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1

Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

1993-01-01

2

Determination of S-O bond order in sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfite using a low-energy particle-accelerator technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy loss from a beam of He+ ions due to inelastic collisions with vaporous sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfite has been measured. Application of the Bragg rule to these results suggests minimal d-orbital involvement in the S-O bonds for these compounds.

Powers, D.; Olson, H. G.

1980-09-01

3

Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

4

System for reducing sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A system for reducing sulfur dioxide in which a vessel is provided with an inlet for receiving coal and a plurality of gas distribution nozzles for receiving the sulfur dioxide and discharging same downwardly in the lower portion of the vessel for flowing upwardly in a counterflow relation to the coal. The coal flows through a distribution device located in the hopper section of the vessel for insuring an even distribution of coal through the vessel.

Bischoff, W.F.; Steiner, P.

1980-06-10

5

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

6

Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

Gillette, Donald G.

1975-01-01

7

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Spin Trapping of Inorganic Radicals by 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline N-Oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite and Sulfate Radical Anions  

PubMed Central

Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfite (SO32?), sulfate (SO42?), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO3•? and SO4•?. The thermochemistries of SO2•?, SO3•?, SO4•?, and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO2•? by EPR but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO3•? and an O-centered adduct for SO4•?. Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc’s with theoretically calculated ones. The thermodynamics of the non-radical addition of SO32? and HSO3? to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H217O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

Zamora, Pedro L.; Villamena, Frederick A.

2012-01-01

8

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). ...rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...arithmetic mean and the second-highest 24-hour averages...

2013-07-01

9

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link...rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...arithmetic mean and the second-highest 24-hour averages must...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide)....

2010-07-01

10

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide...rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...demonstrate attainment, the second-highest 3-hour average...

2012-07-01

11

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). ...rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...arithmetic mean and the second-highest 24-hour averages...

2012-07-01

12

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide...rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...demonstrate attainment, the second-highest 3-hour average...

2011-07-01

13

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). ...rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...arithmetic mean and the second-highest 24-hour averages...

2014-07-01

14

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide...rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...demonstrate attainment, the second-highest 3-hour average...

2010-07-01

15

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). ...rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...arithmetic mean and the second-highest 24-hour averages...

2011-07-01

16

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide...rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...demonstrate attainment, the second-highest 3-hour average...

2014-07-01

17

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide...rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...demonstrate attainment, the second-highest 3-hour average...

2013-07-01

18

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

2010-07-01

19

40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

2014-07-01

20

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2014-07-01

21

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2011-07-01

22

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2010-07-01

23

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

2012-07-01

24

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

2014-07-01

25

40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

2011-07-01

26

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

2014-07-01

28

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

2010-07-01

29

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

2011-07-01

30

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2013-07-01

31

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

2011-07-01

32

40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

2012-07-01

33

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795...Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13...Indiana's Air Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2012-07-01

34

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...Specific Tolerances § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. ...follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 ))...

2012-07-01

35

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575...Wisconsin § 52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part...

2013-07-01

36

40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724...Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Conditional...insure attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

2013-07-01

37

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOEpatents

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1996-01-01

38

Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

Miller, R.

1989-06-06

39

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2010-07-01

40

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2011-07-01

41

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2012-07-01

42

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2014-07-01

43

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2013-07-01

44

Sulfur Dioxide: Its Role in Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, learners investigate impact of sulfur dioxide on the environment. Sulfur dioxide comes from both human activities and natural sources. Burning coal and other fossil fuels is the largest source of sulfur dioxide from human activities. Students have a choice of analyzing the impact of volcanoes’ emissions of sulfur dioxide on the environment; they can also investigate the idea of injecting sulfates into the atmosphere to counteract global warming. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

2013-02-21

45

Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators  

DOEpatents

Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1979-01-01

46

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOEpatents

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27

47

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-print Network

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen. Unfortunately, during operation, sulfur dioxide can diffuse from the anode to the cathode. This has several

Weidner, John W.

48

Sulfur Dioxide Contributions to the Atmosphere by Volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first extensive measurements by remote-sensing correlation spectrometry of the sulfur dioxide emitted by volcanic plumes indicate that on the order of 10 3 metric tons of sulfur dioxide gas enter the atmosphere daily from Central American volcanoes. Extrapolation gives a minimum estimate of the annual amount of sulfur dioxide emitted from the world's volcanoes of about 107 metric tons.

Richard E. Stoiber; Anders Jepsen

1973-01-01

49

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173...Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...from any roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

2014-07-01

50

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333...Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date...stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015...

2014-07-01

51

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183...Lead Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

2013-07-01

53

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333...Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date...stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015...

2012-07-01

54

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163...Copper Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...copper converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065...

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333...Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date...stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015...

2011-07-01

56

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

2011-07-01

57

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-print Network

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report (Jan 2004) 2 ABSTRACT A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one

Hultman, Nathan E.

58

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

2010-07-01

59

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

2012-07-01

60

Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions  

E-print Network

Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions Zhibek Issakyzy, Mentor: Xiaoshi Xing, CIESIN Columbia University. The Earth Institute. What is SO2? Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 atmosphere and climate. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is one of the pollutants responsible for the environmental

61

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.82 Section 60.82...Acid Plants § 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the...affected facility any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per...

2014-07-01

62

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333...Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date...stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015...

2013-07-01

63

RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

64

LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition velocities have been carried out in the laboratory with the use of a cylindrical flow reaction. Analysis of data from these experiments was performed with models that specifically account for diffusive transport in the system. Consequentl...

65

SULFUR DIOXIDE OXIDATION REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the final report on a three year project to study the kinetics and mechanisms of some 105 reactions involving the aqueous oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in mixed catalyst-oxidant systems at low pH (0-3). The 105 systems involve six redox reaction types: S...

66

SOLID SORBENT FOR COLLECTING ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A solid sorbent for collecting atmospheric SO2 was evaluated as part of an overall effort to develop a replacement method for the West-Gaeke method presently used to measure 24-hour ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in ambient air. Research showed that a solid sorbent, consis...

67

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2013-07-01

68

Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling  

E-print Network

Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling Filter-Bioreactor System L I G Y P H of California, Riverside, California 92521 Complete treatment of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases in a two effectively treat the biotrickling filter effluent and produce elemental sulfur. The sulfur production

69

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2014-07-01

70

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2012-07-01

71

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2011-07-01

72

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-print Network

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions the capability to measure nitrogen dioxide in the UV with one spectrometer and to measure SO2 and NH3 along with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides

Denver, University of

73

Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

2002-01-01

74

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide...the atmosphere from any stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide...subpart shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur...

2010-07-01

75

78 FR 28143 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards...state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide... and SO 2 NAAQS revised by EPA? Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) On February 9,...

2013-05-14

76

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. ...more than 10 percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as a roaster...

2012-07-01

77

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. ...more than 10 percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as a roaster...

2011-07-01

78

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. ...more than 10 percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as a roaster...

2013-07-01

79

Sulfur dioxide removal from gas streams  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant gas from gas stream which comprises contacting the gas stream with pretreated shale in the form of an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate including from about 0.1 to about 2.0% by weight of the pretreated shale. The pretreatment of the shale comprises the heating of the shale in the presence of a gas unable to support combustion at a temperature in a range of from about 340/sup 0/C. to about 480/sup 0/C.

Urban, P.; Ginger, E.A.

1986-11-11

80

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

2011-07-01

81

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

2010-07-01

82

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

2014-07-01

83

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

2010-07-01

84

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

2012-07-01

85

STORED-PRODU~AM) QUARANTINEENTOMOLOGY Low Temperature Storage Combined with Sulfur Dioxide Slow  

E-print Network

STORED-PRODU~AM) QUARANTINEENTOMOLOGY Low Temperature Storage Combined with Sulfur Dioxide Slow- aturesin packedgrapeclustersdecreasedfromambientto2Ā°Cwithin -2 dafterplacementin storage. Sulfur dioxide Riverbend Avenue, Parlier, CA 93648. Sulfur dioxide fumigation is used to control fungal infections

Crisosto, Carlos H.

86

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

2014-07-01

87

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

2013-07-01

88

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

2013-07-01

89

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 ...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. ...affected source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year...

2012-07-01

90

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 ...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator...of the source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan....

2011-07-01

91

RESPONSE OF MAIZE AND WHEAT TO SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Four hybrids of maize and seven cultivars of wheat were exposed to relatively low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0.1 to 0.6 ppm) for up to 100 hours. Maize was found to be tolerant to sulfur dioxide and only minor differences were observed in dry mass, foliar injury, and total...

92

The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

Purser, Gordon H.

1989-01-01

93

78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...to revise the Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )...

2013-05-14

94

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01

95

Avoidance responses of estuarine fish to sulfur dioxide. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, and Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentration of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30C.

Hall, L.W. Jr; Margrey, S.L.; Graves, W.C.

1983-12-01

96

75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide; Final Rule Federal Register...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection...the air quality criteria for oxides of sulfur and the primary national ambient air...

2010-06-22

97

Sulfur Dioxide emission from Mt Pinatubo Eruption June 1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere during the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption and for a few weeks after the eruption. Stratospheric SO2 dissipates rather quickly compared to volcanic ash and stratoshperic H2SO4

Lori Perkins

2001-06-12

98

DYNAMIC DILUTION SYSTEM FOR AUDITING AMBIENT SULFUR DIOXIDE ANALYZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the development, evaluation, and field performance of a device designed to provide accurate sulfur dioxide concentration standards suitable for auditing the accuracy of continuous, ambient SO2 monitors. This compact, lightweight, device has been subjected to ...

99

Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

Boushey, H.

1982-02-01

100

A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

Craig, James C.

1972-01-01

101

CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

2007-01-31

102

Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine  

PubMed Central

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

2012-01-01

103

Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed

Peter L. Ward

2009-01-01

104

Process for removing sulfur dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the prevention of atmospheric pollution by sulfur dioxide emissions from acid absorbers in contact process sulfuric acid plants in which the unconverted SOā is accumulated by adsorption in a zeolite adsorbent bed and desorbed back into the acid production system, it is found that ambient moist air, after partial dehydration in an acid scrubber is suitably used both to

L. L. Fornoff; J. J. Collins; R. A. Reber

1976-01-01

105

THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON DIMETHYL SULFUR IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON  

EPA Science Inventory

It is anticipated that under stress, the cellular DMSP concentration should drop, as sulfur is transferred from the DMSP pool to DMS. Sulfur in the DMS pool will be transferred to the DMSO pool as radicals are scavenged. Enzyme activities such as DMSP lyase, which converts D...

106

Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

2004-01-01

107

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-print Network

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic%, and 10% wt.% of dry biomass were also tested at 180 Ā°C for 10 min. Sugar yields were tracked for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to identify conditions for the highest total sugar yields

California at Riverside, University of

108

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Pararosaniline Method)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Frey. Spectrophotometric Determination of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide...Interference in Spectrophotometric Determination of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide...Measurement of the Sulfur Dioxide Content of the Air in the Presence...on the Spectrophotometric Determination of Atmospheric...

2010-07-01

109

Sulfur dioxide in geothermal waters and gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods were developed for stabilizing SO 2 in water and gas samples. The pararosaniline colorimetric method, and a gas Chromatographic method using a flame photometric detector specific for sulfur gases were used to assay SO 2 . Assays were also performed for sulfide, elemental sulfur and sulfate. A large number of acidic, neutral, and alkaline springs in Yellowstone National Park

Stephen Zinder; Thomas D. Brock

1977-01-01

110

Lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide for sulfur dioxide control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)ā for sulfur dioxide (SOā) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from coal-burning utility boilers. The most effective commercial calcium-based sorbent for this process is Ca(OH)ā, with SOā

David A. Kirchgessner; Jeffrey M. Lorrain

1987-01-01

111

Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor

R. B. Nair; S. Yavuzkurt

1997-01-01

112

75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection...sulfur dioxide State Implementation Plan revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal...

2010-12-28

113

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

114

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOEpatents

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20

115

Seasonality of sulfur species (dimethyl sulfide, sulfate, and methanesulfonate) in Antarctica: Inland versus coastal regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a better understanding of sulfate and methanesulfonate (MS?) signals recorded in central Antarctic ice cores in terms of past atmospheric changes, an atmospheric year-round study of these aerosols was performed in 2006 at the Concordia station (75°S, 123°E) located on the high Antarctic plateau. In addition, a year-round study of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the gaseous precursor of sulfur

Susanne Preunkert; Bruno Jourdain; Michel Legrand; Roberto Udisti; Silvia Becagli; Omar Cerri

2008-01-01

116

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

2011-07-01

117

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section...Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) On...determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2013-07-01

118

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

2014-07-01

119

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

2014-07-01

120

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section...Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) On...determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2014-07-01

121

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

2013-07-01

122

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

2012-07-01

124

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

2010-07-01

125

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129...129 Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose... This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be...

2011-07-01

126

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section...18, 1978 § 60.43Da Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and...determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2011-07-01

127

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission...2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are...

2012-07-01

128

76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...preservatives in food products, beverages...fresh fruits and vegetables, the FDA requires...exposure from food and feed uses...Environmental sources of sulfur dioxide...disinfect, and bleach food, for waste and...metal, ore, and oil refining (ATSDR...available from public sources to...

2011-09-14

129

Lichens and sulfur dioxide pollution in west central Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In west central Scotland a lichen-pollution study was undertaken in the summer of 1972: only vertical deciduous trees (non eutrophiated) were employed as the standard habitat. Since sulfur dioxide concentrations are alleviated by woodland shelter only those trees growing in isolation were selected. Trees standing along major roadways and those which could have been affected by agricultural sprays were avoided

OHare

1973-01-01

130

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY PLANTS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE AND PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the result of a detailed review of European and United States literature regarding the sensitivity of woody vegetation to sulfur dioxide, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), or nitrogen oxides. Reference is made to Russian, Japanese and Austrian literature onl...

131

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any sintering machine, electric smelting furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2010-07-01

132

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN WA, OR, AND ID  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: USGS, Nat...

133

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN CLASS I WILDERNESS AREAS, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the state of Washington. Different plot symbols are used for sources which emit less than 100 tons/year, between 100 and 1000 tons/year, and over 1000 tons/year of SO2. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background...

134

LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

135

REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION: SPECTRORADIOMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO2 was...

136

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR DIOXIDE MASS EMISSION RATE MONITORING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation was conducted to determine the capabilities and limitations of a commercially available monitoring system that provides sulfur dioxide mass emission rate data as a direct output. The monitoring system was operated continuously for extended periods at a coal-fired po...

137

Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

1977-01-01

138

Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

MacDonald, Bryce I.

1975-01-01

139

Direct extraction of sulfur dioxide from sulfates for isotopic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A convenient method of extraction of sulfur dioxide from natural sulfates (BaSO/sub 4/, SrSO/sub 4/, and CaSO/sub 4/) for sulfur isotopic analysis is described. A sulfate is reacted with NaPO/sub 3/ under vacuum at 850/sup 0/C; SO/sub 3/ thus obtained is then reduced to sulfur dioxide on copper heated to 750/sup 0/C. It has been experimentally shown that the reaction takes place with complete yield and provides very good reproducibility of measurements despite a remarkable variation in /sup 18/O content of analyzed sulfates. The long-term reproducibility of /sup 34/S//sup 32/S ratios is about 0.05 per mil.

Halas, S.; Wolacewicz, W.P.

1981-04-01

140

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25

141

Benzosulfones as photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) donors.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a gaseous environmental pollutant which is routinely used in industry as a preservative and antimicrobial. Recent data suggests that SO2 may have value as a therapeutic agent. However, due to its gaseous nature, localizing SO2 generation is challenging. Herein, various 1,3-dihydrobenzo[c]thiophene 2,2-dioxides (benzosulfones) were prepared as candidates for photochemically activated sulfur dioxide (SO2) generation. These compounds were found to be stable in buffer but were photolysed upon irradiation with UV light to generate SO2. Our data indicates that photolysis of benzosulfones depends on substituents, and that the presence of electron donating groups results in an enhanced yield of SO2. PMID:25563212

Malwal, Satish R; Chakrapani, Harinath

2015-02-10

142

THE MECHANISM OF SULFUR DIOXIDE INITIATED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric sulfur oxides exist in chemically complex particulates of the respirable size range. Inhalation of these particulates represents a potential health hazard. This report provides the results of a series of experiments into the uptake of sulfate salts by the lung, the in...

143

The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases  

PubMed Central

The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

Kettner, Helmut

1965-01-01

144

Analysis of sulfur in deposited aerosols by thermal decomposition and sulfur dioxide analyzer.  

PubMed

A thermal decomposition method that measures aerosol sulfur at the nanogram level directly from the collection substrate is described. A thermal decomposition apparatus was designed. A stainless steel strip was used as the aerosol collection substrate. A 0.1 mol/L MnCl2 solution was added as the thermal decomposition catalyst. Currents were passed through the strip where aerosol particles had been deposited. In this way, the strip was heated at 780 +/- 10 degrees C, and particulate sulfur was evaporated. A sulfur dioxide analyzer (SDA) with flame photometric detector (FPD) was used to detect gaseous sulfur. High sulfur recoveries from (NH4)2SO4 and other inorganic sulfates, such as NH4HSO4, K2SO4, MgSO4, and CaSO4, were obtained. From the sulfur blank and the calibration, a lower limited detection of 0.2 ng of sulfur and the determination range of 3.3-167 ng of sulfur were estimated. The method is effective for measuring the sulfate size distributions of urban aerosols in a small sample air volume of 50-60 L. The method is applicable to measuring the sulfur in aqueous extracts of size-segregated urban aerosols collected by impactor and comparing the results with the sulfate data measured by ion chromatography. PMID:16013855

Yamamoto, Masatoshi

2005-07-15

145

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products...

2010-07-01

146

Simultaneous Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Removal by Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Silicate Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

At conditions typical of a bag filter exposed to a coal-fired flue gas that has been adiabatically cooled with water, calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids were exposed to a dilute, humidified gas stream of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a packed-bed reactor. A prior study found that NO2 reacted readily with surface water of alkaline and

Christopher H. Nelli; Gary T. Rochelle

1998-01-01

147

Lagrangian measurements of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion rates  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of Project MISTT data and proposed homogeneous gas phase oxidation mechanisms for sulfur dioxide, it has been suggested that the degree of mixing with background air, the chemical composition of the background air, and the intensity of the sunlight available are key factors determining the rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion. These hypotheses are examined in light of Lagrangian measurements of conversion rates in power plant plumes made during the Tennessee Plume Study and Project Da Vinci. It is found that the Lagrangian conversion rate measurements are consistent with these hypotheses. It has also been suggested that the concentration of ozone may serve as a workable surrogate for the concentrations of the free radicals involved in the homogeneous gas phase mechanism. Certain of the Lagrangian data indicate that this suggestion should be regarded with caution.

Zak, B.D.

1980-01-01

148

Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

1991-01-01

149

Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20 degrees C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25 degrees C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30 degrees C. PMID:6492212

Hall, L W; Burton, D T; Graves, W C; Margrey, S L

1984-01-01

150

International comparison CCQM-K76: Sulfur dioxide in nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key comparison CCQM-K76 was designed to test the capabilities of the participants to measure and certify sulfur dioxide in nitrogen, and to provide supporting evidence for the CMCs of these institutes for sulfur dioxide. Also, as sulfur dioxide is designated a core compound, and the 100 µmol/mol concentration is within the designated core compound concentration range, this comparison was also designed to demonstrate core capabilities of institutes which qualify under the rules of the Gas Analysis Working Group. The results of all 16 participants in this key comparison, except for three, are consistent with their key comparisons reference values. The three participants which are outside the KCRV interval are NIM, SMU and NPLI. This comparison may be used to demonstrate core analytical capabilities in accordance with the rules and procedures of the CCQM Gas Analysis Working group. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Guenther, Franklin R.; Kelley, Michael E.; Mitchell, Gerald D.; de Jesśs Avila Salas, Manuel; Koelliker Delgado, Jorge; Rangel Murillo, Francisco; Serrano Caballero, Victor M.; Pérez Castorena, Alejandro; Shinji, Uehara; Ciecior, Dariusz; Smarēaro da Cunha, Valnei; Rodrigues Augusto, Cristiane; Cipriano Ribeiro, Claudia; de Lima Fioravante, Andreia; Dias, Florbela; Sang-Hyub, Oh; Macé, Tatiana; Sutour, Christophe; Büki, Tamįs; Qiao, Han; Botha, Angelique; Mogale, David M.; Tshilongo, James; Ntsasa, Napo; Mphamo, Tshepiso; Uprichard, Ian; Milton, Martin; Vargha, Gergely; Brookes, Chris; Johri, Prabha; Valkova, Miroslava; Konopelko, Leonid; Kustikov, Yury; Pankratov, V. V.; Rumyantsev, D. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Gromova, E. V.; van der Veen, Adriaan; van Otterloo, Peter; Wessel, Rob M.

2011-01-01

151

Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20/sup 0/C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25/sup 0/C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30/sup 0/C. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.; Margrey, S.L.

1984-01-01

152

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2010-07-01

153

40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

2013-07-01

154

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2011-07-01

155

40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

2010-07-01

156

40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42c Section...Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) Except...contains greater than 0.5 weight percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements...

2014-07-01

157

40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

2011-07-01

158

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2013-07-01

159

40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

2014-07-01

160

40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

2014-07-01

161

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2013-07-01

162

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2014-07-01

163

40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

2012-07-01

164

40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42c Section...Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except...contains greater than 0.5 weight percent sulfur. The percent reduction requirements...

2012-07-01

165

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2010-07-01

166

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2011-07-01

167

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2012-07-01

168

40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c...performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

2012-07-01

169

40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.42b Section...Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) Except...facility combusts oil other than very low sulfur oil. Percent reduction...

2013-07-01

170

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2014-07-01

171

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2012-07-01

172

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

2012-07-01

173

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

2014-07-01

174

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

2011-07-01

175

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

2010-07-01

176

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

2013-07-01

177

Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor  

SciTech Connect

The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1997-04-01

178

Sulfur dioxide emissions from La Soufriere Volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies  

SciTech Connect

During the steady-state period of activity of La Soufriere Volcano in 1979, the mass emissions of sulfur dioxide into the troposphere amounted to a mean value of 339 +- 126 metric tons per day. This value is similar to the sulfur dioxide emissions of other Central American volcanoes but less than those measured at Mount Etna, an exceptionally strong volcanic source of sulfur dioxide.

Hoff, R.M.; Gallant, A.J.

1980-08-22

179

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01

180

Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries on Mars rovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions of Mars, These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during the critical entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers. These batteries were located on the petals of the lander, which, unlike in the Mars Pathfinder mission, was designed only to carry the rover. The selection of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery system for this application was based on its high specific energy and high rate discharge capability, combined with low heat evolution, as dictated by this application. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries exhibit voltage delay, which tends to increase at low discharge temperatures, especially after extended storage at warm temperatures, In the absence of a depassivation circuit, as provided on earlier missions, e.g., Galileo, we were required to depassivate the lander primary batteries in a unique manner. The batteries were brought onto a shunt-regulated bus set at pre-selected discharge voltages, thus affecting depassivation during constant discharge voltages. Several ground tests were preformed, on cells, cell strings and battery assembly with five parallel strings, to identify optimum shunt voltages and durations of depassivation. We also examined the repassivation of lithium anodes, subsequent to depassivation. In this paper, we will describe these studies, in detail, as well as the depassivation of the lander flight batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity rover prior to the EDL sequence and their performance during landing on Mars.

Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Kindler, A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

2004-01-01

181

Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

1982-01-01

182

Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

1994-01-01

183

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

1997-12-31

184

Effects of sulfur dioxide on lichen lipids and fatty acids.  

