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1

Determination of vertical fluxes of sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide in the remote marine atmosphere by eddy correlation and an airborne isotopic dilution atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical fluxes of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were determined by eddy correlation and an isotopic dilution atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS) on an aircraft platform. The sampling frequency of the isotopic dilution APIMS ranged from 1 Hz to 25 Hz for real-time measurements. Measurements were made near the surface in the marine boundary layer to

Glenn M. Mitchell

2001-01-01

2

Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

3

Sulfur dioxide removal process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for reducing the loss of sodium values in a system for removing sulfur dioxide from a gas by the use of an absorption-desorption cycle employing aqueous sodium sulfite as the essential absorption solution. Sodium sulfate and\\/or sodium thio-sulfate build-up in the system is avoided and the loss of sodium values reduced by subjecting sodium sulfate and\\/or

N. E. Nicholson; J. Scarlett

1978-01-01

4

Determination of vertical fluxes of sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide in the remote marine atmosphere by eddy correlation and an airborne isotopic dilution atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical fluxes of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were determined by eddy correlation and an isotopic dilution atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS) on an aircraft platform. The sampling frequency of the isotopic dilution APIMS ranged from 1 Hz to 25 Hz for real-time measurements. Measurements were made near the surface in the marine boundary layer to over 6 km in the free troposphere. The APIMS demonstrated an average sensitivity of 80 cps/pptv for DMS and SO2 with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio > 5. A lower limit of detection of 0.1 pptv in a one second integration period was also determined for DMS and SO2 in airborne atmospheric measurements. Use of the isotopic dilution technique provided an internal calibration of every ambient sample along with manifold conditioning for rapid and efficient transport of the ambient species through the manifold. As a result the eddy correlation flux determinations were accurate, precise, and reproducible. Laboratory results suggest the addition of ozone in excess of 45 ppbv to the APIMS sampling manifold to ensure unaltered formation of SO5 - ion (the ion detected for SO2). Use of a Nafion dryer was warranted for sensitive APIMS detection of SO2 in humid air. A Nafion dryer along with an air temperature of 400C was required for sensitive APIMS detection of DMS in humid air. Results from an initial airborne test deployment in continental air include a successful SO2 intercomparison between the APIMS and a GC/MS/ILS (isotopically labeled standard-gas chromatography/mass spectrometer). Fast SO2 measurements in thin moist layers and pollution plumes demonstrated the utility of the fast isotopic dilution APIMS technique. Results from a second airborne test deployment in the remote marine boundary layer include a successful DMS intercomparison and eddy correlation fluxes of DMS and SO2 from isotopic dilution APIMS measurements. The average DMS flux near the surface was (1.7 +/- 0.2) 1013 molecules m-2 s-1. A flux gradient for DMS generated a DMS surface flux of (2.3 +/- 0.7) 10 13 molecules in m-2 s-1 and a DMS entrainment flux of (7.5 +/- 4.4) 1012 molecules m-2 s-1. High resolution altitude profiles of DMS allowed for the determination of the DMS entrainment velocity (1.9 +/- 1.1 cm/s). A SO2 flux of (4.3 +/- 1.9) 1012 molecules m-2 s-1 and a deposition velocity of 2.4 +/- 1.1 mm/s also was determined. All values reported are in good agreement with the literature.

Mitchell, Glenn M.

2001-08-01

5

Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

Gillette, Donald G.

1975-01-01

6

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

7

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Spin Trapping of Inorganic Radicals by 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline N-Oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite and Sulfate Radical Anions  

PubMed Central

Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfite (SO32?), sulfate (SO42?), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO3? and SO4?. The thermochemistries of SO2?, SO3?, SO4?, and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO2? by EPR but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO3? and an O-centered adduct for SO4?. Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfccs with theoretically calculated ones. The thermodynamics of the non-radical addition of SO32? and HSO3? to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H217O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

Zamora, Pedro L.; Villamena, Frederick A.

2012-01-01

8

Theoretical and experimental studies of the spin trapping of inorganic radicals by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur dioxide, sulfite, and sulfate radical anions.  

PubMed

Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), sulfite (SO(3)(2-)), sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO(3)(-) and SO(4)(-). The thermochemistries of SO(2)(-), SO(3)(-), SO(4)(-), and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO(2)(-) by EPR, but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO(3)(-)and an O-centered adduct for SO(4)(-). Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc's with theoretical values. The thermodynamics of the nonradical addition of SO(3)(2-) and HSO(3)(-) to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H(2)(17)O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

Zamora, Pedro L; Villamena, Frederick A

2012-07-01

9

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2011-07-01

10

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2013-07-01

11

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2014-10-01

12

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2010-10-01

13

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2011-10-01

14

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2014-07-01

15

40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection...52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Revised APC-13 (December...Pollution Control regulations (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is...

2012-07-01

16

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2012-10-01

17

46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... Special Requirements 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur dioxide that is transported under the provisions of...

2013-10-01

18

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2013-07-01

19

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...

2012-07-01

20

Sulfur Dioxide: Its Role in Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning activity, learners investigate impact of sulfur dioxide on the environment. Sulfur dioxide comes from both human activities and natural sources. Burning coal and other fossil fuels is the largest source of sulfur dioxide from human activities. Students have a choice of analyzing the impact of volcanoes emissions of sulfur dioxide on the environment; they can also investigate the idea of injecting sulfates into the atmosphere to counteract global warming. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

21

Sensitivity of mosses to sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven North American moss species responded differentially to fumigations with sulfur dioxide ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 ppm. Leucobryum glaucum and Dicranum scoparium were the most sensitive species; Dicranella heterophylla, Polytrichum ohioense and Pottia truncata, the most resistant. The results of fumigations with 0.1 to 4.0 ppm sulfur dioxide for 8 hours on cultured gametophytes of Polytrichum ohioense indicate that

T. H. Nash; E. H. Nash

1974-01-01

22

Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur  

DOEpatents

The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

1996-02-27

23

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the annual...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2012-07-01

24

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2013-07-01

25

40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (b) The 1-hour...

2011-07-01

26

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an amendment published...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2010-07-01

27

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2010-07-01

28

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2011-07-01

29

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the annual...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2013-07-01

30

40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection...quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the 3-hour...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2012-07-01

31

40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection...quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the annual...measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference method described...

2011-07-01

32

40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment... West Virginia 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) [Reserved] (b) EPA approves the...

2014-07-01

33

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer  

E-print Network

Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer in the thermochemical conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid for the large-scale production of hydrogen-17 In this thermochemical cycle, sulfuric acid is decomposed at high temperature 850°C to SO2 and wa- ter, and the SO2

Weidner, John W.

34

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-print Network

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report (Jan 2004) 2 ABSTRACT A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one

Hultman, Nathan E.

35

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2010-07-01

36

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2011-07-01

37

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. 180.444...Specific Tolerances 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 )) in or...

2013-07-01

38

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2010-07-01

39

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183 Protection...Smelters 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2011-07-01

40

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2013-07-01

41

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2012-07-01

42

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575 Protection...52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part DApprovalWith...Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part DNo...

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333 Protection...Turbines 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which...turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by...

2011-07-01

44

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2012-07-01

45

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333 Protection...Turbines 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which...turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by...

2013-07-01

46

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183 Protection...Smelters 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2010-07-01

47

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. 180.444...Specific Tolerances 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance...sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 )) in or...

2011-07-01

48

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183 Section 60.183 Protection...Smelters 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2012-07-01

49

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575 Protection...52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part DApprovalWith...Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part DNo...

2011-07-01

50

40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173 Section 60.173 Protection...Smelters 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on...roaster any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2013-07-01

51

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575 Protection...52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part DApprovalWith...Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part DNo...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163 Section 60.163 Protection...Smelters 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date...converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by...

2011-07-01

53

40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333 Section 60.333 Protection...Turbines 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which...turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by...

2012-07-01

54

40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724 Protection...52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part DConditional Approval...attainment and maintenance of the sulfur dioxide standard, and the...

2014-07-01

55

40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575 Protection...52.2575 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part DApprovalWith...Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part DNo...

2012-07-01

56

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. 180.444...Specific Tolerances 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 )) in or...

2012-07-01

57

40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. 180.444...Specific Tolerances 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance...sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2 )) in or...

2010-07-01

58

LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition velocities have been carried out in the laboratory with the use of a cylindrical flow reaction. Analysis of data from these experiments was performed with models that specifically account for diffusive transport in the system. Consequentl...

59

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2012-07-01

60

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2010-07-01

61

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...23, 2011 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2013-07-01

62

40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642 Section 60.642...Emissions 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial...be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the sulfur...

2011-07-01

63

Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io's surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. However, the deposition patterns and relation of the frost distribution to the volcanic activity is unknown, since prior measurements lacked the spatial resolution to accurately map the surface frost.

The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained relatively high spatial and spectral resolution images during the C3 orbit, and the characteristic infrared absorptions of sulfur dioxide frost appearing in the spectra were used to produce the SO2 frost map shown on the right. The comparison image on the left (from 1979 Voyager measurements) shows the same view and indicates the surface brightness as seen in visible light.

The frost map shows maximum SO2 concentration as white, lesser amounts as blue coloration, and areas with little or no SO2 as black. The resolution of this map is about 120 km (75 miles), which spans the latitude range 120 W to 270 W.

It is interesting to compare this frost distribution with regions of volcanic activity. Volcanic hotspots identified from NIMS and SSI images occur in many of the dark - low SO2 - areas, a reasonable finding since sulfur dioxide would not condense on such hot regions. The Pele region (to the lower left), N. Colchis hot spots (upper center) and S. Volund (upper right) are good examples of hot spot areas depleted in sulfur dioxide. Much of the rest of this hemisphere of Io has varying amounts of sulfur dioxide present. The most sulfur dioxide-rich area is Colchis Regio, the white area to the right of center.

Of particular interest is the dark area to the south of Colchis Regio. From the study of other NIMS images, it is seen that this region does not have any large, obvious hotspots. However, it is depleted in sulfur dioxide.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

64

Transition metal sulfur dioxide hexafluoroarsenates and hexafluoroantimonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and characterization by X-ray crystallography of transition metal sulfur dioxide hexafluoroarsenates of the general formula [M(SO2)x](AsF6)21 (1a: M=Mn, x=2; 1c: M=Co, x=4; 1e: M=Cu, x=4) and the hexafluoroantimonate [Co(SO2)2](SbF6)23 is reported. The structural features of the compounds mentioned are compared with those of [Fe(SO2)4](AsF6)2 (1b) and [Ni(SO2)6](AsF6)2 (1d), reported previously. The structural diversity of transition metal sulfur dioxide

E Lork; R Mews; J Petersen; M Schrter; B emva

2001-01-01

65

Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

2002-01-01

66

Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

None

1982-03-01

67

Radio detection of interstellar sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interstellar sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been detected in emission from the direction of the Orion Nebula molecular cloud and from Sgr B2. SO2 is the heaviest interstellar molecule detected to date, and the only nonlinear triatomic molecule which does not contain hydrogen. The remarkable Orion emission profiles suggest that two components are supporting the SO2 emission: a dense circumstellar-type envelope, which may be in maser emission, and a warm galactic cloud component.

Snyder, L. E.; Hollis, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Lovas, F. J.; Johnson, D. R.; Buhl, D.

1975-01-01

68

Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and sulfur dioxide in pulp industry.  

PubMed

An hygienic survey for hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and its derivatives and sulfur dioxide in kraft mills and in sulfite mills revealed concentrations varying from 0 to 20 ppm hydrogen sulfide, 0 to 15 ppm methyl mercaptan and comparable amounts of dimethyl sulfide with dimethyl disulfide up to 1.5 ppm. The greatest emissions were detected at chip chutes and evaporation vacuum pumps. Batch operations yielded clearly higher sulfur dioxide concentrations (up to 20 ppm) as compared to a continuous ammonia-base digester. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation with the season in the sulfite mills where higher concentrations were found in the winter when natural ventilation was poorer. As to the health effects, the exposed workers complained of headaches and a decrease in concentration capacity more often than matched controls. The number of sick leaves was greater in the exposed workers than among the controls. PMID:6517022

Kangas, J; Jppinen, P; Savolainen, H

1984-12-01

69

Measuring global sulfur dioxide emissions with satellite sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric sulfur dioxide affects the weather by enhancing cloud formation, and long-term shifts in emissions can change the climate by increasing the amount of solar radiation scattered back into space. Sulfur dioxide emissions are the basis for acid rain, and the gas itself can cause respiratory problems. Despite the compound's importance to climate, the difficulties associated with accurately measuring sulfur dioxide mean that rates of emissions are generally not well understood.

Schultz, Colin

2013-11-01

70

Sulfur dioxide removal from gas streams  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant gas from gas stream which comprises contacting the gas stream with pretreated shale in the form of an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate including from about 0.1 to about 2.0% by weight of the pretreated shale. The pretreatment of the shale comprises the heating of the shale in the presence of a gas unable to support combustion at a temperature in a range of from about 340/sup 0/C. to about 480/sup 0/C.

Urban, P.; Ginger, E.A.

1986-11-11

71

40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.  

...Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. 52.1875 Section...Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard. The attainment date for achieving the sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) secondary national...

2014-07-01

72

STORED-PRODU~AM) QUARANTINEENTOMOLOGY Low Temperature Storage Combined with Sulfur Dioxide Slow  

E-print Network

STORED-PRODU~AM) QUARANTINEENTOMOLOGY Low Temperature Storage Combined with Sulfur Dioxide Slow- aturesin packedgrapeclustersdecreasedfromambientto2°Cwithin -2 dafterplacementin storage. Sulfur dioxide Riverbend Avenue, Parlier, CA 93648. Sulfur dioxide fumigation is used to control fungal infections

Crisosto, Carlos H.

73

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

...Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section...Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source...

2014-07-01

74

Heterogeneous Photochemical Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the hydroxyl radical is a significant source of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Stockwell and Calvert (1983) performed fifteen chamber experiments where mixtures of HONO, NO, NO2, H2O, SO2 and CO were photolyzed in synthetic air or in nitrogen containing approximately 50 ppm oxygen. They found that the atmospheric oxidation of SO2 by hydroxyl radical was a chain process that occurs through the production of an HO2 radical followed by reaction with NO to reproduce HO. We have reanalyzed this dataset and we have found that a very large amount of the observed SO2 oxidation (70.0 9.1 %) is not explained through the HO + SO2 reaction alone. The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) was used to investigate additional chemical pathways for the oxidation of SO2. A mechanism consisting of photochemical heterogeneous reactions is proposed to account for the observed additional sulfur dioxide oxidation not accounted for by gas phase oxidation. The analysis showed that the measured time dependent SO2, CO2 and nitrogenous compound concentrations could be simulated by the photochemical heterogeneous mechanism in conjunction with the RACM2 mechanism.

El-Zanan, H. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

2007-12-01

75

Effects of sulfur dioxide on the aquatic plant Elodea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sulfur dioxide upon the green plant cell was investigated with emphasis on the effects of the gas on Elodea canadensis. Toxicity studies were performed in which the relations between concentration of sulfur dioxide, pH of the solution, and duration of exposure were investigated. Changes in the structures of the cell induced by lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of

Brooks

1943-01-01

76

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide...dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production being expressed as 100 percent H2 SO4...

2012-07-01

77

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide...dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production being expressed as 100 percent H2 SO4...

2013-07-01

78

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide...dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production being expressed as 100 percent H2 SO4...

2011-07-01

79

40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid Plants 60.82 Standard for sulfur dioxide...dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the production being expressed as 100 percent H2 SO4...

2010-07-01

80

RESPONSE OF MAIZE AND WHEAT TO SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Four hybrids of maize and seven cultivars of wheat were exposed to relatively low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0.1 to 0.6 ppm) for up to 100 hours. Maize was found to be tolerant to sulfur dioxide and only minor differences were observed in dry mass, foliar injury, and total...

81

Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that

Boushey

1982-01-01

82

The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

Purser, Gordon H.

1989-01-01

83

40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. ApprovalOn April 21, 1997, the Iowa...

2014-07-01

84

Photoreduction of sulfur dioxide by spinach leaves and isolated spinach chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labeled sulfur dioxide was found to be extensively absorbed by spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves. Labeled sulfides detected in leaf blades following fumigations with sulfur dioxide in light indicated that photoreduction of sulfur dioxide had occurred. Measurable proportions of this labeled sulfur was localized within the chloroplast fraction. Suspensions of isolated chloroplasts supplied with labeled sulfur dioxide contained labeled sulfides

J. E. Silvius; C. H. Baer; S. Dodrill; H. Patrick

1976-01-01

85

78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...to revise the Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )...

2013-05-14

86

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-print Network

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions monoxide, carbon dioxide, and exhaust hydrocarbons in the IR and nitric oxide in the UV. The design adds the capability to measure nitrogen dioxide in the UV with one spectrometer and to measure SO2 and NH3 along

Denver, University of

87

Avoidance responses of estuarine fish to sulfur dioxide. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, and Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentration of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30C.

Hall, L.W. Jr; Margrey, S.L.; Graves, W.C.

1983-12-01

88

DYNAMIC DILUTION SYSTEM FOR AUDITING AMBIENT SULFUR DIOXIDE ANALYZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the development, evaluation, and field performance of a device designed to provide accurate sulfur dioxide concentration standards suitable for auditing the accuracy of continuous, ambient SO2 monitors. This compact, lightweight, device has been subjected to ...

89

Sulfur Dioxide emission from Mt Pinatubo Eruption June 1991  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere during the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption and for a few weeks after the eruption. Stratospheric SO2 dissipates rather quickly compared to volcanic ash and stratoshperic H2SO4

Perkins, Lori; Mcpeters, Richard; Herman, Jay

2001-06-12

90

A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

Craig, James C.

1972-01-01

91

40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any sintering machine, electric smelting furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume....

2013-07-01

92

Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

Boushey, H.

1982-02-01

93

Direct reduction of sulfates to sulfur dioxide for isotopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Reduction of Sulfates to Sulfur Dioxide for Isotopic Analysis I\\/sub n\\/ a previously published method, sulfur dioxide for isotopic analysis was prepared from barium sulfate by thermal decomposition. System has been modified by the addition of a furnace with copper turnings at 600°C. The sulfate is mixed with cuprous oxide and silica, system is evacuated and sample is reduced

Max L. Coleman; Michael P. Moore

1978-01-01

94

THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON DIMETHYL SULFUR IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON  

EPA Science Inventory

It is anticipated that under stress, the cellular DMSP concentration should drop, as sulfur is transferred from the DMSP pool to DMS. Sulfur in the DMS pool will be transferred to the DMSO pool as radicals are scavenged. Enzyme activities such as DMSP lyase, which converts D...

95

Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine  

PubMed Central

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

2012-01-01

96

Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO(2) over time, resulting in wines with little SO(2) protection. Furthermore, SO(2) and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO(2) in wine require the SO(2) to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

Monro, Tanya M; Moore, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

2012-01-01

97

Process for removal of sulfur dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved apparatus and process are disclosed for the removal of sulfur oxides such as sulfur dioxide from waste gas streams. The process comprises scrubbing the waste gas with a circulating aqueous sodium sulfite\\/sodium bisulfite absorption solution at a relatively low ph followed by subjecting a portion of the circulating absorption solution to an improved multi-stage regeneration procedure wherein lime

Pike

1982-01-01

98

Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

2004-01-01

99

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-print Network

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic, Riverside, CA 92507, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 27 May 2011 Received%, and 10% wt.% of dry biomass were also tested at 180 °C for 10 min. Sugar yields were tracked

California at Riverside, University of

100

Interaction of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide with clean silver in ultrahigh vacuum.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that when a clean polycrystalline silver surface is subjected to sulfur dioxide at a pressure of 1 nanotorr, sulfur is chemisorbed to the silver. Heating the contaminated silver leads to an estimation of the minimum heat of desorption of 59 kcal/mol. Sulfur Auger peak height and relative function measurements of the surface during exposure show that adsorption occurs during 6 microtorr/sec exposure at 1 nanotorr.

