols. WRF-Chem was further set up to use the GOCART aerosol module for predicting the fate of the sulfate aerosol downwind from the volcano. We validated model output with temporal and spatial comparisons to data available from various satellite borne sensors, including OMI, AIRS and MODIS. Temporal and special agreement between WRF and sensor data is discussed and the feasibility of using WRF-Chem as a tool for volcanic sulfur dioxide and ash prediction is assessed.

  4. Sighting of El Chichon sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The eruptions of El Chichon volcano on March 28 and April 3 and 4, 1982 were observed by the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer due to strong absorption by volcanic gases at the shortest wavelengths of the spectrometer (312.5 and 317.5 nm). These ultraviolet pictures permit a measurement of the volume, dispersion, and drift of volcanic gas clouds. The tropospheric clouds were rapidly dispersed in westerly winds while persistent stratospheric clouds drifted in easterly winds at speeds up to 13 m/sec. The spectral reflectance is consistent with sulfur dioxide absorption and rules out carbon disulfide as a major constituent. A preliminary estimate of the mass of sulfur dioxide deposited in the stratosphere by the large eruptions on April 3 and 4 is 3.3 million tons. Prior estimates of volcanic cloud volume were based on extrapolation of locally measured sulfur dioxide concentrations.

  5. Elimination of gases from sulfur dioxide using natural manganese ores with concurrent sulfatization of manganese

    SciTech Connect

    Malikov, F.L.; Mukhlenov, I.P.; Mirzarakhimov, M.S.

    1982-04-10

    This article investigates the feasibility of detoxifying gaseous wastes by the adsorption of SO/sub 2/ using natural porous manganese ores. The possibility of converting various gaseous mixtures with low sulfur dioxide content through a layer of manganese ore granules under specific conditions over a short time followed by regeneration of the adsorbing agent by washing with water was studied. The metal sulfates formed, predominately MnSO/sub 4/, are transferred into solution and then taken for subsequent electrolytic metallurgical treatment. The delineation of the mechanism for the trapping of sulfur dioxide by manganese chemisorbents was also studied. Results indicated that the use of natural manganese ores as chemisorbents is very attractive.The purification of gaseous wastes to eliminate sulfur dioxide by this method in a suitable process may be very effective. Manganese sulfate is formed concurrently and may be extracted by water for further hydrometallurgical treatment from unconcentrated ores.

  6. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  7. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  9. Utilization of Dimethyl Sulfide as a Sulfur Source with the Aid of Light by Marinobacterium sp. Strain DMS-S1

    PubMed Central

    Fuse, Hiroyuki; Takimura, Osamu; Murakami, Katsuji; Yamaoka, Yukiho; Omori, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Strain DMS-S1 isolated from seawater was able to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a sulfur source only in the presence of light in a sulfur-lacking medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S ribosomal DNA genes indicated that the strain was closely related to Marinobacterium georgiense. The strain produced dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was a main metabolite, and small amounts of formate and formaldehyde when grown on DMS as the sole sulfur source. The cells of the strain grown with succinate as a carbon source were able to use methyl mercaptan or methanesulfonate besides DMS but not DMSO or dimethyl sulfone as a sole sulfur source. DMS was transformed to DMSO primarily at wavelengths between 380 and 480 nm by heat-stable photosensitizers released by the strain. DMS was also degraded to formaldehyde in the presence of light by unidentified heat-stable factors released by the strain, and it appeared that strain DMS-S1 used the degradation products, which should be sulfite, sulfate, or methanesulfonate, as sulfur sources. PMID:11097944

  10. Sulfur dioxide exposure and other factors affecting age at natural menopause in the Jinchuan cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Wang, M; Cheng, N; Zheng, T; Hu, X; Li, H; Chan, C; Zhang, Y; Ren, X; Bai, Y