PubMed

Lipids and fatty acids were studied in some lichen species after exposure to 1 ppm of aqueous sulfur dioxide. The changes in lipid composition are specific to the lichen species tested. The exposure of lichens to SO2 resulted in a slight reduction of the total phospholipid content. The amount of betaine lipid diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine was increased in Stereocaulon paschale, but the level of this lipid was not changed in Peltigera aphthosa. An increase in fatty acid unsaturation in lichens in response to the effect of SO2 probably has adaptive significance. PMID:9986914

Bychek-Guschina, I A; Kotlova, E R; Heipieper, H

1999-01-01

185

Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma  

SciTech Connect

Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

1990-11-01

186

Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. (Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)); Sherwood, S.I. (National Park Service, Washington, DC (United States))

1994-01-01

187

Histological responses of some plant leaves to hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dicotyledonous plants were fumigated with hydrogen fluoride and\\/or sulfur dioxide. Samples were taken of injured and control leaves, processed microtechnically, and examined microscopically. Histological responses to hydrogen fluoride and sulfur dioxide were indistinguishable. The spongy mesophyll and lower epidermis first collapsed, followed by distortion and chloroplast disruption in the palisade cells. The upper epidermis finally distorted and collapsed. Microscopically injured

D. F. Adams; R. A. Solberg

1956-01-01

188

Comparison of Enhanced and Routine Methods for Measuring Ambient Low-level Sulfur Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reported here was designed to determine: (1) the adequacy of a conventional monitoring method for measuring low-level (<20 ppbv) ambient sulfur dioxide; and (2) the measurement improvement obtained with an enhanced monitoring method. Two analyses were used. In the first analysis, two different continuous monitoring methods were evaluated against an independent measure of ambient sulfur dioxide concentration-an integrated

Lawrence M. Reisinger; Kenneth J. Olszyna; Teresa L. Hetrick

1989-01-01

189

Nitrogen fixation rate and chlorophyll content of the lichen Peltigera canina exposed to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In general, the rate of nitrogen fixation decreased when the lichen Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. was exposed to sulfur dioxide gas at levels from 0.1 to 500 ppm; at 30 ppm, however, nitrogen fixation was stimulated. The chlorophyll content decreased as the level of sulfur dioxide increased.

Henriksson, E.; Pearson, L.C.

1981-01-01

190

78 FR 11124 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0233; FRL-9781-3] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability...certain state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality...

2013-02-15

191

78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0233; FRL-9793-7] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability...to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The EPA...

2013-03-25

192

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. CARBON DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON RAMS (REGIONAL AIR MONITORING SYSTEM) SULFUR MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the air on the response of flame photometric sulfur gas analyzers of two types, the Tracor model 270 HA sulfur chromatograph and the Meloy model SA 185 total sulfur analyzer, were studied. These analyzers were used in the Regional Air Mo...

193

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

194

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

2000-01-01

195

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur content of the acid gas (Y) of the affected facility. (b) After demonstrating...the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur content of the acid gas (Y) of the affected facility....

2010-07-01

196

Impact of ozone and sulfur dioxide on soybean yield  

SciTech Connect

Little dose-response information exists on the effects of chronic ozone (O/sub 3/) and intermittent sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposures on the yield of important agricultural crops. Such information is needed for refinement of estimates of air pollution induced crop losses. Field-grown plants of two soybean cultivars were exposed to incremental chronic doses of O/sub 3/ for 7-h/day and/or intermittent SO/sub 2/ fumigations 4-h/day, 3 day/wk from shortly after emergence until maturity. The O/sub 3/ was removed by charcoal filtration or applied by addition of various constant amounts of O/sub 3/ to the ambient O/sub 3/ present in nonfiltered-air open-top chambers. There were no cultivar differences in yield response to either O/sub 3/ or SO/sub 2/.

Kress, L.W.; Miller, J.E.; Smith, H.J.; Rawlings, J.O.

1986-01-01

197

Sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide in polysulfone  

SciTech Connect

The sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in polymers is important in areas such as food packaging, polymer degradation, and sensors and monitoring devices. Another possible application is in pollution control for exhaust gases from power plants. Polysulfone is a polymer that is widely used for commercial gas separations with membranes. The authors have investigated the sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in a commercially available Bisphenol A polysulfone near room temperature. The results were interpreted using the dual-mode sorption model with partial immobilization. Although similar data on other polymers have been published in the literature, they are not aware of any studies of sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in polysulfone.

Pfromm, P.H.; Koros, W.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-10-25

198

Effect of sulfur dioxide on cytokine production of human alveolar macrophages in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{Beta}, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-{Beta} are cytokines synthesized by alveolar macrophages. We investigated the effect of sulfur dioxide, a major air pollutant, on the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages. The cells were layered on a polycarbonate membrane and exposed for 30 min to 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 ppm sulfur dioxide at 37 {degrees}C and 100% air humidity. The cells were incubated for 24 h after exposure, thus allowing cytokine release. Cytotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide were evaluated by trypan flue exclusion. Cytokine release. Cytotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide were evaluated by trypan blue exclusion. Cytokines were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{Beta}, and interleukin-6) or by use of a specific bioassay (i.e., transforming growth factor-{Beta}). The toxicity of sulfur dioxide for alveolar macrophages ranged from 3.1% to 9.5%. A 30-min exposure to sulfur dioxide induced a significant decrease in spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (p < .001) and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated interleukin-1{Beta} release (p < .05). The release of interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-{Beta} was not affected significantly by sulfur dioxide exposure. Our results demonstrated a functional impairment of alveolar macrophages after sulfur dioxide exposure (i.e., release of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-1{Beta}). Neither spontaneous nor stimulated release of interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-{Beta} were influenced by exposure to sulfur dioxide. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Knorst, M.M.; Kienast, K.; Mueller-Quernheim, J.; Ferlinz, R. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)

1996-03-01

199

Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions. Emissions from smelters comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. -from Authors

Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

1988-01-01

200

Methane sulfonic acid-enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over oceans and in coastal regions, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation into the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid- and dimethyl amine (DMA)-based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well-tested ab initio methods, we optimise the structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data are used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code, and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to 1 order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300 % at 258 K, less than 100 % at 278 K and less than 15 % at 298 K. The results are rationalised by a detailed analysis of the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA-enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-11-01

201

Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-07-01

202

Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters prior to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31°N to 41°N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11°S to 2°N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timotny S.

1993-12-01

203

Sulfur Dioxide emission from Mt Pinatubo Eruption June 1991 with dates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere during the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption and for a few weeks after the eruption. Stratospheric SO2 dissipates rather quickly compared to volcanic ash and stratoshperic H2SO4.

Lori Perkins

2001-06-12

204

Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility  

E-print Network

The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

Montero, Juan-Pablo

1998-01-01

205

Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate  

EPA Science Inventory

We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

206

77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...initial area designations for the primary sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) national ambient...to these commenters, we explained our modified expectations at that time for issuing...tribal agencies that described the EPA's modified expectations regarding some SO 2...

2012-08-03

207

GROUND-BASED SULFUR DIOXIDE MEASUREMENTS WITHIN A COPPER SMELTER PLUME - ANACONDA, MONTANA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory - Las Vegas developed a mobile sulfur dioxide (SO2) instrument package for use in the remote, rugged terrain surrounding The Anaconda Company's copper smelter at Anaconda, Montana. The...

208

Gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide measurements in the Arctic troposphere and lower stratosphere - Implications for hydroxyl radical abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide were made in the winter Arctic troposphere and lower stratosphere using aircraft-borne mass spectrometers. The measurements, covering altitudes between 3.5 and 11.4 km, took place on 14 and 18 February, 1987 in northern Scandinavia. The abundance of H2SO4 was around 0.01 to 0.06 pptv (parts per trillion by volume), and the measured

O. Moehler; F. Arnold

1992-01-01

209

Sulfur dioxide upregulates the aortic nitric oxide pathway in rats.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a common gaseous pollutant. It is also, however, endogenously generated from sulfur-containing amino acids. Recent studies have demonstrated that rat blood pressure can be lowered by SO(2)-exposure in vivo and that vasodilation caused by SO(2) at low concentrations (<450 microM) is endothelium-dependent in rat aorta. However, effects of SO(2) on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production have not been previously studied in rat aorta. The objective of the present study is to assess the effects of acute (10 min) and prolonged (2h) stimulation with different concentrations of SO(2) on NO/cGMP pathway in isolated rat aorta. The results show that: (1) the acute and prolonged pretreatments with SO(2) produced an inhibition of vasoconstrictions induced by norepinephrine. (2) SO(2) potentiated activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but not of induced NOS (iNOS). (3) SO(2) could increase expression of eNOS gene on the transcription and translation levels in rat aorta. (4) SO(2) enhanced NO formation in aortic tissue. (5) The level of cGMP in rat aorta was increased by SO(2) and no change of cAMP. These findings led to the conclusion: there were acute and prolonged effects of SO(2) on the NO/cGMP signalling pathway; and SO(2) could upregulate the eNOS-NO-cGMP pathway and at least partly by which the SO(2) might cause vasodilation and inhibition to vasoconstriction. PMID:20674563

Li, Junling; Li, Ruijin; Meng, Ziqiang

2010-10-25

210

Sulfur Dioxide Degassing at the Soufričre Hills Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soufriere Hills Volcano has been erupting andesite with minor basaltic to basaltic- andesite enclaves (up to 8 vol%). The installation of a network of UV spectrometers on the western flank of the volcano has produced a robust dataset of sulfur dioxide (SO2) fluxes over a thirteen year period (2000-2013). The emission of a high flux of SO2 gas has been quasi-continuous over the course of the eruption, in contrast to the highly discontinuous eruption of lava. The trends in SO2 fluxes over the course of the eruption are controlled by a hierarchy of deep and shallow processes, such as the supply of mafic magma at depth, which supplies heat and volatiles to the andesite; and shallow andesite permeability and lava extrusion rate. Analysis of the flux time series indicates that a degree of periodicity is present in the SO2 signal, ranging from hours to years. Cycles in the SO2 flux of ? 50 days have been correlated with other volcanic activity such as seismic activity and extrusion (e.g. Nicholson et al., 2013). We identify two longer period signals in the SO2 data, one at ~ 5 months and the other at ~ 2 years, both of which are independent of patterns in lava extrusion and ground deformation. We investigate possible causes of these periodic degassing signals, including potential hydrological and atmospheric, as well as magmatic controls. We hypothesise that the trends in the degassing time series are sourced from deeper levels in the volcanic plumbing system, related to the supply of a mafic magma which is ultimately responsible for triggering and driving the eruption of andesite magma, and supplying volatiles to the system. We investigate how cycles on this time scale might be generated by the mafic magma at depth, even when the volcano is not erupting, using a numerical model. We also discuss the mechanisms by which the sulfur-rich gases might reach the surface in the absence of magma extrusion.

Christopher, T. E.; Taisne, B.; Edmonds, M.; Odbert, H. M.; Hards, V.

2013-12-01

211

Quantitative application of the Franck-Condon theory to sulfur dioxide  

E-print Network

QUANTITATIVE APPLICATION OF THE FRANCK- CONDON THEORY TO SULFUR DIOXIDE A Dissertation By Moody Lee Coffman Approved as to style and content by Committee / C j . 1 ' ' V / n Head or Department / May, 1954- A & ft?COLLEGE OF T E X A... S QUANTITATIVE APPLICATION OF THE FRANCK- CONDON THEORY TO SULFUR DIOXIDE A Dissertation By Moody Lee Coffman Mi Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Coffman, Moody Lee

1954-01-01

212

Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees  

SciTech Connect

Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

1980-10-01

213

Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25Ā°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

1977-01-01

214

Transport of sulfur dioxide from the Asian Pacific Rim to the North Pacific troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission over the Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B) field experiment provided an opportunity to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean from the tropics to 60°N during February-March 1993. The large suite of chemical and physical measurements yielded a complex matrix in which to understand the distribution of sulfur dioxide over

Donald C. Thornton; Alan R. Bandy; Byron W. Blomquist; Robert W. Talbot; Jack E. Dibb

1997-01-01

215

Transport of sulfur dioxide from the Asian Pacific Rim to the North Pacific troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission over the Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B) field experiment provided an opportunity to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean from the tropics to 60ųN during February-March 1993. The large suite of chemical and physical measurements yielded a complex matrix in which to understand the distribution of sulfur dioxide over

Donald C. Thornton; Alan R. Bandy; Byron W. Blomquist; Robert W. Talbot; Jack E. Dibb

1997-01-01

216

Particulate and sulfur dioxide concentration measurements in Patras, Greece.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to obtain a better assessment of the Patras, Greece, air quality, in terms of the primary pollutants total suspended particulates (TSPs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), because limited and short-duration measurements have been conducted in the past. Installation and operation of a mobile air monitoring station at two different locations in the Patras downtown area and one location in the outskirts of the city was undertaken and covered the periods July 1, 1994-January 30, 1995; March 18-August 23, 1995; and April 19-July 27, 1996, respectively. For both pollutants measured at each location, the monthly average concentrations and typical weekly variation of daily averages, as well as the diurnal variations and frequency concentration distributions in each month of the monitoring periods, were calculated and are presented in bar diagrams. The annual and winter period medians and the annual 98th percentile were also calculated and are compared with the limit and guide values provided by the European Economic Community Council Directive 80/779/EEC. In addition, comparison of SO2 values is made with the limit values adopted by the more recent Directive 1999/30/EC. It was found that the TSP and SO2 levels at all locations were very low and were lower than the levels found in Thessaloniki and Athens, Greece. An attempt to explain what had been measured is also undertaken. The data presented are considered essential for future reference and comparison purposes. PMID:12943315

Yannopoulos, Panayotis C; Skokaki, Georgia N

2003-08-01

217

Acute hematologic and hemorheologic effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation  

SciTech Connect

Fifty male rats were exposed to 0.87 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 24 hr. Hematologic and hemorheologic parameters measured in this group were compared with the results of a control group of 51 male rats. Hematocrit values were found to be higher (p less than .005) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (43.55 +/- 0.41%, mean +/- standard error), when compared to the control group value (41.97 +/- 0.35%). Sulfhemoglobin values were also higher (p less than .0001) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (0.60 +/- 0.08%) than the control group (0.08 +/- 0.02%). Osmotic hemolysis ratio was slightly increased (p less than .05) in the 0.55% sodium chloride solution. However, whole blood and packed cell viscosities were lower in the SO/sub 2/-treated animals, while there was no significant difference in the plasma viscosities. The mechanism of these effects could not be clarified completely, but structural and functional effects of SO2 inhalation on peripheral erythrocytes were discussed.

Baskurt, O.K.

1988-09-01

218

Effects of sulfur dioxide on the lichen algae, with special reference to chlorophyll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalli of Xanthoria fallax, X. parietina, Parmelia caperata, and Physcia millegrana were exposed to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide gas for 24 hours at various conditions of humidity. Abnormalities of bleaching of the chlorophyll, permanent plasmolysis, and formation of sporadic brown spots on the chloroplasts were observed in the algal cells. Sulfurous acid and Mg\\/sup + +\\/ were detected in the

D. N. Rao; F. LeBlanc

2009-01-01

219

Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SOx, NOx and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other

S. V. Krupa; A. H. Legge

2001-01-01

220

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method

C. L. Mangun; J. A. DeBarr; J. Economy

2001-01-01

221

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

222

Remote sensing of ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide emissions from cars and trucks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the development of a remote sensor for mobile source ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) based on an instrument previously developed at the University of Denver. Significant optical upgrades allow for the detection of three new species. Detection and quantification of NH3 and SO 2 use wavelengths deeper into the ultraviolet region than previously possible. Currently NH3 is quantified from three peaks at 209 nm, 213 nm, and 217 nm; SO2 from three peaks at 219 nm, 221 nm, and 222 nm; NO2 using the spectral window 430--446 nm. The instrument was demonstrated in the measurement of emissions from both gasoline and diesel light duty vehicles and heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDT). The remote sensor was used for over 20,000 measurements of NH3 and SO2 emissions from motor vehicles in Denver and Tulsa in the summer of 2005. Nitrogen dioxide emissions were measured at the Denver site only. For the first time, on-road vehicle NH3 and SO2 emission trends versus model year were observed. Ammonia is a larger percentage of the exhaust than previously predicted for newer vehicles and its production reaches a maximum with approximately the 1996 model year. NH3 is the first pollutant observed to have lower emissions from the oldest model year. Sulfur dioxide emissions decrease with newer model year vehicles. Nearly 1200 NH3, SO2, and NO2 emission measurements with valid vehicle identification numbers were collected from in-use HDDTs in Golden and Dumont, CO. The Dumont weigh station site allowed emissions to be correlated with gross vehicle weight. No trends were apparent. The Golden site allowed emissions to be correlated with odometer and a trend of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions was apparent even near one million miles, when some vehicles should show lower emissions due to engine rebuild and computer reflash. For the first time HDDT on-road NO x emissions were shown versus vehicle model year and found to reach a maximum with model years in the mid to late 1990s. Gross emitting SO 2 emissions were found for 1% of the fleet possibly arising from the illegal use off-road diesel fuel.

Burgard, Daniel Alexander

223

Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

Carlson, R. W.

2004-01-01

224

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

NONE

1997-01-01

225

40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide) as specified in...hydrocarbon “kicker”). Nitrogen oxide (NO) in high concentrations can also fluoresce...the rejection of interference from high NO. Ozone can absorb UV light...

2014-07-01

226

Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate  

PubMed Central

Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2–3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

2014-01-01

227

The cycling of sulfur dioxide in the marine boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric cycling of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is examined through the use of field measurements and photochemical modeling. A question exists as to whether or not SO{sub 2} is a major product of dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation and subsequently important in the formation of new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The relative magnitudes of the different sources and sinks of SO{sub 2} in the remote marine boundary layer are looked at using field measurements of SO{sub 2}, DMS, and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and a time dependent photochemical box model of an air mass in the marine boundary layer. A new automated technique for measuring So{sub 2} was developed. It enables continuous real-time measurement of SO{sub 2} using HPLC/Fluorescence at parts-per-trillion levels. Atmospheric and seawater DMS and atmospheric H{sub 2}S were also measured during these cruises in order to definite the biogenic sources of SO{sub 2}. The observed SO{sub 2} levels in the marine boundary layer are much lower than those predicted by current photochemical models using the measured DMS concentrations. Also, current models predict that SO{sub 2} should have a pronounced diel cycle that is anticorrelated to that of DMS, however, there is no observable diel cycle in the SO{sub 2} data. Using a time-dependent photochemical box model and a model of the aqueous phase sea-salt aerosol chemistry, we examine the role of heterogeneous loss to sea-salt aerosols as a potentially important but previously unaccounted for sink for SO{sub 2} in the marine boundary layer. Our results indicate that this is a large sink for SO{sub 2} in this region.

Yvon, S.A.

1994-12-31

228

Remote sensing of sulfur dioxide effects on vegetation: spectroradiometry  

SciTech Connect

Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO/sub 2/ was analyzed by separating injury into its components--chlorosis and necrosis--and reflectance into bands within the visible and near-infrared spectra. Results indicate that, for winter wheat, total visible reflectance as well as individual wavelength bands could be used to distinguish the SO/sub 2/ effects. Three classes of chlorosis and four classes of necrosis, based on severity, could be distinguished by their visible reflectance characteristics. These results indicate that remote sensors that measure visible reflectance may be able to distinguish moderate to severe injury to wheat from low altitudes. Scans of soybeans provided less positive results. There was no statistically significant (alpha = 0.05) difference among the means of blue, green, red, or near-infrared reflectance or the IR/R ratio when unaffected and chlorotic soybean classes were compared. However, significant (alpha = 0.05) differences in the means of green, red, and near-infrared reflectance (but not blue and the IR/R ratio) were found when unaffected and moderately to severely necrotic soybean classes were compared. Evidently, unless the SO/sub 2/ injury to soybeans involves necrosis, reflectance-measuring remote sensors are not likely to detect it from even a low-flying (approx. 500 m above ground level) airborne platform. The necrosis symptom is generally associated with severe levels of foliar injury, whereas chlorosis usually predominates at moderate and light levels.

Sapp, C.D.

1980-09-01

229

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-print Network

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 gSO2/kg 2005200019951990 Model Year San Jose Fresno West LA Sulfur Dioxide reductions of regulated emissions 1999-2008. Less dependence upon VSP. Sulfur dioxide: new vehicles

Denver, University of

230

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

2002-10-01

231

Heterogeneous uptake and oxidation of sulfur dioxide on volcanic ash particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on volcanic ash is investigated at room temperatures using a Knudsen cell operated in a steady state. The ash specimens correspond to Eyjafjallajokull (2010), Tungrahua (2012), Pinatubo (1991) and Chaiten (2008) eruptions. The initial uptake coefficient of sulfur dioxide on the ash studied is found to be in the order of 0.001-0.01. Eyjafjallajokull ash exhibits the highest reactivity. The adsorption of sulfur dioxide on the ash surface is irreversible and is accompanied by an oxidation reaction into sulfate, presumably driven by oxidizing agents already present on the ash surface. The presence of adsorbed water does not seem to influence sulfur dioxide adsorption. There is no evidence for a significant dependence of sulfur dioxide uptake on ash composition. The high reactivity of Eyjafjallajokull ash is tentatively attributed to abundant free hydroxyl groups formed on the surface of the ash particles during their transit through the vertical eruption plume. The atmospheric implications of our study will be presented.

Delmelle, P.; Rossi, M.

2013-12-01

232

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

2004-11-01

233

Ion-molecule reactions of O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate: evidence for intramolecular sulfur oxidation during VX perhydrolysis.  

PubMed

The alkaline perhydrolysis of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) was investigated by studying the ion-molecule reactions of HOO(-) with O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate in a modified linear ion-trap mass spectrometer. In addition to simple proton transfer, two other abundant product ions are observed at m/z 125 and 109 corresponding to the S-methyl methylphosphonothioate and methyl methylphosphonate anions, respectively. The structure of these product ions is demonstrated by a combination of collision-induced dissociation and isotope-labeling experiments that also provide evidence for their formation by nucleophilic reaction pathways, namely, (i) S(N)2 at carbon to yield the S-methyl methylphosphonothioate anion and (ii) nucleophilic addition at phosphorus affording a reactive pentavalent intermediate that readily undergoes internal sulfur oxidation and concomitant elimination of CH(3)SOH to yield the methyl methylphosphonate anion. Consistent with previous solution phase observations of VX perhydrolysis, the toxic P-O cleavage product is not observed in this VX model system and theoretical calculations identify P-O cleavage to be energetically uncompetitive. Conversely, intramolecular sulfur oxidation is calculated to be extremely exothermic and kinetically accessible explaining its competitiveness with the facile gas phase proton transfer process. Elimination of a sulfur moiety deactivates the nerve agent VX and thus the intramolecular sulfur oxidation process reported here is also able to explain the selective perhydrolysis of the nerve agent to relatively nontoxic products. PMID:19919083

McAnoy, Andrew M; Williams, Jilliarne; Paine, Martin R L; Rogers, Michael L; Blanksby, Stephen J

2009-12-18

234

Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

1972-01-01

235

PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...

236

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides and...of the stoichiometric amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods...total sulfur content expressed as hydrogen sulfide in excess of 350...

2013-07-01

237

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides and...of the stoichiometric amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods...total sulfur content expressed as hydrogen sulfide in excess of 350...

2011-07-01

238

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides and...of the stoichiometric amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods...total sulfur content expressed as hydrogen sulfide in excess of 350...