Lassiter, W. S.

1972-01-01

101

PREPARATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FOR ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained on S³²\\/S³⁴ ratios by mass spectrographic ; analysis of SO released from minerals by oxidation of sulfur showed a ; precision of surface proces 0.02%. The method, which consists in converting the ; sulfur in the mineral to SO by reaction with CuO in a vacuum at 770 to 810 ; c- C, was applied to pyrite (FeS),

Grinenko

1962-01-01

102

75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection...sulfur dioxide State Implementation Plan revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal...

2010-12-28

103

40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. ...CONTINUED) Guam 52.2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. ...to specific sources, since a control strategy demonstration has not been...

2011-07-01

104

40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment... 52.2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules...

2010-07-01

105

78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9793-7] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability and Public...and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The EPA sent the...

2013-03-25

106

78 FR 11124 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9781-3] EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of Availability and Public...and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

2013-02-15

107

40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.  

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment...Guam 52.2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

2014-07-01

108

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

109

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section 60.43Da...1978 60.43Da Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after...on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2011-07-01

110

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct...source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11,...

2013-07-01

111

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct...source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11,...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129 Protection... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this...This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be emitted...

2012-07-01

113

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section 60.43Da...Units 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) On and after...on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct...source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11,...

2011-07-01

115

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. The owners...source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be...

2010-07-01

116

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129 Protection... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this...This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be emitted...

2010-07-01

117

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section 60.43Da...Units 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2 ). (a) On and after...on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2012-07-01

118

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. The owners...source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be...

2011-07-01

119

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. The owners...source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be...

2012-07-01

120

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. The owners...source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be...

2013-07-01

121

40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection...Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) Applicability. The owners...source that has excess emissions of sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be...

2014-07-01

122

40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60.43Da Section 60.43Da...1978 60.43Da Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after...on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct...source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11,...

2014-07-01

124

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection...test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards...of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are considered to...

2011-07-01

125

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection...test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards...of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are considered to...

2013-07-01

126

40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection...allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct...source's excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. [58 FR 3757, Jan. 11,...

2012-07-01

127

40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection...test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards...of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es ) are considered to...

2012-07-01

128

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129 Protection... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this...This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be emitted...

2011-07-01

129

40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. 49.129 Section 49.129 Protection... Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this...This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) that may be emitted...

2013-07-01

130

Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

MacDonald, Bryce I.

1975-01-01

131

Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling  

E-print Network

suspected in several air pollution disasters, notably Donora (U.S.A), the Meuse Valley (Bel- gium to conventional air pollution control techniques (4). Interestingly, the use of biological reactors of California, Riverside, California 92521 Complete treatment of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases in a two

132

Sulfur dioxide inhibition of photosynthesis in isolated spinach chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic oxygen evolution by isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts approached complete inhibition in the presence of a 5 mM concentration of sulfur dioxide. A similar inhibition was observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of bisulfite ions, suggesting a parallel mode of action. In contrast, an equimolar concentration of sulfite ions was markedly less inhibitory and sulfate ions caused

J. E. Silvius; M. Ingle; C. H. Baer

1975-01-01

133

LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

134

Regional disparities of Henan economic growth and sulfur dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fully evaluate and understand the environmental pollution situation, and find out the distribution of regional environmental pollution and the gap, we use the Theil coefficient to analyze the regional sulfur dioxide emissions in Henan Province, which will provide a theoretical decision- making for government to further deploy environmental pollution control measures and develop differentiated environmental pollution control

Chuang Li

2011-01-01

135

Aminosulfonylation of aromatic amines, sulfur dioxide and hydrazines.  

PubMed

A facile route to aryl N-aminosulfonamides under mild conditions is provided. The reaction of aromatic amines (including heteroaromatic amines), sulfur dioxide, and hydrazines proceeds efficiently with good functional group tolerance. The in situ generated diazonium ion is involved in the aminosulfonylation process. PMID:24970100

Zheng, Danqing; Li, Ying; An, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jie

2014-08-18

136

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN WA, OR, AND ID  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: USGS, Nat...

137

SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN CLASS I WILDERNESS AREAS, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This map shows industrial plants which emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the state of Washington. Different plot symbols are used for sources which emit less than 100 tons/year, between 100 and 1000 tons/year, and over 1000 tons/year of SO2. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background...

138

The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases  

PubMed Central

The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

Kettner, Helmut

1965-01-01

139

Io - Longtudinal distribution of sulfur dioxide frost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A longitudinal variation in the distribution of SO2 frost on Io is examined. Twenty spectra of Io (0.26 to 0.33 micrometer) are presented and a strong ultraviolet absorption is found shortward of 0.33 micrometer. The abundance of frost is greatest at orbital longitudes 72 to 137 degrees. Longitudes 250 to 323 degrees are least abundant in SO2. Comparisons are made with a Voyager color relief map, which suggest that SO2 frost is in greatest concentration in the white areas of Io and other sulfurous materials are in greatest concentration in the red areas.

Nelson, R. M.; Lane, A. L.; Matson, D. L.; Fanale, F. P.; Nash, D. B.; Johnson, T. V.

1980-01-01

140

Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

1991-01-01

141

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

1993-01-01

142

IUE detection of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultraviolet absorption bands of sulfur dioxide have been detected in the reflectance spectrum of Venus using the high resolution spectrometer of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The identification of these bands in the 2080 to 2180 A range has been verified by comparison with laboratory absorption spectra. An estimate of the SO2 vertical column density using a reflecting layer model is 4 x 10 to the 16th sq cm.

Conway, R. R.; Mccoy, R. P.; Barth, C. A.; Lane, A. L.

1979-01-01

143

Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide Reaction Rates in Wintertime Orographic Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Releases of sulfur dioxide (SO_2 ) into the wintertime orographic clouds at Elk Mountain in southeastern Wyoming were utilized to accelerate the rate of SO_2 oxidation to cloud -water-dissolved sulfate (SO_sp{4} {2-}). Background SO_2 mixing ratios were 0.6 part-per-billion by volume (ppbv) and were consistent with the remote location of the experimental site and with supplemental cloud water, snow, and

Jefferson Robert Snider

1989-01-01

144

Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20/sup 0/C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25/sup 0/C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30/sup 0/C. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.; Margrey, S.L.

1984-01-01

145

Behavioral modification of estuarine fish exposed to sulfur dioxide.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the avoidance responses of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) exposed to sulfur dioxide (sulfite) at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C. Predictive models were developed and compared for each species at each acclimation temperature. Striped bass avoided 2.2, 2.3, 3.0, and 3.5 mg sulfite/l at 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Atlantic menhaden avoided 3.2, 3.6, 2.9, and 3.0 mg sulfite/l at acclimation temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, respectively. Acclimation temperature was an important factor influencing the avoidance response of each species exposed to sulfur dioxide. Striped bass avoided lower concentrations of sulfite than Atlantic menhaden at 15 and 20 degrees C. Both species avoided approximately the same concentration of sulfite at 25 degrees C. Atlantic menhaden avoided lower concentrations of sulfur dioxide than striped bass at 30 degrees C. PMID:6492212

Hall, L W; Burton, D T; Graves, W C; Margrey, S L

1984-01-01

146

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2010-07-01

147

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2013-07-01

148

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2011-07-01

149

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2012-07-01

150

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c... 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

2013-07-01

151

40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.47b Section 60.47b... 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided...generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to...

2012-07-01

152

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an

Z. Lu; D. G. Streets; Q. Zhang; S. Wang; G. R. Carmichael; Y. F. Cheng; C. Wei; M. Chin; T. Diehl; Q. Tan

2010-01-01

153

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an

Z. Lu; D. G. Streets; Q. Zhang; S. Wang; G. R. Carmichael; Y. F. Cheng; C. Wei; M. Chin; T. Diehl; Q. Tan

2010-01-01

154

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01

155

Genotoxic effects of sulfur dioxide in human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is used as food preservative in apricot sulfurization and several fabricated foods, is a common air pollutant. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible genotoxic effects of SO2 using in vitro human lymphocytes. The different endpoints of genotoxicity: sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronuclei (MN) tests and cell growth kinetics such as mitotic index (MI) and replication index (RI) were studied. The cells were treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm concentrations of SO2. It was shown that SO2 caused significant increases in the frequency of SCE and MN in the middle and high dosage groups and also induced mitotic delays and decreased MI and RI. In conclusion, the results have confirmed that SO2 has potent mutagenicity and it can cause genetic damage leading to a malignancy. PMID:22903179

Uren, Nihal; Yuksel, Sengul; Onal, Yunus

2014-05-01

156

Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

1997-12-31

157

A sensitive method for measuring atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for measuring tropospheric sulfur dioxide concentrations is proposed which is based on the mist chamber sampling method. At the present stage of development, the detection limit of the method is approximately 20 parts per trillion for a 45-min sampling time, with lower concentrations detectable with lower precision. The overall reproducibility of the method (+/-95 percent confidence intervals) is estimated at +/-10 percent. The technique is relatively simple, inexpensive, and lightweight, making it ideally suited for numerous field applications in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical studies from both ground-based and airborne platforms.

Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.

1991-01-01

158

Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma  

SciTech Connect

Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

1990-11-01

159

Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

Schuster, Paul, F.; Reddy, Michael, M.; Sherwood, Susan, I.

1994-01-01

160

Effects of sulfur dioxide on lichen lipids and fatty acids.  

PubMed

Lipids and fatty acids were studied in some lichen species after exposure to 1 ppm of aqueous sulfur dioxide. The changes in lipid composition are specific to the lichen species tested. The exposure of lichens to SO2 resulted in a slight reduction of the total phospholipid content. The amount of betaine lipid diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine was increased in Stereocaulon paschale, but the level of this lipid was not changed in Peltigera aphthosa. An increase in fatty acid unsaturation in lichens in response to the effect of SO2 probably has adaptive significance. PMID:9986914

Bychek-Guschina, I A; Kotlova, E R; Heipieper, H

1999-01-01

161

Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

1982-01-01

162

Effect of endogenous sulfur dioxide in regulating cardiovascular oxidative stress.  

PubMed

In the middle of the 1980s, nitric oxide received extensive attention because of its significant effects in life science. Then, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide were discovered to be gasotransmitters playing important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. As a common air pollutant, sulfur dioxide (SO?) can cause great harm to the human body by producing free radicals, which causes oxidative damage to various organs. Recently, endogenous SO2 was found to be produced in the cardiovascular system and might be a bioactive molecule regulating the physiological activities including cardiovascular oxidative stress. PMID:24718903

Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

2014-09-01

163

Absolute integrated intensity for the nu-1 sulfur dioxide band  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute integrated intensity of the IR vibration-rotation nu-1 SO2 band was measured using the linear portion of the curve of growth. Infrared spectroscopic-absorption cell measurements were performed on sulfur dioxide at partial pressures less than 0.15 torr with nitrogen added to give a total pressure of 705 torr, the path length being 4 mm. The absolute integrated intensity was determined to be 112.0 plus or minus 2.6/cm/sq (atm cm) at 296 K at the 95% confidence level.

Pilon, P. J.; Young, C.

1976-01-01

164

Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases.  

PubMed

Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min(-1)m(-2) and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Because the ammonia release reduction ratio was lower than the manure dilution ratio, dilution could increase the total ammonia emissions from swine manure, especially in lagoons with large liquid surface areas. Carbon dioxide release of 87.3 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Manure dry matter was an important factor for carbon dioxide release from manure. No differences were observed between the treatments (P>0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area. PMID:20850169

Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Sutton, Alan L; Kelly, Dan T; Patterson, John A; Kim, Sun-Tae

2010-11-01

165

Synthesis of 1-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-yl)-methanesulfonohydrazides through insertion of sulfur dioxide.  

PubMed

A three-component reaction of 2-(allyloxy)anilines, sulfur dioxide and hydrazines under mild conditions is developed, which gives rise to 1-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-yl)-methanesulfonohydrazides in good yields. This radical process involves an intramolecular 5-exo-cyclization and insertion of sulfur dioxide. PMID:25144558

An, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Danqing; Wu, Jie

2014-10-11

166

40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. 60.46c Section 60.46c Protection of Environment...Generating Units 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and...

2011-07-01

167

Chemistry of ascorbic acid and sulfur dioxide as an antioxidant system relevant to white wine.  

PubMed

The impact of the combined ascorbic acid and sulfur dioxide antioxidants on white wine oxidation processes was investigated using a range of analytical techniques, including flow injection analysis for free and total sulfur dioxide and two chromatographic methods for ascorbic acid, its oxidative degradation products and phenolic compounds. The combination of different analytical techniques provided a fast and simultaneous means for the monitoring of oxidation processes in a model wine system. In addition, the initial mole ratio of sulfur dioxide to ascorbic acid was varied and the model wine complexity was increased by the inclusion of metal ions (copper(II) and iron(II)). Sulfur dioxide was found not to be a significant binder of ascorbic acid oxidative degradation products and could not prevent the formation of certain phenolic pigment precursors. The results provide a detailed insight into the ascorbic acid/sulfur dioxide antioxidant system in wine conditions. PMID:22688051

Barril, Clia; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoffrey R

2012-06-30

168

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. CARBON DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON RAMS (REGIONAL AIR MONITORING SYSTEM) SULFUR MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the air on the response of flame photometric sulfur gas analyzers of two types, the Tracor model 270 HA sulfur chromatograph and the Meloy model SA 185 total sulfur analyzer, were studied. These analyzers were used in the Regional Air Mo...

169

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

2000-01-01

170

Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite. Dynamic phenomena, such as upper air fronts that modulate total ozone and volcanic eruptions of sulfur dioxide and ash, cannot be adequately resolved. It is hoped that UV observations from geostationary satellites will soon be made to test the value of this unique information in weather forecasting and aviation safety.

Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

171

Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME2) using an optimal estimation  

E-print Network

Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME2) using an optimal Instrument (OMI) to make global observations of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2. Chance, Z. Cai, T. P. Kurosu, C. Lee, and R. V. Martin (2011), Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from

Martin, Randall

172

Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).  

PubMed

We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes. PMID:24611597

De Royer Dupr, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salanon, E; Razungles, A

2014-04-01

173

Simultaneous Removal of Nitrogen Oxide\\/Nitrogen Dioxide\\/Sulfur Dioxide from Gas Streams by Combined Plasma Scrubbing Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonther-mal plasmas

Moo Been Chang; How Ming Lee; Feeling Wu; Chi Ren Lai

2004-01-01

174

Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide.  

PubMed

Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 ?m) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide. PMID:24605942

Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Lus O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moiss; Santaballa, J Arturo

2014-04-22

175

Reactions of sulfur dioxide with ammonia: Dependence on oxygen and nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

The influence of oxygen and nitric oxide on the reactions of sulfur dioxide with ammonia were studied in a simulated flue gas in the range of 0--20% oxygen and 0--300 ppm nitric oxide at temperatures in the range of 40--60 C. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analyzed the reaction products deposited on the reactor surface and revealed that ammonium sulfate was the main product of the reactions, with sulfamic acid and ammonium sulfamate as the minor products. The results showed that oxygen and nitric oxide enhanced the oxidation reactions of sulfur dioxide to form ammonium sulfate. The yield of the minor products markedly increased in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. The size and number concentration of product aerosols increased at lower temperature. The fraction of sulfur dioxide which formed aerosols increased with sulfur dioxide removal.

Hirota, Koichi; Maekelae, J.; Tokunaga, Okihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

1996-10-01

176

Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamki, H.

2014-07-01

177

Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

178

Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions. Emissions from smelters comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. -from Authors

Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

1988-01-01

179

Direct effect of chlorine dioxide, zinc chloride and chlorhexidine solution on the gaseous volatile sulfur compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study focused on the ability of aqueous anti-volatile-sulfur-compound (VSC) solutions to eliminate gaseous VSCs by direct contact in a sealed space to describe possible mode of action of anti-VSC agents. Materials and methods. Twenty milliliters of each experimental solution, 0.16% sodium chlorite, 0.25% zinc chloride, 0.1% chlorhexidine and distilled water, was injected into a Teflon bag containing mixed VSCs, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide and mixed vigorously for 30 s. The VSC concentration was measured by gas chromatography before, immediately after, 30 min and 60 min after mixing. Results. The sodium chlorite solution reduced the VSC concentration remarkably. After mixing, nearly all VSCs were eliminated immediately and no VSCs were detected at 30 and 60 min post-mixing. However, in the other solutions, the VSC concentration decreased by ?30% immediately after mixing and there was no further decrease. Conclusion. The results suggest that sodium chlorite solution has the effect of eliminating gaseous VSCs directly. This must be because it can release chlorine dioxide gas which can react directly with gaseous VSCs. In the case of other solutions that have been proved to be effective to reduce halitosis clinically, it can be proposed that their anti-VSC effect is less likely due to the direct chemical elimination of gaseous VSCs in the mouth. PMID:24512204

Kim, Ju-Sik; Park, Ji-Woon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yun

2014-11-01

180

Environmental sulfur dioxide: toxicity toward the alveolar macrophage  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to determine if SO/sub 2/ and/or its associated ions in solution (H/sub 3/O/sup +/, HSO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 3//sup =/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/) are cytotoxic to rat PAM cells in primary culture. The indices of cytotoxicity which were evaluated included cell viability uptake of particles and viable bacteria, inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, cell surface morphology and oxygen utilization. For determining effects on cell viability, function and morphology, exposures were conducted for 20 hours at either 30 or 37 deg. C in Leighton culture tubes of polystyrene petri dishes. In both instances, cells were attached to glass. Cell viability dose-response curves were obtained with H/sub 3/O/sup +/ (HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), SO/sub 2/ (dissolved gas), HSO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 3//sup =/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/. Buffer strength and pH were varied to determine the effect of these various molecular species on viability. Sulfur dioxide gas exhibited a weak protentiating effect on H/sub 3/O/sup +/ toxicity below pH 6.4. Significant viability loss did not occur above pH 6.4. Particle uptake was diminished significantly at sulfite concentration greater than or equal to 500 uM, pH 7.2. Sulfite was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of GSH-peroxidase in vitro. A slight yet significant change in cell morphology occurred at sulfite concentrations of 200 uM and 4000 uM and pH 7.2. There was a significant difference in O/sub 2/ utilization between control and 4000 uM exposed cells, indicating a potential diminution in cell-surface mediated respiratory stimulation. Based on these studies, sulfur dioxide gas exposure may have an effect on alveolar macrophage function depending on the ambient concentration of the gas and its accumulation in the airspaces of the lung.

Butenhoff, J.L.

1987-01-01

181

Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary copper smelters in the western US  

SciTech Connect

The body of information presented is directed to environmental scientists and policy makers without chemical or metallurgical engineering backgrounds. This paper addresses the problems of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from primary copper smelters in the western United States and projects the future impact of emissions within a framework of legal, technological, and economic considerations. Methodology used to calculate historical sulfur dioxide emissions is described. Sulfur dioxide emission regulations are outlined as they apply to primary copper smelters. A discussion of available sulfur dioxide control technology and copper smelting processes summarizes the technological and economic problems of reducing copper smelter emissions. Based upon these technological and economic considerations, projections of smelter emissions indicate that compliance with existing legislative requirements will be achieved by 1990. Three smelters are projected to close by 1985.