    2015-10-01

    Objective To describe the associations between occupational exposures and age at natural menopause in the Jinchuan cohort. Methods The Jinchuan cohort consists of all current or retired workers of the Jinchuan Nonferrous Metals Corporation (JNMC) in Jinchang, Gansu, China. Our final study population consisted of 3167 postmenopausal women. The data used for this study were derived from the epidemiological survey and were self-reported. Age at natural menopause (ANM) was defined as the age at the last period prior to 12 months of amenorrhea in women who experienced natural menopause. ANM was related to five commonly reported occupational exposures using bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions. Results Blue-collar workers have significantly earlier mean ANM (49.0 years) than white-collar workers (49.5 years). Sulfur dioxide exposure was found to be associated with earlier mean ANM in blue-collar workers. After stratifying both blue-collar workers and white-collar workers further by exposure time for each of the exposures, blue-collar workers exposed to sulfur dioxide for 21-25 years had the earliest mean ANM (47.8 years) of any level of any exposure in this study. Conclusion This paper is significant because it is the first report of an association between sulfur dioxide and menopause, and one of few papers to look at the determinants of ANM in an occupational cohort. Blue-collar workers had earlier mean ANM than white-collar workers. Blue-collar workers are more exposed to sulfur dioxide and other occupational exposures than white-collar workers, and blue-collar workers who are more exposed to sulfur dioxide have earlier menopause. Sulfur dioxide may be part of the reason that blue-collar workers experience earlier menopause than white-collar workers. PMID:25853925

  11. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  12. Device for the removal of sulfur dioxide from exhaust gas by pulsed energization of free electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, A.; Clements, J.S.; Davis, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a new device using pulsed streamer corona for the removal of sulfur dioxide from humid air has been evaluated. The pulsed streamer corona produced free electrons which enhance gas-phase chemical reactions, and convert SO/sub 2/ to sulfuric acid mist. The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency was compared with that of the electron-beam flue-gas treatment process. The comparison demonstrates the advantage of the novel device.

  13. Sulfuric Acid Nucleation with NH3, Methyl, Dimethyl, and Trimethyl Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. R.; Volz, K.; Glasoe, W.; Panta, B.

    2013-12-01

    Nucleation of particles from sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogen base molecules was studied within a cylindrical flow reactor. The particles formed from these vapors were detected with a nano Mobility Particle Sizer coupled to a Diethylene Glycol Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter. The effects of ammonia and small alkyl amines on particle formation with sulfuric acid vapor were very large. Enhancements of particle numbers by factors of thousands to millions indicates that these species have powerful effects on nucleation of sulfuric acid molecules. Power dependencies for particle numbers on sulfuric acid and nitrogen bases elucidates the chemical content of the critical clusters and this helps to shed light on the nucleation mechanisms. The details of the particle detection efficiencies, information on the extent of particle growth, and independently determined cluster thermodynamics help to verify these results and to extrapolate them to atmospheric conditions.

  14. PULMONARY RESPONSE TO THRESHOLD LEVELS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE (1.0 PPM) AND OZONE (0.3 PPM) (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors exposed 22 healthy adult non-smoking men for 2 hours to either filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide, 0.30 ppm ozone or the combination of 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide plus 0.30 ppm ozone. It was hypothesized that exposure to near threshold concentrations of these pollutants...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  19. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL

    E-print Network

    Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using Sulfur dioxide (SO2) trace gas detection based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS.1 Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy Laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a well- known

  20. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  1. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has negligible UV absorbance at 276 nm, and the UV absorbance is attributed only to sample matrix. Quantitation of sulfur dioxide is achieved by subtracting the UV absorbance of sample solution at pH 4.0 from that at pH 1.3. The method is simple but sensitive, with a limit of quantitation of 80 ?g L(-1). The method linearity was demonstrated from 2 mg L(-1) to 40 mg L(-1) with an R(2) of 0.998, and the spiked recovery ranges from 94% to 105% within the same range. The results are comparable with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), suggesting that this method is accurate. PMID:26388384

  2. Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

  3. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. 721.9672 Section 721.9672 Protection...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. 721.9672 Section 721.9672 Protection...

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE DURATION AND SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine the shortest duration of exposure to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) sufficient to induce bronchoconstriction significantly greater than that observed with exposure to clean air (CA) in exercising SO2 sensitive asthmatics. Asymptomatic, nonm...