2014-07-01

239

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...elemental sulfur, alkylation acid, hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides and...of the stoichiometric amount of hydrogen peroxide absorbent. (ii) The test methods...total sulfur content expressed as hydrogen sulfide in excess of 350...

2012-07-01

240

Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis  

E-print Network

Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

Lyons, J. R.

241

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

2010-01-01

242

Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernįndez, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henrķquez, B.; López, D.; Cįrdenas, C.; Galle, B.

2007-12-01

243

Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999.  

PubMed

Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SOx, NOx and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants such as ozone. PMID:11202740

Krupa, S V; Legge, A H

2001-01-01

244

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15

245

Improved efficiency in the sulfur dioxide-iodine hydrogen cycle through the use of magnesium oxide  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of iodine with dry magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate was studied experimentally as a possible means of improving the efficiency of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle. When no extra water was introduced, the maximum product yield was 67% obtained at 423 K. With excess water vapor, a nonporous plug was formed which prevented complete reaction. In the second case, maximum yield was 62% measured at 433 K showing that added water does not increase reaction products. This reaction gives an alternate route for producing hydrogen from water via the sulfur dioxide-iodine process.

Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

1981-01-01

246

Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

1988-03-01

247

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

NONE

1997-12-31

248

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01

249

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01

250

Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

1974-01-01

251

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2011-07-01

252

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2013-07-01

253

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2012-07-01

254

40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction...2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction...sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil,...

2014-07-01

255

Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

NONE

1996-07-01

256

ACID PRECIPITATION: EFFECTS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SULFATE AEROSOL PARTICLES ON HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

While human health impairment has been attributed to pollution by sulfur dioxide (SO2), data from inhalation studies in animals show that its oxidation products are more irritating. Population surveys in which suspended sulfate was a co-variant suggest that certain health paramet...

257

Acute effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the middle ear mucosa  

SciTech Connect

A variety of atmospheric pollutants are known to depress mucociliary function in the respiratory system. Since the mucociliary function in the middle ear is similar, and the middle ear may be invaded by atmospheric pollutants, we decided to investigate the possible contribution of sulfur dioxide to middle ear effusion. Guinea pigs were exposed for 24 hours to 300 ppm of sulfur dioxide or air. Immediately after exposure, ciliary activity and epithelial structure were examined close to the tympanic orifice (proximal site) and more distal to it (distal site). In the animals exposed to sulfur dioxide, no effusion was found in the tympanic cavity. Ciliary activity was reduced only in the distal site. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypersecretion in the proximal site and severe pathologic changes in the distal site. Although the normally functioning cilia in the proximal site may prevent retention of surplus secretions in the ear, sulfur dioxide may promote middle ear effusion when combined with other detrimental factors, because it stimulates mucus secretion in the proximal site and impairs ciliary function in the distal site.

Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Esaki, Y.

1989-04-01

258

DIFFERING RESPONSE OF ASTHMATICS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE WITH CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT EXERCISE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 c, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and dura...

259

DEVELOPMENT OF FEDERAL AIR STANDARDS TO REDUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives EPA's conclusions from analyses which led to the decision to propose percent reduction Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) to control air emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from new industrial boilers. It summarizes the NSPS. The NSPS would require boil...

260

DEVELOPMENT OF FEDERAL AIR STANDARDS TO REDUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives EPA's conclusions from analyses which led to the decision to propose percent reduction Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) to control air emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from new industrial boilers. It summarizes the NSPS, proposed by EPA on June 19,...

261

COMBINED EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON BEAN AND TOBACCO PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Plants of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris and one cultivar of Nicotiana tabacum were exposed to a replicated series of concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (03), and combinations of these two air pollutants for single four-hour periods. Experiments were performed in ...

262

REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME I: SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO sub 2 ) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and comput...

263

REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. VOLUME I. SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and computer ana...

264

SULFUR DIOXIDE PHOTOOXIDATION RATES AND AEROSOL FORMATION MECHANISMS. A SMOG CHAMBER STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the investigation was to obtain smog chamber data pertaining to the oxidation of sulfur dioxide into sulfate under simulated urban and rural atmospheric conditions. Tasks were performed on various systems ranging from HC + nitrogen oxide + SO2 to clean air + SO2 ...

265

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

266

SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

267

On the Separation of Ash and Sulfur Dioxide in Volcanic Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection and tracking of the hazardous components present in erupting and drifting volcanic clouds (chiefly ash and sulfur dioxide, SO2) is of major importance to airborne hazard mitigation. Satellite observations made by ultraviolet (TOMS) and thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, GMS, MODIS) sensors over the past few decades have revealed that ash and SO2 often exhibit a vertical separation in the

S. A. Carn; D. J. Schneider; G. J. Bluth; S. E. Kobs; W. I. Rose; G. G. Ernst

2002-01-01

268

REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

269

Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices: The effect of expectation errors and irreversibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain the gap between expected and observed allowance prices. The main contributing factors appear to be expectation errors augmented by the presence of irreversible investments.

Juan-Pablo Montero; A. Denny Ellerman

270

ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

271

CALCINATION AND SINTERING OF SORBENTS DURING BOILER INJECTION FOR DRY SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the calcination and sintering of sorbents during boiler injection for dry sulfur dioxide (S02) control, with emphasis on calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--because of its superior reactivity with S02 and its wide commercial availability. Calcination and sintering are...

272

Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

"Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

273

DISPERSION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM THE CLINCH RIVER POWER PLANT, A WIND-TUNNEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A wind-tunnel study of the transport and dispersion of sulfur dioxide from the Clinch River Power Plant in Virginia was performed for periods of neutral atmospheric conditions corresponding to two 1-hour periods for which field data were available. A 7-km x 21-km area of the quit...

274

40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ...and 2 (as defined in appendix G of this part) at the Newton Power Station owned or operated by the Central Illinois...

2014-07-01

275

40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). ...and 2 (as defined in appendix G of this part) at the Newton Power Station owned or operated by the Central Illinois...

2012-07-01

276

40 CFR 60.43 - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators § 60.43 Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ...and 2 (as defined in appendix G of this part) at the Newton Power Station owned or operated by the Central Illinois...

2013-07-01

277

PORE DISTRIBUTION CHANGES OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS REACTING WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a determination of changes in the pore structure of calcium oxide sorbents derived from calcium carbonate (termed c-CaO) and calcium hydroxide (termed h-CaO) reacting with sulfur dioxide (SO2). Results show that the pore shape of c-CaO approximates a cy...

278

OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATES, SULFUR DIOXIDE, AND WATER VAPORS FIELD MEASUREMENTS, JULY 1975  

EPA Science Inventory

Oxygen isotope ratios were determined for atmospheric samples of sulfate aerosols, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor collected simultaneously during a six-day period in July, 1975, at St. Louis, MO; Auburn, IL; and Glasgow, IL. The collection sites were located about 100km apart. C...

279

Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

Megonnell, William H.

1975-01-01

280

Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mapping spectrometer instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), first flown on the Nimbus 7 satellite, has delivered an unanticipated set of unique information about volcanic plumes because of its contiguous spatial mapping and use of UV wavelengths. The accuracies of TOMS sulfur dioxide retrievals, volcanic plume masses, and eruption totals under low-latitude conditions are evaluated using radiative transfer simulations and error analysis.

A. J. Krueger; L. S. Walter; P. K. Bhartia; C. C. Schnetzler; N. A. Krotkov; I. Sprod; G. J. S. Bluth

1995-01-01

281

The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

282

40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4330 What...sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you...or (a)(3) of this section. If your turbine is located in Alaska, you do not...

2010-07-01

283

COST COMPARISONS OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONTROL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM COPPER SMELTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. nonferrous metals production industry is a significant contributor of sulfur dioxide, trace metal, and particulate air emissions. Most of the domestic copper smelting capacity is based on obsolescent technology that is both capital-and energy-intensive and hampered by co...

284

Carbon Monoxide and Sulfur Dioxide Adsorption on— and Desorption from Glass, Plastic, and Metal Tubings  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was planned to install 305 m (1000 ft) of tubing on a television tower to transport ambient air samples from different height levels to pollutant monitoring instruments at ground level. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the sorption characteristics of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide on various conduit materials. Sorption studies were completed on 30.5 m (100 ft)

Henry C. Wohlers; Herman Newstein; Diane Daunis

1967-01-01

285

PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

286

A summary of sulfur dioxide emission rate measuremnts from Guatemalan volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate from three Guatemalan volcanoes provide data which are consistent with theoretical and laboratory studies of eruptive and shallow magma chamber processes. In particular, unerupted magma makes a major contribution to the measured SO2 emission rates at Santiaguito, a continuously erupting dacitic volcanic dome. Varying shallow magma convection rates can explain the variations

Rj Andres; Wi Rose; Re Stoiber; Sn Williams; O. Matķas; R. Morales

1993-01-01

287

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light  

E-print Network

, gasoline SO2 emissions decrease continuously with newer model year vehicles. Introduction Particulate-road, fuel- based mass emissions of ammonia and sulfur dioxide from vehicles of known make, model year, and fuel type. Ammonia is the first pollutant observed for which the emissions decrease with increasing

Denver, University of

288

A Rapid Titrimetric Method for Sulfate in Lead Dioxide Exposed to Atmospheric Sulfur Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A titrimetric method is described for the analysis of sulfate in lead dioxide candles which have been exposed to atmospheric sulfur pollution. The time taken to analyse one sample is 3 hr. Sixty milliliters of 8% ammonium carbonate solution is used to convert the lead sulfate present on the candle to ammonium sulfate. The solution is filtered lc remove lead

A. C. Rayner

1966-01-01

289

Laboratory Measurements of the Millimeter-Wavelength Sulfur Dioxide Absorption Spectrum under Simulated Venus Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 millimeter wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308-343 K and pressures between 0.03- 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Icarus, 2014, in press) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd and Steffes Icarus 97, 1992 and Suleiman et al. JGR 101, E2 1996). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, et al. JQSRT 60, 1998) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This model was implemented in the new Georgia Tech Venus Radiative Transfer Model (GT-VRTM) which is capable of computing both disk-averaged and localized brightness temperatures of Venus. These are compared to observations. This work will improve retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from observations of the Venus atmosphere. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under Grant NNX11AD66G.

Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

2014-11-01

290

The creation of pollution mapping and measurement of ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide with passive sampler  

PubMed Central

Background Measurements of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide using passive sampler over 12 months in Samsun, Turkey, are compared with SO2 and NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located chemiluminescence analyzer. The concentrations of Sulfur and nitrogen dioxide in the ambient air during the period from November 2009 to September 2010 are analyzed. Results The highest value for annual NO2 and SO2 averages of passive sampler was 29.65 ?g/m3 and 21.01 ?g/m3 for exposures of 2-weeks at an industrial site. The maximum monthly concentration for SO2 was observed at the 10th measurement station with 44.19 ?g/m3 for August. The maximum monthly concentration for NO2 was observed on the 3rd measurement station with 42.83 ?g/m3 for November. A negative correlation between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and temperature (R2?=??0.5489) was estimated. A positive correlation between nitrogen dioxide measurement with passive sampler and continuous measurement (R2?=?0.6571) was estimated. PMID:25136451

2014-01-01

291

Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2007-01-01

292

40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

2010-07-01

293

THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

294

EQUILIBRIUM PARTIAL PRESSURE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE IN ALKALINE SCRUBBING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of IERL-RTP in-house studies in which equilibrium partial pressure of SO2 was measured as a function of pH, temperature, and concentration of sulfur (IV) on various scrubber liquors. These studies were done for potassium-, sodium-, and citrate-based scrub...

295

Direct linkage between dimethyl sulfide production and microzooplankton grazing, resulting from prey composition change under high partial pressure of carbon dioxide conditions.  

PubMed

Oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the enzymatic cleavage product of the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and is the most abundant form of sulfur released into the atmosphere. To investigate the effects of two emerging environmental threats (ocean acidification and warming) on marine DMS production, we performed a large-scale perturbation experiment in a coastal environment. At both ambient temperature and ? 2 °C warmer, an increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in seawater (160-830 ppmv pCO2) favored the growth of large diatoms, which outcompeted other phytoplankton species in a natural phytoplankton assemblage and reduced the growth rate of smaller, DMSP-rich phototrophic dinoflagellates. This decreased the grazing rate of heterotrophic dinoflagellates (ubiquitous micrograzers), resulting in reduced DMS production via grazing activity. Both the magnitude and sign of the effect of pCO2 on possible future oceanic DMS production were strongly linked to pCO2-induced alterations to the phytoplankton community and the cellular DMSP content of the dominant species and its association with micrograzers. PMID:24724561

Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Yang, Eun Jin; Hyun, Bonggil; Kim, Ja-Myung; Noh, Jae Hoon; Kim, Miok; Kong, Bokyung; Choi, Dong Han; Choi, Su-Jin; Jang, Pung-Guk; Jeong, Hae Jin

2014-05-01

296

Sulfur dioxide content of Mount St. Helens' ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid heating (980 C)-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique was developed to measure the SO2 produced from Mount St. Helens' ash collected after the May 18, 1980, eruption. The average values of evolved SO2 for ash samples from Moses Lake, Missoula, and Helena are 215, 800, and 1250 ppm, respectively. The results suggest that the SO2 is associated primarily with new magmatic material. Experiments indicate that the SO2 is not due to sulfate species scavenged from the eruption plume or to sulfur gases adsorbed on the ash. Other possible sources include reduction of sulfate salts within the ash, bubbles of SO2 trapped within the ash, or sulfur blebs contained in the ash. Approximately as much SO2 or SO2 precursors are associated with the ash as Mount St. Helens' injected into the stratosphere.

Weschler, C. J.

1984-06-01

297

Process of treating exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for treating an exhaust gas containing NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ comprising bringing the gas into contact with an absorbing solution containing iron chelate salt and potassium sulfite, cooling the solution to crystallize and separate absorption products of potassium imidodisulfonate, potassium dithionate and potassium sulfate, heating the separated products at 250/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/ C. To decompose the potassium dithionate into potassium sulfate and sulfur dioxide, then decomposing the potassium imidodisulfonate into ammonia and simultaneously reducing the potassium sulfate into potassium polysulfide and potassium carbonate, and converting the potassium polysulfide into hydrogen sulfide, gaseous sulfur and potassium carbonate.

Hagiwara, H.; Kudo, Y.

1981-09-08

298

Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in pressurization of the shallow magma system and an increase in earthquake activity. Unlike the short-term SO2 decrease in March 1990, the long-term decrease of sulfur dioxide emission rates from March 1990 through May 1991 was coincident with low rates of seismic energy release and was interpreted to reflect gradual depressurization of the shallow magma reservoir. The long-term declines in seismic energy release and in SO2 emission rates led AVO scientists to conclude on April 19, 1991 that the potential for further eruptive activity from Redoubt Volcano had diminished, and on this basis, the level of concern color code for the volcano was changed from code yellow (Volcano is restless; earthquake activity is elevated; activity may include extrusion of lava) to code green (Volcano is in its normal 'dormant' state). ?? 1994.

Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

1994-01-01

299

CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 2. ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROL OF WEAK SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers the second phase of a three phase effort evaluating (1) characterization of particulate control of a molybdenum sulfide roasters, (2) assessment of sulfur dioxide abatement alternatives for nonferrous smelting and, in particular, for molybdenum roasting, and (3...

300

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants  

E-print Network

) and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) have made consideration of this problem of significant additional importance in the context of increased coal utilization. There exist three general methods for the control of sulfur dioxide emissions from...

Schwartz, M. H.

1979-01-01

301

The Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide and Other Infrared Adsorbers on the Surface of Io from Galileo NIMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) was used to investigate the distribution and relative particle size variations of sulfur dioxide over one hemisphere of Io, centered at 210(deg)W.

Clark, R. W.; Carlson, W. D.; Smythe, R. M. C.; Davies, L. W.; Kamp, J. A.; Mosher, J. A.; Soderblom, F. E.; Leader, R.; Mehlman, R. N.

1997-01-01

302

EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 °C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

303

Systematization of published spectral data on sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a description of properties of published spectral data on spectral lines' parameters of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues. These data were acquired from more than 150 publications for a period of 50 years. Data properties as well as data sources classification according to validity and trust criteria are presented in a form of an ontological knowledge base on information resources. Data source properties values are computed during the assessment of validity and trust1. Published ro-vibrational transitions, energy levels, spectral lines' parameters, knowledge base on information resources of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues are available in the Internet accessible information system W@DIS (http://wadis.saga.iao.ru/).

Voronina, S. S.; Akhlestin, A. Yu.; Kozodoev, A. V.; Lavrentiev, N. A.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Naumenko, O. V.

2014-11-01

304

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on the lock-out system and record any problems with the system in the log. This log shall...hydrogen sulfide per 100 dry standard cubic feet of coke oven gas or the emission of sulfur...and 3 when exiting through one-175 foot stack consistent with section 123 of...

2010-07-01

305

A Sulfur Dioxide Climate Feedback on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconciling evidence for persistent liquid water during the late Noachian with our understanding of the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and of solar luminosity remains a challenge, despite several decades of research. An optically-thicker atmosphere to supply the necessary radiative forcing would result in the existence of a carbon cycle similar to Earth's, where the release of CO2 from volcanoes is balanced by burial of calcium carbonate through silicate weathering reactions that remove protons and release alkalinity to surface waters. Existence of such a carbon cycle on Mars, even for tens of millions of years, would yield carbonate sediments in far greater abundance than has been observed, as well as residual clay minerals. The high concentration of sulfur in Martian soils and rocks indicates that Martian volcanic emissions contained abundant sulfur volatiles in addition to CO2. However, the atmospheric and aquatic chemistry of SO2 under the reducing conditions of early Mars, in contrast with the presently oxidizing and biologically-catalyzed Earth, has not been thoroughly examined. We argue that these conditions may have allowed atmospheric concentrations of SO2 high enough to augment a thick CO2-H2O greenhouse. Furthermore, early Martian climate may have been stabilized by a feedback mechanism involving SO2 and the solubility of sulfite minerals instead of CO2 and the solubility of carbonates. We present the results of a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, demonstrating the radiative importance of SO2 to the planetary energy budget. We also use a simple geochemical model to show that the presence of SO2 in the early Martian atmosphere would have dominated the aquatic chemistry on the planet's surface, and may provide an explanation for how water could have persisted for millions of years without forming massive carbonate sediments, yet allowing the formation of clay minerals.

Halevy, I.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Schrag, D. P.

2007-12-01

306

Geographical Distributions of Temperature Change for Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-dependent geographical distributions of surface–air temperature change relative to year 2000 are constructed for four scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, and are compared to the IS92a scenario. The four new scenarios have been developed by four different modeling teams. The four scenarios are noninterventionist, in that they do not include abatement of GHG emissions for

Michael E. Schlesinger; Sergey Malyshev; Eugene V. Rozanov; Fanglin Yang; Natalia G. Andronova; Bert De Vries; Arnulf Grübler; Kejun Jiang; Toshihiko Masui; Tsuneyuki Morita; Joyce Penner; William Pepper; Alexei Sankovski; Yang Zhang

2000-01-01

307

Mechanistic study on the atmospheric formation of acid rain base on the sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction pathways of acid rain formation from reaction of sulfur dioxide vapor and water vapor on the singlet potential\\u000a energy surface have been investigated theoretically. The calculated results show that the reactants are initially associated\\u000a with the adduct SO2–H2O through a barrier less process. Subsequently, via a variety of transformations of isomer SO2–H2O, three kinds of products H2SO3, SO3 + H2,

Morteza Vahedpour; Fatemeh Zolfaghari

308

Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. ) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring analysis of western larch (Larix occidentialis Nutt) demonstrated both direct and indirect affects of sulfur dioxide emissions from the lead\\/zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. Tree cores were collected from 5 stands known to have been polluted and from 3 control stands. Age effects were removed by fitting theoretical growth curves, and macrocliate was modeled using the average of the

C. A. Fox; W. B. Kincaid; T. H. Nash; D. L. Young; H. C. Fritts

1984-01-01

309

Responses to Sulfur Dioxide and Exercise by Medication-Dependent Asthmatics: Effect of Varying Medication Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one volunteers with moderate to severe asthma were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO2) at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.3, and 0.6 ppm in each of three medication states: (1) low (much of their usual asthma medication withheld), (2) normal (each subject on his own usual medication schedule), and (3) high (usual medication supplemented by inhaled metaproterenol before exposure). Theophylline, the

William S. Linn; Deborah A. Shamoo; Ru-Chuan Peng; Kenneth W. Clark; Edward L. Avol; Jack D. Hackney

1990-01-01

310

Responses to sulfur dioxide and exercise by medication-depend asthmatics: Effect of varying medication levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one volunteers with moderate to severe asthma were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SOā) at concentrations of O (control), 0.3, and 0.6 ppm in each of three medication states: (1) low (much of their usual asthma medication withheld), (2) normal (each subject on his own usual medication schedule), and (3) high (usual medication supplemented by inhaled metaproterenol before exposure). Theophylline, the

W. S. Linn; D. A. Shamoo; R. C. Peng; K. W. Clark; E. L. Avol; J. D. Hackney

2009-01-01

311

Sulfur dioxide molecule sensors based on zigzag graphene nanoribbons with and without Cr dopant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure, electronic, and transport properties of sulfur dioxide (SO2) molecule adsorbed on pure and Cr doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are investigated by means of first principle density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function computations. It is found that Cr doped ZGNR is more sensitive to SO2 molecule than pure ZGNR. The pure ZGNRs with and without SO2 molecule show similar I-V curves, but the current of Cr doped ZGNR will significant increase after SO2 molecule adsorption.

Shao, Li; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang; Niu, Haibo; Wu, Yelong; Zhu, Youzhang; Ding, Bingjun

2014-01-01

312

Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What Are the Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) established a market for transferable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances among electric utilities. This market offers firms facing high marginal abatement costs the opportunity to purchase the right to emit SO2 from firms with lower costs, and this is expected to yield cost savings compared to a command-and-control approach to

Curtis Carlson; Dallas Burtraw; Maureen Cropper; Karen L. Palmer

2000-01-01

313

SOA FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF A-PINENE-NOX IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important constituent in the polluted atmosphere. It is emitted from combustion sources using fuels that contain sulfur. Emissions of SO2 in the United States were reportedly 17 Tg in 1996 with most coming from coal and petroleum combustion. The pr...

314

Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film  

PubMed Central

Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

2010-01-01

315

Ion Clusters in Nucleation Experiments in the CERN Cloud Chamber: Sulfuric Acid + Ammonia + Dimethyl Amine + Oxidized Organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation from gaseous precursors is an important source of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The CLOUD experiment at CERN provides exceptionally clean and well-defined experimental conditions for studies of atmospheric nucleation and initial growth, in a 26 m3 stainless-steel chamber. In addition, the influence of cosmic rays on nucleation and nanoparticle growth can be simulated by exposing the chamber to a pion beam produced by the CERN Proton Synchrotron. A key to understanding the mechanism by which nucleation proceeds in the CLOUD chamber is the use of state-of-the-art instrumentation, including the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. The APi-TOF is developed by Tofwerk AG, and Aerodyne Research, Inc., and typically obtains resolutions between 4000 and 6000 Th/Th and mass accuracies < 10 ppm. Sampling occurs directly from atmospheric pressure through a critical orifice. Ions are then focused and guided to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, while passing through differentially pumped chambers. No ionization of the sampled aerosol is performed; only ions charged in the chamber are detected in the current configuration. For all studied chemical systems, the APi-TOF detected ion clusters that could directly be linked to nucleation. The composition of these ion clusters could be determined based on their exact masses and isotopic patterns. Aided by the chamber's cleanliness and the possibility of enhancing ion concentrations by using CERN's pion beam, a remarkably large fraction of the ion spectra could be identified, even for more complex chemical systems studied. For the ammonia-sulfuric acid-water system, for instance, growing clusters containing ammonia (NH3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) were observed up to 3300 Th. Adding dimethyl amine and/or pinanediol into the CLOUD chamber, altered the chemical compositions of the observed ion clusters accordingly. Cluster growth then included mixtures of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine and/or a wide range of pinanediol oxidation products. The initial growth of clusters/particles was studied from smallest clusters upwards, using a range of employed instrumentation. Condensation particle counters (such as the Particle Size Magnifier, PSM, by Airmodus Oy), for instance, were specially modified to obtain aerosol number size distributions down to the size of molecular clusters at 1.1 nm (mobility equivalent diameter), and at a time resolution of 2 min. The APi-TOF recorded ion spectra every 5 s; and time series for ion cluster appearance could be usually obtained at a practical time resolution of about 30 s. Therefore, the initial growth of ions could be resolved molecule by molecule, while the largest observable ion clusters corresponded to mobility equivalent diameters of 1.8-2.1 nm. Appearance times and growth rates determined from APi-TOF spectra agreed well with those observed by other instruments such as the PSM.