Mangeng, C.A.; Mead, R.W.

1980-01-01

182

75 FR 81471 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental...State Implementation Plan revision for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park. This submittal...Implementation Plan (SIP) revision request for Marathon Petroleum Co, LLC, (Marathon)...

2010-12-28

183

Analysis of state and federal sulfur dioxide emission regulations for combustion sources  

SciTech Connect

Summary of State Implementation Plan (SIP) regulations and Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) pertaining to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from fuel combustion. Includes much tabular information.

Woodard, K.R.; Quidley, D.; Hester, C.

1981-11-01

184

Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?  

E-print Network

Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2003-01-01

185

77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...initial area designations for the primary sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) national ambient...to these commenters, we explained our modified expectations at that time for issuing...tribal agencies that described the EPA's modified expectations regarding some SO 2...

2012-08-03

186

Sulfur Dioxide emission from Mt Pinatubo Eruption June 1991 with dates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere during the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption and for a few weeks after the eruption. Stratospheric SO2 dissipates rather quickly compared to volcanic ash and stratoshperic H2SO4.

Perkins, Lori; Mcpeters, Richard; Herman, Jay

2001-06-12

187

Study of a regenerative process for selective sulfur dioxide removal using organic solvents  

SciTech Connect

In searching appropriate solvents for selective sulfur dioxide removal it has been found that sulfur dioxide solubility can be well correlated by the Gutmann donor number of the solvent. Two solvents, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), have been selected for experiments. Mixtures of sulfur dioxide and solvent (1:1 mole ratio) have been prepared at low temperature. These mixtures give complexes, stable under the experimental conditions, with a melting point well above the melting point of the separate components. These mixtures have been analyzed by infra red, ultraviolet/visible and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Solubility of sulfur dioxide in NMP and MDEA has been measured at 25{degrees}C in the range of 2000-5000 ppmv using a stirred tank reactor. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Van Dam, M.H.H.; Lamine, A.S. [Laboratorie des Sciences du Genie Chimiques (France)] [and others

1996-12-31

188

Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate  

EPA Science Inventory

We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

189

Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

1977-01-01

190

Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees  

SciTech Connect

Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

1980-10-01

191

The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas  

E-print Network

THE SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS By Denton R. Wieland A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS A Dissertation By DENTON R. WlELAND Library A * "COLLEGE...

Wieland, Denton R.

2013-10-04

192

Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.  

PubMed

Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time. PMID:23176364

Aberl, A; Coelhan, M

2013-01-01

193

China's functioning market for sulfur dioxide scrubbing technologies.  

PubMed

Countries' differing positions in technology transfer have been a barrier in climate negotiations. Developed countries want market-based solutions with effective protection of intellectual property rights, whereas developing countries look for external support and nonmarket solutions. Although China has shared common negotiation positions with other developing countries, it has actually relied heavily on markets to acquire foreign technologies. This paper systematically examines the case of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) scrubbing technologies, with first-hand information from the author's field interviews, to explain why such a functioning market for technology could emerge in China. Existing studies focus mainly on technology suppliers or licensors and this paper adds to the understanding of consumers or licensees. Two factors should have made major contributions to the market's emergence: (i) the huge size of the Chinese market of SO(2) scrubbers, and (ii) the knowhow and maturity of the technologies. Market-based solutions of technology transfer might help large developing countries like China and India to efficiently acquire mature environmental technologies and satisfy their rapid development. PMID:21958067

Xu, Yuan

2011-11-01

194

Pulmonary effects of sulfur dioxide and respirable carbon aerosol  

SciTech Connect

Four-hour individual and combined exposures to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/ (1.5 ..mu..m mass median diameter) activated carbon aerosol (ACA) were studied in 20 healthy nonsmoking subjects to determine if activated carbon as a carrier aerosol can augment the pulmonary response to SO/sub 2/. Fifteen-minute exercise stints (V/sub E/ = 35 liters/min) were performed at commencement and completion of each 4-hr period. Significant increases in nose or throat irritation occurred with the SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ + ACA exposures and in eye irritation with the SO/sub 2/ + ACA exposure. Small, statistically significant decrements in spirometric function were observed following the first exercise (t = 17 min) for both the SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ plus ACA exposures: no significant changes were associated with the ACA exposure. Comparing function changes between the SO/sub 2/ and the SO/sub 2/ + ACA exposures demonstrated no statistically significant differences, thus a lack of SO/sub 2/ response enhancement by the carbon aerosol. The determination that the activated carbon sorbed only 1% of the SO/sub 2/ challenge concentration could explain the observed lack of SO/sub 2/ response enhancement.

Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Miller, W.R.; Green, D.J.; Shanty, F.

1986-10-01

195

The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

1993-01-01

196

Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere - Distribution and implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer sees variable disk brightness features similar to the well-known 'UV markings' seen at longer wavelengths. The bright features are consistent with a homogeneous cloud of H2SO4 aerosols. The darker features show the presence of a broad-band absorber, which is at some depth in the cloud layer. Additional contrast arises from SO2 absorption. The observed strength of the SO2 absorption as a function of wavelength rules out a uniform mixing ratio for the SO2. The data are well fitted by an inhomogeneous light scattering model in which the SO2 scale height is one-fifth of the CO2 scale height, and the mixing ratio of SO2 at 40 mb is 10 to the -7th. A model of the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the upper cloud reproduces the observed vertical distribution of SO2 and indicates that SO2 alone is sufficient to produce the observed amount of H2SO4 in this region.

Esposito, L. W.; Winick, J. R.; Stewart, A. I.

1979-01-01

197

Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

1984-01-01

198

Sulfur dioxide inhalation stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in rat brains.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a common environmental pollutant. Mitochondria play essential roles in energy metabolism, generation of reactive oxygen species, and regulation of apoptosis in response to neuronal brain injury. It is of interest to observe the effect of SO(2) on mitochondrial function in brain. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 3.5, 7 and 14mg/m(3) SO(2) for 4h/day for 30days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed in cerebral mitochondria using the lipophilic cationic probe JC-1. The amount of ATP was measured by the luciferinluciferase method. Analyses of mitochondrial replication and transcription were performed by real time PCR. The protein levels were detected using Western blotting. Our results showed that cerebral mtDNA content was markedly increased in rats after SO(2) exposure. Paralleling the change in mtDNA content, MMP, ATP content, MDA level, CO1 & 4 and ATP6 & 8 expression, and cytochrome c oxidase activity were increased in rat cortex after SO(2) inhalation. Moreover, mitochondrial biogenesis was accompanied by increased expression of NRF1 and TFAM, whereas PGC-1? was not changed. We report for the first time increased mitochondrial biogenesis in brain of rats exposed to SO(2), which might be an adaptive response to mitochondrial depletion by oxidant damage. PMID:22677886

Qin, Guohua; Wang, Jiaoxia; Huo, Yajun; Yan, Hongxia; Jiang, Cancan; Zhou, Jianxiao; Wang, Xue; Sang, Nan

2012-10-01

199

Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SOx, NOx and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other

S. V. Krupa; A. H. Legge

2001-01-01

200

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

201

Simultaneous sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide removal by calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids.  

PubMed

At conditions typical of a bag filter exposed to a coal-fired flue gas that has been adiabatically cooled with water, calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids were exposed to a dilute, humidified gas stream of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a packed-bed reactor. A prior study found that NO2 reacted readily with surface water of alkaline and non-alkaline solids to produce nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO). With SO2 present in the gas stream, NO2 also reacted with S(IV), a product of SO2 removal, on the exterior of an alkaline solid. The oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by oxygen reduced the availability of S(IV) and lowered removal of NO2. Subsequent acidification of the sorbent by the removal of NO2 and SO2 facilitated the production of NO. However, the conversion of nitrous acid to sulfur-nitrogen compounds reduced NO production and enhanced SO2 removal. A reactor model based on empirical and semi-empirical rate expressions predicted rates of SO2 removal, NO2 removal, and NO production by calcium silicate solids. Rate expressions from the reactor model were inserted into a second program, which predicted the removal of SO2 and NOx by a continuous process, such as the collection of alkaline solids in a baghouse. The continuous process model, depending upon inlet conditions, predicted 30-40% removal for NOx and 50-90% removal for SO2. These results are relevant to dry scrubbing technology for combined SO2 and NOx removal that first oxidizes NO to NO2 by the addition of methanol into the flue duct. PMID:9775761

Nelli, C H; Rochelle, G T

1998-09-01

202

Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

Carlson, R. W.

2004-01-01

203

Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone  

SciTech Connect

Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

1982-02-01

204

Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone  

SciTech Connect

Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

1982-02-01

205

Remote sensing of sulfur dioxide effects on vegetation: spectroradiometry  

SciTech Connect

Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO/sub 2/ was analyzed by separating injury into its components--chlorosis and necrosis--and reflectance into bands within the visible and near-infrared spectra. Results indicate that, for winter wheat, total visible reflectance as well as individual wavelength bands could be used to distinguish the SO/sub 2/ effects. Three classes of chlorosis and four classes of necrosis, based on severity, could be distinguished by their visible reflectance characteristics. These results indicate that remote sensors that measure visible reflectance may be able to distinguish moderate to severe injury to wheat from low altitudes. Scans of soybeans provided less positive results. There was no statistically significant (alpha = 0.05) difference among the means of blue, green, red, or near-infrared reflectance or the IR/R ratio when unaffected and chlorotic soybean classes were compared. However, significant (alpha = 0.05) differences in the means of green, red, and near-infrared reflectance (but not blue and the IR/R ratio) were found when unaffected and moderately to severely necrotic soybean classes were compared. Evidently, unless the SO/sub 2/ injury to soybeans involves necrosis, reflectance-measuring remote sensors are not likely to detect it from even a low-flying (approx. 500 m above ground level) airborne platform. The necrosis symptom is generally associated with severe levels of foliar injury, whereas chlorosis usually predominates at moderate and light levels.

Sapp, C.D.

1980-09-01

206

Fecundability and parental exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide.  

PubMed Central

Recently it has been observed that birth rates in Teplice, a highly polluted district in Northern Bohemia, have been reduced during periods when sulfur dioxide levels were high. This study, which is based on data from 2,585 parental pairs in the same region, describes an analysis of the impact of SO(2) on fecundability in the first unprotected menstrual cycle (FUMC). We obtained detailed personal data, including time-to-pregnancy information, via maternal questionnaires at delivery. We estimated individual exposures to SO(2) in each of the 4 months before conception on the basis of continual central monitoring. Three concentration intervals were introduced: < 40 microg/m(3 )(reference level); 40-80 microg/m(3); and [greater than or equal to] 80 microg/m(3). We estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of conception in the FUMC using logistic regression models. Many variables were screened for confounding. AORs for conception in the FUMC were consistently reduced only for couples exposed in the second month before conception to SO(2) levels as follows: 40-80 microg/m(3), AOR 0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.88; p < 0.011]; [greater than or equal to] 80 microg/m(3), AOR 0.49 (CI, 0.29-0.81; p < 0.006). The association was weaker in the second 2 years of the study, probably due to the gradual decrease of SO(2) levels in the region. The relationship between SO(2) and fecundability was greater in couples living close to the central monitoring station (within 3.5 km). The timing of these effects is consistent with the period of sperm maturation. This is in agreement with recent findings; sperm abnormalities originating during spermatid maturation were found in young men from Teplice region who were exposed to the increased levels of ambient SO(2). Alternative explanations of our results are also possible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10903619

Dejmek, J; Jelnek, R; Solansky', I; Benes, I; Srm, R J

2000-01-01

207

Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate  

PubMed Central

Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 23 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

2014-01-01

208

Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and daily mortality in Chongqing, China.  

PubMed Central

In 1995, daily mortality in a district of Chongqing, China, was analyzed from January through December for associations with daily ambient sulfur dioxide and fine particles (airborne particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 microm; PM2.5. The mean concentration of PM2.5 was 147 microg/m3 (maximum, 666 microg/m3), and that of SO2 was 213 microg/m3 (maximum, 571 microg/m3). On average, 9.6 persons died each day. We used a generalized additive model using robust Poisson regression to estimate the associations of mean daily SO2 and PM2.5 with daily mortality (on the same day and at lags up to 5 days) adjusted for trend, season, temperature, humidity, and day of the week. The relative risk of mortality associated with a 100 microg/m3 increase in mean daily SO2 was highest on the second lag day [1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.09] and the third lag day (1.04; 95% CI, 0.99-1.08). The associations between daily mortality and mean daily PM2.5 were negative and statistically insignificant on all days. The relative risk of respiratory mortality on the second day after a 100 microg/m3 increase in mean daily SO2 was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.02-1.22), and that for cardiovascular mortality was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.02-1.20). The relative risk of cardiovascular mortality on the third day after a 100 microg/m3 increase in mean daily SO2 was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.11-1.30). The relative risks of mortality due to cancer and other causes were insignificant on both days. The estimated effects of mean daily SO2 on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality risk remained after controlling for PM2.5. PMID:12676616

Venners, Scott A; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Zhonggui; Schlatter, Yu; Wang, Lihua; Xu, Xiping

2003-01-01

209

Optical sensor for sulfur dioxide determination in wines.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in wines, based on the use of an optical sensor that employs a dichlorobis(diphenylphosphino)methane dipalladium I complex [Pd(2)(dppm)(2)Cl(2)] immobilized in a PVC membrane plasticized with o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE) is described. A sensing membrane [4.2% Pd(2)(dppm)(2)Cl(2), 20.8% PVC, and 75% o-NPOE] was adapted to the tip of a bifurcated optical fiber bundle to perform reflectance measurements at 550 nm. The detection system consisted of two cells (40 mL), which hold the sample solution (plus reagents) and the optical sensor, respectively. For the determination of free SO(2), a wine sample was mixed with H(2)SO(4) solution in the sample cell, into which N(2) was bubbled, providing mixing of the solutions and conducting the SO(2) formed toward the detection cell. For determination of total SO(2), a KOH solution was mixed with the wine in the sample cell. Afterward, an H(2)SO(4) solution was added to the cell, and then N(2) was bubbled to conclude the measurement. Linear responses up to 50 and 150 mg L(-1) were obtained for free and total SO(2), with detection limits of 0.37 and 0.70 mg L(-1), respectively. The repeatability of the method was evaluated by carrying out 10 measurements using a single wine sample, providing relative standard deviation values of 2.2 and 2.5% for free and total SO(2), respectively. The sensing membrane prepared from 10 muL of the cocktail solution lasted for 80 measurements, whereas those prepared from 200 muL can be used for 250 measurements. The method was applied to free and total SO(2) determination in wines, and the results did not show significant difference from those obtained with the Ripper reference method at a confidence level of 95%. PMID:17090109

Silva, Karime R B; Raimundo, Ivo M; Gimenez, Iara F; Alves, Oswaldo L

2006-11-15

210

Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis  

E-print Network

Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

Lyons, J. R.

211

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-07-01

212

Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO2 emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO2 and SO42- concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

2010-04-01

213

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15

214

Saskatoon serviceberry and ambient sulfur dioxide exposures: study sites re-visited, 1999.  

PubMed

Field surveys for symptoms of foliar injury in a regional airshed that is influenced by a number of point sources of SOx, NOx and hydrocarbons, combined with foliar and soil sulfur analyses, confirmed earlier results that Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Smokey can be used as a biological indicator of chronic sulfur dioxide exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants such as ozone. PMID:11202740

Krupa, S V; Legge, A H

2001-01-01

215

PULMONARY RESPONSE TO THRESHOLD LEVELS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE (1.0 PPM) AND OZONE (0.3 PPM) (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors exposed 22 healthy adult non-smoking men for 2 hours to either filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide, 0.30 ppm ozone or the combination of 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide plus 0.30 ppm ozone. It was hypothesized that exposure to near threshold concentrations of these pollutants...

216

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01

217

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01

218

Wave lengths of some new absorption bands of sulfur dioxide vapor  

E-print Network

WavE LENGTHS OF SOME NEW ABSORPTION BANDS OF SUIFUR DIOXIDE VAPOR A Thesis BOBBY L. LANDRUM Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department / August 195$ LIBRARY A &III CCLLEGE OF TEXAS WAVE LENGTHS OF SOME... NEW ABSORPTION BANDS OF SULFUR DIOXIDE VAPOR Bobby L. Landrum A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PHYSICS...

Landrum, Bobby Lee

2012-06-07

219

Statistical summary of air quality data for metropolitian Cleveland, Ohio, 1967 - 1972: Total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.

King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.; Fordyce, J. S.; Burr, J. C., Jr.; Cornett, C. L.

1974-01-01

220

Sulfuric Acid Nucleation with NH3, Methyl, Dimethyl, and Trimethyl Amines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of particles from sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogen base molecules was studied within a cylindrical flow reactor. The particles formed from these vapors were detected with a nano Mobility Particle Sizer coupled to a Diethylene Glycol Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter. The effects of ammonia and small alkyl amines on particle formation with sulfuric acid vapor were very large. Enhancements of particle numbers by factors of thousands to millions indicates that these species have powerful effects on nucleation of sulfuric acid molecules. Power dependencies for particle numbers on sulfuric acid and nitrogen bases elucidates the chemical content of the critical clusters and this helps to shed light on the nucleation mechanisms. The details of the particle detection efficiencies, information on the extent of particle growth, and independently determined cluster thermodynamics help to verify these results and to extrapolate them to atmospheric conditions.

Hanson, D. R.; Volz, K.; Glasoe, W.; Panta, B.

2013-12-01

221

Some Factors that Affect the Deposition Rates of Sulfur Dioxide and Similar Gases on Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of sulfur dioxide on growing vegetation is affected by diverse environmental factors, many of which undergo large diurnal and spatial variations. The aerodynamic resistance to vertical transfer in the surface boundary layer can be formulated in terms of the friction velocity, height of observation, vertical heat flux, and surface roughness. Also important are the resistance in the air

M. L. Wesely; B. B. Hicks

1977-01-01

222

PORE DISTRIBUTION CHANGES OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS REACTING WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a determination of changes in the pore structure of calcium oxide sorbents derived from calcium carbonate (termed c-CaO) and calcium hydroxide (termed h-CaO) reacting with sulfur dioxide (SO2). Results show that the pore shape of c-CaO approximates a cy...

223

PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

224

Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO increased the damage. A high SO dosage

William H. Murdy; Harvey L. Ragsdale

1980-01-01

225

SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

226

DEVELOPMENT OF FEDERAL AIR STANDARDS TO REDUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives EPA's conclusions from analyses which led to the decision to propose percent reduction Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) to control air emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from new industrial boilers. It summarizes the NSPS, proposed by EPA on June 19,...

227

DEVELOPMENT OF FEDERAL AIR STANDARDS TO REDUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives EPA's conclusions from analyses which led to the decision to propose percent reduction Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) to control air emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from new industrial boilers. It summarizes the NSPS. The NSPS would require boil...

228

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE DURATION AND SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to determine the shortest duration of exposure to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) sufficient to induce bronchoconstriction significantly greater than that observed with exposure to clean air (CA) in exercising SO2 sensitive asthmatics. Asymptomatic, nonm...