  9. 78 FR 11124 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... rulemaking that revised the primary SO 2 NAAQS (75 FR 35520, published on June 22, 2010) after review of the existing two primary SO 2 standards promulgated on April 30, 1971 (36 FR 8187). The EPA established the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation...

  10. The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

  11. 78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... availability published February 15, 2013 (78 FR 11124) must be received on or before April 8, 2013. Please... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations... comment period for the EPA's responses to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010...

  12. Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megonnell, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

  13. PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

  14. DISPERSION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM THE CLINCH RIVER POWER PLANT, A WIND-TUNNEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wind-tunnel study of the transport and dispersion of sulfur dioxide from the Clinch River Power Plant in Virginia was performed for periods of neutral atmospheric conditions corresponding to two 1-hour periods for which field data were available. A 7-km x 21-km area of the quit...

  15. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  16. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

  17. Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light Duty Vehicles D A N I E L A . B U R by dynamometer (16), remote sensing (17), and recently by a chase vehicle (18). Results from these studies vary

  18. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

  19. COST COMPARISONS OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONTROL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM COPPER SMELTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. nonferrous metals production industry is a significant contributor of sulfur dioxide, trace metal, and particulate air emissions. Most of the domestic copper smelting capacity is based on obsolescent technology that is both capital-and energy-intensive and hampered by co...

  20. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME I: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO sub 2 ) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and comput...

  1. The vibrational and rotational structure of the 2400 to 1950 A? absorption spectrum of sulfur dioxide 

    E-print Network

    Riggs, James Willborn

    1958-01-01

    . In this regard, particular attention has been placed upon the control of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from major fuel burning installations. The provisions of the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which relate to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD...

  2. ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

  3. CALCINATION AND SINTERING OF SORBENTS DURING BOILER INJECTION FOR DRY SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the calcination and sintering of sorbents during boiler injection for dry sulfur dioxide (S02) control, with emphasis on calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--because of its superior reactivity with S02 and its wide commercial availability. Calcination and sintering are...

  4. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the middle ear mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Esaki, Y.

    1989-04-01

    A variety of atmospheric pollutants are known to depress mucociliary function in the respiratory system. Since the mucociliary function in the middle ear is similar, and the middle ear may be invaded by atmospheric pollutants, we decided to investigate the possible contribution of sulfur dioxide to middle ear effusion. Guinea pigs were exposed for 24 hours to 300 ppm of sulfur dioxide or air. Immediately after exposure, ciliary activity and epithelial structure were examined close to the tympanic orifice (proximal site) and more distal to it (distal site). In the animals exposed to sulfur dioxide, no effusion was found in the tympanic cavity. Ciliary activity was reduced only in the distal site. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypersecretion in the proximal site and severe pathologic changes in the distal site. Although the normally functioning cilia in the proximal site may prevent retention of surplus secretions in the ear, sulfur dioxide may promote middle ear effusion when combined with other detrimental factors, because it stimulates mucus secretion in the proximal site and impairs ciliary function in the distal site.

  5. OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATES, SULFUR DIOXIDE, AND WATER VAPORS FIELD MEASUREMENTS, JULY 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen isotope ratios were determined for atmospheric samples of sulfate aerosols, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor collected simultaneously during a six-day period in July, 1975, at St. Louis, MO; Auburn, IL; and Glasgow, IL. The collection sites were located about 100km apart. C...

  6. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

  7. PORE DISTRIBUTION CHANGES OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS REACTING WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a determination of changes in the pore structure of calcium oxide sorbents derived from calcium carbonate (termed c-CaO) and calcium hydroxide (termed h-CaO) reacting with sulfur dioxide (SO2). Results show that the pore shape of c-CaO approximates a cy...

  8. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. VOLUME I. SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and computer ana...