Worsnop, D. R.; Schobesberger, S.; Bianchi, F.; Ehrhart, S.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

2012-12-01

316

Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries  

PubMed Central

Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

2015-01-01

317

Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.  

PubMed

Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

2015-01-01

318

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01

319

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

2001-01-01

320

Stomatal Conductance and Sulfur Uptake of Five Clones of Populus tremuloides Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide 1  

PubMed Central

Plants of five clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 for 8 hours in controlled environment chambers. In the absence of the pollutant, two pollution-resistant clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance (LDC) than did a highly susceptible clone or two moderately resistant clones. Differences in LDC among the latter three clones were not significant. At 0.2 microliter per liter SO2, LDC decreased in the susceptible clone after 8 hours fumigation while the LDC of the other clones was not affected. Fumigation with 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 decreased LDC of all five clones during the fumigation. Rates of recovery following fumigation varied with the clone, but the LDC of all clones had returned to control values by the beginning of the night following fumigation. Night LDC was higher in the susceptible clone than in the other clones. Fumigation for 16 hours (14 hours day + 2 hours night) with 0.4 microliter per liter SO2 decreased night LDC by half. Sulfur uptake studies generally confirmed the results of the conductance measurements. The results show that stomatal conductance is important in determining relative susceptibility of the clones to pollution stress. PMID:16661807

Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Kozlowski, T. T.

1981-01-01

321

EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect

The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2009-11-11

322

Reactions for improving efficiencies in thermochemical cycles related to the sulfur dioxide-iodine process  

SciTech Connect

A modification of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle which uses magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfite and magnesium iodide is examined with particular emphasis on decreasing the amount of water employed and thereby increasing the efficiency. The key reaction is that of iodine with magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate with no additional water. This produces 77% of the total possible sulfate as well as magnesium iodide, hydrogen iodide and hydrogen at 523/sup 0/K. The efficiency of this cycle varies between 58% and 39% depending on the amount of heat that can be recovered. This is the first example of a cycle where there is no large energy burden due to evaporation.

Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

1982-01-01

323

Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO[sub 2] released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO[sub 2] is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO[sub 2]-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO[sub 2] that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

Wallace, P.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1994-07-22

324

Galvanic interaction between chalcopyrite and manganese dioxide in sulfuric acid medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolution of chalcopyrite and managanese dioxide minerals in the presence of each other in sulfuric acid medium was studied using compact disc electrodes of the minerals under various H2SO4 concentrations (0.05 to 0.5 M). [H+] had a positive effect on the reaction rate. Strong galvanic interaction was observed to take place between chalcopyrite and manganese dioxide, the galvanic interaction predominating over the individual dissolution (self-corrosion) rates. Evans diagrams constructed from polarization curves of the two minerals were helpful in interpreting the leaching data. The electrochemical nature of the dissolution reaction was analyzed through application of the Butler-Volmer equation and was confirmed from polarization measurements conducted with the respective mineral electrodes.

Gantayat, B. P.; Rath, P. C.; Paramguru, R. K.; Rao, S. B.

2000-02-01

325

Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxide/nitrogen dioxide/sulfur dioxide from gas streams by combined plasma scrubbing technology.  

PubMed

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered. PMID:15373362

Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren

2004-08-01

326

Remote Sensing of Volcanic Water, Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New data on SO_2 emissions from Lascar and Lonquimay Volcanoes, Chile revives an old observation in igneous petrogenesis: that convergent plate boundary volcanoes often emit more gas than their extrusion products suggest. A comprehensive model which integrates the processes of convection, distillation and basaltic underplating of andesitic magma chambers is suggested to explain these excessive gas emissions. New SO_2 data helps constrain a sulfur flux model for Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. This model was independently formulated and the SO_2 measurements, the first successful measurements at the site in over a decade, confirm one outlet of sulfur from the system. Prior to these measurements, the magnitude of this outlet was only assumed. Twenty years of SO_2 measurements and concurrent volcanic activity at Santiaguito dome, Pacaya Volcano and Fuego Volcano, Guatemala are summarized. SO _2 fluxes help describe the volcanic activity at these three sites and a case for continued gas monitoring of these volcanoes is presented. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery of the same three Guatemalan volcanoes provides data about these volcanoes, not easily accessible on the ground. The images allow for description of thermal anomalies, including their temperature and changing shape over time, and the height of eruption clouds. When on site observations are not possible, imagery offers an additional tool to monitor these volcanoes. Finally, the images provide a permanent record by which to judge future changes at these volcanoes. The development of a Raman lidar for remote measurements of volcanic H_2O, CO_2 and SO_2 emissions is chronicled. The new instrument, capable of measuring many gases, has undergone preliminary design, construction and initial lab tests. Future tests and development are described.

Andres, Robert Joseph

327

Sulfur Dioxide  

MedlinePLUS

... SO 2 : Basic Information - Basics about SO 2 air pollution. Health - Effects of SO 2 air pollution. SO 2 Primary Standards - Links to technical information ... Implementation - Programs and requirements for reducing SO 2 air pollution. Regulatory Actions - Links to proposed and final rules, ...

328

On the Decadal Variation of sulfur dioxide at the Cloud Top of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus atmosphere is a natural laboratory of sulfur chemistry. As one of the parent species of sulfur, sulfur dioxide (SO_2) is generated in the lower atmosphere and transported upward to the middle atmosphere, where it is further oxidized and eventually produces sulfuric acid cloud. The 30-year observations from the Pioneer Venus (Esposito et al., 1988) and the Venus Express (Marcq et al., 2012) show a decadal variation of total column abundance of SO_2 above the cloud top. The amplitude varies in about two orders of magnitude and therefore poses a question on what causes such a dramatic change on the sulfur budget. Previous interpretations include episodic volcanic eruption (Esposito 1984) and long-time dynamical oscillations (Marcq et al., 2012) that supported by a recent general circulation model on Venus (Parish et al., 2011). Here we attempt to understand the secular variation of SO_2 using a one-dimensional (1D) time-evolving photochemistry-diffusion model which includes about 50 species and about 350 reactions (Zhang et al., 2010; 2011). Specifically for this study, we perturb the mean steady state of the middle atmosphere of Venus by adding forcings at the bottom layer (at about 58 km). Two types of forcing are considered here: (1) the volcanic eruption is simulated by a mass flux injected from the bottom layer; and (2) a wavy structure is provided on the eddy diffusion profile to approximate the dynamical perturbations. Important parameters such as the amplitude and timescale of the forcings are constrained by the observation secular patterns. Possible consequences are discussed and the variations for other species are predicted to guide the future observations. This research was supported by the Bisgrove scholar Program in the University of Arizona.

Zhang, Xi

329

The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

1997-01-01

330

Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of some user-controlled parameters, including image exposure duration, the diameter of the lens aperture, the frequency of calibration cell imaging, and the use of the single or paired bandpass filters, have not yet been addressed. In order to clarify methodological consequences and quantify accuracy, laboratory and field experiments were conducted. Images were collected of calibration cells under varying observational conditions, and our conclusions provide guidance for enhanced image collection. Results indicate that the calibration cell response is reliably linear below 1500 ppm m, but that the response is significantly affected by changing light conditions. Exposure durations that produced maximum image digital numbers above 32 500 counts can reduce noise in plume images. Sulfur dioxide retrieval results from a coal-fired power plant plume were compared to direct sampling measurements and the results indicate that the accuracy of the UV camera retrieval method is within the range of current spectrometric methods. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Dalton, M.P.; Watson, I.M.; Nadeau, P.A.; Werner, C.; Morrow, W.; Shannon, J.M.

2009-01-01

331

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1980 PROFICIENCY SURVEY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on authority granted by provisions of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7410, et seq.), the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC administers periodic surveys of analytical proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitroge...

332

Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization  

E-print Network

Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental employed for the study of the reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters (VmOn) with sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the gas phase. VmOn clusters are generated by reaction of a laser-generated vanadium plasma with O2

Rocca, Jorge J.

333

FIELD TESTING TO DETERMINE THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM OLD IN SITU OIL SHALE FIELD-SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the major technology needs in the development of the oil shale industry is to adopt and develop methods for controlling the release of pollutants to the environment. Large quantities of sulfur dioxide may be generated from oil shale retorting operations. Sulfur dioxide is ...

334

Global dry deposition of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide inferred from space-based measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is developed to estimate global NO2 and SO2 dry deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution (0.1°×0.1°) using satellite measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite, in combination with simulations from the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). These global maps for 2005-2007 provide a data set for use in examining global and regional budgets of deposition. In order to properly assess SO2 on a global scale, a method is developed to account for the geospatial character of background offsets in retrieved satellite columns. Globally, annual dry deposition to land estimated from OMI as NO2 contributes 1.5 ± 0.5 Tg of nitrogen and as SO2 contributes 13.7 ± 4.0 Tg of sulfur. Differences between OMI-inferred NO2 dry deposition fluxes and those of other models and observations vary from excellent agreement to an order of magnitude difference, with OMI typically on the low end of estimates. SO2 dry deposition fluxes compare well with in situ Clear Air Status and Trends Network-inferred flux over North America (slope = 0.98, r = 0.71). The most significant NO2 dry deposition flux to land per area occurs in the Pearl River Delta, China, at 13.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while SO2 dry deposition has a global maximum rate of 72.0 kg S ha-1 yr-1 to the east of Jinan in China's Shandong province. Dry deposition fluxes are explored in several urban areas, where NO2 contributes on average 9-36% and as much as 85% of total NOy dry deposition.

Nowlan, C. R.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Marais, E. A.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Q.

2014-10-01

335

Remote sensing of sulfur dioxide effects on vegetation: spectral reflectance of soybeans and winter wheat exposed to sulfur dioxide in experimental plots  

SciTech Connect

Remote measurements of the spectral reflectance of experimental, 0.40 ha plots of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var Essex) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) var Coker 68-15) were made after the plants were given controlled exposures of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and the foliar effects were observed and recorded. The plots were divided into subplots, each of which was treated with a specific dose of the pollutant; the 2-hour average concentrations ranged from zero to 10480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ to simulate acute exposures that might occur in agricultural areas near large, coal-fired power plants. Then the subplots were scanned systematically with a spectroradiometer. Spectral scanning as performed on these subplots can provide guidance for selecting appropriate films and optical filters for aerial multiband cameras and optimal channel combinations for airborne multispectral scanners to be used for detecting and mapping SO/sup 2/ effects on sensitive crops. It is concluded that although some statistically significant relationships exist between reflectance and foliar injury, they show up only when the level of injury is relatively severe. The very light to moderate effects that might be encountered in agricultural fields near large, coal-fired power plants probably cannot be consistently detected with airborne remote sensors because of the masking effects of variables such as weediness, canopy density, and moisture stress. In these experiments it was much easier to detect the SO/sub 2/ effects on wheat than on soybeans.

Sapp, C.D.

1980-11-01

336

Alkali metal-sulfur dioxide complexes stabilized by halogenated closo-dodecaborate anions.  

PubMed

The alkali metal salts (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) of the perchlorinated closo-dodecaborate [B(12)Cl(12)](2-) were prepared by reaction of [NEt(3)H](2)[B(12)Cl(12)] with the corresponding alkali metal hydroxide. Crystallization of M(2)[B(12)Cl(12)] from liquid sulfur dioxide gave the sulfur dioxide complexes [Li(2)(SO(2))(8)][B(12)Cl(12)], Na(2)[B(12)Cl(12)].4SO(2), K(2)[B(12)Cl(12)].8SO(2), Rb(2)[B(12)Cl(12)].4SO(2), and Cs(2)[B(12)Cl(12)].SO(2), which were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In this work structurally characterized SO(2) complexes of the alkali metal cations K(+) and Rb(+) are reported for the first time. The structure of [Li(2)(SO(2))(8)][B(12)Cl(12)] contains discrete [Li(2)(SO(2))(8)](2+) dications and [B(12)Cl(12)](2-) dianions. Born-Haber cycles based on quantum chemical calculations and estimations of lattice enthalpies for the solid state explain the stability of the discrete dication [Li(2)(SO(2))(8)](2+) in the solid state. Heavier alkali metals form three-dimensional networks containing metal-anion and metal-sulfur dioxide contacts. The crystal structures of Na(2)[B(12)Br(12)].8SO(2) and Na(2)[B(12)I(12)].8SO(2) were determined to investigate the influence of the halogen substituent on the anion. They contain similar three-dimensional network structures. Na(2)[B(12)Br(12)].8SO(2) is isostructural to K(2)[B(12)Cl(12)].8SO(2). In addition the crystal structures of the complexes Na(2)[B(12)I(12)].8SO(2).H(2)O and Na(2)[B(12)H(12)].6SO(2).2H(2)O, which contain water ligands, are reported as well. A comparison of halogenated dodecaborates [B(12)X(12)](2-) (X = F, Cl, Br, I) based on [small nu, Greek, tilde](N-H) stretching frequencies of the corresponding [Oct(3)NH](2)[B(12)X(12)] (X = F - I) salts shows that the fluorinated anion [B(12)F(12)](2-) is the least basic and the iodinated anion [B(12)I(12)](2-) is the most basic anion in this series. These findings are in agreement with those for the corresponding series of perhalogenated carboranes and are explained by the polarizability of the halogen substituent. PMID:20717610

Derendorf, Janis; Kessler, Mathias; Knapp, Carsten; Rühle, Monika; Schulz, Christoph

2010-10-01

337

Trend analysis of monthly sulfur dioxide emissions in the conterminous United States, 1975-1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease though the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. In addition, five regions of coherent sulfur dioxide emissions behavior are defined on the basis of seasonal occurrence of maximum and minimum emission loadings. A winter-summer, latitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions maxima, whereas an equinox-summer, longitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions minima.Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease through the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. Additional study results are discussed.

Lins, H.F.

1987-01-01

338

Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide over CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts.  

PubMed

CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) (X = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.0) nano-catalysts were prepared by a co-precipitation method with a variation of CeO2 content (X, mol%), and they were applied to the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. Successful formation of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts was well confirmed by XRD analysis. The amount of DMC produced over CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) catalysts exhibited a volcano-shaped curve with respect to CeO2 content. Acidity and basicity of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts were measured by NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD experiments, respectively, to elucidate the effect of acidity and basicity on the catalytic performance in the reaction. It was revealed that the catalytic performance of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts was closely related to the acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Amount of dimethyl carbonate increased with increasing both acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) with the largest acidity and basicity showed the best catalytic performance in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. PMID:24266202

Kang, Ki Hyuk; Joe, Wangrae; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Mieock; Kim, Dong Baek; Jang, Boknam; Song, In Kyu

2013-12-01

339

FLUX DETERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN THE EXPOSURE OF RED SPRUCE TO GASEOUS HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, OZONE, AND SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We report on the 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. ozone, and sulfur dioxide. he exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H2O2, O3, and SO2 that have been observed du...

340

Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Thompson inoculated on freshly-harvested table grapes under standard cold storage with initial and weekly sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation. L. monocytogenes and S. enterica Thompson were much more...

341

Metalcasting: A Process to Recover and Reuse Sulfur Dioxide Used in Forming Cold Box Molds for Metalcasting  

SciTech Connect

As this fact sheet explains, there are several potential uses for this new process to recover and reuse sulfur dioxide for metalcasting operations. Employing this process will reduce energy consumption, eliminate the need for caustic effluent, and pay back in less than one year.

Blazek, S.

1999-01-29

342

Foliar injury symptoms of Saskatoon serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) as a biological indicator of ambient sulfur dioxide exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saskatoon serviceberry or Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. cv. Smoky) seedlings were planted at five study sites within a 35,000 km2 airshed, that is influenced by a number of isolated stationary sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, among others. The locations of the five sites were based on the results of a meteorological dry deposition model for

S. V. Krupa; A. H. Legge

1999-01-01

343

Retrieval of vertical columns of sulfur dioxide from SCIAMACHYand OMI: Air mass factor algorithm development, validation, and error  

E-print Network

Retrieval of vertical columns of sulfur dioxide from SCIAMACHYand OMI: Air mass factor algorithm and OMI) that measure ultraviolet solar backscatter. For each SCIAMACHY and OMI observation, a local air over polluted regions. Seasonal mean SO2 columns retrieved from SCIAMACHY and OMI for 2006

Martin, Randall

344

Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation  

SciTech Connect

Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bowker, R.G. [Alma Coll., MI (US). Dept. of Biology

1993-09-01

345

The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

2011-01-01

346

Developing an Alternative to Sulfur Dioxide for Maintaining Quality and Reducing Decay of Table Grapes during Storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, SO2 is dangerous to people who are allergic to sulfites and its application has been rest...

347

Improvement in the capacity and safety of lithium/inorganic electrolyte sulfur dioxide rechargeable cells, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective was to develop a prototype rechargeable lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon cell, using practical AA size hardware, in which the electrolyte was to be a sulfur dioxide solution of lithium bromide or thiocyanate, together with a highly soluble cosolute, a second non-lithium salt of the same anion. The cosolute was intended to replace the organic cosolvents familiar from the primary cells, and hopefully, to improve lithium plating efficiency and electrolyte stability during cycling. The primary discharge capacities for AA size cells containing 1.25M CsBr/0.12 M LiBr/SO2 were only about 400mAh, while secondary and subsequent capacities were less than 200 mAh. The rates of solvolysis of bromide and of thiocyanate were exacerbated apparently both by the high anion concentrations and by increased lithium ion concentration. Lithium/sulfur dioxide/carbon rechargeable cells were examined in which the electrolytes were mixtures of tetrachloro aluminate salts in sulfur dioxide, to take advantage of the better performance, but to face the problem of limited capacity. It was determined that the capacity of lithium/bromine soluble positive cells was being limited by the loss of electrical contact between the carbon and the positive electrode current collector. Also, lithium plating efficiency was poor.

Schlaikjer, Carl R.; Jones, Medlinda D.; Johnson, Arden P.; Torkelson, James E.; Vanschalkwijk, Walter

1990-11-01

348

Impact of ozone and sulfur dioxide on the yield of agricultural crops. Technical bulletin  

SciTech Connect

The National Crop Loss Assessment Network (NCLAN) was formed in 1980 to assess the effects of air pollutants on major agricultural crop yields. NCLAN consisted of U. S. government and non-government organizations that conducted field experiments, crop yield modeling, and economic analyses. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were selected as the air pollutant treatments for NCLAN studies because they were known to cause damage to vegetation. Experimental methods and results from individual studies have been reported by the principal investigators in many publications. The purpose of the publication is to summarize the statistical methods used in the combined analyses, to present the polynomial and Weibull ozone dose-response equations determined in the combined analyses, and to summarize the effects of ozone on crop yields by presenting estimated relative yield losses for postulated levels of ozone pollution.

Sommerville, M.C.; Spruill, S.E.; Rawlings, J.O.; Lesser, V.M.

1989-11-01

349

Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. ) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Tree-ring analysis of western larch (Larix occidentialis Nutt) demonstrated both direct and indirect affects of sulfur dioxide emissions from the lead/zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. Tree cores were collected from 5 stands known to have been polluted and from 3 control stands. Age effects were removed by fitting theoretical growth curves, and macrocliate was modeled using the average of the controls and two laged values thereof. Separate analyses were performed for years before and after installation of two tall stacks, for drought and nondrought years, and for years prior to initiation of smelting. Regression analyses revealed a negative effect on annual growth that diminished with increasing distance from the smelter and during drought years. Furthermore, chronology statistics suggested an increase in sensitivity to climate that persisted decades beyond implementation of pollution controls, which reduced emissions 10-fold. 38 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Fox, C.A.; Kincaid, W.B.; Nash, T.H. III; Young, D.L.; Fritts, H.C.

1984-12-01

350

Sulfur dioxide: Rotational constants and asymmetric structure of the C~1B2 state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight bands of the 2350 Å system of sulfur dioxide have been rotationally analyzed as A-type transitions of a prolate asymmetric rotor, confirming that the electronic transition is 1B2 <-- 1A1[2b1(pi*) <-- 1a2(pi)]. The electronic energy and rotational constants of the 0-0 band are, in cm-1: T042573.450+\\/-0.005deltaJ(0.041+\\/-0.05)10-5, A0001.15053+\\/-0.00014deltaJK(1.34+\\/-0.04)10-5, B0000.34744+\\/-0.00002deltaK(0.73+\\/-0.09)10-5, C0000.26543+\\/-0.00002deltaJ(0.009+\\/-0.003)10-5, delta(uÅ20.339+\\/-0.005deltaK(0.42+\\/-0.21)10-5 These constants correspond to the average structure r0 =

J. C. D. Brand; P. H. Chiu; A. R. Hoy; H. D. Bist

1976-01-01

351

The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared  

SciTech Connect

In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in vitro to asses the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction in vivo is not valid.

DuBay, D.T. (Air Quality Field Lab., Raleigh, NC); Murdy, W.H.

1983-01-01

352

Chemical transformations and disproportionation of sulfur dioxide on transition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect

Aside from its renown as a source of acid precipitation, sulfur dioxide is remarkable in possessing physicochemical and coordination properties that are more diverse than those of any other small molecule. SO{sub 2} is amphoteric, behaving as a Lewis acid or base, mild oxidant or reductant, or oxygen donor or acceptor. It is an excellent nonaqueous solvent when liquefied at -10{degrees}C and coordinates to many types of compounds, including metal complexes at both metal and ligand sites, strong Lewis acids, and virtually all nucleophiles, even halide ion. SO{sub 2} can bind strongly to low-valent metals like CO or NO or completely reversibly like O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The diversity of metal-SO{sub 2} bonding geometries is unmatched and has been reviewed. This Account will focus on the reactivity of SO{sub 2} e.g. SO double bond cleavage. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Kubas, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-07-01

353

The importance of ozone in the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in nonurban tropospheric clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In studies of the various possible mechanisms which contribute to the conversion of atmospheric sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, oxidation within the aqueous, droplet phase of tropospheric clouds has been identified as a major contributor. It has appeared that possibly much of this oxidation is by hydrogen peroxide, with the contribution from ozone being only minimal. The present investigation is concerned with the relative importance of O3 and H2O2 oxidation as a function of pH. The results of a new experimental study of the O3-S(IV) reaction in aqueous solution are presented, and potential S(IV) oxidation rates by O3 in cloud water are compared with those predicted for H2O2. The investigation indicates the potential importance of O3 as a contributor to the overall oxidative conversion of SO2 within typical nonpolluted tropospheric clouds.