229

Impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set. An interaction between SO and water

D. T. Du Bay; W. H. Murdy

2009-01-01

230

Mortality from Lung Cancer in Workers Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective in this study was to evaluate the mortality of workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry. The cohort included 57,613 workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 12 countries. We assessed exposure to SO2 at the level of mill and department, using industrial hygiene measurement data and

Won Jin Lee; Kay Teschke; Timo Kauppinen; Aage Andersen; Paavo Jppinen; Irena Szadkowska-Stanczyk; Neil Pearce; Bodil Persson; Alain Bergeret; Luiz Augusto Facchini; Reiko Kishi; Danuta Kielkowski; Bo Andreassen Rix; Paul Henneberger; Jordi Sunyer; Didier Colin; Manolis Kogevinas; Paolo Boffetta

2002-01-01

231

Did the Clean Air Act Cause the Remarkable Decline in Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. The centerpiece of this legislation is the annual assignment of all counties to SO2 nonattainment or attainment categories. Polluters face stricter regulations in nonattainment counties. There

Michael Greenstone

2003-01-01

232

Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. The centerpiece of this legislation is the annual assignment of all counties to SO2 nonattainment or attainment categories. Polluters face stricter regulations in nonattainment counties. There

Michael Greenstone

2004-01-01

233

CALCINATION AND SINTERING OF SORBENTS DURING BOILER INJECTION FOR DRY SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the calcination and sintering of sorbents during boiler injection for dry sulfur dioxide (S02) control, with emphasis on calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--because of its superior reactivity with S02 and its wide commercial availability. Calcination and sintering are...

234

ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

235

Behavior of lichens and mosses as affected by sulfur dioxide gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking tests were carried out on 30 lichen and 20 moss species with sulfur dioxide in various concentrations to study the possible connection between the reduction of the lichen and moss flora and air pollution. The experiments resulted in different categories of damages to various species. The smokings were carried out in three series with daily exposure time of 6-9

H. G. Daessler; H. Ranft

1969-01-01

236

Acute effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the middle ear mucosa  

SciTech Connect

A variety of atmospheric pollutants are known to depress mucociliary function in the respiratory system. Since the mucociliary function in the middle ear is similar, and the middle ear may be invaded by atmospheric pollutants, we decided to investigate the possible contribution of sulfur dioxide to middle ear effusion. Guinea pigs were exposed for 24 hours to 300 ppm of sulfur dioxide or air. Immediately after exposure, ciliary activity and epithelial structure were examined close to the tympanic orifice (proximal site) and more distal to it (distal site). In the animals exposed to sulfur dioxide, no effusion was found in the tympanic cavity. Ciliary activity was reduced only in the distal site. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypersecretion in the proximal site and severe pathologic changes in the distal site. Although the normally functioning cilia in the proximal site may prevent retention of surplus secretions in the ear, sulfur dioxide may promote middle ear effusion when combined with other detrimental factors, because it stimulates mucus secretion in the proximal site and impairs ciliary function in the distal site.

Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Esaki, Y.

1989-04-01

237

REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

238

Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

Megonnell, William H.

1975-01-01

239

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

240

Application of long range transport models to New York State's sulfur dioxide emissions policy  

SciTech Connect

During 1983 and 1984 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) analyzed various options for a sulfur dioxide emissions policy and prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). The environmental impact of sulfur dioxide emissions that was of major interest was the acidification of surface waters by the deposition of sulfur compunds in areas that are sensitive to such acidification because of a lack of natural buffering. A significant portion of the preparation of this DEIS centered around determining the contribution that New York State sources make to the deposition of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate at a number of locations in Northeastern North America. This paper describes the application of two long range transport models to determine the contribution of SO/sub 2/ emission sources within and outside New York State to total sulfur deposition at the locations of interest. Also discussed is the subsequent use of this data in the development of a policy of sulfur dioxide emission reductions for New York State.

Galvin, P.; Sistla, G.; Hovey, H.; Rao, S.T.

1985-01-01

241

Laboratory Measurements of the Millimeter-Wavelength Sulfur Dioxide Absorption Spectrum under Simulated Venus Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 millimeter wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308-343 K and pressures between 0.03- 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Icarus, 2014, in press) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd and Steffes Icarus 97, 1992 and Suleiman et al. JGR 101, E2 1996). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, et al. JQSRT 60, 1998) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This model was implemented in the new Georgia Tech Venus Radiative Transfer Model (GT-VRTM) which is capable of computing both disk-averaged and localized brightness temperatures of Venus. These are compared to observations. This work will improve retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from observations of the Venus atmosphere. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under Grant NNX11AD66G.

Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

2014-11-01

242

THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

243

Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2007-01-01

244

Direct linkage between dimethyl sulfide production and microzooplankton grazing, resulting from prey composition change under high partial pressure of carbon dioxide conditions.  

PubMed

Oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the enzymatic cleavage product of the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and is the most abundant form of sulfur released into the atmosphere. To investigate the effects of two emerging environmental threats (ocean acidification and warming) on marine DMS production, we performed a large-scale perturbation experiment in a coastal environment. At both ambient temperature and ? 2 C warmer, an increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in seawater (160-830 ppmv pCO2) favored the growth of large diatoms, which outcompeted other phytoplankton species in a natural phytoplankton assemblage and reduced the growth rate of smaller, DMSP-rich phototrophic dinoflagellates. This decreased the grazing rate of heterotrophic dinoflagellates (ubiquitous micrograzers), resulting in reduced DMS production via grazing activity. Both the magnitude and sign of the effect of pCO2 on possible future oceanic DMS production were strongly linked to pCO2-induced alterations to the phytoplankton community and the cellular DMSP content of the dominant species and its association with micrograzers. PMID:24724561

Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Yang, Eun Jin; Hyun, Bonggil; Kim, Ja-Myung; Noh, Jae Hoon; Kim, Miok; Kong, Bokyung; Choi, Dong Han; Choi, Su-Jin; Jang, Pung-Guk; Jeong, Hae Jin

2014-05-01

245

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

2011-07-01

246

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

2010-07-01

247

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

2012-07-01

248

40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...remove sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery...from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired steam generating unit...used in the process of burning fossil fuel for the purpose of producing...

2013-07-01

249

Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. The reaction of sulfur dioxide with SCI produces sulfuric acid which partitions into sulfate. We examine the impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by SCI on sulfate using two different measured rate constants for the reaction of sulfur dioxide and SCI. When we use the higher rate constant and emissions estimates from the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, it enhances monthly mean sulfate in summer by ?20% in biogenically active areas. Enhancements are driven primarily by SCI produced from the reactions of biogenically derived alkenes and ozone. The use of the lower rate constant only marginally enhances sulfate since it is 65 times lower than the higher rate constant. We performed several sensitivity analyses to investigate the impacts of uncertain biogenic emissions and SCI loss rates. When we use the higher rate constant and emissions estimates from the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature, it enhances monthly mean sulfate by ?75%. A simulation using the lowest reported rate constant for the reaction of SCI and water indicated the maximum enhancement of sulfate from this chemistry was up to 4?g/m3 over a 24-hperiod in some locations in the Southeastern U.S. Predictions without the SCI reaction are lower than observed sulfate while predictions with the SCI reaction improve the agreements with observations.

Sarwar, Golam; Simon, Heather; Fahey, Kathleen; Mathur, Rohit; Goliff, Wendy S.; Stockwell, William R.

2014-03-01

250

Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. 1  

PubMed Central

The concurrent exchange of SO2 and H2O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO2 was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO2-induced H2S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO2 flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) RsSO2? from SO2 data using analog modeling techniques and (b) RsSO2 from analogy to H2O (i.e. 1.89 RsH2o). The emission of H2S was positively correlated with the rate of SO2 flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO2 flux data (i.e. ignoring H2S emissions). The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO2 data (RsSO2?) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H2O vapor (RsSO2). The resultant of RsSO2? RsSO2, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO2 flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO2 molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H2O molecules. It is proposed that the SO2:H2O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H2O and SO2 in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. PMID:16662968

Taylor, George E.; Tingey, David T.

1983-01-01

251

Advection of sulfur dioxide over the western Atlantic Ocean during CITE 3  

SciTech Connect

During the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 sulfur intercomparison over the western Atlantic Ocean, five techniques for the determination of sulfur dioxide were evaluated. The response times of the techniques varied from 3 to 30 min. Based on the ensemble of measurements reported, it was clear that advection of SO2 from the North American continent occurred in the boundary layer (altitude less than 1 km) with only one exception. The vertical distribution of SO2 above the boundary layer for the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean was remarkably similar duing this experiment.

Thornton, D.C.; Bandy, A.R.; Beltz, N.; Driedger, A.R. III; Ferek, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seatlle, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

252

Advection of sulfur dioxide over the western Atlantic Ocean during CITE 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 sulfur intercomparison over the western Atlantic Ocean, five techniques for the determination of sulfur dioxide were evaluated. The response times of the techniques varied from 3 to 30 min. Based on the ensemble of measurements reported, it was clear that advection of SO2 from the North American continent occurred in the boundary layer (altitude less than 1 km) with only one exception. The vertical distribution of SO2 above the boundary layer for the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean was remarkably similar duing this experiment.

Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Beltz, N.; Driedger, A. R., III; Ferek, R.

1993-01-01

253

EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

254

CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 2. ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROL OF WEAK SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report covers the second phase of a three phase effort evaluating (1) characterization of particulate control of a molybdenum sulfide roasters, (2) assessment of sulfur dioxide abatement alternatives for nonferrous smelting and, in particular, for molybdenum roasting, and (3...

255

The Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide and Other Infrared Adsorbers on the Surface of Io from Galileo NIMS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) was used to investigate the distribution and relative particle size variations of sulfur dioxide over one hemisphere of Io, centered at 210(deg)W.

Clark, R. W.; Carlson, W. D.; Smythe, R. M. C.; Davies, L. W.; Kamp, J. A.; Mosher, J. A.; Soderblom, F. E.; Leader, R.; Mehlman, R. N.

1997-01-01

256

Sulfur dioxide on Io - Spatial distribution and physical state  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the 4-micron SO2 band on Jupiter's satellite Io and laboratory measurements of SO2 frost are presented. The observations confirm the existence of a large longitudinal variation in band strength, but show no evidence of temporal changes. Comparison of the band position and shape in Io's spectrum with those in the laboratory frost's suggests that the bulk of the absorption on Io is due to frost, not adsorbed gas. The derived SO2 coverage is large enough to require that SO2 be present in most terrain types on Io and not just in the white plains unit. To reconcile the infrared observations that indicate large amoutns of SO2 with the ultraviolet observations of Voyager and IUE that show little, the SO2 must be mixed intimately with the sulfur (or other material) so that at each wavelength the darker component dominates the spectrum.

Fanale, F. P.; Howell, R. R.; Cruikshank, D. P.

1984-01-01

257

Theoretical characterization of the isomers of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Generalized valence bond (GVB) and configuration interaction (CI) calculations are reported on the isomers of SO/sub 2/. From these calculations the ring isomer with R/sub SO/ = 1.66 A and theta/sub OSO/ = 60/sup 0/ is predicted to lie about 100 kcal/mol above the ground state (open isomer; calculated (experimental): R/sub SO/ = 1.45 A (1.4308 A), theta/sub OSO/ = 120/sup 0/ (119.3/sup 0/)). The superoxide isomer with R/sub SO/ = 1.67 A, R/sub OO/ = 1.33 A, and theta/sub SOO/ = 120/sup 0/ is predicted to lie about 5 kcal/mol higher than the ring isomer. These results strongly argue against the involvement of the isomers of SO/sub 2/ in the combustion of sulfur-containing species and in the flash photolysis of SO/sub 2/.

Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Raffenetti, R.C.

1981-05-14

258

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from K?lauea Volcano, Hawaii, 20072010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

K?lauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from K?lauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at K?lauea Volcano for the interval 20072010.

Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

2012-01-01

259

Protective effects of seabuckthorn seed oil on mouse injury induced by sulfur dioxide inhalation.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common but important air pollutant. Micronuclei (MN) in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow and the ratio between organ and body weight of treatment mouse were determined and analyzed in vivo in order to study injury of sulfur dioxide inhalation on organs and germ plasm of mouse as well as protective effect of seabuckthorn seed oil against this injury. It was showed that SO2 inhalation induced the change of the ratio between organ and body of mouse organs, such as liver, lung, kidney, and spleen, and a significant increase of number of MNPCE, while seabuckthorn seed oil offered a protection against such injury. PMID:12928980

Ruan, Aidong; Min, Hang; Meng, Ziqiang; L, Zhenmei

2003-09-01

260

Physiology of ecotypic plant response to sulfur dioxide in Geranium carolinianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of Geranium carolinianum, a winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats, vary in their foliar response to sulfur dioxide, and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of this ecotypic response was investigated using a whole-plant gaseous exchange system in which leaf resistance to H2O efflux

G. E. Taylor; D. T. Tingey

1981-01-01

261

Extraction of polychlorinated biphenyl with supercritical carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and subcritical water.  

PubMed

In the extraction of spiked PCB from soil, three extracting fluids were investigated: supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2), supercritical sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and subcritical water. Among the tested fluids SF6 appeared to be appropriate especially for the extraction of low polar PCB. CO2 and water were found to be suitable for the quantitative extraction of all PCB. Water was judged as the best because of its low price, good availability and environmental safety. PMID:11227442

Pross, S; Gau, W; Wenclawiak, B W

2000-05-01

262

Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on the ultrastructure of the chloroplasts of hybrid poplar leaves  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with the effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, on leaf chloroplasts of a deciduous woody plant. Populus deltoides represents one of the few deciduous plants to be studied for the effects of these two common air pollutants. This report details the results of these pollutants on hybrid poplar leaf mesophyll cells under similar experimental conditions as above, but processed for conventional transmission electron microscopy.

Pechak, D.G.; Noble, R.D.; Dochinger, L.

1986-03-01

263

The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO and water may

D. T. DuBay; William H. Murdy

1983-01-01

264

Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous sulfur compounds by silver-deposited titanium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition of ultrafine particle of silver on titanium dioxide (TiO2) significantly improved the photocatalytic activity for degradation of gaseous sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methylmercaptan (CH3SH). The silver-deposited photocatalytic filter (Ag-PCF) was prepared by coating TiO2 powder on the porous ceramics substrate and successively depositing nano-sized silver particles on TiO2 by means of photodeposition method. The photocatalytic

Shinji Kato; Yuji Hirano; Misao Iwata; Taizo Sano; Koji Takeuchi; Sadao Matsuzawa

2005-01-01

265

Responses to sulfur dioxide and exercise by medication-depend asthmatics: Effect of varying medication levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one volunteers with moderate to severe asthma were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO) at concentrations of O (control), 0.3, and 0.6 ppm in each of three medication states: (1) low (much of their usual asthma medication withheld), (2) normal (each subject on his own usual medication schedule), and (3) high (usual medication supplemented by inhaled metaproterenol before exposure). Theophylline, the

W. S. Linn; D. A. Shamoo; R. C. Peng; K. W. Clark; E. L. Avol; J. D. Hackney

2009-01-01

266

Responses to Sulfur Dioxide and Exercise by Medication-Dependent Asthmatics: Effect of Varying Medication Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one volunteers with moderate to severe asthma were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO2) at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.3, and 0.6 ppm in each of three medication states: (1) low (much of their usual asthma medication withheld), (2) normal (each subject on his own usual medication schedule), and (3) high (usual medication supplemented by inhaled metaproterenol before exposure). Theophylline, the

William S. Linn; Deborah A. Shamoo; Ru-Chuan Peng; Kenneth W. Clark; Edward L. Avol; Jack D. Hackney

1990-01-01

267

Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO[sub 2] released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO[sub 2] is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of

P. J. Wallace; T. M. Gerlach

1994-01-01

268

Sulfur dioxide inhibits calcium carbonate precipitation: Implications for early Mars and Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested a role for sulfur dioxide (SO2) in maintaining relatively warm surface temperatures on early Mars. Here we show experimentally, that SO2 concentrations orders of magnitude lower than those required for it to have been of climatic importance strongly affect the aqueous chemistry and the precipitated mineral assemblage. At near-neutral pH, part-per-billion concentrations of SO2 prevent the

I. Halevy; D. P. Schrag

2009-01-01

269

Catalytic conversion of aryl triazenes into aryl sulfonamides using sulfur dioxide as the sulfonyl source.  

PubMed

Various sulfonamides have been synthesized from triazenes and sulfur dioxide. In the presence of just a catalytic amount of BF3OEt2, a series of 1-aryl-triazenes were converted into sulfonyl hydrazines in good to excellent yields. When using CuCl2 as the catalyst, the corresponding sulfonamides can be produced from the 1-aryl triazenes in good yields. PMID:25010993

Li, Wanfang; Beller, Matthias; Wu, Xiao-Feng

2014-08-28

270

Phosphonobetaine\\/sulfur dioxide copolymer by Butlers cyclopolymerization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zwitterionic monomer, ethyl 3-(N,N-diallylammonio)propanephosphonate and sulfur dioxide were cyclocopolymerized in DMSO using azobisisobutyronitrile or ammonium persulfate as initiators to afford a pH-responsive polyphosphonobetaine\\/SO2 (PPB\\/SO2) copolymer. The polymers, on treatment with HCl and NaOH, gave the aqueous solutions of the corresponding cationic polyphosphononic acid (CPP) and anionic polyphosphonate (APP). The solution properties of the PPB having two pH-responsive functionalities were

N. Y. Abu-Thabit; Izzat W. Kazi; Hasan A. Al-Muallem; Shaikh A. Ali

2011-01-01

271

A rapid method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in sulfited pre-peeled potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryA simple method has been developed for determining the sulfur dioxide content of sulfited, fresh potatoes. A 100 gram sample\\u000a of potato is homogenized in a buffer solution at pH 4.4, which was found to reduce the oxidation of the sulfite to a negligible\\u000a amount during the extraction and subsequent filtration. An aliquot of the filtered extract is then titrated

L. R. Ross; R. H. Treadway

1960-01-01

272

Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What Are the Gains from Trade?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) established a market for transferable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances among electric utilities. This market offers firms facing high marginal abatement costs the opportunity to purchase the right to emit SO2 from firms with lower costs, and this is expected to yield cost savings compared to a command-and-control approach to

Curtis Carlson; Dallas Burtraw; Maureen Cropper; Karen L. Palmer

2000-01-01

273

Symptomology and relative susceptibility of various ornamental plants to acute airborne sulfur dioxide exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of airborne sulfur dioxide on ornamental plants was examined by comparative greenhouse fumigation of various foliage plants, landscape ornamentals, and flowering ornamentals at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppM SO. Selected SO levels allowed placement of plants into very low, low, intermediate, high and very high susceptibility categories based on foliar injury. Foliar symptoms included marginal and interveinal

T. K. Howe; S. S. Woltz

1981-01-01

274

Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. ) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring analysis of western larch (Larix occidentialis Nutt) demonstrated both direct and indirect affects of sulfur dioxide emissions from the lead\\/zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. Tree cores were collected from 5 stands known to have been polluted and from 3 control stands. Age effects were removed by fitting theoretical growth curves, and macrocliate was modeled using the average of the

C. A. Fox; W. B. Kincaid; T. H. Nash; D. L. Young; H. C. Fritts

1984-01-01

275

Study of a QCM dimethyl methylphosphonate sensor based on a ZnO-modified nanowire-structured manganese dioxide film.  

PubMed

Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO(2) nanofibers and pure MnO(2) nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO(2) film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO(2) nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

2010-01-01

276

Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization  

E-print Network

Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental employed for the study of the reactions of neutral vanadium oxide clusters (VmOn) with sulfur dioxide (SO2 for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

Rocca, Jorge J.