  9. DIFFERING RESPONSE OF ASTHMATICS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE WITH CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 c, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and dura...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4330 What...sulfur dioxide (SO2 )? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you...or (a)(3) of this section. If your turbine is located in Alaska, you do not...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4330 What...sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you...or (a)(3) of this section. If your turbine is located in Alaska, you do not...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4330 What...sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you...or (a)(3) of this section. If your turbine is located in Alaska, you do not...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4330 What...sulfur dioxide (SO2 )? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you...or (a)(3) of this section. If your turbine is located in Alaska, you do not...

  14. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  17. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  19. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  1. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  2. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  4. The millimeter-wavelength sulfur dioxide absorption spectra measured under simulated Venus conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2015-07-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308 and 343 K and pressures between 0.03 and 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Steffes, P.G. et al. [2015]. Icarus 245, 153-161) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97(2), 200-210; Suleiman, S.H. et al. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 101(E2), 4623-4635). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, H. et al. [1998]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 499-890) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This work will improve the confidence in retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from millimeter-wavelength observations of the Venus atmosphere.

  5. Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

  15. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation during photochemistry of sulfur dioxide

    E-print Network

    Whitehill, Andrew (Andrew Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Mass-independent sulfur isotope signatures are observed in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sulfate and sulfide minerals, and provide the most robust constraints on early atmospheric oxygen levels. Smaller ...

  16. Gas chromatographic studies of the relative retention of the sulfur isotopes in carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fetzer, J.C.; Rogers, L.B.

    1980-01-18

    A precision gas chromatograph, coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an on-line computer, was used to study the fractionation on Porasil A of the /sup 32/S//sup 34/S isotopic pair in a variety of sulfur-containing molecules. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) yielded an average ..cap alpha.. value of 1.00074 +- 0.00017 (standard deviation) for the temperature range 25/sup 0/C to 75/sup 0/C. The carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) value was 1.00069 +- 0.00023 for the range 53/sup 0/C to 103/sup 0/C, and that for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was 1.00090 +- 0.00018 for the range 62/sup 0/C to 112/sup 0/C. Differential thermodynamic data have been reported. A Porapak Q column showed no fractionation of this isotopic pair in these three molecules.

  17. Hydrolysis of Sulfur Dioxide in Small Clusters of Sulfuric Acid: Mechanistic and Kinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Fang, Sheng; Wang, Zhixiu; Yi, Wencai; Tao, Fu-Ming; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2015-11-17

    The deposition and hydrolysis reaction of SO2 + H2O in small clusters of sulfuric acid and water are studied by theoretical calculations of the molecular clusters SO2-(H2SO4)n-(H2O)m (m = 1,2; n = 1,2). Sulfuric acid exhibits a dramatic catalytic effect on the hydrolysis reaction of SO2 as it lowers the energy barrier by over 20 kcal/mol. The reaction with monohydrated sulfuric acid (SO2 + H2O + H2SO4 - H2O) has the lowest energy barrier of 3.83 kcal/mol, in which the cluster H2SO4-(H2O)2 forms initially at the entrance channel. The energy barriers for the three hydrolysis reactions are in the order SO2 + (H2SO4)-H2O > SO2 + (H2SO4)2-H2O > SO2 + H2SO4-H2O. Furthermore, sulfurous acid is more strongly bonded to the hydrated sulfuric acid (or dimer) clusters than the corresponding reactant (monohydrated SO2). Consequently, sulfuric acid promotes the hydrolysis of SO2 both kinetically and thermodynamically. Kinetics simulations have been performed to study the importance of these reactions in the reduction of atmospheric SO2. The results will give a new insight on how the pre-existing aerosols catalyze the hydrolysis of SO2, leading to the formation and growth of new particles. PMID:26450714

  18. Study of a QCM dimethyl methylphosphonate sensor based on a ZnO-modified nanowire-structured manganese dioxide film.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO(2) nanofibers and pure MnO(2) nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO(2) film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO(2) nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  19. Study of volume swelling and interfacial tension of the polystyrene-carbon dioxide-dimethyl ether system.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S H; Xin, C L; Lee, J H; Park, C B

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the interaction of blended carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) with polystyrene (PS) through volume swelling and interfacial tension. The experiments were carried out over a temperature range of 423-483 K, and the pressure was varied from 6.89 MPa to 20.68 MPa. With an incremental concentration of DME in the blend, the volume swelling increased while the interfacial tension between the PS/blend gas mixture and the blend gas decreased. The validity of the Simha-Somcynsky (SS) equation of state (EOS) for the ternary system was established by comparing experimentally measured volume swelling to that obtained via SS-EOS. PMID:26122798

  20. Advection of sulfur dioxide over the western Atlantic Ocean during CITE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Beltz, N.; Driedger, A. R., III; Ferek, R.