Maahs, H. G.

1982-01-01

354

The effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorine dioxide in the clinical reduction of volatile sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouthrinse containing 0.3% chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in reducing oral volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Halitosis was induced by L-cysteine in 11 volunteers, and 4 solutions were compared: a test solution containing 0.3% ClO2, 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 0.05% sodium fluoride; a placebo; a solution containing 0.05% CPC; and a control solution of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). VSC levels were assessed using a Halimeter, and 6 measurements were made from baseline to 3 hours postrinse. The VSC reduction rate of the test mouthrinse was superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. There was no difference between the test solution and the CHX solution in VSC reduction rates immediately postrinse, or at 2 and 3 hours postrinse; both solutions were statistically superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. PMID:23823344

Soares, Leo Guimaraes; Guaitolini, Roberto Luiz; Weyne, Sergio de Carvalho; Falabella, Marcio Eduardo Vieira; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto; da Silva, Denise Gomes

2013-07-01

355

Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO? (P?

Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

2015-01-01

356

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

1996-02-01

357

Sulfur dioxide adsorbed on graphene and heteroatom-doped graphene: a first-principles study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on intrinsic graphene and heteroatom-doped (B, N, Al, Si, Cr, Mn, Ag, Au, and Pt) graphene samples was theoretically studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory to exploit their potential applications as SO2 gas sensors. The structural and electronic properties of the graphene-molecule adsorption adducts are strongly dependent on the dopants. SO2 molecule is adsorbed weakly on intrinsic graphene, and B-, N-doped graphene; in general, strong chemisorption is observed on Al-, Si-, Cr-, Mn-, Ag-, Au-, and Pt-doped graphene. The adsorption mechanisms are discussed from charge transfers and density of states. This work reveals that the sensitivity of graphene-based chemical gas sensors for SO2 can be drastically improved by introducing appropriate dopant, and Cr, as well as Mn, may be the best choices among all the dopants.

Shao, Li; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang; Wu, Yelong; Qiao, Zhijuan; Zhu, Youzhang; Niu, Haibo

2013-02-01

358

Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

1985-08-01

359

Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus. 1: Sounding rocket observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in the spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary special absorber in the 190-230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et al. (1994) show that sulfur monixide features are also present intese data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targents within 18 deg of the Sun while Earth-orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

1994-01-01

360

Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on yield of red clover and timothy  

SciTech Connect

A two-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2}, both alone and in combination, on the yield and quality of a mixed crop of red clover and timothy. Sulfur dioxide had no effect on yield and there were no interactions between the pollutants. In the first year of the study, exposure to increasing concentrations of O{sub 3} led to reductions in yield primarily through reductions in the yield of red clover; there was little effect on the growth of timothy. In the second year, red clover had become less prevalent in the stand and O{sub 3} had no impact on total yield since the stand was dominated by the more O{sub 3}-resistant timothy. In summary, the effect of O{sub 3} on the yield of the stand of mixed forage was not only a function of the concentration of the pollutant, but also of the relative O{sub 3}-sensitivity and contribution to the stand for each species. Evaluations of crop quality indicated that with the exception of an increase in foliar sulfur, none of the treatments altered the variables assessed.

Kohut, R.J.; Laurence, J.A.; Amundson, R.G.

1988-01-01

361

Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus 1 sounding rocket observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in that spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary spectral absorber in the 190 - 230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et. al. (1994) show that sulfur monoxide features are also present in these data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targets within 18 deg of the sun while earth orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

1994-01-01

362

Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

2014-01-01

363

Dynamic analysis of sulfur dioxide monthly emissions in United States power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 marked a moving away from command-and-control air quality regulations towards a market-based approach, whereby polluters are assigned annual emission allowances, and are free to select the minimum-cost approach that will keep their actual annual emissions within this allowance limit. Within this context, the objectives of this research are to better understand (1) the temporal patterns of SO 2 emissions from power plants, and (2) the factors affecting fuel choice and SO2 emissions. Large power plant-related datasets from various sources are collected, processed, and combined for empirical analyses, to explain monthly fuel shipments, fuel consumptions, sulfur shipments, gross and net SO 2 emissions, and fuel choices. Because of the interdependency of these various sulfur dioxide, simultaneous equations estimation techniques are used. The empirical findings are as follows. First, forecasts of electricity demand and fuel prices are the main determinants of the amounts and types of fuel shipments. The relationship between fuel shipments and forecasted fuel needs is very strong for the current month, and gradually weakens over future months, due to forecasting difficulties and the costs of fuel inventories. Second, net SO2 emissions increase with allowances, although not proportionately, because of the likely effects of allowance banking and trading. Third, each plant reduces SO2 emissions gradually over time, to account for the future more stringent Phase II emissions constraints. Fourth, plants emit less in winter, possibly because higher electricity leads to reduced unit SO2 emission abatement costs. Finally, plants with an FGD usually consume more high-sulfur fuels due to their potential abatement capability. An integrated analysis of the effects of changing emission allowances and installing FGD is conducted through a simulation. Reducing allowances by 1% leads to an emissions reduction of 0.15% at the plant level. However, if allowances were reduced uniformly nationwide, this effect would be stronger because of reduced allowance trading opportunities.

Kim, Tae-Kyung

364

The influence of hydroxyl volatile organic compounds on the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by oxygen.  

PubMed

Although the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen has been the subject of many investigations, this is the first study which examines the effect of a large number of precisely 16 hydroxy compounds. The kinetics both in the absence and the presence of VOCs was defined by rate laws (A and B): -d[S(IV)]dt = R? = k?[S(IV)] (A) -d[S(IV)]dt = R(i) = k(i)[S(IV)] (B) where R? and k? are the initial rate and first-order rate constant, respectively, in the absence of VOCs, R(i), and k(i) are the initial rate and the first-order rate constant, respectively, in the presence of VOCs, and [S(IV)] is the concentration of dissolved sulfur dioxide, sulfur(IV). The nature of the dependence of k(i) on the concentration of inhibitor, [Inh], was defined by Eq. (C). [k(i) = k?/(1 + B[Inh]) (C) where B is an empirical inhibition parameter. The values of B have been determined from the plots of 1/k(i) versus [Inh]. Among aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy compounds studied, t-butyl alcohol and pinacol were without any inhibition effect due to the absence of secondary or tertiary hydrogen. The values of inhibition parameter, B, were related to k(inh), the rate constant for the reaction of SO?(-) radical with the inhibitor, by Eq. (D). B = (9 ± 2) x 10?? x k(inh) (D) Equation (D) may be used to calculate the values of either of B or k(inh) provided that the other is known. The extent of inhibition depends on the value of the composite term, B[Inh]. However, in accordance with Eq. (C), the extent of inhibition would be sizeable and measurable when B[Inh]?> 0.1 and oxidation of S(IV) would be almost completely stopped when B[Inh]???10. B[Inh] value can be used as a guide whether the reaction step: SO4 (-)?+ organics???SO?(2-)?+ non-chain products: should be included in the multiphase models or not. PMID:24638831

Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

2014-07-01

365

Conjugated processes of the chemical transformation of sulfur dioxide under the effect of chain gas-phase reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect sulfur dioxide has on the dynamics of the spontaneous ignition of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures is studied. Additives of SO2 have no negative effect on spontaneous ignition and undergo chemical conversion to form elemental sulfur. The results are analyzed using the theory of branched chain reactions along with data on SO2 conversion under the action of chain reactions of hydrocarbon oxidation and slow hydrogen oxidation. The transformations classified as parallel reactions from the viewpoint of formal kinetics could actually be conjugated radical-chain processes.

Mantashyan, A. A.

2015-01-01

366

Relating summer ambient particulate sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and light scattering to gaseous tracer emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project.  

PubMed

Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-north-east of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur, and light scattering to evaluate whether MPP's emissions could be transported to the GCNP and then impact haze levels there. Spatial analyses indicated that particulate sulfur levels were strongly correlated across the monitoring network, regardless of whether the monitoring stations were upwind or downwind of MPP. This indicates that particulate sulfur levels in this region were influenced by distant regional emission sources. A significant particulate sulfur contribution from a point source such as MPP would result in a non-uniform pattern downwind. There was no suggestion of this in the data. Furthermore, correlations between the MPP tracer and ambient particulate sulfur and light scattering at locations in the park were virtually zero for averaging times ranging from 24 hr to 1 hr. Hour-by-hour MPP tracer levels and light scattering were individually examined, and still no positive correlations were detected. Finally, agreement between tracer and particulate sulfur did not improve as a function of meteorological regime, implying that, even during cloudy monsoon days when more rapid conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfur would be expected, there was no evidence for downwind particulate sulfur impacts. Despite the fact that MPP was a large source of SO2 and tracer, neither time series nor correlation analyses were able to detect any meaningful relationship between MPP's SO2 and tracer emission "signals" to particulate sulfur or light scattering. PMID:10842939

Mirabella, V A; Farber, R J

2000-05-01

367

The hetero-Diels-Alder addition of sulfur dioxide: the pseudo-chair conformation of a 4,5-dialkylsultine.  

PubMed

Even unsubstituted butadiene adds to sulfur dioxide in the hetero-Diels-Alder mode more rapidly than in the chelotropic mode. The sultine can be observed in equilibrium with the diene and the sulfur dioxide only at low temperature and in the presence of CF(3)COOH. Crystals of 4,5-dialkyl-sultine resulting from the SO(2) addition to 1,2-dimethylidenecyclohexane have been obtained at -100 degrees C and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Quantum chemical calculations have shown that hyperconjugative interactions within the sulfinyl moiety are responsible for the anomeric effects observed in sultines that prefer pseudo-chair conformations with pseudo-axial Sdbond;O bonds. PMID:14562309

Markovic, Dean; Roversi, Elena; Scoppelliti, Rosario; Vogel, Pierre; Meana, Rubén; Sordo, José A

2003-10-17

368

Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions from biomass burning in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the major reduced sulfur-containing gas emitted from bushfires in Australia's Northern Territory. Like dimethyl sulfide (DMS), DMDS is oxidized in the atmosphere to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), which are intermediates in the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The mixing ratios of DMDS and DMS were the highest we have ever detected, with maximum values of 113 and 35 ppbv, respectively, whereas background values were below the detection limit (10 pptv). Molar emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were [1.6 +/- 0.1] × 10-5 and [6.2 +/- 0.3] × 10-6, for DMDS and DMS respectively, while molar emission ratios relative to carbon dioxide (CO2) were [4.7 +/- 0.4] × 10-6 and [1.4 +/- 0.4] × 10-7, respectively. Assuming these observations are representative of biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning could yield up to 175 Gg/yr of DMDS (119 Gg S/yr) and 13 Gg/yr of DMS.

Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

2003-05-01

369

Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

2011-09-01

370

Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

2011-07-01

371

Role of some organic inhibitors on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen in rainwater medium.  

PubMed

In August 2012, eight rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH and metal ions, viz., iron, copper, and manganese. The pH was within the range 6.84-7.65. The rate of oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide was determined using these rainwater samples as reaction medium. Kinetics was defined by the rate law: -d[S(IV)]/dt = R o = k o[S(IV)

Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

2014-03-01

372

In-situ surface science studies of the interaction between sulfur dioxide and two-dimensional palladium loaded-cerium/zirconium mixed metal oxide model catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerium and zirconium oxides are important materials in industrial catalysis. Particularly, the great advances attained in the past 30 years in controlling levels of gaseous pollutants released from internal combustion engines can be attributed to the development of catalysts employing these materials. Unfortunately, oxides of sulfur are known threats to the longevity of many catalytic systems by irreversibly interacting with catalytic materials. In this work, polycrystalline cerium-zirconium mixed-metal-oxide (MMO) solid solutions were synthesized. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectral data was collected and examined for revelation of the surface species that form on these metal oxides after in-situ exposures to sulfur dioxide. The model catalysts were exposed to sulfur dioxide using a custom modified in-situ reaction cell and platen heater. The results of this study demonstrate the formation of sulfate and sulfite surface sulfur species. Temperature and compositional dependencies were displayed, with higher temperatures and ceria molar ratios displaying a larger propensity for forming surface sulfur species. In addition to analysis of sulfur photoemission, the photoemission regions of oxygen, zirconium, and cerium were examined for the materials used in this study before and after the aforementioned treatments with sulfur dioxide. The presence of surface hydroxyl groups was observed and metal oxidation state changes were probed to further enhance the understanding of sulfur dioxide adsorption on the synthesized materials. Palladium loaded mixed-metal oxides were synthesized using a unique solid-state methodology to probe the effect of palladium addition on sulfur dioxide adsorption. The addition of palladium to this model system is shown to have a strong effect on the magnitude of adsorption for sulfur dioxide on some material/exposure condition combinations. Ceria/zirconia sulfite and sulfate species are identified on the palladium-loaded MMO materials with adsorption sites located on the exposed oxide sites.

Romano, Esteban Javier

2005-07-01

373

Pulmonary response to threshold levels of sulfur dioxide (1. 0 ppm) and ozone (0. 3 ppm) (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

The authors exposed 22 healthy adult non-smoking men for 2 hours to either filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide, 0.30 ppm ozone, or the combination of 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide plus 0.30 ppm ozone. It was hypothesized that exposure to near-threshold concentrations of these pollutants would show any interaction between the two pollutants that might have been masked by the more-obvious response to the higher concentrations of ozone used in previous studies. Each subject alternated 30-minute treadmill exercise with 10-minute rest periods for the 2 hours. Following ozone exposure alone, forced expiratory measurements (FVC, FEV-1, and FEF25-75%) were significantly decreased. The combined exposure to SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ produced similar but smaller decreases in these measures. There were small but significant differences between the ozone and the ozone plus sulfur dioxide exposure for FVC, FEV-1,-2,-3, and FEF25-75% at the end of the 2-hour exposure. It was concluded that, with these pollutant concentrations, there is no additive or synergistic effect of the two pollutants on pulmonary function.

Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M.

1985-01-01

374

The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2014-10-01

375

Contrasting effects of sulfur dioxide on cupric oxide and chloride during thermochemical formation of chlorinated aromatics.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas has been reported to be an inhibitor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) formation in fly ash. However, other research has suggested little or no inhibitory effect of SO2 gas. Although these studies focused on reactions between SO2 gas and gas-phase chlorine (Cl) species, no attention was paid to thermochemical gas-solid reactions. In this study, we found contrasting effects of SO2 gas depending on the chemical form of copper (CuO vs CuCl2) with a solid-phase inorganic Cl source (KCl). Chlorinated aromatics (PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorobenzenes) increased and decreased in model fly ash containing CuO + KCl and CuCl2 + KCl, respectively, with increased SO2 injection. According to in situ Cu K-edge and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Cl gas and CuCl2 were generated and then promoted the formation of highly chlorinated aromatics after thermochemical reactions of SO2 gas with the solid-phase CuO + KCl system. In contrast, the decrease in aromatic-Cls in a CuCl2 + KCl system with SO2 gas was caused mainly by the partial sulfation of the Cu. The chemical form of Cu (especially the oxide/chloride ratio) may be a critical factor in controlling the formation of chlorinated aromatics using SO2 gas. PMID:25377729

Fujimori, Takashi; Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki

2014-12-01

376

Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

1980-07-01

377

Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.

DuBay, D.T.

1981-01-01

378

Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate  

PubMed Central

This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100?mL of this absorption solution at 298?K (flue gas rate of 0.12?m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63?g SHA-Na is 0.946?mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037?g SO2 g?1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

Hu, Guoxin

2013-01-01

379

Estimation of sulfur dioxide air pollution concentrations with a spatial autoregressive model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a land-use regression model for sulfur dioxide air pollution concentrations. We make use of mobile monitoring data collected in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, between 2005 and 2010 inclusive. The observed SO2 concentrations are regressed against a comprehensive set of land use and transportation variables. Land use and transportation variables are assessed as the amount of each characteristic within buffers of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 m around pollution observation locations. In the first instance of regression modeling, we apply ordinary least-squares regression. The OLS model R2 for training data was 0.38, and an R2 of 0.3 for a 50% held out cross-validation data set. The residuals are spatially correlated with the OLS model as determined with Moran's I. We thus applied a simultaneous autoregressive model, specifically the spatial error model. The resulting model slightly improved fit as determined by a pseudo R2 = 0.4, improved log-likelihood, and reduced MSE, RMSE, and MAE. The spatial error model residuals were not spatially auto-correlated, resulting in a valid model. SAR modeling is a natural extension to OLS regression models and solves the issue of spatial autocorrelation in model residuals with a one-stage model.

Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.; Adams, Matthew D.; De Luca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Sohel, Nazmul

2013-11-01

380

Development of disposable amperometric sulfur dioxide biosensors based on screen printed electrodes.  

PubMed

The possibility of developing amperometric biosensors for the measurement of SO(2) in flowing gas streams has been examined. Screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) were tailored with the enzyme sulfite oxidase and cytochrome c and the response is generated through the resulting enzymatic and electrocatalytic reactions involving SO(3)(2-), formed when SO(2) gas is dissolved in the supporting electrolyte. Two methods of integrating the enzyme and cytochrome c with the SPCE were investigated. In one design (b-type biosensor), the components were mixed thoroughly with the same ink used to produce the SPCEs, then the modified ink was spread over the working electrode. In the second approach the bio-components were dissolved in the supporting electrolyte and simply deposited on top of the transducer (s-type biosensor). Both devices gave linear responses over the range 4--50 ppm but the sensitivity of the s-type was approximately twice that of the b-type biosensor. In addition, the time taken to reach 90% of the maximum response (t(90%)) was 110 s for the s-type biosensor compared with 200 s for the b-type biosensor. These studies illustrate the successful use of biosensors for the detection of sulfur dioxide at the relatively low potential of +0.3 V versus Ag.AgCl and should provide useful alternatives for decentralised environmental studies. PMID:11888729

Hart, J P; Abass, A K; Cowell, D

2002-05-01

381

Exploring the Capabilities of Satellite Observation of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the Lower Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities, such as fuel combustion, oil refining, and metal smelting, emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions. SO2 in the air is oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, which may have a significant impact on regional air quality and climate. Sulfate aerosols are usually removed from the atmosphere through acid deposition, which can damage the environment and ecosystems. SO2 and sulfate aerosols are sometimes lifted into the middle or upper troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. Space-borne UV instruments, such as Aura/OMI, MetOp/GOME-2, and NPP/OMPS, provide a unique perspective on the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. In this presentation, we will describe the recent advances in retrieval algorithm that provide improved detection and quantification of PBL SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We will also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.

2012-12-01

382

Holocene Concentrations of Methane in the Atmosphere are in Part Proportional to Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide and Inversely Proportional to the Oxidizing Capacity of the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmosphere cleans itself by oxidizing pollutants. The primary oxidant is the hydroxyl radical (OH) formed by photodissociation of ozone in the near ultra-violet. Ozone and OH are in limited supply. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbs near ultraviolet light limiting production of OH and reacts immediately with any available OH, forming sulfuric acid. Methane reacts more slowly with OH and will

P. L. Ward

2008-01-01

383

Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ?500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals, the risk is very low. However, the fact that volcanic ash and sulfur species are not always collocated and that passenger comfort could be compromised might be incentives to provide real-time information on the presence or absence of volcanic SO2. Such information could aid aviation risk management during and after volcanic eruptions.

Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

2014-12-01

384

Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products. PMID:19063591

Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

2009-01-16

385

75 FR 81471 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...including the installation of a new sulfur recovery unit, physical changes...company has installed a new sulfur recovery unit at the facility...altered to represent these new or modified units. Minnesota's permit...authorized Marathon to install a new sulfur recovery unit (SRU) and...

2010-12-28

386

Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

2013-01-01

387

Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

2013-08-01

388

Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

2013-12-01

389

Spatial concentration distributions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Patras, Greece, in a winter period.  

PubMed

An economic and quick methodology for performing a preliminary spatial assessment of a city air quality with the purpose to identify locations and zones susceptible to high pollution levels is proposed. A Patras case-study is selected, regarding the air pollutants of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)). A total number of 451 samples of short duration, of which 225 were randomly picked in morning rush hours and 226 within evening rush hours, were collected from 50 locations of the major Patras area during a year period, when peaks of primary air pollutants usually occur. Concentration measurements at prescribed locations used to statistically calculate spatial average concentrations approximating 1-h mean values with mean probable errors less than 25.9% for SO(2), NO and NO(x) and less than 15.5% for NO(2). Then iso-concentration contour diagrams plotted indicate high pollution zones and possibly appropriate locations for continuous or random monitoring according to the European Community (EC) Directives. The 1-h mean concentrations were in good correlation to the corresponding traffic rates and useful relationships are given (0.54

Yannopoulos, Panayotis C

2007-12-01

390

Metabolic Bases for Differences in Sensitivity of Two Pea Cultivars to Sulfur Dioxide 1  

PubMed Central

An oxidative chain reaction of sulfite initiated by the superoxide ion produced in the Mehler reaction has been implicated in the damage of plants exposed to sulfur dioxide. The toxicity of SO2 may be alleviated by free radical scavenging systems acting to terminate this chain reaction. Hence, the relative sensitivity of plants to SO2 toxicity could depend on differences in the responses of the levels of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes. The effect of SO2 exposure on glutathione and ascorbic acid contents, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase activities was assayed in two cultivars (Progress, Nugget) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) in which apparent photosynthesis showed a differential sensitivity to 0.8 microliter per liter SO2 (R. Alscher, J. L. Bower, W. Zipfel [1987] J Exp Bot 38:99-108). Total and reduced glutathione increased more rapidly and to a greater extent in the insensitive Progress than in the sensitive Nugget, as did glutathione reductase activities. Superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly in Progress, whereas no such change was observed in Nugget as a result of SO2 exposure. This increase in superoxide dismutase activity was observed at 210 minutes after 0.8 microliter per liter SO2 concentration had been reached, in marked contrast to the increases in reduced glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity, which were apparent at the 90 minute time point. These data suggest that one basis for the relative insensitivity of the apparent photosynthesis of the pea cultivar Progress to SO2 is the enhanced response of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase activities, and glutathione content. PMID:16668420

Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Alscher, Ruth G.

1991-01-01

391

Effects of sulfur dioxide fumigation on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content of selected lichens  

SciTech Connect

Four lichens - Parmelia bolliana Mull. Arg., Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl., Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn., and Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt - listed in order of decreasing mesophytism, were fumigated for 4 hr at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide to determine the effects on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis decreased after fumigation at 1.0 and 2.5 ppm, but significant decreases occurred only after fumigation at 2.5 ppm. Expressed on the basis of per unit weight chlorophyll content, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by that of Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana. Expressed on the basis of per unit dry weight of lichen sample, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris, and Parmelia bolliana. In both cases, the more xerophytic species were more sensitive. Chlorophyll content in these species was not measurably altered by fumigation. Comparison of chlorophyll a and b absorption spectra peaks for fumigated and control samples indicated that no phaeophytinisation occurred. Insignificant and inconsistent differences in chlorophyll a/b ratios were observed. Respiration of Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana decreased significantly following fumigation with 2.5 ppm SO/sub 2/; both species were more sensitive than Xanthoria fallax. Physconia grisea was not tested for respiratory response. The effects of SO/sub 2/ fumigation on measured metabolic rates differed with the species. Photosynthetic rates of the xerophytic Xanthoria fallax and Physconia gresea were more sensitive than the more mesophytic Parmelia bolliana and Physcia stellaris. In contrast, respiratory sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ fumigation were greater for P. bolliana and P. stellaris.

Beekley, P.K.; Hoffman, G.R.