277

Sulfur uptake by type I collagen from methyl mercaptan/dimethyl disulfide air mixtures.  

PubMed

Type I acid-soluble collagen, suspended in 0.02 M Tris/0.13 M NaCl buffer (pH 7.4), was exposed to air atmosphere admixed with 10.7 X 10(-9) moles of [35S]-labeled dimethyl disulphide/methyl mercaptan mixture in the ratio of 99.82% (CH3S)2/0.18% CH3SH. Gas chromatographic analyses of head-space following one and four days of incubation indicated that all of the CH3SH was absorbed from the head-space by the collagen-containing liquid phase, while the (CH3S)2 concentration of the head-space remained essentially unchanged. Of the total [35S]-activity initially present in the head-space, only 1.0 the total [35S]-activity initially present in the head-space, only 1.0 and 1.86% was absorbed by the collagen-containing liquid phase within one and four days, respectively. Paper chromatographic separation of the reaction mixture showed that only 0.42 and 0.60% of the radioactivity in the head-space was associated with collagen after one and four days of reaction. In comparable [35S]-H2S systems devoid of (CH3S)2, all of the H2S was absorbed within 48 hours of incubation with 18.04% (1 day) and 18.28% (4 days) of the available [35S]-H2S complexed with collagen. The results provide evidence that the reaction of collagen with H2S and CH3SH/(CH3S)2 mixture proceeded via the H2S and CH3SH thiol groups. PMID:3865946

Johnson, P W; Tonzetich, J

1985-12-01

278

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01

279

Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1 1 grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their critical loads if emission trends continue at the current rate.

Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

280

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mangun, C. L.; DeBarr, J. A.; Economy, J.

2001-01-01

281

A study of the total atmospheric sulfur dioxide load using ground-based measurements and the satellite derived Sulfur Dioxide Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present characteristics of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) loading over Thessaloniki, Greece, and seven other selected sites around the world using SO 2 total column measurements from Brewer spectrophotometers together with satellite estimates of the Version 8 TOMS Sulfur Dioxide Index (SOI) over the same locations, retrieved from Nimbus 7 TOMS (1979-1993), Earth Probe TOMS (1996-2003) and OMI/Aura (2004-2006). Traditionally, the SOI has been used to quantify the SO 2 quantities emitted during great volcanic eruptions. Here, we investigate whether the SOI can give an indication of the total SO 2 load for areas and periods away from eruptive volcanic activity by studying its relative changes as a correlative measure to the SO 2 total column. We examined time series from Thessaloniki and another seven urban and non-urban stations, five in the European Union (Arosa, De Bilt, Hohenpeissenberg, Madrid, Rome) and two in India (Kodaikanal, New Delhi). Based on the Brewer data, Thessaloniki shows high SO 2 total columns for a European Union city but values are still low if compared to highly affected regions like those in India. For the time period 1983-2006 the SO 2 levels above Thessaloniki have generally decreased with a rate of 0.028 Dobson Units (DU) per annum, presumably due to the European Union's strict sulfur control policies. The seasonal variability of the SO 2 total column exhibits a double peak structure with two maxima, one during winter and the second during summer. The winter peak can be attributed to central heating while the summer peak is due to synoptic transport from sources west of the city and sources in the north of Greece. A moderate correlation was found between the seasonal levels of Brewer total SO 2 and SOI for Thessaloniki, Greece ( R = 0.710-0.763) and Madrid, Spain ( R = 0.691) which shows that under specific conditions the SOI might act as an indicator of the SO 2 total load.

Georgoulias, A. K.; Balis, D.; Koukouli, M. E.; Meleti, C.; Bais, A.; Zerefos, C.

282

EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect

The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2009-11-11

283

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman, Gary Bishop, Allison Peddle, University of Denver Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Denver CO 80208. www.feat.biochem.du.edu  

E-print Network

On-Road Motor Vehicle Emissions including Ammonia, Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Don Stedman.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 gSO2/kg 2005200019951990 Model Year San Jose Fresno West LA Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen dioxide: Less than 5% of the NOx BUT with an outstanding peak for the 2007 MY in Fresno 0

Denver, University of

284

Study of ozone and sulfur dioxide using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a vertical column of the atmosphere in Thailand were obtained from the Brewers#121 and #120. There are similarities between the O3 patterns obtained from the two sites, which are higher in the summer and rainy season compared with winter, although the magnitude of the change in Bangkok is greater than that in Songkhla. SO2 values showed the summer months provide the higher SO2 values in Bangkok, in contrast to Songkhla where the summer months give lower SO2 values.

Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumrid

2014-03-01

285

Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO[sub 2] released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO[sub 2] is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO[sub 2]-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO[sub 2] that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

Wallace, P.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1994-07-22

286

Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO2 released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO2 is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO2-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO2 that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

Wallace, P. J.; Gerlach, T. M.

1994-01-01

287

Sulfur Dioxide  

MedlinePLUS

... SO 2 : Basic Information - Basics about SO 2 air pollution. Health - Effects of SO 2 air pollution. SO 2 Primary Standards - Links to technical information ... Implementation - Programs and requirements for reducing SO 2 air pollution. Regulatory Actions - Links to proposed and final rules, ...

288

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide by CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles and corresponding changes in magnetism.  

PubMed

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on 10 nm CoFe(2)O(4) spinel ferrite nanoparticles was examined. Adsorption loadings of sulfur dioxide at breakthrough conditions were determined to be approximately 0.62 mol/kg, which is significant given the 150 m(2)/g surface area of the nanoparticles. Adsorption proceeds through a chemisorption mechanism with sulfur dioxide forming a sulfate upon adsorption on the particle surface, which leads to a 23% decrease in the remnant magnetization, a 20% decrease in the saturation magnetization, and a 9% decrease in the coercivity of the magnetic nanoparticles. Adsorbent materials that provide a magnetic signal when adsorption occurs could have broad implications on adsorption-based separations. PMID:22400990

Glover, T Grant; Sabo, Daniel; Vaughan, Lisa A; Rossin, Joseph A; Zhang, Z John

2012-04-01

289

On the Decadal Variation of sulfur dioxide at the Cloud Top of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus atmosphere is a natural laboratory of sulfur chemistry. As one of the parent species of sulfur, sulfur dioxide (SO_2) is generated in the lower atmosphere and transported upward to the middle atmosphere, where it is further oxidized and eventually produces sulfuric acid cloud. The 30-year observations from the Pioneer Venus (Esposito et al., 1988) and the Venus Express (Marcq et al., 2012) show a decadal variation of total column abundance of SO_2 above the cloud top. The amplitude varies in about two orders of magnitude and therefore poses a question on what causes such a dramatic change on the sulfur budget. Previous interpretations include episodic volcanic eruption (Esposito 1984) and long-time dynamical oscillations (Marcq et al., 2012) that supported by a recent general circulation model on Venus (Parish et al., 2011). Here we attempt to understand the secular variation of SO_2 using a one-dimensional (1D) time-evolving photochemistry-diffusion model which includes about 50 species and about 350 reactions (Zhang et al., 2010; 2011). Specifically for this study, we perturb the mean steady state of the middle atmosphere of Venus by adding forcings at the bottom layer (at about 58 km). Two types of forcing are considered here: (1) the volcanic eruption is simulated by a mass flux injected from the bottom layer; and (2) a wavy structure is provided on the eddy diffusion profile to approximate the dynamical perturbations. Important parameters such as the amplitude and timescale of the forcings are constrained by the observation secular patterns. Possible consequences are discussed and the variations for other species are predicted to guide the future observations. This research was supported by the Bisgrove scholar Program in the University of Arizona.

Zhang, Xi

290

Effect of metaproterenol sulfate on mild asthmatics' response to sulfur dioxide exposure and exercise  

SciTech Connect

Twenty asthmatic volunteers, most with mild disease, underwent dose-response studies with sulfur dioxide (SO2) under three pretreatment conditions: (1) drug (metaproterenol sulfate in aerosolized saline solution), (2) placebo (aerosolized saline only), and (3) no pretreatment. Sulfur dioxide exposure concentrations were 0.0, 0.3, and 0.6 ppm. Experimental conditions were presented in random order at 1-wk intervals. Exposures lasted 10 min with heavy continuous exercise. Lung function was measured at baseline, after pretreatment (immediately pre-exposure), immediately post-exposure, and during a 2-hr follow-up. Subjects could elect to take bronchodilators during follow-up. Symptoms were monitored before, during, and for 1 wk after exposure. With no pretreatment, subjects exhibited typical exercise-induced bronchospasm at 0.0 ppm, slightly increased responses at 0.3 ppm, and more marked increases at 0.6 ppm. Seven subjects took bronchodilator after 0.6-ppm exposures, compared to 2 at lower concentrations. Within 30 min post-exposure, most subjects' symptoms and lung function had returned to near pre-exposure levels. A similar sequence was observed when subjects received placebo. Drug pretreatment improved lung function relative to baseline, prevented bronchoconstrictive responses at 0.0 and 0.3 ppm, and greatly mitigated responses at 0.6 ppm. Thus, typical bronchodilator usage by asthmatics is likely to reduce their response to ambient SO2 pollution.

Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.; Spier, C.E.; Smith, M.N.; Hackney, J.D.

1988-11-01

291

Influence of sulfur dioxide on the selective catalytic reduction of NO by decane on Cu catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The selective catalytic removal of NO in oxygen rich atmospheres has been investigated in the presence of sulfur dioxide on a series of Cu catalysts. The reactivities correlated with the reducibility of Cu species determined by temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen. Without sulfur dioxide in the feed, the activity is related to the reducibility of Cu species. The addition of SO{sub 2} to the solid shifts the TPR peaks to higher temperatures. The magnitude of this effect is lower for acid zeolites such as MFI and BEA. Sulfation results in a small inhibition of the reactivity for deNOx in the case of Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, no or little change in the case of Cu/zeolites, and a promotion of activity in the case of Cu/TiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation of decane on Cu/TiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZrO{sub 2} is inhibited by SO{sub 2} at low temperatures, but remains close to 100% in presence or absence of SO{sub 2} on Cu/TiO{sub 2} above 600K. In the case of Cu/ZrO{sub 2} the addition Of SO{sub 2} increases the rate of oxidation above 640 K The positive effect of SO{sub 2} on deNOx is attributed to the promotion of a bifunctional mechanism in presence of strong acid sites.

Figueras, F.; Coq, B.; Tachon, D. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, Montpellier (France)] [and others

1996-12-31

292

The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Carlson, R. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A. G.; Kamp, L. W.; Mosher, J. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Leader, F. E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R. N.; Fanale, F. P.

1997-01-01

293

Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of some user-controlled parameters, including image exposure duration, the diameter of the lens aperture, the frequency of calibration cell imaging, and the use of the single or paired bandpass filters, have not yet been addressed. In order to clarify methodological consequences and quantify accuracy, laboratory and field experiments were conducted. Images were collected of calibration cells under varying observational conditions, and our conclusions provide guidance for enhanced image collection. Results indicate that the calibration cell response is reliably linear below 1500 ppm m, but that the response is significantly affected by changing light conditions. Exposure durations that produced maximum image digital numbers above 32 500 counts can reduce noise in plume images. Sulfur dioxide retrieval results from a coal-fired power plant plume were compared to direct sampling measurements and the results indicate that the accuracy of the UV camera retrieval method is within the range of current spectrometric methods. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Dalton, M.P.; Watson, I.M.; Nadeau, P.A.; Werner, C.; Morrow, W.; Shannon, J.M.

2009-01-01

294

NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1980 PROFICIENCY SURVEY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Based on authority granted by provisions of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7410, et seq.), the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC administers periodic surveys of analytical proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitroge...

295

Evaluation of some regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for flue gas desulfurization. [Diethylenetriamine, ethylenediamine, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor pressure of sulfur dioxide above aqueous solutions of citric acid (2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid), glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic acid), 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, ethylenediamine (1,2 diaminoethane), and diethylenetriamine (2,2' diaminodiethylamine), as well as above pure tri-n-butyl phosphate, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and water, were measured for temperatures from 46.2°C to 91.1°C for possible application to regenerable flue gas desulfurization systems. Sulfur dioxide loadings in the absorbent ranged

R. J. Walker; C. H. Schwartz; D. J. Wildman; S. J. Gasior

1982-01-01

296

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis response to sulfur dioxide fumigation.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) supplies the basic sulfur element to promote plant growth, yet at the same time it is a harmful air pollutant. Currently, the mechanisms of plant adaptation to SO2 stress are largely unknown. Pathways of SO2 metabolism, a range of networks of interacting regulatory signals and defense mechanisms triggered in resistance to SO2 stress, have not yet been clarified. We performed transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis plants fumigated with 30mgm(-3) SO2 for 72h and untreated controls using microarrays. This identified 2,780 significantly up- or down-regulated genes in plants response to SO2 stress, indicating a possible genome-scale reprogramming of the transcriptome. Significant changes in the transcript abundance of genes that participated in SO2 metabolic pathways indicated that numerous sulfites were involved in sulfur assimilatory pathways directly and away from sulfite oxidative pathways. Furthermore, the up-regulation of components involved in reactive oxygen species generating and scavenging pathways demonstrated altered redox homeostasis. Transcripts encoding key components in nitric oxide biosynthesis pathways were simultaneously up-regulated by SO2 exposure. In addition, transcripts associated with putative biotic stress were also up-regulated. Therefore, SO2 evokes a comprehensive reprogramming of metabolic pathways, consistent with up-regulation of transcripts involved in tolerance and defense mechanisms, in Arabidopsis. PMID:24889700

Zhao, Jun; Yi, Huilan

2014-10-01

297

FIELD TESTING TO DETERMINE THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM OLD IN SITU OIL SHALE FIELD-SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the major technology needs in the development of the oil shale industry is to adopt and develop methods for controlling the release of pollutants to the environment. Large quantities of sulfur dioxide may be generated from oil shale retorting operations. Sulfur dioxide is ...

298

Remote sensing of sulfur dioxide effects on vegetation: spectral reflectance of soybeans and winter wheat exposed to sulfur dioxide in experimental plots  

SciTech Connect

Remote measurements of the spectral reflectance of experimental, 0.40 ha plots of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var Essex) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) var Coker 68-15) were made after the plants were given controlled exposures of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and the foliar effects were observed and recorded. The plots were divided into subplots, each of which was treated with a specific dose of the pollutant; the 2-hour average concentrations ranged from zero to 10480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ to simulate acute exposures that might occur in agricultural areas near large, coal-fired power plants. Then the subplots were scanned systematically with a spectroradiometer. Spectral scanning as performed on these subplots can provide guidance for selecting appropriate films and optical filters for aerial multiband cameras and optimal channel combinations for airborne multispectral scanners to be used for detecting and mapping SO/sup 2/ effects on sensitive crops. It is concluded that although some statistically significant relationships exist between reflectance and foliar injury, they show up only when the level of injury is relatively severe. The very light to moderate effects that might be encountered in agricultural fields near large, coal-fired power plants probably cannot be consistently detected with airborne remote sensors because of the masking effects of variables such as weediness, canopy density, and moisture stress. In these experiments it was much easier to detect the SO/sub 2/ effects on wheat than on soybeans.

Sapp, C.D.

1980-11-01

299

Use of stable sulfur isotope systematics for evaluating oxidation reaction pathways and in-cloud-scavenging of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere is most likely oxidized into sulfate. Two major oxidation pathways are possible: (1) a homogeneous pathway involving gas reaction with hydroxyl radicals and (2) a heterogeneous pathway involving aqueous dissolution or aerosol reactions. The relative importance of these reaction pathways conditions is controversial. Sulfur isotope ratios can be used to quantify the relative importance of these reaction pathways. However, its application was severely hampered by the fact that the isotope fractionation factor for the homogeneous pathway was not known. A significant isotope fractionation in the homogeneous SO[sub 2] oxidation is identified for the first time using an ab initio quantum mechanical calculation. By using the sulfur isotope fractionation factors the authors demonstrate a technique that uses measurements of the sulfur isotope ratio in gaseous SO[sub 2], aerosol SO[sub 4] and sulfate in wet precipitation to quantify the relative importance of the homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction pathways as well as the in-cloud scavenging of sulfur dioxide for a set of isotopic observations at New Haven, CT, USA. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Tanaka, Noriyuki; Rye, D.M.; Xiao, Yitian; Lasaga, A.C. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1994-07-01

300

Trend analysis of monthly sulfur dioxide emissions in the conterminous United States, 1975-1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease though the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. In addition, five regions of coherent sulfur dioxide emissions behavior are defined on the basis of seasonal occurrence of maximum and minimum emission loadings. A winter-summer, latitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions maxima, whereas an equinox-summer, longitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions minima.Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease through the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. Additional study results are discussed.

Lins, H.F.

1987-01-01

301

FLUX DETERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN THE EXPOSURE OF RED SPRUCE TO GASEOUS HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, OZONE, AND SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We report on the 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. ozone, and sulfur dioxide. he exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H2O2, O3, and SO2 that have been observed du...

302

UTILIZATION OF A RESPONSE-SURFACE TECHNIQUE IN THE STUDY OF PLANT RESPONSES TO OZONE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-di...

303

SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED FOR SHORT DURATIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS: A SELECTED REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Prior to 1980, essentially no health related effects had been observed for short-term ( < 1 hr) exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels similar to those found in the ambient environment (= or < 1 ppm). In 1980 and 81, the results from several studies indicated that asthmatics' a...

304

The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces

Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

2011-01-01

305

Foliar injury symptoms of Saskatoon serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) as a biological indicator of ambient sulfur dioxide exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saskatoon serviceberry or Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. cv. Smoky) seedlings were planted at five study sites within a 35,000 km2 airshed, that is influenced by a number of isolated stationary sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, among others. The locations of the five sites were based on the results of a meteorological dry deposition model for

S. V. Krupa; A. H. Legge

1999-01-01

306

Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

1985-08-01

307

Chemical transformations and disproportionation of sulfur dioxide on transition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect

Aside from its renown as a source of acid precipitation, sulfur dioxide is remarkable in possessing physicochemical and coordination properties that are more diverse than those of any other small molecule. SO{sub 2} is amphoteric, behaving as a Lewis acid or base, mild oxidant or reductant, or oxygen donor or acceptor. It is an excellent nonaqueous solvent when liquefied at -10{degrees}C and coordinates to many types of compounds, including metal complexes at both metal and ligand sites, strong Lewis acids, and virtually all nucleophiles, even halide ion. SO{sub 2} can bind strongly to low-valent metals like CO or NO or completely reversibly like O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The diversity of metal-SO{sub 2} bonding geometries is unmatched and has been reviewed. This Account will focus on the reactivity of SO{sub 2} e.g. SO double bond cleavage. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Kubas, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-07-01

308

Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO2 (P?

Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

2015-01-01

309

[Research on denoising fluorescence signal of sulfur dioxide by Boxcar filter].  