    1993-01-01

    During the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 sulfur intercomparison over the western Atlantic Ocean, five techniques for the determination of sulfur dioxide were evaluated. The response times of the techniques varied from 3 to 30 min. Based on the ensemble of measurements reported, it was clear that advection of SO2 from the North American continent occurred in the boundary layer (altitude less than 1 km) with only one exception. The vertical distribution of SO2 above the boundary layer for the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean was remarkably similar duing this experiment.

  1. Thiol activated prodrugs of sulfur dioxide (SO2) as MRSA inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, Kundansingh A; Malwal, Satish R; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-07-01

    Drug resistant infections are becoming common worldwide and new strategies for drug development are necessary. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-dinitrophenylsulfonamides, which are donors of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a reactive sulfur species, as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inhibitors. N-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dinitro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (5e) was found to have excellent in vitro MRSA inhibitory potency. This compound is cell permeable and treatment of MRSA cells with 5e depleted intracellular thiols and enhanced oxidative species both results consistent with a mechanism involving thiol activation to produce SO2. PMID:25981687

  2. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in pressurization of the shallow magma system and an increase in earthquake activity. Unlike the short-term SO2 decrease in March 1990, the long-term decrease of sulfur dioxide emission rates from March 1990 through May 1991 was coincident with low rates of seismic energy release and was interpreted to reflect gradual depressurization of the shallow magma reservoir. The long-term declines in seismic energy release and in SO2 emission rates led AVO scientists to conclude on April 19, 1991 that the potential for further eruptive activity from Redoubt Volcano had diminished, and on this basis, the level of concern color code for the volcano was changed from code yellow (Volcano is restless; earthquake activity is elevated; activity may include extrusion of lava) to code green (Volcano is in its normal 'dormant' state). ?? 1994.

  3. The Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide and Other Infrared Adsorbers on the Surface of Io from Galileo NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. W.; Carlson, W. D.; Smythe, R. M. C.; Davies, L. W.; Kamp, J. A.; Mosher, J. A.; Soderblom, F. E.; Leader, R.; Mehlman, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) was used to investigate the distribution and relative particle size variations of sulfur dioxide over one hemisphere of Io, centered at 210(deg)W.

  4. CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 2. ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROL OF WEAK SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the second phase of a three phase effort evaluating (1) characterization of particulate control of a molybdenum sulfide roasters, (2) assessment of sulfur dioxide abatement alternatives for nonferrous smelting and, in particular, for molybdenum roasting, and (3...

  5. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation. PMID:26304316

  6. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    K?lauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from K?lauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at K?lauea Volcano for the interval 2007–2010.

  7. Determination of part-per-trillion levels of sulfur dioxide in humid air

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, D.C.; Driedger, A.R. III; Bandy, A.R.

    1986-11-01

    Measurement of low part-per-trillion levels of sulfur dioxide by chromatographic techniques requires cryogenic preconcentration. To prevent loss of sulfur dioxide in the cotrapped water when sampling humid ambient air, they have used tubing made of Nafion perfluorinated membrane to dry the sampled air at flow rates of 0.25-1.0 L/min. The lower limits of detection (LLD) on polyphenyl ether/Chromosorb T columns depend on column length, sample volume, and base line chromatogram noise. For a 3-L sample collected in 3 min the LLD is 13 parts per trillion by volume for a 6-m column with peak resolution to the base line from interfering compounds in ambient air.

  8. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... citations affecting § 52.1881, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... citations affecting § 52.1881, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... citations affecting § 52.1881, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... citations affecting § 52.1881, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides...