1981-01-01

392

Sulfur Dioxide Plume During the Continuing Eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows the sulfur dioxide plume (in purple) originating form the summit, drifting over the city of Catania, and continuing over the Ionian Sea. ASTER's unique combination of multiple thermal infrared channels and high spatial resolution allows the determination of the thickness and position of the SO2 plume. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km.

The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

393

Involvement of NO and ROS in sulfur dioxide induced guard cells apoptosis in Tagetes erecta.  

PubMed

Both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very important signal molecules, but the roles they play in signal transduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) induced toxicities on ornamental plants is not clear. In this study, the functions of NO and ROS in SO2-induced death of lower epidermal guard cells in ornamental plant Tagetes erecta were investigated. The results showed that SO2 derivatives (0.4-4.0mmolL(-1) of final concentrations) could reduce the guard cells' viability and increase their death rates in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the significant increase of cellular NO, ROS, and Ca(2+) levels (P<0.05) and typical apoptosis features including nucleus condensation, nucleus break and nucleus fragmentation were observed. However, exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) of SO2 derivatives combined with either NO antagonists (NO scavenger c-PTIO; nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN3; NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME), ROS scavenger (AsA or CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (Ca(2+) scavenger EGTA or plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel blocker LaCl3) can effectively block SO2-induced guard cells death and corresponding increase of NO, ROS and Ca(2+) levels. In addition, addition of L-NAME or AsA in 2.0mmolL(-1) of SO2 derivatives led to significant decrease in the levels of NO, ROS and Ca(2+), whereas addition of LaCl3 in them just resulted in the decrease of Ca(2+) levels, hardly making effects on NO and ROS levels. It was concluded that NO and ROS were involved in the apoptosis induced by SO2 in T. erecta, which regulated the cell apoptosis at the upstream of Ca(2+). PMID:25645141

Wei, Aili; Fu, Baocun; Wang, Yunshan; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xin, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaobing

2015-04-01

394

Sulfur dioxide derivatives depress L-type calcium channel in rat cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

1. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2) ) has recently been found to have various biological effects on the cardiovascular system. The present study was designed to explore the effects of SO(2) derivatives on the L-type calcium current (I (Ca, L) ) in isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. 2. A Langendorf system was used to dissociate single ventricular cells. SO(2) derivatives from 5 to 1000 ?mol/L were incubated with cardiomyocytes. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record I (Ca, L) . The effect of SO(2) derivatives on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ](i) ) was detected by confocal microscopy. 3. Concentrations of 5 or 10 ?mol/L SO(2) derivatives could not change I (Ca, L) evoked by a single pulse from -40 to 0 mV for 200 ms in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes; however, 50, 100, 500 or 1000 ?mol/L SO(2) derivatives could depress the peak amplitudes of calcium currents in 6 min, and the I (Ca, L) was attenuated by 13.19%, 16.59%, 21.23% and 24.72%, respectively, as compared with corresponding controls (P < 0.05). The 50, 100, 500 or 1000 ?mol/L SO(2) derivatives also depressed the peak I-V curves, without altering the reversal potential and the voltage dependence of the peak I (Ca, L) . Therefore, 1000 ?mol/L SO(2) derivatives could reduce [Ca(2+) ](i) in cardiomyocytes. 4. The results of the present study suggest that SO(2) derivatives can depress I (Ca, L) in cardiomyocytes, which might have a protective effect in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21501210

Zhang, Rong-Yuan; Du, Jun-Bao; Sun, Yan; Chen, Stella; Tsai, Hao-Jan; Yuan, Lan; Li, Lin; Tang, Chao-Shu; Jin, Hong-Fang

2011-07-01

395

Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

2014-02-01

396

Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.  

PubMed

Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

1995-01-01

397

Luminescent Study of the Binding Interaction on 1,4-Dihydroxy-2,3-Dimethyl-9,10-Anthraquinone with Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysical properties of 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-9,10-anthroquinone (DHDMAQ) in the absence and presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been studied using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence intensity of the DHDMAQ decreases as the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles increases. The quenching is characterized by a Stern-Volmer plot, which displays a positive deviation from linearity. This could be explained by static quenching models. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, association constant, and binding constant have been calculated. The distance between DHDMAQ and TiO2 nanoparticles has also been evaluated using Forster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer.

Pushpam, S.; Yamini, D.; Ramakrishnan, V.

2014-07-01

398

Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, L.S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

1994-01-01

399

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

400

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

401

Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

1986-01-01

402

Chemiluminescence determination of sulfur dioxide in air using tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium-KIO{sub 4} system  

SciTech Connect

The emission produced by sulfite in its oxidation by periodate in acidic solution in the presence of Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} is used to determine 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/L sulfite. The limit of detection is 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} mol/L and the relative standard deviation is 2.3% for a 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/L sulfite solution (n = 9). The method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of sulfur dioxide in air by using triethanolamine (TEA) as absorbent material.

He, Z.; Wu, F.; Meng, H.; Yuan, L.; Luo, Q.; Zeng, Y. [Wuhan Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-01

403

Dimethyl disulfide produced by the naturally associated bacterium bacillus sp B55 promotes Nicotiana attenuata growth by enhancing sulfur nutrition.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp B55, a bacterium naturally associated with Nicotiana attenuata roots, promotes growth and survival of wild-type and, particularly, ethylene (ET)-insensitive (35)S-ethylene response1 (etr1) N. attenuata plants, which heterologously express the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana receptor ETR1-1. We found that the volatile organic compound (VOC) blend emitted by B55 promotes seedling growth, which is dominated by the S-containing compound dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). DMDS was depleted from the headspace during cocultivation with seedlings in bipartite Petri dishes, and (35)S was assimilated from the bacterial VOC bouquet and incorporated into plant proteins. In wild-type and (35)S-etr1 seedlings grown under different sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) supply conditions, exposure to synthetic DMDS led to genotype-dependent plant growth promotion effects. For the wild type, only S-starved seedlings benefited from DMDS exposure. By contrast, growth of (35)S-etr1 seedlings, which we demonstrate to have an unregulated S metabolism, increased at all SO(4)(-2) supply rates. Exposure to B55 VOCs and DMDS rescued many of the growth phenotypes exhibited by ET-insensitive plants, including the lack of root hairs, poor lateral root growth, and low chlorophyll content. DMDS supplementation significantly reduced the expression of S assimilation genes, as well as Met biosynthesis and recycling. We conclude that DMDS by B55 production is a plant growth promotion mechanism that likely enhances the availability of reduced S, which is particularly beneficial for wild-type plants growing in S-deficient soils and for (35)S-etr1 plants due to their impaired S uptake/assimilation/metabolism. PMID:23903320

Meldau, Dorothea G; Meldau, Stefan; Hoang, Long H; Underberg, Stefanie; Wünsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T

2013-07-01

404

Mortality from lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry.  

PubMed Central

Our objective in this study was to evaluate the mortality of workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry. The cohort included 57,613 workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 12 countries. We assessed exposure to SO(2) at the level of mill and department, using industrial hygiene measurement data and information from company questionnaires; 40,704 workers were classified as exposed to SO(2). We conducted a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on age-specific and calendar period-specific national mortality rates. We also conducted a Poisson regression analysis to determine the dose-response relations between SO(2) exposure and cancer mortality risks and to explore the effect of potential confounding factors. The SMR analysis showed a moderate deficit of all causes of death [SMR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.96] among exposed workers. Lung cancer mortality was marginally increased among exposed workers (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.18). After adjustment for occupational coexposures, the lung cancer risk was increased compared with unexposed workers (rate ratio = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.14-1.96). There was a suggestion of a positive relationship between weighted cumulative SO(2) exposure and lung cancer mortality (p-value of test for linear trend = 0.009 among all exposed workers; p = 0.3 among workers with high exposure). Neither duration of exposure nor time since first exposure was associated with lung cancer mortality. Mortality from non-Hodgkin lymphoma and from leukemia was increased among workers with high SO(2) exposure; a dose-response relationship with cumulative SO(2) exposure was suggested for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For the other causes of death, there was no evidence of increased mortality associated with exposure to SO(2). Although residual confounding may have occurred, our results suggest that occupational exposure to SO(2) in the pulp and paper industry may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:12361923

Lee, Won Jin; Teschke, Kay; Kauppinen, Timo; Andersen, Aage; Jäppinen, Paavo; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Pearce, Neil; Persson, Bodil; Bergeret, Alain; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Kishi, Reiko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Rix, Bo Andreassen; Henneberger, Paul; Sunyer, Jordi; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Boffetta, Paolo

2002-01-01

405

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~ 20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70-100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3-5 km. Comparison with ACE-FTS observations revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of -20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS dataset in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within -10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10-20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS dataset with in-situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than thirty volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period - Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 - derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10-14, 14-18, and 18-22 km are 13.3±2.1, 23.6±1.2, and 32.3±5.5 d, respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual cycle at northern mid- and high latitudes with maximum values in summer and an amplitude of about 30 pptv. At higher altitudes of about 16-18 km enhanced mixing ratios of SO2 can be found in the region of the Asian and the North-American monsoon in summer - a possible connection to an aerosol layer discovered by Vernier et al. (2011b) in that region.

Höpfner, M.; Boone, C. D.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Günther, A.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Roiger, A.; Stiller, G.; Schlager, H.; von Clarmann, T.; Wissmüller, K.

2015-02-01

406

Sinergistic effect of titanium dioxide and iron oxide aerosols in adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of dimethyl methylphosphonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetics of adsorption, dark and photocatalytic destruction of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapors was investigated on the surface of nanosized FeOOH (3 nm) and mixture of FeOOH with TiO2 (5 nm) (1 : 1) in aerosol state in a closed chamber. FeOOH aerosol adsorbs DMMP (100 ppm) with characteristic time 32 s and does not show photocatalytic activity. Adsorbed DMMP undergoes hydrolysis with formation of gaseous methanol with characteristic time 11 min, while mixed FeOOH-TiO2 aerosol adsorbs DMMP and converts it into CO and CO2 under the action of UV light.

Besov, A. S.; Vorontsov, A. V.

2015-04-01

407

Chemistry of dimethyl sulfide in the equatorial Pacific atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study of the chemistry of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was conducted on the island of Kiritimati (Christmas Island) during July and August, 1994. This island is located at 2°N, 157°W approximately 2000 km south of Hawaii. We obtained a very repeatable diurnal variation for both DMS and sulfur dioxide (SO2) during two 5-day and one 2-day experiments. Near sunrise DMS was about 200 pptv. It decreased to about 120 pptv by late afternoon. During the daytime SO2 increased from about 20 pptv to about 75 pptv. At night DMS increased and SO2 decreased almost linearly. About 62% of the DMS was converted to SO2. DMS was emitted from the ocean at an average flux of 3.7 × 1013 molecules m-2 s-1. The average dry deposition velocity of SO2 was 6.8 mm sec-1. Most of the SO2 appeared to be lost to the ocean although a comparable but not significantly larger flux to aerosol cannot be ruled out. Dimethyl sulfoxide was in the range 10 to 50 pptv with a mean of about 25 pptv. Dimethyl sulfone was in the range 0 to 15 pptv with a mean of about 3 pptv. There was no diurnal trend in either species. A much smaller fraction of the DMS was converted to dimethyl sulfone than dimethyl sulfoxide.

Bandy, A. R.; Thornton, D. C.; Blomquist, B. W.; Chen, S.; Wade, T. P.; Ianni, J. C.; Mitchell, G. M.; Nadler, W.

408

Knudsen cell and smog chamber study of the heterogeneous uptake of sulfur dioxide on Chinese mineral dust.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous uptake processes of sulfur dioxide on two types of Chinese mineral dust (Inner Mongolia desert dust and Xinjiang sierozem) were investigated using both Knudsen cell and smog chamber system. The temperature dependence of the uptake coefficients was studied over a range from 253 to 313 K using the Knudsen cell reactor, the initial uptake coefficients decreased with the increasing of temperature for these two mineral dust samples, whereas the steady state uptake coefficients of the Xinjiang sierozem increased with the temperature increasing, and these temperature dependence functions were obtained for the first time. In the smog chamber experiments at room temperature, the steady state uptake coefficients of SO2 decreased evidently with the increasing of sulfur dioxide initial concentration from 1.72 × 10¹² to 6.15 × 10¹² mol/cm³. Humid air had effect on the steady state uptake coefficients of SO?onto Inner Mongolia desert dust. Consequences about the understanding of the uptake processes onto mineral dust samples and the environmental implication were also discussed. PMID:25499490

Zhou, Li; Wang, Weigang; Gai, Yanbo; Ge, Maofa

2014-12-01

409

Increased thiol biosynthesis of transgenic poplar expressing a wheat O -acetylserine(thiol) lyase enhances resistance to hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

O-acetylserine(thiol) lyase (OASTL), a key enzyme of the plant sulfur assimilatory pathway, catalyses the formation of cysteine\\u000a from sulfide and O-acetylserine. Transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldi × P. grandidentata ‘Y63’) plants expressing cys1, encoding a wheat cytosolic OASTL, were developed in order to examine the role of this enzyme in thiol production following\\u000a hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide exposure and in the

Michimi Nakamura; Masato Kuramata; Isao Kasugai; Midori Abe; Shohab Youssefian

2009-01-01

410

A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

Goss, Lisa M.

2003-01-01

411

On the kinetics of oxidation of liquid copper and copper-sulfur alloys by carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of transfer of oxygen between CO2-CO gas mixtures and liquid copper and copper-sulfur alloys have been studied by a steady-state electrochemical technique.\\u000a For sulfur-free stagnant copper, and under the conditions of the experiments, the rates are shown to be controlled by the\\u000a diffusion of oxygen in the metal. The resulting diffusivities are in close accord with the bulk

C. F. Acton; G. R. Belton

1976-01-01

412

Closing the Dimethyl Sulfide Budget in the Tropical Marine Boundary Layer during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourteen research flights were conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 near Christmas Island (2° N, 157° W) during the summer of 2007 as part of the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). In order to tightly constrain the scalar budget of DMS, fluxes were measured at various levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) from near the surface (30 m) to the top of the mixed layer (500 m) providing greater accuracy of the flux divergence calculation in the DMS budget. The observed mean mole fraction of DMS in the MBL exhibited the well known diurnal cycle, ranging from 50 pptv in the daytime to 110 pptv at night. Contributions from horizontal advection are included using a multivariate regression of all DMS flight data from within the MBL to estimate the mean gradients and trends. With this technique we consider the residual term in the DMS budget as an estimate of overall photochemical oxidation. Error analysis of the various terms in the DMS budget indicate that chemical losses acting on time scales of up to 110 h can be inferred with this technique. On average, photochemistry accounted for 7.3 ppt hr-1 loss rate for the seven daytime flights, with an estimated error of 0.6 ppt/hr. The loss rate due to expected OH oxidation is sufficient to explain the net DMS destruction without invoking the action of additional oxidants (e.g. reactive halogens.) The observed ocean flux of DMS averaged 3.1 (±1.5)?mol m-2 d-1, and generally decreased throughout the sunlit hours. The average entrainment flux at the top of the MBL was 2.5 ?mol m-2 d-1; therefore the flux divergence term in the budget equation only contributed an average increase of 1.3 ppt hr-1 to the mean MBL mole fraction. Over the entire mission, the horizontal advection contribution to the overall budget was 0.2 ppt hr-1, indicating a mean atmospheric DMS gradient nearly perpendicular to the east-southeasterly trade winds and the chlorophyll gradient in the equatorial upwelling ocean. Nonetheless, horizontal advection was a significant term in the budget of any given flight, ranging from -1.5 to 2.3 ppt hr-1, indicating a patchy and random seawater DMS distribution, and thus needs to be accounted for in budget studies.

Conley, S. A.; Faloona, I.; Miller, G. H.; Blomquist, B.; Lenschow, D.; Bandy, A.

2009-08-01

413

Closing the dimethyl sulfide budget in the tropical marine boundary layer during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourteen research flights were conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 near Christmas Island (2° N, 157° W) during the summer of 2007 as part of the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). In order to tightly constrain the scalar budget of DMS, vertical eddy fluxes were measured at various levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) from ~30 m to the top of the mixed layer (~500 m) providing improved accuracy of the flux divergence calculation in the DMS budget. The observed mean mole fraction of DMS in the MBL exhibited the well-known diurnal cycle, ranging from 50-95 pptv in the daytime to 90-110 pptv at night. Contributions from horizontal advection are included using a multivariate regression of all DMS flight data within the MBL to estimate the mean gradients and trends. With this technique we can use the residual term in the DMS budget as an estimate of overall photochemical oxidation. Error analysis of the various terms in the DMS budget indicate that chemical losses acting on time scales of up to 110 h can be inferred with this technique. On average, photochemistry accounted for ~7.4 ppt hr -1 loss rate for the seven daytime flights, with an estimated error of 0.6 ppt hr-1. The loss rate due to expected OH oxidation is sufficient to explain the net DMS destruction without invoking the action of additional oxidants (e.g., reactive halogens.) The observed ocean flux of DMS averaged 3.1 (±1.5) ?mol m-2 d-1, and generally decreased throughout the sunlit hours. Over the entire mission, the horizontal advection contribution to the overall budget was merely -0.1 ppt hr-1, indicating a mean atmospheric DMS gradient nearly perpendicular to the east-southeasterly trade winds and the chlorophyll gradient in the equatorial upwelling ocean. Nonetheless, horizontal advection was a significant term in the budget of any given flight, ranging from -1.2 to 2.5 ppt hr-1 , indicating a patchy and variable surface seawater DMS distribution, and thus needs to be accounted for in budget studies.

Conley, S. A.; Faloona, I.; Miller, G. H.; Lenschow, D. H.; Blomquist, B.; Bandy, A.

2009-11-01

414

Sulfur dioxide estimations in the planetary boundary layer using dispersion models and satellite retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health and environmental conditions in the Central Andes city La Oroya, Peru, have been seriously damaged by the heavy metal mining activities in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the complex topography, which prevents proper mixing and dissolution of particles and gases released into the atmosphere. Understanding how pollutants are dispersed in populated regions, especially in complex terrain, would help to create mitigation strategies. The present study uses CALPUFF and HYSPLIT dispersion/deposition models to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2) dispersion from the main stack of the La Oroya metallurgical plant. Due to the lack of meteorological data in the area, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used with observational nudging for temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields of three surface meteorological stations specifically installed for the study. The pollutant dispersion models are sensitive to a precise estimation of the turbulent vertical transport of mass, energy and moisture in the low atmosphere; therefore, two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are tested, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic and Yonsei University models. The dispersion models are run and results compared with field measurements at La Oroya, and Huancayo. The observation-nudging and YSU scheme considerably improved the prognostic variables. CALPUFF and HYSPLIT models showed similar patterns; however, HYSPLIT overestimated SO2 concentrations for low PBLs. Moreover, recent enhancements on spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric scanning sensors of chemical constituents from the space, have led to detecting trace gases of anthropogenic origin in the lower troposphere. This contribution also explores the SO2 level 2 dataset from Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with atmospheric optical depth and Angstrom coefficient data products, extracted from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate SO2 loads in the PBL for clear and turbid atmospheric conditions. A narrow temporal sampling (three days) with no clear atmospheres and best sensor viewing geometry are examined and compared with a pollutant dispersion and deposition model (CALPUFF) and field observations. The efficacy of the developed method is further examined incorporating synchronous wind vectors, and daily accumulated precipitation derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. The source and trajectories of SO2 concentrations are detected by satellite based observations, and the pollutant plume is correctly traced downwind. Then, the spatial patterns of SO2 loads are analyzed for clear atmospheres and optimal viewing conditions (for 55 samples found in 467 days) and compared with field measurements. A logarithmic model is found between in situ observations and OMI estimations. The correlation can be increased when Angstrom exponents are between 0.7 and 1 and a linear relationship obtained when very high SO2 loads are extracted. Results show that the spatio-temporal dynamics of SO2 as monitored from space is in agreement with both field measurements and CALPUFF, which takes into account topography and wind field patterns. The study concludes that anthropogenic pollutants, i.e., SO2, and its trajectory can be monitored from OMI sensor even for turbid sky conditions. Findings of the research have great potential in public health managements and predictions.

Zarauz, Jorge V.

415

Dimethyl Fumarate  

MedlinePLUS

Dimethyl fumarate is used to treat relapsing forms (course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Dimethyl fumarate is in a class of medications called Nrf2 ...

416

Preliminary modelling results of an urban air quality model verifying the prediction of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and ozone over the Sydney basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality modelling system (HIRES-AIRCHEM) of The University of New South Wales is tested with regard to forecast distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) over the Sydney basin and surrounding area. This is achieved by assimilating the emissions inventory of the New South Wales State Environment Protection Authority. This inventory contains both road and non-road sources. The HIRES-AIRCHEM system was run over the greater Sydney metropolitan area for a four day period in February 1998. During this period O3 readings, in particular, exceeded the EPA’s threshold maximum of 80 ppb. The model forecasts of the NO2-, SO2- and O3-distributions verify well with the EPA’s monitored readings. Diurnal concentrations are greatest in the late afternoon, as expected, when photochemical processes are most active. Furthermore, the forecast spatial distribution of NO2 and SO2 shows maximum values radiating out along major roads from the Sydney CBD and other population centres. This is consistent with NO2 and SO2 being major pollutants associated with vehicular traffic. These promising results have significant implications for possible future use of the system as a tool for routinely assessing air quality.

Leslie, L. M.; Speer, M. S.

2004-09-01

417

Integration of continuous biofumigation with Muscodor albus with pre-cooling fumigation with ozone or sulfur dioxide to control postharvest gray mold of table grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation controls postharvest decay of commercially stored table grapes. To develop an alternative to SO2, fumigation with up to 10,000 micro-l/l ozone (O3) for up to 2 h was applied to control postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. O3 was effective when grapes were...

418

PULMONARY FUNCTION EFFECTS OF 1.0 AND 2.0 PPM SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE IN ACTIVE YOUNG MALE NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The threshold concentration of sulfur dioxide which will induce pulmonary function changes in the normal population has not been established. To investigate this question, the authors exposed nine young healthy adult non-smoking males for 2 hours to filtered air (FA), 1.0 ppm sul...

419

Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the 3B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet 3B2 state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO2.

Lévźque, Camille; Taļeb, Richard; Köppel, Horst

2014-03-01

420

Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) trace gas detection based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) using a continuous wave, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating at 7.24 ?m was performed. Influence of water vapor addition on monitored QEPAS SO2 signal was also investigated. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of NNEA (1 ?) = 1.21 × 10-8 cm-1 W Hz-1/2 was obtained for the ? 3 SO2 line centered at 1,380.93 cm-1 when the gas sample was moisturized with 2.3 % H2O. This corresponds to a minimum detection limit (1 ?) of 63 parts per billion by volume for a 1 s lock-in time constant.

Waclawek, J. P.; Lewicki, R.; Moser, H.; Brandstetter, M.; Tittel, F. K.; Lendl, B.

2014-10-01

421

Theoretical prediction of the importance of the 3B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide  

E-print Network

While, the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photoexcitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present for the first time a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet $^3$B$_2$ state which has not been discussed before, giving new insights into the dynamics of the intersystem crossing in $SO_2$.

Lévźque, Camille; Köppel, Horst

2013-01-01

422

Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.  

PubMed

Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs. PMID:25283001

Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

2014-09-01

423

REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION - PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Spectral reflectances were measured by tri-band densitometry of aerial color-infrared photographs of soybean (Glycine mas fields that had been affected by sulfur dioside (SO2) emissions from large, coal-fired power plants in northwestern Alabama and western Tennessee. The photogr...