PubMed

The fluorescence detection method is based on the linear relationship between fluorescence intensity emitted by the material and the concentration of material to make a quantitative analysis. When using the fluorescence detection of atmospheric sulfur dioxide and other harmful gases, photodetectors and other optoelectronic components without fluorescence will continue to produce the dark current noise, and the background signal has a direct impact on the measurement results. On the base of analysis Boxcar filtering algorithm, the research used three algorithms of wavelet filtering, EMD filter and Boxcar filter to extract and recover the fluorescence signal drowned in the noise floor. In comparison with the previous two filtering methods, Boxcar filter had a better effect on the suppression of the background noise. It also verified that the number of sampling affects the fluorescence signal to noise ratio improvement. PMID:23427553

Wang, Yu-Tian; Jian, Xiong; Wang, Hui-Xin; Yan, Bing

2012-12-01

310

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

1996-02-01

311

The importance of ozone in the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in nonurban tropospheric clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In studies of the various possible mechanisms which contribute to the conversion of atmospheric sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, oxidation within the aqueous, droplet phase of tropospheric clouds has been identified as a major contributor. It has appeared that possibly much of this oxidation is by hydrogen peroxide, with the contribution from ozone being only minimal. The present investigation is concerned with the relative importance of O3 and H2O2 oxidation as a function of pH. The results of a new experimental study of the O3-S(IV) reaction in aqueous solution are presented, and potential S(IV) oxidation rates by O3 in cloud water are compared with those predicted for H2O2. The investigation indicates the potential importance of O3 as a contributor to the overall oxidative conversion of SO2 within typical nonpolluted tropospheric clouds.

Maahs, H. G.

1982-01-01

312

A numerical modeling technique for estimating sulfur dioxide dry deposition due to local source emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a methodology for estimating the effect of local source emissions on dry deposition of sulfur dioxide in regions of complex terrain. Airflow in complex terrain is simulated by a time-dependent dynamical model for the meteorological fields. The results of the dynamical model are used to drive a semi-stochastic Lagrangian dispersion model in order to evaluate concentrations resulting from local source emissions. The Lagrangian dispersion model is coupled with a dry deposition treatment which includes the effects of both surface properties and micrometerological factors on deposition. A sample application is discussed for a source in the Shenandoah Valley. The largest concentrations and deposition rates were obtained shortly after sunrise, during the transition from the nocturnal to the daytime flow regime. These results suggest that dry deposition may be episodic.

Arrit, R.W. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

1991-10-01

313

Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. ) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Tree-ring analysis of western larch (Larix occidentialis Nutt) demonstrated both direct and indirect affects of sulfur dioxide emissions from the lead/zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. Tree cores were collected from 5 stands known to have been polluted and from 3 control stands. Age effects were removed by fitting theoretical growth curves, and macrocliate was modeled using the average of the controls and two laged values thereof. Separate analyses were performed for years before and after installation of two tall stacks, for drought and nondrought years, and for years prior to initiation of smelting. Regression analyses revealed a negative effect on annual growth that diminished with increasing distance from the smelter and during drought years. Furthermore, chronology statistics suggested an increase in sensitivity to climate that persisted decades beyond implementation of pollution controls, which reduced emissions 10-fold. 38 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Fox, C.A.; Kincaid, W.B.; Nash, T.H. III; Young, D.L.; Fritts, H.C.

1984-12-01

314

Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo

2014-01-01

315

Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus. 1: Sounding rocket observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in the spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary special absorber in the 190-230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et al. (1994) show that sulfur monixide features are also present intese data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targents within 18 deg of the Sun while Earth-orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

1994-01-01

316

Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus 1 sounding rocket observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present ultraviolet reflectance spectra obtained during two sounding rocket observations of Venus made during September 1988 and March 1991. We describe the sensitivity of the derived reflectance to instrument calibration and show that significant artifacts can appear in that spectrum as a result of using separate instruments to observe both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance. We show that sulfur dioxide is the primary spectral absorber in the 190 - 230 nm region and that the range of altitudes probed by these wavelengths is very sensitive to incidence and emission angles. In a following paper Na et. al. (1994) show that sulfur monoxide features are also present in these data. Accurate identification and measurement of additional species require observations in which both the planetary radiance and the solar irradiance are measured with the same instrument. The instrument used for these observations is uniquely suited for obtaining large phase angle coverage and for studying transient atmospheric events on Venus because it can observe targets within 18 deg of the sun while earth orbiting instruments are restricted to solar elongation angles greater than or equal to 45 deg.

Mcclintock, William E.; Barth, Charles A.; Kohnert, Richard A.

1994-01-01

317

Removal of sulfur dioxide and formation of sulfate aerosol in Tokyo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and submicron sulfate aerosol (SO42-) together with carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted at an urban site in Tokyo, Japan from spring 2003 to winter 2004. The observed concentrations of SO2 were affected dominantly by anthropogenic emissions (for example, manufacturing industries) in source areas, while small fraction of the data (<30%) was affected by large point sources of SO2 (power plant and volcano). Although emission sources of CO in Tokyo are different from those of SO2, the major emission sources of CO and SO2 are colocated, indicating that CO can be used as a tracer of anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Tokyo. The ratio of SO42- to total sulfur compounds (SOx = SO2 + SO42-) and the remaining fraction of SOx, which is derived as the ratio of the linear regression slope of the SOx-CO correlation, is used as measures for the formation of SO42- and removal of SOx, respectively. Using these parameters, the average formation efficiency of SO42- (i.e., amount of SO42- produced per SO2 emitted from emission sources) are estimated to be 0.18 and 0.03 in the summer and winter periods, respectively. A simple box model was developed to estimate the lifetime of SOx. The lifetime of SOx for the summer period (26 h) is estimated to be about two times longer than that for the winter period (14 h). The seasonal variations of the remaining fraction of SOx, estimated formation efficiency of SO42-, and lifetime of SOx are likely due to those of the boundary layer height and photochemical activity (i.e., hydroxyl radical). These results provide useful insights into the formation and removal processes of sulfur compounds exported from an urban area.

Miyakawa, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.

2007-07-01

318

Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1 0.1 distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

2011-07-01

319

Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.10.1 distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

2011-09-01

320

From Sulfur Dioxide to Greenhouse Gases: Trends and Events Shaping Future Emissions Trading Programs in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the United States sulfur dioxide (SO2) trading program has led to worldwide interest in emissions trading. The program has become a model for policymakers in the\\u000a United States and in other countries that are considering cap-and-trade programs to reduce emissions. Once a theoretical option\\u000a discussed only by economists, emissions trading is now considered a mainstream policy instrument

Joseph Kruger

321

Prediction of ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide using ISCST3 model in Mangalore industrial region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient air quality management in any industrial area is of prime concern in India considering the industrial growth since\\u000a last two decades. High concentrations of ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) in many Indian places are responsible for non-compliance of ambient air quality standards. Dispersion modeling finds an\\u000a important tool to simulate the ambient air quality of a region and to predict

Amitava Bandyopadhyay

2009-01-01

322

Ru-OSO coordination photogenerated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) ()-camphorsulfonate.  

PubMed

The photoinduced O-bound coordination mode in RuSO(2) complexes, previously observed only at 13 K, has been generated at 100 K in tetraammineaqua(sulfur dioxide)ruthenium(II) ()-camphorsulfonate. This coordination state, often denoted MS1, decays to the ?(2)-bound MS2 state, with an estimated half-life of 3.4(8) h and a long-lived population of 2.9(4)% at 120 K. PMID:22251078

Phillips, Anthony E; Cole, Jacqueline M; d'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing

2012-02-01

323

A Comparison of Sulfur Dioxide Column Content Between Aircraft and Satellite Over the U.S. Mid-Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is a major contributor to air pollution in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Sources of SO2 include coal fired power plants as well as diesel engines. Fine particulate sulfate (with diameter less than 2.5 mm) formed from SO2 can cause health problems as well as decreased visibility. Reliable measurements of SO2 within the lower troposphere

J. C. Hains; R. R. Dickerson; B. G. Doddridge; J. P. Burrows; A. Richter

2002-01-01

324

Role of some organic inhibitors on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen in rainwater medium.  

PubMed

In August 2012, eight rainwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH and metal ions, viz., iron, copper, and manganese. The pH was within the range 6.84-7.65. The rate of oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide was determined using these rainwater samples as reaction medium. Kinetics was defined by the rate law: -d[S(IV)]/dt = R o = k o[S(IV)

Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

2014-03-01

325

Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

1980-07-01

326

Mass transfer of sulfur dioxide into falling drops: A comparison of experimental data with absorption models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption of pollutant gases into water drops is one of the major removal mechanism in clouds, rains and scrubbers. A laboratory system for the absorption of sulfur dioxide into falling water drops was investigated. Monodispersed drops (0.84 mm diameter) were generated via a vibrating orifice and exposed to pollutant gas during their fall time (0.36 s). The drop stream was then quenched and analyses for S 4+ and total S were carried out. For gas phase SO 2 concentrations of 0.95-1.17 ppm liquid phase concentrations for S 4+ of 0.67-1.38 and for total S of 1.01-1.93 ?mol? -1 were measured. The experimental results were compared to calculations based on several models that describe SO 2-washout. Some models overpredicted and some underpredicted the observed results. This was in part due to the fact that the "string-of-falling-drops" system exhibits laminar-jet properties. Calculations based on an equivalent "laminar-jet" model gave concentrations of 0.62-1.17 ?mol? -1.

Altwicker, Elmar R.; Chapman, Elaine

327

Removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas using the sludge sodium humate.  

PubMed

This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m(3)/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g(-1) SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

Zhao, Yu; Hu, Guoxin

2013-01-01

328

Time course of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics exposed to sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Young adult asthmatic volunteers (N = 17) were exposed to 0.75 ppM sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 3-hr periods, exercising vigorously for the first 10 min and resting thereafter. Specific airway resistance (SR/sub aw/) and symptoms were recorded preexposure, immediately postexercise, and after 1, 2, and 3 hr of exposure. Symptoms and SR/sub aw/ were significantly increased after exercise, relative to preexposure measurements. Group mean SR/sub aw/ and symptom increases were no longer significant at 1 hr. In a few individuals, effects may have persisted for 2 hr or more. On separate occasions, comparable exposures were conducted, and forced expiratory spirometry was performed preexposure and postexercise, in addition to the other tests. Inclusion of spirometry did no significantly affect the other results. Spirometry and SR/sub aw/ showed nearly equal significance in changes postexercise. Thus, in general, asthmatics bronchoconstriction induced by exercise in SO/sub 2/ seems to reverse quickly with rest, even if SO/sub 2/ exposure continues. Spirometry may be useful for studying pollution-induced bronchoconstriction when SR/sub aw/ measurements are impractical.

Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Bailey, R.M.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.

1984-08-01

329

Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate  

PubMed Central

This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100?mL of this absorption solution at 298?K (flue gas rate of 0.12?m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63?g SHA-Na is 0.946?mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037?g SO2 g?1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

Hu, Guoxin

2013-01-01

330

Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

West, David L [ORNL; Montgomery, Fred C [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL

2012-01-01

331

Exploring the Capabilities of Satellite Observation of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the Lower Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities, such as fuel combustion, oil refining, and metal smelting, emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions. SO2 in the air is oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, which may have a significant impact on regional air quality and climate. Sulfate aerosols are usually removed from the atmosphere through acid deposition, which can damage the environment and ecosystems. SO2 and sulfate aerosols are sometimes lifted into the middle or upper troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. Space-borne UV instruments, such as Aura/OMI, MetOp/GOME-2, and NPP/OMPS, provide a unique perspective on the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. In this presentation, we will describe the recent advances in retrieval algorithm that provide improved detection and quantification of PBL SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We will also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.

2012-12-01

332

Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31+/-0.12Tgyr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

Chen, L.-W. Antony; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

2001-05-01

333

Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.310.12 Tg yr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

Antony Chen, L.-W.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

334

Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 1998-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). A compilation of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 1997 is available as Open-File Report 98-462 (Elias and others, 1998) and on the web at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/products/OF98462/. The purpose of this report is to update the existing database through 2001. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (fig. 1), as described in previous reports (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). These two distinct sources are quantified independently. The summit and east rift zone emission rates reported here were derived using vehicle-based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements as described in Elias and others (1998). In 1998 and 1999, these measurements were augmented with airborne and tripod-based surveys.

Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson

2002-01-01

335

Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

2007-01-01

336

Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1979-1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the volcano. Beginning in 1983, the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu`u `O`o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.

Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.

1998-01-01

337

The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

2014-10-01

338

Bioassay for assessing the effect of sulfur dioxide on oat seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A bioassay technique was developed to evaluate the effect of sulfur dioxide air pollution on the growth rates of oat seedlings. The system was designed to measure small changes in shoot length of seedlings in vivo by use of a millimeter rule. The data, subjected to appropriate statistical evaluation, lead to the conclusion that oat seedlings experienced subtle injury in the form of growth retardation during exposure to SO/sub 2/ at concentrations close to ambient levels. Recovery of the seedlings was relatively rapid and indirectly proportional to SO/sub 2/ concentration. However, recovery generally did not reach the rate of growth that existed prior to fumigation, indicating the possibility of permanent growth impairment or that the stationary phase of growth was being approached. Knowledge of subtle injury of vegetation as seen in this study could possibly lead to in vivo systems for the direct evaluation of air pollution effects on vegetation, help to expand knowledge in the areas of economic loss, or possibly aid in the selection of tolerant species as buffer zones in land use planning.

Marchesani, V.J.; Leone, I.A.

1980-01-01

339

Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products. PMID:19063591

Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

2009-01-16

340

Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

2013-12-01

341

Experimental Inhibition of Carbonate Mineral Precipitation by Sulfur Dioxide: Implications for Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is abundant in terrestrial volcanic emissions and was likely at least as abundant in early martian emissions. Recent photochemical studies indicate that during episodes of vigorous volcanic activity, the atmospheric lifetime of SO2 may have been sufficiently long for it to have helped maintain liquid water on the surface of Mars and perhaps to have regulated the climate through a negative feedback between the atmospheric abundance of SO2 and the rate of chemical weathering of silicate minerals. Here we show experimentally, that atmospheric SO2 concentrations three orders of magnitude lower than those required for it to have been of climatic importance would have had a major impact on the aqueous chemistry at the planet's surface and the precipitated mineral assemblage. Specifically, at near-neutral and even mildly alkaline pH, part-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of SO2 prevent the formation of calcium carbonate in favour of hannebachite - a hydrated calcium sulfite. Based on the results of recent photochemical studies, a volcanic outgassing flux ~300 times smaller than the modern terrestrial flux would have been enough to maintain such atmospheric concentrations. This implies that almost any period of active volcanism would have given rise to conditions under which carbonate precipitation is prevented at near-neutral pH. In the presence of ferrous iron, green rust, a possible precursor to phyllosilicate minerals, co-precipitates with hannebachite. This provides a possible explanation for the presence of phyllosilicates on early Noachian surfaces in the apparent absence of outcrop-scale carbonates. Finally, oxidation of the mineral assemblage precipitated in the experiments produces sulfates, iron oxides and acidity, consistent with observed mineral assemblages and with evidence for acid-sulfate dominated environments on late Noachian-early Hesperian surfaces.

Halevy, I.; Schrag, D. P.

2009-12-01

342

Trends and effectiveness of emission control of sulfur dioxide in China: a satellite perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of two satellite instruments (OMI and SCIAMACHY) provides high quality space-borne measurements for the trend analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2) column density. An improved product of SO2 retrievals from these two satellites was derived with the consistent local air mass factor (AMF) algorithm which converts the line-of-sight 'slant' columns to vertical columns for the period of 2003-2010. The local AMF was calculated using altitude-dependent scattering weights computed from a radiative transfer model (LIDORT) with state-of-art a priori parameters, weighted by relative vertical SO2 profiles (shape factor) determined locally with a global atmospheric chemical model (GEOS-Chem). The derived vertical columns and modeled vertical SO2 profiles were compared to measurements from aircraft campaigns in China. Trends of the long-term SO2 columns showed discrepancies between different regions in China: SO2 columns increased fast during 2003-2007 and then decreased by ~30% in 2010 in North China Plain; continuous increase of SO2 columns were found in Southwest of China with only a slight decrease in 2008 due to the global economic recession. The trends of SO2 columns were further compared to a unit-based power plant emission inventory to evaluate the effectiveness of power plant SO2 emission reductions related to the wide-spread installations of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices since 2005 in China. The combinations of NO2 and SO2 measurements were used to examine the operation and efficiency of the FGD devices in power plants.

Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Martin, R. V.; He, K.; Richter, A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Philip, S.; Wang, T.

2011-12-01

343

Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.  

PubMed

Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

1995-01-01

344

Prior exposure to ozone potentiates subsequent response to sulfur dioxide in adolescent asthmatic subjects  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to test whether prior exposure to a low concentration of ozone (120 ppb) would condition airways in asthmatic subjects to respond to a subthreshold concentration of sulfur dioxide (100 ppb). Eight male and five female subjects 12 to 18 yr of age participated. They all had allergic asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm. Subjects were exposed to three test atmosphere sequences during intermittent moderate exercise (a 45-min exposure to one pollutant followed by a 15-min exposure to the second pollutant). The sequences were: air followed by 100 ppb SO2, 120 ppb O3 followed by 120 ppb O3, and 120 ppb O3 followed by 100 ppb SO2. The pulmonary function measurements assessed were FEV1, total respiratory resistance (RT), and maximal flow (Vmax50). Air-SO2 and O3-O3 exposures did not cause significant changes in pulmonary function. On the other hand, exposure to 100 ppb SO2 after a 45-min exposure to 120 ppb O3 caused a significant (8%) decrease in FEV1 (p = 0.046), a significant (19%) increase in RT (p = 0.048), and a significant (15%) decrease in Vmax50 (p = 0.008). It is concluded that prior O3 exposure increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness in these subjects such that they responded to an ordinarily subthreshold concentration of SO2. These data suggest that assessment of pulmonary changes to single pollutant challenges overlooks the interactive effects of common coexisting or sequentially occurring air pollutants.

Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Hanley, Q.S.; van Belle, G.; Pierson, W.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1990-02-01

345

Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

2013-01-01

346

Effect of sulfur dioxide on ROS production, gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in Arabidopsis plants.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is one of the most common and harmful air pollutants. To analyze antioxidant response of plants to SO(2) stress, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, transcript alterations and antioxidant enzyme activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) exposed to 0, 2.5, 10 and 30mgm(-3) of SO(2). The results showed that both superoxide radical (O(2)(-?)) generation rate and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content increased in SO(2)-treated Arabidopsis shoots. GeneChip and RT-PCR analysis revealed that transcript levels of peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes enhanced after exposure to 30mgm(-3) SO(2) for 72h. The content of glutathione and activities of SOD, POD and GPX increased significantly during 72h of SO(2) exposure. However, catalases (CAT) activity changed slightly under SO(2) stress. Furthermore, the results of in-gel enzyme assays indicated that SOD (FeSOD and Cu/ZnSOD) and POD isoforms increased after exposure to SO(2) for 72h, whereas two CAT isoforms (CAT2 and CAT3) declined. Malondialdehyde content kept at a low level within 72h of SO(2) exposure, but increased significantly after exposure to 30mgm(-3) SO(2) for 120h along with decrease in the level of ROS and activities of SOD and GPX. Our results indicated that increased ROS may act as a signal to induce defense response to SO(2) stress. Antioxidant status plays an important role in plant protection against SO(2)-caused oxidative stress, though the defense capacity cannot sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage occurring under prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of SO(2). PMID:22771435

Li, Lihong; Yi, Huilan

2012-09-01

347

Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

2014-02-01

348

Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

2013-08-01

349

Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of detectable sulfur-organic compounds: ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide.  