  12. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    hydrolysis of switchgrass Jian Shi a , Mirvat A. Ebrik a , Charles E. Wyman a,b, a Center for Environmental for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to identify conditions for the highest total sugar yields. Pretreatment with 1 wt.% dilute sulfuric acid at 140 °C for 40 min followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with 48

  13. Sulfur dioxide on Io - Spatial distribution and physical state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanale, F. P.; Howell, R. R.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the 4-micron SO2 band on Jupiter's satellite Io and laboratory measurements of SO2 frost are presented. The observations confirm the existence of a large longitudinal variation in band strength, but show no evidence of temporal changes. Comparison of the band position and shape in Io's spectrum with those in the laboratory frost's suggests that the bulk of the absorption on Io is due to frost, not adsorbed gas. The derived SO2 coverage is large enough to require that SO2 be present in most terrain types on Io and not just in the white plains unit. To reconcile the infrared observations that indicate large amoutns of SO2 with the ultraviolet observations of Voyager and IUE that show little, the SO2 must be mixed intimately with the sulfur (or other material) so that at each wavelength the darker component dominates the spectrum.

  14. 77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...The EPA is announcing that it is using its authority under the Clean Air Act (CAA) to extend by up to 1 year the deadline for promulgating initial area designations for the primary sulfur dioxide (SO2) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) that was promulgated in June 2010. With this extension, the EPA is now required to complete initial designations for this NAAQS by June......

  15. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental employed for the study of the reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters (VmOn) with sulfur dioxide (SO2 for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

  16. El Chichon: The genesis of volcanic sulfur dioxide monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Krotkov, Nickolay; Carn, Simon

    2008-08-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichon inspired a new technique for monitoring volcanic clouds. Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite were used to measure sulfur dioxide in addition to ozone. For the first time precise data on the sulfur dioxide mass in even the largest explosive eruption plumes could be determined. The plumes could be tracked globally as they are carried by winds. Magmatic eruptions could be discriminated from phreatic eruptions. The data from El Chichon are reanalyzed in this paper using the latest version of the TOMS instrument calibration (V8). They show the shearing of the eruption cloud into a globe-circling band while still anchored over Mexico in three weeks. The measured sulfur dioxide mass in the initial March 28 eruption was 1.6 Tg; the April 3 eruption produced 0.3 Tg more, and the April 4 eruptions added 5.6 Tg, for a cumulative total of 7.5 Tg, in substantial agreement with estimates from prior data versions. TOMS Aerosol Index (absorbing aerosol) data show rapid fallout of dense ash east and south of the volcano in agreement with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) ash cloud positions.

  17. SOA FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF A-PINENE-NOX IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important constituent in the polluted atmosphere. It is emitted from combustion sources using fuels that contain sulfur. Emissions of SO2 in the United States were reportedly 17 Tg in 1996 with most coming from coal and petroleum combustion. The pr...

  18. Activation and reactivity of calcareous sorbents toward sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.A.; Kramlich, J.C.; Seeker, W.R.; Heap, M.P.; Samuelsen, G.S.

    1985-11-01

    The reactivity of several calcareous sorbents to SO/sub 2/ absorption is assessed in a laboratory-scale reactor under conditions representative of those encountered in the radiant zones of pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers. Rate of calcination, surface area development, regeneration of gas-phase sulfur species, and SO/sub 2/ capture ability are examined as a function of gas-phase environment and sorbent type. The sulfation reaction was experimentally decoupled from the calcination process, and over 50% conversion of calcium to sulfate was observed for one sorbent in 0.6 s. Sorbent reactivity to SO/sub 2/ is principally governed by specific surface area of the calcined sorbent, although sorbent type is a secondary influence. Peak sorbent temperature during calcination is the dominant factor governing surface area development for a given sorbent. The results demonstrate that (1) sorbent injection into the combustion zone (T > 1200 /sup 0/C) for SO/sub 2/ control is not optimal, and (2) a significant increase in sorbent reactivity will be attained by calcination at temperatures below 1200 /sup 0/C, the lowest value assessed in the present experiment.

  19. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  20. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643