424

Laboratory Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Microwave Absorption with Application to the Venus Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-accuracy laboratory measurements of the temperature dependence of the opacity from gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere at temperatures from 290 to 505 K and at pressures from 1 to 4 atm have been conducted at frequencies of 2.25 GHz (13.3 cm), 8.5 GHz (3.5 cm), and 21.7 GHz (1.4 cm). Based on these absorptivity measurements, a Ben-Reuven (BR) line shape model has been developed that provides a more accurate characterization of the microwave absorption of gaseous S02 in the Venus atmosphere as compared with other formalisms. The developed BR formalism is incorporated into a radiative transfer model. The resulting microwave emission spectrum of Venus is then used to set an upper limit on the disk-averaged abundance of gaseous S02 below the main cloud layer. It is found that gaseous S02 has an upper limit of 150 ppm, which compares well with previous spacecraft in situ measurements and Earth-based radio astronomical observations.

Suleiman, Shady H.; Kolodner, Marc A.; Steffes, Paul G.

1996-01-01

425

21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) with oxygen and mixing the resultant sulfur trioxide (SO3 ) with water, or by reacting nitric oxide (NO) with sulfur dioxide and water. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food...

2010-04-01

426

Models for the Centimeter-Wavelength Opacity of Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide based on Laboratory Measurements Conducted under Simulated Conditions for the Deep Atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past two decades, multiple observations of Venus have been made at X band (3.6 cm) using the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and maps have been created of the 3.6 cm emission from Venus. Since the emission morphology is related both to surface features and to deep atmospheric absorption from CO2 and SO2 (see, e.g., Butler et al., Icarus 154, 2001), knowledge of the microwave absorption properties of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus is required for proper interpretation. Initial measurements of the centimeter-wavelength (3.7-20 cm) of SO2 and CO2 under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus, conducted using a new high-pressure system operating at 430 K and at pressures up to 92 Bars, were presented by Steffes and Barisich (DPS-2012, B.A.A.S., v.44, p.241). Over the past year, we have completed this measurement campaign for temperatures up to 550 K, so as to better understand the effects of SO2 and CO2 on the microwave emission from the Venus boundary layer. Results indicate that the model for the centimeter-wavelength opacity from pure CO2 (developed over 40 years ago -- Ho et al., JGR 71, 1966), is valid over the entire centimeter-wavelength range under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus. Additionally, the laboratory results indicate that the model for the centimeter-wavelength opacity of SO2 in a CO2 atmosphere from Suleiman et al. (JGR-Planets, 101, Feb. 1996) can reliably be used under conditions of the deep atmosphere of Venus with the modifications described in this paper . This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under Grant NNX11AD66G.

Steffes, Paul G.; Shahan, P. M.

2013-10-01

427

Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%-20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. In addition, EA SO2 emissions account for approximately 30%-50% and 10%-20% of North American background sulfate over the western and eastern US, respectively. The contribution of EA sulfate to the western US at the surface is highest in MAM and JJA, but is lowest in DJF. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 mb in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (mostly H2O2). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity or tagging techniques. Our findings suggest that future changes in EA sulfur emissions may cause little change in the sulfate induced health impact over downwind continents but SO2 emission reductions may significantly reduce the sulfate related climate cooling over the North Pacific and the United States.

Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

2008-03-01

428

Source-Receptor Relationships for East Asian Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Northern Hemisphere Sulfate Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the northern hemisphere based on a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2) driven with NCEP reanalysis meteorology for 1991. We conduct a base and several sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over the source and downwind regions. We find that reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific, but raising EA SO2 emissions will not significantly increase the spatial extent of influence. We define a linearity index and find the S-R relationship between EA SO2 emissions and EA sulfate concentrations to be nearly linear over most downwind regions, but to be non-linear over the EA source region, particularly at the surface and in winter. In addition, we find that besides the direct transport of EA sulfate to North America (NA) and Europe (EU), the indirect response of locally-produced NA or EU sulfate to changes in EA SO2 emissions is negative (i.e., offsetting the direct effect) in winter, spring and fall, but becomes positive in summer. In summer the indirect response is as important as direct transport of EA sulfate over the southeastern U.S. and southern EU. This summertime positive indirect effect largely results from induced changes in H2O2 oxidant concentrations over these regions.

Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

2007-12-01

429

Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80% 20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate), EA sources account for approximately 30% 50% (over the Western US) and 10% 20% (over the Eastern US). The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 ?g/m3), and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 ?g/m3). Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 ?g m-3 of sulfate originates from EA) over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity (i.e., varying emissions from a region to examine the effects on downwind concentrations) or tagging techniques. Our findings suggest that future changes in EA sulfur emissions may cause little change in the sulfate-induced health impact over downwind continents. However, SO2 emission reductions may significantly reduce the sulfate concentrations and the resulting negative radiative forcing over the North Pacific and the United States, thus providing a warming tendency.

Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

2008-07-01

430

Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

Singh, J.

1977-01-01

431

Foliar injury symptoms of Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) as a biological indicator of ambient sulfur dioxide exposures.  

PubMed

Saskatoon serviceberry or Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. cv. Smoky) seedlings were planted at five study sites within a 35,000 km(2) airshed, that is influenced by a number of isolated stationary sources of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, among others. The locations of the five sites were based on the results of a meteorological dry deposition model for the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Visible foliar injury responses of Saskatoon were used as a biological indicator of SO(2) exposures, through monthly field surveys. During late July 1998, unifacial, interveinal chlorosis was observed on some 12% of the seedlings at one study site. By September, the chlorosis had become more severe (necrosis) on some 70% of the plants at that site. Site specific ambient SO(2) levels were relatively low (maximum 5-min concentration of 52.8 ppb). Similar data were unavailable for all, but one other site. Therefore, foliar total S and SO(4)(2-)-S concentrations were analyzed in September at four of the five study sites. Previously soil SO(4)(2-)-S at these sites had been analyzed. There were spatial variabilities among these parameters. Based on the overall examination of these data, it is concluded that the observed visible injury symptoms were due to chronic SO(2) exposures, exacerbated by the presence of ozone (O(3)). Independent of this literature based speculation, visible foliar injury responses of Saskatoon can be used as a biological indicator for acute or chronic ambient SO(2) exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants. PMID:15093041

Krupa, S V; Legge, A H

1999-09-01

432

Replacement of Hazardous Chromium Impregnating Agent from Silver\\/Copper\\/Chromium-Impregnated Active Carbon Using Triethylenediamine to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide, Trichloromethane, Ammonia, and Sulfur Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbon (AC) is widely used as an effective adsorbent in many applications, including industrial-scale air purification systems and air filter systems in gas masks. In general, ACs without chemical impregnation are good adsorbents of organic vapors but poor adsorbents of low-molecular-weight or polar gases such as chlorine, sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, and ammonia (NH3). Impregnated ACs modified with metallic

Li-Chun Wu; Ying-Chien Chung; Tracy Glenz; Lisa Brosseau; Richard Hoffbeck; Kyoko Yamashita; Naomichi Yamamoto; Atsushi Mizukoshi; Miyuki Noguchi; Yueyong Ni; Yukio Yanagisawa; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; James Schwab; John Spicer; Kenneth Demerjian; Mark Gibson; Judith Guernsey; Stephen Beauchamp; David Waugh; Mathew Heal; Jeffrey Brook; Robert Maher; Graham Gagnon; Johnny McPherson; Barbara Bryden; Richard Gould; Liming Zhou; Philip Hopke; Weixiang Zhao; Elisabeth Hawley; Neven Kresic; Alexandra Wright; Michael Kavanaugh; Pat Saathoff; Amit Gupta; Ted Stathopoulos; Louis Lazure; ABM Khan; Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons; Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

2009-01-01

433

The effects of ageing and sulfur dioxide inhalation exposure on visual-evoked potentials, antioxidant enzyme systems, and lipid-peroxidation levels of the brain and eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ageing and 10 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhalation exposure on visual-evoked potentials (VEPs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) of brain and eye were investigated in young (3-month), adult (12-month), and mature (24-month) Swiss male albino rats. The

Derya Kilic

2003-01-01

434

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy at transition metal-gas interfaces: Adsorption and reactions of sulfur dioxide on platinum-, rhodium-, and ruthenium-coated gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra obtained using 647-nm excitation are reported for the adsorption and oxidation of sulfur dioxide in flowing argon-based streams at ambient pressures and at 300 K on electrochemically roughened Au, and on Au surfaces modified by thin (2-3 monolayer) electrodeposited films of Pt, Rh, and Ru. The spectra were recorded by using a spectrograph\\/charge-coupled device (CCD) detector

T. Wilke; Xiaoping Gao; C. G. Takoudis; M. J. Weaver

1991-01-01

435

Laboratory measurements of the 3.7-20 cm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past two decades, multiple observations of Venus have been made at X-Band (3.6 cm) using the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and maps have been created of the 3.6 cm emission from Venus (see, e.g., Devaraj, K. [2011]. The Centimeter- and Millimeter-Wavelength Ammonia Absorption Spectra under Jovian Conditions. PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA). Since the emission morphology is related both to surface features and to deep atmospheric absorption from CO2 and SO2 (see, e.g., Butler, B.J., Steffes, P.G., Suleiman, S.H., Kolodner, M.A., Jenkins, J.M. [2001]. Icarus 154, 226-238), knowledge of the microwave absorption properties of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus is required for proper interpretation. Except for a single measurement campaign conducted at a single wavelength (3.2 cm) over 40 years ago (Ho, W., Kaufman, I.A., Thaddeus, P. [1966]. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5091-5108), no measurements of the centimeter-wavelength properties of any Venus atmospheric constituent have been conducted under conditions characteristic of the deep atmosphere (pressures from 10 to 92 bars and temperatures from 400 to 700 K). New measurements of the microwave properties of SO2 and CO2 at wavelengths from 3.7 to 20 cm have been conducted under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus, using a new high-pressure system. Results from this measurement campaign conducted at temperatures from 430 K to 560 K and at pressures up to 92 bars are presented. Results indicate that the model for the centimeter-wavelength opacity from pure CO2 (Ho, W., Kaufman, I.A., Thaddeus, P. [1966]. J. Geophys. Res. 71, 5091-5108), is valid over the entire centimeter-wavelength range under simulated conditions for the deep atmosphere of Venus. Additionally, the laboratory results indicate that both of the models for the centimeter-wavelength opacity of SO2 in a CO2 atmosphere from Suleiman et al. (Suleiman, S.H., Kolodner, M.A., Steffes, P.G. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4623-4635) and from Fahd and Steffes (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97, 200-210) can reliably be used under conditions of the deep atmosphere of Venus.

Steffes, Paul G.; Shahan, Patrick; Christopher Barisich, G.; Bellotti, Amadeo

2015-01-01

436

The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen-based 'index of air purity' can reveal locations where ambient air pollution, although low, is nevertheless at a level that may cause ecological detriment. The implications from this work could be applicable to national parks elsewhere.

Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

2013-01-01

437

Ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide at Kuwait`s major population centers during the oil-field fires  

SciTech Connect

During the Iraqi occupation, Kuwait`s oil wells were ignited. the fires were damaging to the country`s oil resources and air quality. The impact of the oil-field fires on the air quality was studied to determine the level of exposure to pollutants in major population centers. The period of July-September 1991 was selected for examination. A mathematical model was used to compute the ground-level concentration isopleths. The results of these computations are supported by significant concentrations measured and reported by the Environmental Protection Council, Kuwait. The ground-level concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the major population centers, whether measure or estimated, were less than the ambient standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s air pollution index. The dispersive characteristics were classified according to wind conditions. The results of this assessment provide historical data on Kuwait`s oil fires and may be useful in assessing risks resulting from this catastrophe. 6 refs., 10 fig., 2 tab.

Al-Ajmi, D.N.; Marmoush, Y.R. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)] [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1996-08-01

438

Bisulfite and sulfite as derivatives of sulfur dioxide alters biomechanical behaviors of airway smooth muscle cells in culture.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that triggers asthmatic symptoms, but its toxicological mechanisms are not fully understood. Specifically, it is unclear how SO2 in vivo affects airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells of which the mechanics is known to ultimately mediate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) - a hallmark feature of asthma. To this end, we investigated the effects of bisulfite/sulfite (1:3 M/M in neutral fluid to simulate the in vivo derivatives of inhaled SO2 in the airways), on the viability, migration, stiffness and contractility of ASM cells cultured in vitro. The results showed that bisulfite/sulfite consistently increased viability, migration, F-actin intensity and stiffness of ASM cells in similar fashion as concentration increasing from 10(-4) to 10(-1)?mmol/L. However, bisulfite/sulfite increased the ASM cell contractility induced by KCl only at the concentration between 10(-4) and 10(-3)?mmol/L (p?

Song, Aijing; Lin, Feng; Li, Jianming; Liao, Qingfeng; Liu, Enmei; Jiang, Xuemei; Deng, Linhong

2014-02-01

439

Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature.  

PubMed

We examined the fate of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Thompson inoculated on freshly-harvested table grapes under standard cold storage with initial and weekly sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation. L. monocytogenes and S. enterica Thompson were much more sensitive to cold temperature than E. coli O157:H7. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes was highly susceptible to SO2. Initial fumigation with 100 or 200 ppm-hr was sufficient to eliminate this pathogen on grapes with low (10(4) cells/grape) and high (10(6) cells/grape) inocula, respectively. Initial fumigation with 300 ppm-hr reduced S. enterica Thompson population about 300- and 10-fold on grapes with low and high inocula, respectively. Initial fumigation with 300 ppm-hr reduced E. coli O157:H7 population to less than 10-fold, regardless of inoculum density. When grapes were inoculated with the high inoculum and fumigated on days 0 and 7 with 200 or 300 ppm-hr SO2, S. enterica Thompson and E. coli O157:H7 were completely inactivated between days 8 and 14 of cold storage. Standard cold storage combined with SO2 fumigation was effective in reducing and eliminating all three pathogens on table grapes, however, depending on the dose, two or three fumigations were needed for elimination of S. enterica Thompson and E. coli O157:H7. PMID:25846930

Carter, Michelle Qiu; Chapman, Mary H; Gabler, Franka; Brandl, Maria T

2015-08-01

440

Sulfur dioxide-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics exposed for short durations under controlled conditions: a selected review  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1980, essentially no health related effects had been observed for short-term ( < 1 hr) exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) levels similar to those found in the ambient environment (= or < 1 ppm). In 1980 and 81, the results from several studies indicated that asthmatics' airways were substantially more responsive to SO/sub 2/ than those of nonasthmatic individuals and that, when combined with moderate exercise, significant bronchoconstriction resulted from exposures to as low as 0.5 ppm SO/sub 2/. Since then, a multitude of reports regarding short-term exposure of asthmatics to low SO/sub 2/ levels have appeared in the literature. From these studies, reflex bronchoconstriction, mast cell degranulation and other, yet unidentified, mechanisms were implicated in the induction of response. A broad range of responsiveness to SO/sub 2/ exists within the asthmatic population. Precise knowledge of factors involved in this variable responsiveness is lacking; differences in nonspecific airway sensitivity and severity of disease are suggested.

Horstman, D.H.

1987-11-01

441

Spatiotemporal analysis of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations over the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of pollutants and weather variables measured at four sites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2002 and 2004, were used to characterize temporal and spatial relationships of air pollution. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were compared to national and international standards. The annual median concentration of PM10 was higher than the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO) on all sites and the 24 h means exceeded the standards on several occasions on two sites. SO2 and CO did not exceed the limits, but the daily maximum of CO in one of the stations was 27% higher on weekends compared to weekdays, due to increased activity in a nearby Convention Center. Air temperature and vapor pressure deficit have both presented the highest correlations with pollutant's concentrations. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were not correlated between sites, suggesting that local sources are more important to those pollutants compared to PM10. The time series of pollutants and air temperature were decomposed in time and frequency by wavelet analysis. The results revealed that the common variability of air temperature and PM10 is dominated by temporal scales of 1-8 days, time scales that are associated with the passage of weather events, such as cold fronts.

Zeri, Marcelo; Oliveira-Jśnior, José Francisco; Lyra, Gustavo Bastos

2011-09-01

442

9-(3-Methoxy-phen-yl)-6,6-dimethyl-4-phenyl-2,3,5,6,7,9-hexa-hydro-thieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8(4H)-one 1,1-dioxide.  

PubMed

The title compound, C(26)H(27)NO(4)S, with a thiophene ring fused to a quinoline ring, was synthesized via the condensation of dihydro-thio-phen-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide, 5,5-dimethyl-3-(phenyl-amino)cyclo-hex-2-enone and 3-methoxy-benzaldehyde in refluxing ethanol. In the crystal structure, the thiophene dioxide ring and the pyridine ring adopt envelope conformations. The connection of the pyridine ring to the phenyl and benzene rings can be described by the C-C-C-C and C-N-C-C torsion angles of 45.5?(2) and 88.7?(2)°, respectively. The cyclo-hex-2-enone ring is in a half-chair conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by non-classical inter-molecular C-H?O hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl O and sulfone O atoms acting as acceptors. PMID:21580299

Wang, Shun-Hua; Jiang, Yue-Ning; Zhang, Jiang-Na

2010-01-01

443

H2SO4 photolysis: A souce of sulfur dioxide in the upper stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous absoption lines of stratospheric sulfer dioxide (SO2) were identified in solar occulation spectra recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1 shuttle mission (March 24-April 2, 1992). based on their analysis, a volume mixing ratio profile of SO2 increasing from (13 +/- 4) p.p.t.v. (parts per 10(exp -12) by volume) at 16 mbar (approximately 28 km) to 455 +/- 90 p.p.t.v. at 0.63 mbar (approximately 52 km) was measured with no significant profile differences between 20 deg N and 60 deg S latitude. The increase in the SO2 mixing ratios with altitude indicates the presence of a source of SO2 in the upper stratosphere. Profiles retrieved from ATMOS spectra recorded during shuttle flights in April-May 1985 and April 1993 show similar vertical distributions but lower concentrations. Two-dimensional model calculations with SO2 assumed as the end product of H2SO4 photolysis produce SO2 profiles consistent with the ATMOS measuremnts to within about a factor 2.

Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. W.; Zander, R.; Abrams, M. C.; Goldman, A.; Sze, N. D.; Yue, G. K.

1995-01-01

444

Chemistry of dimethyl sulfide in the equatorial Pacific atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A field study of the chemistry of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was conducted on the island of Kiritimati (Christmas Island) during July and August, 1994. This island is located at 2{degrees}N, 157{degrees}W approximately 2000km south of Hawaii. The authors obtained a very repeatable diurnal variation for both DMS and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during two 5-day and one 2-day experiments. Near sunrise DMS was about 200pptv. It decreased to about 120 pptv by late afternoon. During the daytime SO{sub 2} increased from about 20 pptv to about 75 pptv. At night DMS increased and SO{sub 2} decreased almost linearly. About 62% of the DMS was converted to SO{sub 2}. DMS was emitted from the ocean at an average flux of 3.7 x 10{sup 13} molecules in m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The average dry deposition velocity of SO{sub 2} was 6.8 mm sec{sup {minus}1} Most of the SO{sub 2} appeared to be lost to the ocean although a comparable but not significantly larger flux to aerosol cannot be ruled out. Dimethyl sulfoxide was in the range 10 to 50 pptv with a mean of about 25 pptv. Dimethyl sulfone was in the range 0 to 15 pptv with a mean of about 3 pptv. There was no diurnal trend in other species. A much smaller fraction of the DMS was converted to dimethyl sulfone than dimethyl sulfoxide. 27 refs., 2 fig., 2 tab.

Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Blomquist, B.W. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others] [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

1996-04-01

445

Theoretical studies of the marine sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several reduced sulfur compounds are produced by marine organisms and then enter the atmosphere, where they are oxidized and ultimately returned to the ocean or the land. The oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) flux, in particular, represents a significant fraction of the annual global sulfur input to the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, this gas is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane sulfonic acid, and other organic acids which are relatively stable and about which little is known. SO2 is a short lived gas which, in turn, is converted to sulfuric acid and other sulfate compounds which contribute significantly to acid rain. Because of the complexity of the sulfur system, it is not well understood even in the unperturbed atmosphere. However, a number of new observations and experiments have led to a significant increase in the understanding of this system. A number of one dimensional model experiments were conducted on the gas phase part of the marine sulfur cycle. The results indicate the measured concentration of DMS and the amplitude of its diurnal cycle are in agreement with estimates of its global flux. It was also found that DMS can make a large contribution to the background SO2 concentration in the free troposphere. Estimates of CS2 concentrations in the atmosphere are inconsistent with estimated fluxes; however, measured reaction rates are consistent with the observed steep tropospheric gradient in CS2. Observations of CS2 are extremely sparse. Further study is planned.

Toon, Owen B.; Kasting, James B.; Liu, May S.

1985-01-01

446

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm-2?day and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

447

Volcanic sulfur dioxide plume forecasts based on UV satellite retrievals for the 2011 Grķmsvötn and the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sulfur dioxide plumes released by the eruptions of the Icelandic volcanoes Eyjafjallajökull in May 2010 and Grķmsvötn in May 2011 were studied using satellite observations from the Second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography and modeled with the Integrated Forecasting System of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The retrievals of SO2 total columns (TCSO2) were (i) used to estimate emission rate and injection height of the two eruptions and (ii) assimilated with ECMWF's four-dimensional variational data assimilation algorithm to obtain initial conditions for subsequent forecasts. The OMI retrievals provided the highest plume observation values, and GOME-2 had the best coverage. The emission parameters were estimated by comparing TCSO2 observations with an ensemble of test tracers injected at different heights. The applied methodology led to emission estimates of 0.25 Tg over 20 days in May 2010 and 0.32 Tg over 2 days in May 2011. The SO2 analyses produced by assimilating GOME-2 TCSO2 retrievals captured the plume maxima well but exaggerated the plume area. The injection height estimate was used during the assimilation to determine the height of the assimilated plume. Plume forecasts were evaluated by means of hit-rate and plume-size statistics for different TCSO2 thresholds. Plume forecasts using either the emission parameters or the SO2 analyses as initial conditions agreed reasonably with the observations, but using both led to the best forecast performance. The initialization with SO2 analysis fields improved, in particular, the forecast of the Grķmsvötn plume after the end of the eruption. The developed forecast and assimilation system can be applied for near-real-time forecasting of volcanic SO2 plumes.

Flemming, Johannes; Inness, Antje

2013-09-01

448

Industrial sources influence air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in rural areas of western Canada.  

PubMed

A survey of monthly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at rural locations in western Canada (provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan) was conducted in 2001-2002, as part of an epidemiological study of the effects of oil and gas industry emissions on the health of cattle. Repeated measurements were obtained at some months and locations. We aimed to develop statistical models of the effect of oil and gas infrastructure on air concentrations. The regulatory authorities supplied the information on location of the different oil and gas facilities during the study period and, for Alberta, provided data on H2S content of wells and flaring volumes. Linear mixed effects models were used to relate observed concentrations to proximity and type of oil and gas infrastructure. Low concentrations were recorded; the monthly geometric mean was 0.1-0.2 ppb for H2S, and 0.3-1.3 ppb for SO2. Substantial variability between repeated measurements was observed. The precision of the measurement method was 0.005 ppb for both contaminants. There were seasonal trends in the concentrations, but the spatial variability was greater. This was explained, in part, by proximity to oil/gas/bitumen wells and (for SO2) gas plants. Wells within 2 km of monitoring stations had the greatest impact on measured concentrations. For H2S, 8% of between-location variability was explained by proximity to industrial sources of emissions; for SO2 this proportion was 18%. In Alberta, proximity to sour gas wells and flares was associated with elevated H2S concentrations; however, the estimate of the effect of sour gas wells in the immediate vicinity of monitoring stations was unstable. Our study was unable to control for all possible sources of the contaminants. However, the results suggest that oil and gas extraction activities contribute to air pollution in rural areas of western Canada. PMID:17972769

Burstyn, Igor; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Kim, Hyang-Mi; Cherry, Nicola M; Pietroniro, Elise; Waldner, Cheryl

2007-10-01

449

Flux determinations and physiological response in the exposure of red spruce to gaseous hydrogen peroxide, oxone, and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide is reported on. The exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} that have been observed during the summertime on the summit of Whiteface Mountain, New York. Fluxes of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and the three pollutants were determined throughout the exposure. At weekly intervals, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, and hydrocarbon emissions were made. The response of the branch was compared to an equivalent branch of the same tree which received no pollutants but was otherwise treated identically. The exposure produced no visible injury symptoms but did produce an increase in dark respiration; the respiration rate more than doubled during the 21-day exposure period. Net photosynthesis was unaffected for both the experimental and the control branches. Nighttime fluxes of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to external plant surfaces were significant. The stomatal component of O{sub 3} uptake by the branch displayed a linear increase during the experiment, and showed no evidence of saturating. Daytime and nighttime fluxes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were increasing at the end of the experiment. It was observed that isoprene is emitted from red spruce, but saw no clear-cut change in emission rate in response to the exposure experiment.