PubMed

Highly correlated ab initio methods are used for the spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2 (32)SH, ETSH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH3 (32)SCH3, DMS), considering them on the vibrational ground and excited torsional states. Since both molecules show non-rigid properties, torsional energy barriers and splittings are provided. Equilibrium geometries and the corresponding rotational constants are calculated by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and core-correlation effects. The ground and excited states rotational constants are then determined using vibrational corrections obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ force-field calculations, which are also employed to determine anharmonic frequencies for all vibrational modes. CCSD(T) and CCSD force fields are employed to predict quartic and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. Equilibrium rotational constants are also calculated using CCSD(T)-F12. The full-dimensional anharmonic analysis does not predict displacements of the lowest torsional excited states due to Fermi resonances with the remaining vibrational modes. Thus, very accurate torsional transitions are calculated by solving variationally two-dimensional Hamiltonians depending on the CH3 and SH torsional coordinates of ethyl mercaptan or on the two methyl groups torsions of dimethyl-sulfide. For this purpose, vibrationally corrected potential energy surfaces are computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For ethyl mercaptan, calculations show large differences between the gauche (g) and trans (t) conformer spectral features. Interactions between rotating groups are responsible for the displacements of the g-bands with respect to the t-bands that cannot therefore be described with one-dimensional models. For DMS, the CCSD(T) potential energy surface has been semi-empirically adjusted to reproduce experimental data. New assignments are suggested for the methyl torsion bands of ETSH and a reassignment is proposed for the infrared bands of DMS (0 3 ? 0 4 and 1 0 ? 1 1). Our accurate spectroscopic data should be useful for the analysis of the microwave and far infrared spectra of ETSH and DMS recorded, at low temperatures, either in laboratory or in the interstellar medium. PMID:24697436

Senent, M L; Puzzarini, C; Domnguez-Gmez, R; Carvajal, M; Hochlaf, M

2014-03-28

350

Luminescent Study of the Binding Interaction on 1,4-Dihydroxy-2,3-Dimethyl-9,10-Anthraquinone with Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photophysical properties of 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-9,10-anthroquinone (DHDMAQ) in the absence and presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been studied using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence intensity of the DHDMAQ decreases as the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles increases. The quenching is characterized by a Stern-Volmer plot, which displays a positive deviation from linearity. This could be explained by static quenching models. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, association constant, and binding constant have been calculated. The distance between DHDMAQ and TiO2 nanoparticles has also been evaluated using Forster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer.

Pushpam, S.; Yamini, D.; Ramakrishnan, V.

2014-07-01

351

First results of an Investigation of Sulfur Dioxide in the Ultraviolet from Pioneer Venus through Venus Express  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics is carrying on a project to restore and preserve data products from several past missions for archival and use by the scientific community. This project includes the restoration of data from Mariner 6/7, Pioneer Venus, Voyager 1/2, and Galileo. Here, we present initial results of this project that involve Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (PVO UVS) data. Using the Discrete Ordinate Method for Radiative Transfer (DISORT), we generate a suite of models for the three free parameters in the upper atmosphere of Venus in which we are interested: sulfur dioxide abundance at 40mb, scale height of sulfur dioxide, and the typical radius of the upper haze particles (assumed to be composed of 84.5% sulfuric acid). We calculate best fits to our radiative transfer model results for multi-spectral images taken with PVO UVS, as well as the 'visible' channel (includes wavelengths from 290nm to about 1000nm) of the mapping mode of the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M-Vis) on the Venus Express spacecraft, currently orbiting Venus. This work is funded though the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program, NNH08ZDA001N.

McGouldrick, Kevin; Molaverdikhani, K.; Esposito, L. W.; Pankratz, C. K.

2010-10-01

352

Dimethyl sulfide and its oxidation products in the atmosphere of the Atlantic and Southern Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimethyl sulfide, methane sulfonate, non-sea-salt sulfate and sulfur dioxide concentrations in air were obtained during a cruise between the U.K. and the Antarctic during the period October 1992January 1993. In equatorial regions (30N to 30S) the atmospheric DMS concentration ranged from 3 to 46 ng (S)m?3 with an average of 18 ng(S)m?3. In the polar waters and regions south of

B. Davison; C. O'dowd; C. N. Hewitt; M. H. Smith; R. M. Harrison; D. A. Peel; E. Wolf; R. Mulvaney; M. Schwikowski; U. Baltenspergert

1996-01-01

353

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.  

PubMed

Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations. PMID:17824280

Pinkerton, John E

2007-08-01

354

Dimethyl disulfide produced by the naturally associated bacterium bacillus sp B55 promotes Nicotiana attenuata growth by enhancing sulfur nutrition.  

PubMed

Bacillus sp B55, a bacterium naturally associated with Nicotiana attenuata roots, promotes growth and survival of wild-type and, particularly, ethylene (ET)-insensitive (35)S-ethylene response1 (etr1) N. attenuata plants, which heterologously express the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana receptor ETR1-1. We found that the volatile organic compound (VOC) blend emitted by B55 promotes seedling growth, which is dominated by the S-containing compound dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). DMDS was depleted from the headspace during cocultivation with seedlings in bipartite Petri dishes, and (35)S was assimilated from the bacterial VOC bouquet and incorporated into plant proteins. In wild-type and (35)S-etr1 seedlings grown under different sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) supply conditions, exposure to synthetic DMDS led to genotype-dependent plant growth promotion effects. For the wild type, only S-starved seedlings benefited from DMDS exposure. By contrast, growth of (35)S-etr1 seedlings, which we demonstrate to have an unregulated S metabolism, increased at all SO(4)(-2) supply rates. Exposure to B55 VOCs and DMDS rescued many of the growth phenotypes exhibited by ET-insensitive plants, including the lack of root hairs, poor lateral root growth, and low chlorophyll content. DMDS supplementation significantly reduced the expression of S assimilation genes, as well as Met biosynthesis and recycling. We conclude that DMDS by B55 production is a plant growth promotion mechanism that likely enhances the availability of reduced S, which is particularly beneficial for wild-type plants growing in S-deficient soils and for (35)S-etr1 plants due to their impaired S uptake/assimilation/metabolism. PMID:23903320

Meldau, Dorothea G; Meldau, Stefan; Hoang, Long H; Underberg, Stefanie; Wnsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T

2013-07-01

355

Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, L.S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

1994-01-01

356

Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

1986-01-01

357

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

358

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01

359

The effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide and bisulfite containing solutions on four St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.)Kuntze) cultivars  

E-print Network

The effects of $02 on Chl have been well documented for many species (7, 19, 24, 25, 27, 32). Sulfur dioxide exposure resulted in the breakdown of Chl to phaeophytin and Mq ions for both lichens 2+ and bryophytes when exposed to acute (2-5 ul liter ) doses... (25). It was also found that chronic (less than 0. 15 pl liter ) SOZ exposure reduced the Chl content of SOZ sensitive lichens and mossess (25) and perennial ryegrass (7), while not affecting the Chl content of resistant species and cultivars...

Amthor, Jeffrey Scott

2012-06-07

360

Continuous monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission rate at Suwanosejima volcano, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suwanosejima is a remote volcanic island located about 240 km southwest of Kyushu Island, Japan. It is an andesitic volcano, which intermittently erupts since 1950s. The eruption styles are from Strombolian to Vulcanian, and now the main activity is continuous degassing from the vent. There are a few previously reported sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate data which ranged 500-1000 ton/day [Mori et al, 2004; Oikawa et al, 2004]. Therefore, the motivation of this study is to get the average SO2 emission rate of continuous measurements and to evaluate relationships among SO2 emission rates, video images and geophysical data. Our scanning DOAS device was set at 3.2 km south-southwest of the crater. The device was based on the scan system of Edmonds et al [2003] or Galle et al [2010], and partly improved by making a rotating mirror inside of a non-rotating cylinder with a quartz glass window. This device with a UV spectrometer USB2000+ (Ocean Optics, Inc.) and a computer were powered by a solar panel. The measurements were carried out from January 20 to May 7, 2013 between 8 am to 5 pm. Each scan took 3-15 minutes. For wind velocity data, we used weather model values provided by JMA via Kyoto University (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/jmadata/). We obtained an average daily SO2 emission rate of about 700 ton/day, which had a variation ranging from 300 to 1300 ton/day. These values were comparable to emission rates in the previous studies. Typical daily variations ranged from 100 ton/day to a few thousand ton/day. Some of increase in emission rates corresponded to puffs according to the video images. We also found a positive correlation between the emission rate and seismic RMS amplitude in good observational condition days. References Edmonds et al (2003) Bull. Volcanol., 65, 578-586. Galle et al (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi: 10.1029/2009JD011823. Mori et al (2004) Annuals Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., 47(C), 157-162. Oikawa et al (2004) Programme Abstracts Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 66.

Morita, M.; Mori, T.; Iguchi, M.; Nishimura, T.

2013-12-01

361

Sulfur X-Ray Absorption And Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite, And Sulfonate Solutions And of the Substituted Sulfonate Ions X(3)CSO(3-)(X = H, Cl, F)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra have been recorded and the S(1s) electron excitations evaluated by means of density functional theory-transition potential (DFT-TP) calculations to provide insight into the coordination, bonding, and electronic structure. The XANES spectra for the various species in sulfur dioxide and aqueous sodium sulfite solutions show considerable differences at different pH values in the

E. Damian Risberg; L. Eriksson; J. Mink; L. G. M. Pettersson; M. Yu. Skripkin; M. Sandstrom

2009-01-01

362

Alteration of extracellular enzymes in pinto bean leaves upon exposure to air pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter {times} hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

Peters, J.L.; Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1989-01-01

363

Alteration of Extracellular Enzymes in Pinto Bean Leaves upon Exposure to Air Pollutants, Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide 1  

PubMed Central

Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter x hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell. PMID:16666508

Peters, Janny L.; Castillo, Federico J.; Heath, Robert L.

1989-01-01

364

Oxyhalogen-sulfur chemistry: kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of N-acetylthiourea by chlorite and chlorine dioxide.  

PubMed

The oxidation reactions of N-acetylthiourea (ACTU) by chlorite and chlorine dioxide were studied in slightly acidic media. The ACTU-ClO(2)(-) reaction has a complex dependence on acid with acid catalysis in pH > 2 followed by acid retardation in higher acid conditions. In excess chlorite conditions the reaction is characterized by a very short induction period followed by a sudden and rapid formation of chlorine dioxide and sulfate. In some ratios of oxidant to reductant mixtures, oligo-oscillatory formation of chlorine dioxide is observed. The stoichiometry of the reaction is 2:1, with a complete desulfurization of the ACTU thiocarbamide to produce the corresponding urea product: 2ClO(2)(-) + CH(3)CONH(NH(2))C=S + H(2)O --> CH(3)CONH(NH(2))C=O + SO(4)(2-) + 2Cl(-) + 2H(+) (A). The reaction of chlorine dioxide and ACTU is extremely rapid and autocatalytic. The stoichiometry of this reaction is 8ClO(2)(aq) + 5CH(3)CONH(NH(2))C=S + 9H(2)O --> 5CH(3)CONH(NH(2))C=O + 5SO(4)(2-) + 8Cl(-) + 18H(+) (B). The ACTU-ClO(2)(-) reaction shows a much stronger HOCl autocatalysis than that which has been observed with other oxychlorine-thiocarbamide reactions. The reaction of chlorine dioxide with ACTU involves the initial formation of an adduct which hydrolyses to eliminate an unstable oxychlorine intermediate HClO(2)(-) which then combines with another ClO(2) molecule to produce and accumulate ClO(2)(-). The oxidation of ACTU involves the successive oxidation of the sulfur center through the sulfenic and sulfinic acids. Oxidation of the sulfinic acid by chlorine dioxide proceeds directly to sulfate bypassing the sulfonic acid. Sulfonic acids are inert to further oxidation and are only oxidized to sulfate via an initial hydrolysis reaction to yield bisulfite, which is then rapidly oxidized. Chlorine dioxide production after the induction period is due to the reaction of the intermediate HOCl species with ClO(2)(-). Oligo-oscillatory behavior arises from the fact that reactions that form ClO(2) are comparable in magnitude to those that consume ClO(2), and hence the assertion of each set of reactions is based on availability of reagents that fuel them. A computer simulation study involving 30 elementary and composite reactions gave a good fit to the induction period observed in the formation of chlorine dioxide and in the autocatalytic consumption of ACTU in its oxidation by ClO(2). PMID:16480299

Olagunju, Olufunke; Siegel, Paul D; Olojo, Rotimi; Simoyi, Reuben H

2006-02-23

365

Sulfur dioxide and other cloud-related gases as the source of the microwave opacity of the middle atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft radio occultation measurements imply the presence of a nonuniformly mixed gaseous absorber within, but mostly below, the main cloud layer of sulfuric acid-water droplets measured by Pioneer-Venus. Preliminary considerations of the amount, distribution, and effects of sulfur dioxide and other gases, which apparently are associated with and produce the cloud, indicate that they constitute an important, and probably the predominant, source of the observed microwave opacity of the middle atmosphere of Venus.

Steffes, P. G.; Eshleman, V. R.

1981-01-01

366

Evaluation of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries. US Army Communications - Electronics Command and US Army Electronics Research and Development Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, 1 May1 October 1984. Technical report, 1 May1 OctobeR 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium sulfur dioxide batteries were analyzed to determine their hazardous waste characteristics under United States environmental regulations. The batteries were subjected to the hazardous waste criteria under 49 CFR 261 for ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity. Extraction Procedure Toxicity (EP Tox) method was used to determine toxicity. Under these regulations and methods, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries are not listed as

Rosak

1985-01-01

367

Ash Deposition During Direct Limestone Injection for Sulfur Dioxide Control at 50-MW Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test program evaluating sulfur removal by furnace limestone injection was conducted at the Otter Tail Power Company's Hoot Lake Station. The program was conducted by Radian Corportation under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The test program cons...

H. M. Ness, G. F. Weber

1985-01-01

368

A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

Goss, Lisa M.

2003-01-01

369

Minimising the Effects of Isobaric Product Ions in SIFT-MS Quantification of Acetaldehyde, Dimethyl Sulphide and Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the headspace of cell cultures using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, over the last few years have usually revealed the simultaneous presence of acetaldehyde, AA, and carbon dioxide, CO2. The characteristic primary product ions of reactions of the H3O+ ions with these compounds are at m\\/z 45, 63 and 81 for AA and m\\/z 63 for

D. Smith; T. W. E. Chippendale; P. Spanel

2013-01-01

370

Sulfur dioxide estimations in the planetary boundary layer using dispersion models and satellite retrievals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health and environmental conditions in the Central Andes city La Oroya, Peru, have been seriously damaged by the heavy metal mining activities in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the complex topography, which prevents proper mixing and dissolution of particles and gases released into the atmosphere. Understanding how pollutants are dispersed in populated regions, especially in complex terrain, would help to create mitigation strategies. The present study uses CALPUFF and HYSPLIT dispersion/deposition models to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2) dispersion from the main stack of the La Oroya metallurgical plant. Due to the lack of meteorological data in the area, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used with observational nudging for temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields of three surface meteorological stations specifically installed for the study. The pollutant dispersion models are sensitive to a precise estimation of the turbulent vertical transport of mass, energy and moisture in the low atmosphere; therefore, two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are tested, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic and Yonsei University models. The dispersion models are run and results compared with field measurements at La Oroya, and Huancayo. The observation-nudging and YSU scheme considerably improved the prognostic variables. CALPUFF and HYSPLIT models showed similar patterns; however, HYSPLIT overestimated SO2 concentrations for low PBLs. Moreover, recent enhancements on spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric scanning sensors of chemical constituents from the space, have led to detecting trace gases of anthropogenic origin in the lower troposphere. This contribution also explores the SO2 level 2 dataset from Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with atmospheric optical depth and Angstrom coefficient data products, extracted from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate SO2 loads in the PBL for clear and turbid atmospheric conditions. A narrow temporal sampling (three days) with no clear atmospheres and best sensor viewing geometry are examined and compared with a pollutant dispersion and deposition model (CALPUFF) and field observations. The efficacy of the developed method is further examined incorporating synchronous wind vectors, and daily accumulated precipitation derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. The source and trajectories of SO2 concentrations are detected by satellite based observations, and the pollutant plume is correctly traced downwind. Then, the spatial patterns of SO2 loads are analyzed for clear atmospheres and optimal viewing conditions (for 55 samples found in 467 days) and compared with field measurements. A logarithmic model is found between in situ observations and OMI estimations. The correlation can be increased when Angstrom exponents are between 0.7 and 1 and a linear relationship obtained when very high SO2 loads are extracted. Results show that the spatio-temporal dynamics of SO2 as monitored from space is in agreement with both field measurements and CALPUFF, which takes into account topography and wind field patterns. The study concludes that anthropogenic pollutants, i.e., SO2, and its trajectory can be monitored from OMI sensor even for turbid sky conditions. Findings of the research have great potential in public health managements and predictions.

Zarauz, Jorge V.

371

Total fluxes of sulfur dioxide from the Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano measured by differential absorption lidar and passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total flux of sulfur dioxide from the Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano was determined using the differential absorption lidar technique. The measurements were performed from an oceanographic research ship making traverses under the volcanic plumes with the lidar system sounding vertically. By combining the integrated gas concentration over the plume cross section with wind velocity data, it was

H. Edner; P. Ragnarson; S. Svanberg; E. Wallinder; R. Ferrara; R. Cioni; B. Raco; G. Taddeucci

1994-01-01

372

PULMONARY FUNCTION EFFECTS OF 1.0 AND 2.0 PPM SULFUR DIOXIDE EXPOSURE IN ACTIVE YOUNG MALE NON-SMOKERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The threshold concentration of sulfur dioxide which will induce pulmonary function changes in the normal population has not been established. To investigate this question, the authors exposed nine young healthy adult non-smoking males for 2 hours to filtered air (FA), 1.0 ppm sul...

373

Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore,  

E-print Network

-basaltic (potassic) shield volcano situated in the Virunga region of the Western Rift Valley in eastern DemocraticProdigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, D.R. Congo S. A. Carn Joint Center active volcanoes, but direct observations of its eruptions are rare. From 1978­2002 the Total Ozone

Bluth, Gregg

374

Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the (3)B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide.  

PubMed

Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet (3)B2 state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO2. PMID:24606344

Lvque, Camille; Taeb, Richard; Kppel, Horst

2014-03-01

375

Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) trace gas detection based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) using a continuous wave, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating at 7.24 ?m was performed. Influence of water vapor addition on monitored QEPAS SO2 signal was also investigated. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of NNEA (1 ?) = 1.21 10-8 cm-1 W Hz-1/2 was obtained for the ? 3 SO2 line centered at 1,380.93 cm-1 when the gas sample was moisturized with 2.3 % H2O. This corresponds to a minimum detection limit (1 ?) of 63 parts per billion by volume for a 1 s lock-in time constant.

Waclawek, J. P.; Lewicki, R.; Moser, H.; Brandstetter, M.; Tittel, F. K.; Lendl, B.

2014-10-01

376

Determination of Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide and Its Derivatives via Fluorescence Enhancement Based on Cyanine Dye Functionalized Carbon Nanodots.  