Ennis, C.A.; Lazrus, A.L.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Monson, R.K.

1990-01-01

450

Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis  

E-print Network

The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

Harris, E.

451

N2-, O2- and He-collision-induced broadening of sulfur dioxide ro-vibrational lines in the 9.2 ?m atmospheric window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of considerable interest for both atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics. In the Earth's atmosphere, it enters in the sulfur cycle and it is ubiquitous present in polluted atmospheres, where it is responsible for acid rains. It is also of astrophysical and planetological importance, being present on Venus and in interstellar clouds. In this work the collisional broadening of a number of ?1 ro-vibrational lines of SO2 perturbed by N2, O2 and He are investigated at room temperature in the 9 ?m atmospheric region by means of high resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared spectroscopy. From N2- and O2-broadening coefficients, the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide in air, useful for atmospheric applications, are derived as well. From the present measurements some conclusions on the quantum number dependence of the N2-, O2- and He-broadening coefficients are drawn. While the J dependence is weak for all the perturbers investigated, different trends with Ka are reported. N2-broadening coefficients show a slight decrease with increasing values of Ka, whereas O2 and He broadening cross sections first increase up to Ka??6 and then they keep a nearly constant value. A comparison and a brief discussion on the efficiency of self-, N2-, O2- and He-collisional dynamics are given. The data obtained represent a significant analysis on foreign broadening of SO2 useful for atmospheric remote sensing and astrophysical applications.

Tasinato, Nicola; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi; Buffa, Giovanni

2014-01-01

452

Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

1999-01-01

453

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOEpatents

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20

454

MAP3S/RAINE modeling abstracts, 1980. [Concise descriptions of models and availability for calculation of airborne concentration of sulfur dioxide and sulfate  

SciTech Connect

The MultiState Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S) has produced as a primary research output a number of numerical models for the calculation of airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate resulting from anthropogenic sources. Concise descriptions of these models, and of related modeling developments, are collected in this report. For each model, or model component, there is included a listing of the authors, a summary of what it is the model calculates and the method used, a list of references, and a statement of availability.

Michael, P. (ed.) [ed.

1980-07-01

455

Total fluxes of sulfur dioxide from the Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano measured by differential absorption lidar and passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The authors present measurements of the total flux of sulfur dioxide from three Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano, measured in a three day period in Sept, 1992. The fluxes were measured from shipboard by means of an active differential absorption lidar technique, and a passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. Corrections had to be applied to the passive optical technique because the light source paths were not well defined. The total fluxes were found to be roughly 25, 180, and 1300 tons/day for Vulcano, Stromboli, and Etna, respectively. 43 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Edner, H.; Ragnarson, P.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E. [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)] [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden); Ferrara, R. [Istituto di Biofisica, Pisa (Italy)] [Istituto di Biofisica, Pisa (Italy); Cioni, R.; Raco, B.; Taddeucci, G. [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica, Pisa (Italy)] [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica, Pisa (Italy)

1994-09-20

456

Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

1990-01-01

457

A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

Doukas, Michael P.

1995-01-01

458

A Comparison of Sulfur Dioxide Column Content Between Aircraft and Satellite Over the U.S. Mid-Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is a major contributor to air pollution in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Sources of SO2 include coal fired power plants as well as diesel engines. Fine particulate sulfate (with diameter less than 2.5 mm) formed from SO2 can cause health problems as well as decreased visibility. Reliable measurements of SO2 within the lower troposphere are needed to determine sources, test emission inventories and to evaluate federal air quality standards. Monthly averages of SO2 lower-tropospheric column content for various points in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States have been calculated from episodic aircraft measurements during the summer months of 2000 and 2001 (http://www.meto.umd.edu/~umdair/rammpp01.html). A Thermo Environmental Instruments 4 3C SO2 analyzer was used to obtain data during aircraft spiral profiles, usually made from the near-surface to an altitude in the range of 2.3 to 3.1 km. From June to August 2000, 44 columns of SO2 were calculated from aircraft profiles over 11 different locations between North Carolina and Pennsylvania. Individual column concentrations of SO2 ranged from 0.10 to 2.31 Dobson Units (DU). Monthly averaged column concentrations were made for each location and the average concentrations for 2000 ranged from 0.02 to 1.18 DU. In 2001, 149 columns of SO2 were obtained from 36 different locations for the months of May through August. The individual column concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.40 DU and the monthly averaged columns ranged from 0.05 to 3.40 DU. UV-visible spectra collected by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) have been analyzed for SO2 by the research group at the University of Bremen in Germany (http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/gome/). The period of data collection by the University of Maryland team coincide with data collection by the University of Bremen. The monthly averages of SO2 determined from aircraft measurements are compared with measurements from the satellite in order to characterize the transport and dynamics of SO2 over the mid-Atlantic region.

Hains, J. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Doddridge, B. G.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.

2002-12-01

459

The defense potential of glutathione-ascorbate dependent detoxification pathway to sulfur dioxide exposure in Tagetes erecta.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure is associated with increased risk of various damages to plants. However, little is known about the defense response in ornamental plants. In this study, an artificial fumigation protocol was carried out to study the defense potential of the glutathione (GSH)-ascorbate (AsA) dependent detoxification pathway to SO2 exposure in Tagetes erecta. The results show that when the plants were exposed to different doses of SO2 (0, 15, 30, 50 or 80 mg m(-3)) for different times (6, 12, 18, 24 or 33 h), SO2 induced oxidative stress was confirmed by the increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative conductivity of membrane (RC) in a dose-dependent manner for different exposure times. However, the increased levels for H2O2, MDA and RC were not significant vis-a-vis the control when SO2 doses and exposure times were lower than 15 mg m(-3)/33 h, 30 mg m(-3)/24 h or 50 mg m(-3)/12 h (p>0.05). The results could be explained by the increases in the content of reduced form of glutathione (GSH), total glutathione (TGSH), ascorbate (AsA), ratio of GSH/GSSG (oxidized form of glutathione), activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). On the other hand, exposure to higher doses of SO2 and longer exposure times, the values of the GSH-AsA dependent antioxidative indices decreased significantly (p<0.01), manifested by increased levels of H2O2. Furthermore, the levels of H2O2, MDA and RC varied little when SO2 doses and exposure times reached a 'critical' value (50 mg m(-3)/24 h). The defense ability of T. erecta to SO2 reached nearly extremity. To summarize, the response of T. erecta to elevated SO2 was related to higher H2O2 levels. GSH-AsA dependent detoxification pathway played an important role in against SO2-induced toxicity, although the defense response could not sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage when SO2 doses and exposure times reached critical value. PMID:25450923

Wei, Aili; Fu, Baochun; Wang, Yunshan; Li, Rui; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Duan, Jiuju

2015-01-01

460

Molecular and crystal structure of 1,1[prime]-dimethyl-3,3[prime]-biisoquinoline-N,N[prime]-dioxide and its 2:1 complex with europium trichloride  

SciTech Connect

The structures of 1,1[prime]-dimethyl-biisoquinoline-N,N[prime]-dioxide (1) and of its 2:1 coordination complex with europium trichloride (2) have been determined by single-crystal diffractometry. The complex has a sevenfold coordination for Eu[sup 3+] via three Cl and four O donor atoms. The coordination polyhedron is a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with four oxygens and one chloride in the equatorial plane and two axial chloride ligands. Packing is of a van der Waals type and includes co-crystallized solvent molecules. Crystal data: 1: P2[sub 1]2[sub 1]2, a = 14.032(4), b = 10.605(4), c = 5.242(1) [Angstrom], Z = 2; 2: P2[sub 1]/c, a = 12.829(10), b = 17.616(5), c = 43.863(17) [Angstrom], [beta] = 91.34(4)[degrees], Z = 8. 13 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Lipkowski, J.; Suwinska, K. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland)); Andreetti, G.D. (Universita di Parma (Italy))

1990-01-01

461

Potential particulate pollution derived from UV-induced degradation of odorous dimethyl sulfide.  

PubMed

UV-induced degradation of odorous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was carried out in a static White cell chamber with UV irradiation. The combination of in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) technique, filter sampling and ion chromatographic (IC) analysis was used to monitor the gaseous and potential particulate products. During 240 min of UV irradiation, the degradation efficiency of DMS attained 20.9%, and partially oxidized sulfur-containing gaseous products, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were identified by in situ FT-IR and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Accompanying with the oxidation of DMS, suspended particles were directly detected to be formed by WPS techniques. These particles were measured mainly in the size range of accumulation mode, and increased their count median diameter throughout the whole removal process. IC analysis of the filter samples revealed that methanesulfonic acid (MSA), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and other unidentified chemicals accounted for the major non-refractory compositions of these particles. Based on products analysis and possible intermediates formed, the degradation pathways of DMS were proposed as the combination of the O(1D)- and the OH- initiated oxidation mechanisms. A plausible formation mechanism of the suspended particles was also analyzed. It is concluded that UV-induced degradation of odorous DMS is potentially a source of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere. PMID:21476340

Qiao, Liping; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin

2011-01-01

462

Thermal decomposition of barium sulfate-vanadium pentaoxide-silica glass mixtures for preparation of sulfur dioxide in sulfur isotope ratio measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously reported procedure for the thermal decomposition of BaSOā-VāOā-SiOā for the preparation of SOā in sulfur isotope ratio measurements has been studied in detail, certain portions of the procedure have been modified, and certain aspects of the reaction mechanism have been defined. It was determined that the Ā¹āøO\\/Ā¹ā¶O ratio of SOā must be kept constant in order to apply

F. Yanaglsawa; Hitoshi. Sakai

1983-01-01

463

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01

464

Dimethyl Disulfide Produced by the Naturally Associated Bacterium Bacillus sp B55 Promotes Nicotiana attenuata Growth by Enhancing Sulfur Nutrition[W  

PubMed Central

Bacillus sp B55, a bacterium naturally associated with Nicotiana attenuata roots, promotes growth and survival of wild-type and, particularly, ethylene (ET)–insensitive 35S-ethylene response1 (etr1) N. attenuata plants, which heterologously express the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana receptor ETR1-1. We found that the volatile organic compound (VOC) blend emitted by B55 promotes seedling growth, which is dominated by the S-containing compound dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). DMDS was depleted from the headspace during cocultivation with seedlings in bipartite Petri dishes, and 35S was assimilated from the bacterial VOC bouquet and incorporated into plant proteins. In wild-type and 35S-etr1 seedlings grown under different sulfate (SO4?2) supply conditions, exposure to synthetic DMDS led to genotype-dependent plant growth promotion effects. For the wild type, only S-starved seedlings benefited from DMDS exposure. By contrast, growth of 35S-etr1 seedlings, which we demonstrate to have an unregulated S metabolism, increased at all SO4?2 supply rates. Exposure to B55 VOCs and DMDS rescued many of the growth phenotypes exhibited by ET-insensitive plants, including the lack of root hairs, poor lateral root growth, and low chlorophyll content. DMDS supplementation significantly reduced the expression of S assimilation genes, as well as Met biosynthesis and recycling. We conclude that DMDS by B55 production is a plant growth promotion mechanism that likely enhances the availability of reduced S, which is particularly beneficial for wild-type plants growing in S-deficient soils and for 35S-etr1 plants due to their impaired S uptake/assimilation/metabolism. PMID:23903320

Meldau, Dorothea G.; Meldau, Stefan; Hoang, Long H.; Underberg, Stefanie; Wünsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T.

2013-01-01

465

The formation of acid rain in the atmosphere, adjacent to the TTP with the joint-condensing of sulfur dioxide and water vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presents the results of mathematical simulation of the condensation process of sulphur dioxide and water vapor on the condensation nuclei surface under the action of natural factors. Numerical investigations were carried out for the summer at a moderate speed of the wind. The influence of the parameter of condensation on the speed of the process of sulfuric acid drops formation in the air space was analyzed. Time ranges, sufficient for the formation of the acid rain sedimentation in the atmosphere, adjacent to the areas of thermal power station work were established. It is shown that the speed of air masses movement effects on the process of acid anthropogenic admixtures dispersion in the atmosphere. Approbation of the obtained results was carried out by checking the difference scheme conservative and solution of test problems.

Gvozdyakov, D. V.; Gubin, V. E.; Matveeva, A. A.

2014-08-01

466

Combining organometallic reagents, the sulfur dioxide surrogate DABSO, and amines: a one-pot preparation of sulfonamides, amenable to array synthesis.  

PubMed

We describe a method for the synthesis of sulfonamides through the combination of an organometallic reagent, a sulfur dioxide equivalent, and an aqueous solution of an amine under oxidative conditions (bleach). This simple reaction protocol avoids the need to employ sulfonyl chloride substrates, thus removing the limitation imposed by the commercial availability of these reagents. The resultant method allows access to new chemical space, and is also tolerant of the polar functional groups needed to impart favorable physiochemical properties required for medicinal chemistry and agrochemistry. The developed chemistry is employed in the synthesis of a targeted 70 compound array, prepared using automated methods. The array achieved a 93% success rate for compounds prepared. Calculated molecular weights, lipophilicities, and polar surface areas are presented, demonstrating the utility of the method for delivering sulfonamides with drug-like properties. PMID:25431118

Deeming, Alex S; Russell, Claire J; Willis, Michael C

2015-01-19

467

Combining Organometallic Reagents, the Sulfur Dioxide Surrogate DABSO, and Amines: A One-Pot Preparation of Sulfonamides, Amenable to Array Synthesis**  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for the synthesis of sulfonamides through the combination of an organometallic reagent, a sulfur dioxide equivalent, and an aqueous solution of an amine under oxidative conditions (bleach). This simple reaction protocol avoids the need to employ sulfonyl chloride substrates, thus removing the limitation imposed by the commercial availability of these reagents. The resultant method allows access to new chemical space, and is also tolerant of the polar functional groups needed to impart favorable physiochemical properties required for medicinal chemistry and agrochemistry. The developed chemistry is employed in the synthesis of a targeted 70 compound array, prepared using automated methods. The array achieved a 93?% success rate for compounds prepared. Calculated molecular weights, lipophilicities, and polar surface areas are presented, demonstrating the utility of the method for delivering sulfonamides with drug-like properties. PMID:25431118

Deeming, Alex S; Russell, Claire J; Willis, Michael C

2015-01-01

468

Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88  

Microsoft Academic Search

SO2 from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO2 emission

T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee

1994-01-01

469

Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88  

SciTech Connect

SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A. [Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)

1994-12-15

470

Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOā from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SOā emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show

T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee

1994-01-01

471

Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980–88  

Microsoft Academic Search

SO2 from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO2 emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show

T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee

1994-01-01

472

Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

2005-11-08

473

An acid-stable Zn(II) complex: electrodeposition in sulfuric acid and the effect on the zinc-lead dioxide battery.  

PubMed

An acid-stable Zn(II) complex formulated as Zn2(HL)2(SO4)·H2O (1) and an acid-unstable complex formulated as Zn2L2·12H2O (2) were hydro(solvo)thermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 features a uninodal 6-connected 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) dense architecture with {4(12)·6(3)}-pcu topology, and complex 2 exhibits a 2-nodal (3, 6)-connected 3D open architecture with (4·6(2))2(4(2)·6(10)·8(3))-rtl topology. The results indicate that the stability of complex 1 in sulfuric acid is probably associated with the coordinated SO4(2-) in the quite dense structure, and complex 1 can also be synthesized via electrodeposition in sulfuric acid; it can improve the discharging characteristics of the zinc-lead dioxide battery at room temperature. PMID:25312385

Zhang, Miao Miao; Gong, Yun; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Hui Fang; Lin, Jian Hua

2014-12-01

474

[In vitro studies of modification of mucociliary clearance by guinea pig tracheas by exposure to air pollutants of sulfur or nitrogen dioxide].  

PubMed

We studied the effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on mucociliary activity (MCA) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in 63 guinea pig tracheas. The tracheas were placed in a gas cylinder and exposed for 30 minutes to SO2 concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 ppm or to NO2 concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 15.0 ppm. Control experiments were performed with exposure of the tracheas to synthetic air. MCA was measured by recording the light reflected from ciliated mucous membranes using an infrared barcode reader and CBF using video-interference microscopy. The exposure to 2.5 ppm SO2 caused a reduction in mean MCA of 63% and no significant changes in CBF. Higher SO2 concentrations caused a further impairment of MCA as well as a dose-dependent decrease in CBF. 10.0 or 12.5 ppm SO2 induced a decrease from baseline values to approximately 20% in MCA and to roughly 30% in mean CBF. The exposure to NO2 at concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 15.0 ppm did not induce any changes in MCA or CBF of the guinea pig tracheas. Our results show that exposure to SO2 for 30 minutes is able to depress the mucociliary clearance of guinea pig tracheas, whereas the exposure to equivalent NO2 concentrations for the same time do not alter the mucociliary transport. PMID:8072990

Knorst, M M; Kienast, K; Riechelmann, H; Müller-Quernheim, J; Ferlinz, R

1994-06-01

475

40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur...data from the monitor with the highest average of the four...

2012-07-01

476

40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur...data from the monitor with the highest average of the four...

2013-07-01

477

40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur...data from the monitor with the highest average of the four...

2011-07-01

478

40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide...ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur...data from the monitor with the highest average of the four...

2014-07-01

479

Effects of catalyst phase structure on the elementary processes involved in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide over zirconia  

SciTech Connect

In situ infrared spectroscopy has been used to investigate the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon monoxide over tetragonal (t-ZrO2) and monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2). While similar species were observed for both phases, the dynamics of the elementary processes were different. The dissociative adsorption of methanol to form methoxide species was approximately twice as fast on m-ZrO2 as on t-ZrO2. CO2 insertion to form monomethyl carbonate, an intermediate in the synthesis of DMC, occurred more than order of magnitude more rapidly over m-ZrO2. By contrast, the transfer of a methyl group from adsorbed methanol to monomethyl carbonate and the resulting formation of DMC proceeded roughly twice as fast over m-ZrO2. The observed patterns are attributed to the higher Bronsted basicity of hydrolyl groups and cus-Zr4+o2- Lewis acid/base pairs present on the surface of zirconia.

Jung, Kyeong Taek; Bell, Alexis T.

2001-08-18

480

Sulfur dioxide and particles in quiescent volcanic plumes from Poas, Arenal, and Colima volcanos, Costa Rica and Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of SO2 emission rates and concentrations and of particle distribution, size, shape, and composition were made in quiescent volcanic plumes emitted into the troposphere from Poas and Arenal volcanos, Costa Rica, and Colima volcano, Mexico. SO2 emission rates were 700 + or - 180 metric tons per day (t/d) for Poas, 210 + or - 30 t/d for Arenal, and 320 + or - 50 t/d for Colima. The concentrations of SO2 calculated from the COSPEC/lidar data were 5-380 ppb. Concentrations of SO2 measured directly by flame photometry were 10-250 ppb. Particles collected in the plumes with a quartz crystal microbalance impactor were mostly less than 3 microns in diameter and consisted of droplets of dilute sulfur-bearing solutions and minor amounts of layer silicate particles coated with a sulfur-bearing film or crust. Total particle concentrations were 4.7 micrograms per cu.m for Poas and 18.8 micrograms per cu.m for Colima. Comparison of concentrations of SO2 in the plumes with gas samples collected at fumaroles on the ground suggests that the plumes are diluted by the atmosphere by factors of up to 100,000.

Casadevall, T. J.; Rose, W. I., Jr.; Fuller, W. H.; Hunt, W. H.; Woods, D. C.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.; Chuan, R. L.; Friend, J. P.

1984-01-01

481

Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides  

DOEpatents

A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-07-30

482

Sulfur dioxide and particles in quiescent volcanic plumes from Poas, Arenal, and Colima volcanos, Costa Rica and Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of SO2 emission rates and concentrations and of particle distribution, size, shape, and composition were made in quiescent volcanic plumes emitted into the troposphere from Poas and Arenal volcanos, Costa Rica, and Colima volcano, Mexico. SO2 emission rates were 700 + or - 180 metric tons per day (t/d) for Poas, 210 + or - 30 t/d for Arenal, and 320 + or - 50 t/d for Colima. The concentrations of SO2 calculated from the COSPEC/lidar data were 5-380 ppb. Concentrations of SO2 measured directly by flame photometry were 10-250 ppb. Particles collected in the plumes with a quartz crystal microbalance impactor were mostly less than 3 microns in diameter and consisted of droplets of dilute sulfur-bearing solutions and minor amounts of layer silicate particles coated with a sulfur-bearing film or crust. Total particle concentrations were 4.7 micrograms per cu.m for Poas and 18.8 micrograms per cu.m for Colima. Comparison of concentrations of SO2 in the plumes with gas samples collected at fumaroles on the ground suggests that the plumes are diluted by the atmosphere by factors of up to 100,000.

Casadevall, T. J.; Rose, W. I., Jr.; Fuller, W. H.; Hunt, W. H.; Woods, D. C.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.; Chuan, R. L.; Friend, J. P.

1984-10-01

483

Investigation of a potential cotumorigenic effect of the dioxides of nitrogen and sulfur, and of diesel-engine exhaust, on the respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Syrian golden hamsters (480 males and 480 females) allocated into 24 groups were exposed 19 hours per day and 5 days per week for 6, 10.5, 15, or 18 months to total diesel exhaust, diesel exhaust without particles, a mixture of nitrogen dioxide (5 parts per million (ppm)2) and sulfur dioxide (10 ppm), or clean air. Two exposure groups from each test atmosphere were also treated by a single subcutaneous injection of either 3 mg or 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine/kg of body weight to evaluate an enhancing effect of diethylnitrosamine on exposure-related changes. Morphological evaluation was done by histopathology. Minor changes of the larynx and trachea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loss of ciliated cells in all exhaust-exposed groups. After exposure to diesel exhaust with or without particles, focal metaplasia and dysplasia of the respiratory epithelium were seen in the oldest animals by scanning electron microscopy. In the same specimens, attached mucous droplets indicated changes in mucous cells and mucous viscosity. Only the exposure to total diesel exhaust significantly increased the tumor rate in the upper respiratory tract of male hamsters treated with 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine per kg of body weight. At the lower diethylnitrosamine dose, no exposure-related effects on the tumor rates could be observed. The results from this study and from our other inhalation experiments appear to be insufficiently conclusive to demonstrate that diesel-engine exhaust should be classified as a cocarcinogen or enhancer for the test system used.

Heinrich, U.; Mohr, U.; Fuhst, R.; Brockmeyer, C. (Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

1989-05-01

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