PubMed

The development of convenient methods for sulfur dioxide and its derivatives analysis is critically important because SO2 causes worldwide serious environmental problems and human diseases. In this work, we show an unprecedented example of an energy-transfer-based fluorescence nanoprobe for selective and quantitative detection of SO2, through molecular engineering of the fluorescent carbon nanodots by a cyanine dye which have a unique reactivity to bisulfite, achieving a detection limit of 1.8 ?M with a linear relationship (R(2) = 0.9987). The specific detection was not interfered with other potential coexisted species. In addition, the probe is demonstrated for the determination of SO2 gas in aqueous solution as well as for visually monitoring of SO2 gas in air. This nanomaterial based probe is easily prepared, fast responding, and thus potentially attractive for extensive application for the determination of SO2 and other similar air pollutants. PMID:25242201

Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Yajiao; Yan, Yehan; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

2014-10-01

377

Theoretical prediction of the importance of the 3B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide  

E-print Network

While, the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photoexcitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present for the first time a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet $^3$B$_2$ state which has not been discussed before, giving new insights into the dynamics of the intersystem crossing in $SO_2$.

Camille Lvque; Richard Taeb; Horst Kppel

2013-12-08

378

REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION - PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Spectral reflectances were measured by tri-band densitometry of aerial color-infrared photographs of soybean (Glycine mas fields that had been affected by sulfur dioside (SO2) emissions from large, coal-fired power plants in northwestern Alabama and western Tennessee. The photogr...

379

Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Black Smoke and Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations across Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s Ireland experienced severe pollution episodes, principally because of domestic coal burning. In 1990, the Irish government introduced a ban on the marketing, sale, and distribution of coal in Dublin. They extended the ban to Cork in 1995 and to ten other communities in 1998 and 2000. We previously reported declines in particulate (black smoke [BS]) and sulfur

Patrick G. Goodman; David Q. Rich; Ariana Zeka; Luke Clancy; Douglas W. Dockery; Fred Minassian; Hannah Murray; Mani Natarajan; Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kazuyuki Oshita; Shinsuke Morisawa; Hiroshi Tsuno; Yoshinori Kitajima; Wan-Fu Chiang; Hung-Yuan Fang; Chao-Hsiung Wu; Chang-Jun Huang; Ching-Yuan Chang; Yu-Min Chang; Ching-Liang Chen; Anders Nielsen; Lars Nielsen; Anders Feilberg; Knud Christensen; Yu-Yin Liu; Ta-Chang Lin; Ying-Jan Wang; Wei-Lun Ho; Janet Yanowitz; Robert McCormick; Lei Yu; Shichen Jia; Qinyi Shi; Tsang-Jung Chang; Hong-Ming Kao; Yu-Ting Wu; Wei-Hua Huang; Thomas Lavery; Christopher Rogers; Ralph Baumgardner; Kevin Mishoe; Wei-Chin Chen; Hsun-Yu Lin; Chung-Shin Yuan; Chung-Hsuang Hung; Li He; Guo Huang; Guangming Zeng; Hongwei Lu

2009-01-01

380

Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study  

PubMed Central

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO2 may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO2 were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO2 on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 ?g/m3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO2 corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM10 or O3, the effect of SO2 remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO2 diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO2 concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO2 serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO2 should be investigated further in this region. PMID:20122685

Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

2012-01-01

381

Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.  

PubMed

Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs. PMID:25283001

Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

2014-09-01

382

Removal of Sulfur Dioxide by a Slurry of Jordanian Oil Shale Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study on the capacity of oil shale ash to remove sulphur dioxide from air streams before escaping into the atmosphere. Slurries of different concentrations of this ash showed an uptake capacity of 4 10 mol SO2\\/g ash obtained after 250 sec. This value increases with the increase of solution pH, temperature, and ash concentration, and

A. M. Al-Harahsheh; R. A. Shawabkeh; M. S. Al-Harahsheh; M. M. Batiha

2011-01-01

383

Laboratory Measurement of the Temperature Dependence of Gaseous Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Microwave Absorption with Application to the Venus Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-accuracy laboratory measurements of the temperature dependence of the opacity from gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere at temperatures from 290 to 505 K and at pressures from 1 to 4 atm have been conducted at frequencies of 2.25 GHz (13.3 cm), 8.5 GHz (3.5 cm), and 21.7 GHz (1.4 cm). Based on these absorptivity measurements, a Ben-Reuven (BR) line shape model has been developed that provides a more accurate characterization of the microwave absorption of gaseous S02 in the Venus atmosphere as compared with other formalisms. The developed BR formalism is incorporated into a radiative transfer model. The resulting microwave emission spectrum of Venus is then used to set an upper limit on the disk-averaged abundance of gaseous S02 below the main cloud layer. It is found that gaseous S02 has an upper limit of 150 ppm, which compares well with previous spacecraft in situ measurements and Earth-based radio astronomical observations.

Suleiman, Shady H.; Kolodner, Marc A.; Steffes, Paul G.

1996-01-01

384

Photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and growth of sulfur dioxide ecotypes of Geranium carolinianum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study investigated ways in which genetically determined differences in SO2 susceptibility resulting from ecotypic differentiation inGeranium carolinianum were expressed physiologically. The SO2-resistant and SO2-sensitive ecotypes were exposed to a combination of short- and long-term SO2 exposures to evaluate the responses of photosynthesis, H2S efflux from foliage (sulfur detoxification), photoassimilate retention, leaf-diffusive resistance to CO2, and growth. When exposed

G. E. Taylor; D. T. Tingey; C. A. Gunderson

1986-01-01

385

Sulfur dioxide flux into leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : evidence for a nonstomatal or residual resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concurrent exchange of SO and HO vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO-induced HS was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO flux

G. E. Jr. Taylor; D. T. Tingey

1983-01-01

386

Leaf nitrogen dioxide uptake coupling apoplastic chemistry, carbon\\/sulfur assimilation, and plant nitrogen status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission and plant uptake of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) significantly influence regional climate change by regulating the oxidative chemistry of the lower atmosphere, species composition\\u000a and the recycling of carbon and nutrients, etc. Plant uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is concentration-dependent and species-specific, and covaries with environmental factors. An important factor determining\\u000a NO2 influx into leaves is the replenishment of

Yanbo Hu; Guangyu Sun

2010-01-01

387

An economic analysis of microbial reduction of sulfur dioxide with anaerobically digested sewage biosolids as electron donor  

SciTech Connect

A concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is produced by regeneration of the sorbent in certain new regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. It has been previously proposed that this SO{sub 2} can be converted to elemental sulfur for disposal or byproduct recovery using a microbial/Claus process. In this process, two-thirds of the SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream would be contacted with a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) where SO{sub 2} would act as an electron acceptor with reduction to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). This H{sub 2}S could then be recombined with the remaining SO{sub 2} and sent to a Claus unit to produce elemental sulfur. The Claus process is well known in the natural gas industry. Glucose and heat/alkali pretreated municipal sewage sludge have been shown to act as ultimate electron donors and carbon sources for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Sublette and Gwozdz performed an economic analysis of this microbial SO{sub 2} reduction process comparing the microbial process with conventional catalytic SO{sub 2} hydrogenation with H{sub 2} generation from methane. The design basis was a regenerator off-gas from a copper oxide, flue gas desulfurization process applied to a 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant burning 3.5 wt% sulfur coal. All economics were based on an ultimate product gas of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} in a 2:1 ratio appropriate for feed to a Claus reactor. The fixed capital investments for the two processes were essentially equivalent. However, the annual operating costs for the microbial process were much higher than the conventional process primarily because of the high cost of raw materials, namely DE95 corn hydrolysate, which served as the electron donor and carbon source for the SO{sub 2}-reducing culture. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Selvaraj, P.T.; Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-12-31

388

Ground-based measurements of anthropogenic column sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide at Frostburg, MD in November 2010 and comparison with aircraft and OMI/AURA satellite measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide, a trace gas regulated by the USEPA, affects human health, causes acid rain, and contributes to the production of sulfate aerosols. The largest sources of SO2 emissions in the US are coal-fired power plants in the Ohio river valley region. Strong anthropogenic emissons and transport of SO2 have been globally observed by the Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA AURA satellite since October 2004. The derivation of satellite vertical columns of SO2 is difficult due to lower sensor sensitivity in the PBL, uncertainties associated with aerosol loading, cloud cover, and other factors. In November 2010, the first combined ground/AURA OMI measurements of anthropogenic SO2 and other trace gases were made from Frostburg State University, MD downwind of large power plants by ground-based instruments observing the direct sun and multi-axis scattered skylight, airborne instrumentation, and ground-based insitu instruments to validate the OMI SO2 measurements. The weather was generally clear and aerosol optical thickness was generally low during the campaign and well characterized by the measurements. This presentation will describe the use of SO2 profile measurements from the aircraft and combined direct sun/MAX-DOAS measurements from the ground to derive SO2 vertical column density for comparison with OMI SO2. Similar comparisons from ground-based observations will be made for NO2.

Spinei, E.; Mount, G. H.; Herman, J. R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Stehr, J. W.; Brent, L. C.; He, H.; Arkinson, H.; Dickerson, R. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Castro, M.; Baker, D.; Hoffman, J.

2011-12-01

389

Sulfur Dioxide Flux into Leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : Evidence for a Nonstomatal or Residual Resistance.  

PubMed

The concurrent exchange of SO(2) and H(2)O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO(2) was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO(2)-induced H(2)S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO(2) flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) R(s) (SO(2)') from SO(2) data using analog modeling techniques and (b) R(s) (SO(2) ) from analogy to H(2)O (i.e. 1.89 R(s) (H(2)o)).The emission of H(2)S was positively correlated with the rate of SO(2) flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO(2) flux data (i.e. ignoring H(2)S emissions).The esimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO(2) data (R(s) (SO(2)')) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H(2)O vapor (R(s) (SO(2) )). The resultant of R(s) (SO(2)') - R(s) (SO(2) ), which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO(2) flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO(2) molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H(2)O molecules. It is proposed that the SO(2):H(2)O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H(2)O and SO(2) in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. PMID:16662968

Taylor, G E; Tingey, D T

1983-05-01

390

210 X 297mm Dimethyl Carbonate  

E-print Network

-chloride and dimethly-sulfuric acid for carbonylation and methylation reactions. Reactive distillation process Development for the Continuous Production of Dimethyl Carbonate by Reactive Distillation () 20004 . 11 for the Continuous Production of Dimethyl Carbonate by Reactive Distillation 2001 . 10 . 1 . 2004 . 9 . 30

Hong, Deog Ki

391

Vertical distribution of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol ions, and radon over the northeast Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vertical distributions, in temperate latitudes, of dimethylsulfide (DMS), SO2, radon, methanesulfonate (MSA), nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-sulfate), and aerosol Na(+), NH4(+), and NO(-) ions were determined in samples collected by an aircraft over the northeast Pacific Ocean during May 3-12, 1985. DMS was also determined in surface seawater. It was found that DMS concentrations, both in seawater and in the atmospheric boundary layer, were significantly lower than the values reported previously for subtropical and tropical regions, reflecting the seasonal variability in the temperate North Pacific. The vertical profiles of DMS, MSA, SO2, and nss-sulfate were found to be strongly dependent on the convective stability of the atmosphere and on air mass origin. Biogenic sulfur emissions could account for most of the sulfur budget in the boundary layer, while the long-range transport of continentally derived air masses was mainly responsible for the elevated levels of both SO2 and nss-sulfate in the free troposphere.

Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Andreae, T. W.; Kritz, M. A.; Bates, T. S.

1988-01-01

392

Foliar injury symptoms of Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) as a biological indicator of ambient sulfur dioxide exposures.  

PubMed

Saskatoon serviceberry or Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. cv. Smoky) seedlings were planted at five study sites within a 35,000 km(2) airshed, that is influenced by a number of isolated stationary sources of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, among others. The locations of the five sites were based on the results of a meteorological dry deposition model for the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Visible foliar injury responses of Saskatoon were used as a biological indicator of SO(2) exposures, through monthly field surveys. During late July 1998, unifacial, interveinal chlorosis was observed on some 12% of the seedlings at one study site. By September, the chlorosis had become more severe (necrosis) on some 70% of the plants at that site. Site specific ambient SO(2) levels were relatively low (maximum 5-min concentration of 52.8 ppb). Similar data were unavailable for all, but one other site. Therefore, foliar total S and SO(4)(2-)-S concentrations were analyzed in September at four of the five study sites. Previously soil SO(4)(2-)-S at these sites had been analyzed. There were spatial variabilities among these parameters. Based on the overall examination of these data, it is concluded that the observed visible injury symptoms were due to chronic SO(2) exposures, exacerbated by the presence of ozone (O(3)). Independent of this literature based speculation, visible foliar injury responses of Saskatoon can be used as a biological indicator for acute or chronic ambient SO(2) exposures, in the presence of other phytotoxic air pollutants. PMID:15093041

Krupa, S V; Legge, A H

1999-09-01

393

Sulfur dioxide flux into leaves of Geranium carolinianum L. : evidence for a nonstomatal or residual resistance  

SciTech Connect

The concurrent exchange of SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor between the atmosphere and foliage of Geranium carolinianum was investigated using a whole-plant gas exchange chamber. Total leaf flux of SO/sub 2/ was partitioned into leaf surface and internal fractions. The emission rate of SO/sub 2/-induced H/sub 2/S was measured to develop a net leaf budget for atmospherically derived sulfur. Stomatal resistance to SO/sub 2/ flux was estimated by two techniques: (a) R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2// from SO/sub 2/ data using analog modeling techniques and (b) R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2// from analogy to H/sub 2/O (i.e. 1.89 R/sub s//sup H/sub 2/O/). The emission of H/sub 2/S was positively correlated with the rate of SO/sub 2/ flux into the leaf interior. An accounting of the simultaneous, bidirectional flux of gaseous sulfur compounds during pollutant exposure showed that sulfur accumulation in the leaf interior of G. carolinianum was 7 to 15% lower than that estimated solely from mass-balance calculations of SO/sub 2/ flux data (i.e. ignoring H/sub 2/S emissions). The estimate of stomatal resistance to pollutant flux from the SO/sub 2/ data (R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2/'/) was consistently less than the simultaneous estimate derived from analogy to H/sub 2/O vapor (R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2//). The resultant of R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2/ - R/sub s//sup SO/sub 2//, which was always negative, is indicative of a residual resistance to SO/sub 2/ flux into the leaf interior. On a comparative basis, SO/sub 2/ molecules experienced less pathway resistance to diffusion than effluxing H/sub 2/O molecules. It is proposed that the SO/sub 2/:H/sub 2/O path length ratio is less than unity, as a consequence of the pollutant's high water solubility and unique chemical reactivity in solution. Thus, the diffusive paths for H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/ in G. carolinianum are not completely synonymous. 47 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Tingey, D.T.

1983-01-01

394

The plumes of IO: A detection of solid sulfur dioxide particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectra of Io obtained during eclipse show a narrow deep absorption feature at 4.871 microns, the wavelength of the Nu sub 1 + Nu sub 3 band of solid SO2. The 4 micron radiation comes from volcanic hot spots at a temperature too high for the existence of solid SO2. It is concluded that the spectral feature results from SO2 particles suspended in plumes above the hot spots. The derived abundance of approximately 0.0003 gm/sq cm may imply an SO2 solid-to-gas ratio of roughly one for the Loki plume, which would in turn suggest that it is driven by the SO2 rather than by sulfur.

Howell, R. R.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Geballe, T. T.

1984-01-01

395

Development of a countercurrent multistage fluidized-bed reactor and mathematical modeling for prediction of removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide from flue gases  

SciTech Connect

A bubbling countercurrent multistage fluidized-bed reactor for the sorption of sulfur dioxide by hydrated lime particles was simulated employing a two-phase model, with the bubble phase assumed to be in plug flow and with the emulsion phase either in plug flow (EGPF model) or in perfectly mixed flow (EGPM model). The model calculations were compared with experimental data in term of percentage removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide. Both models were applied to understand the influence of operating parameters on the reactor performance. The comparison showed that the EGPF model agreed well with the experimental data. From the perspective of use of a multistage fluidized-bed reactor as air pollution control equipment in industry, the model could be considered general enough for predicting the performance of reactors for gas-solid treatment.

Mohanty, C.R.; Malavia, G.; Meikap, B.C. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2009-02-15

396

The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen-based 'index of air purity' can reveal locations where ambient air pollution, although low, is nevertheless at a level that may cause ecological detriment. The implications from this work could be applicable to national parks elsewhere.

Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

2013-01-01

397

Determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in wine samples by vapour-generation inductively coupled plasmaoptical-emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used as a preservative and stabilizer in wine production to prevent undesired biochemical processes in the must and the\\u000a final product. The concentration of SO2 is restricted by national regulations. There are two main forms of SO2 in winefree (inorganic forms) and bound (fixed to organic compounds, e.g. aldehydes). Iodometric titration is commonly employed\\u000a for determination

Ji? ?melk; Ji? Macht; Eva Niedobov; Vt?zslav Otruba; Viktor Kanick

2005-01-01

398

Integration of continuous biofumigation with Muscodor albus with pre-cooling fumigation with ozone or sulfur dioxide to control postharvest gray mold of table grapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach was evaluated that combined biological and chemical fumigation of table grapes to control postharvest gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. After fumigation of the grapes with ozone or sulfur dioxide during pre-cooling, the fruit were then exposed to continuous biofumigation by the volatile-producing fungus Muscodor albus during storage. Biofumigation was provided by in-package generators containing a live

Franka Mlikota Gabler; Julien Mercier; J. I. Jimnez; J. L. Smilanick

2010-01-01

399

2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-amino acid derivatives as spectrophotometric reagents for sulfur dioxide. [Using sodium sulfite  

SciTech Connect

A spectrophotometric method for sulfur dioxide determination was explored on the basis of its complexation with TNP-amino acid derivatives forming an orange colored 1:1 complex with an increase in absorbance at 420 nm. TNP-glycine, TNP-threonine, TNP-serine and TNP-histidine (TNP-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-)) were investigated. The color development was instantaneous and the absorbance remained unchanged even after 24 h of mixing when kept in the dark. Linear calibration graphs (0-5 x 10/sup -5/M sulfite ions) were obtained at optimal reaction conditions of 7 x 10/sup -5/M TNP-amino acid and pH 8.0 phosphate buffer (0.05 M). The investigation of the effect of several diverse ions revealed an interference by sulfide and mercury ions at concentration levels of 10/sup -4/M. The standard deviation of determining 3 x 10/sup -5/M sulfite solution (10 times) was 1.474 x 10/sup -7/M. 22 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Al-Hajjaji, M.A.

1984-01-01

400

Sulfur dioxide-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics exposed for short durations under controlled conditions: a selected review  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1980, essentially no health related effects had been observed for short-term ( < 1 hr) exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) levels similar to those found in the ambient environment (= or < 1 ppm). In 1980 and 81, the results from several studies indicated that asthmatics' airways were substantially more responsive to SO/sub 2/ than those of nonasthmatic individuals and that, when combined with moderate exercise, significant bronchoconstriction resulted from exposures to as low as 0.5 ppm SO/sub 2/. Since then, a multitude of reports regarding short-term exposure of asthmatics to low SO/sub 2/ levels have appeared in the literature. From these studies, reflex bronchoconstriction, mast cell degranulation and other, yet unidentified, mechanisms were implicated in the induction of response. A broad range of responsiveness to SO/sub 2/ exists within the asthmatic population. Precise knowledge of factors involved in this variable responsiveness is lacking; differences in nonspecific airway sensitivity and severity of disease are suggested.

Horstman, D.H.

1987-11-01

401

Pulmonary responses of well-characterized asthmatic, atopic, and normal volunteers to sulfur dioxide; Implications for air quality risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Numerous laboratory investigations have shown that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) induces bronchoconstriction and respiratory symptoms in exercising asthmatics. These effects appear to depend on dose rate (the product of exposure concentration and ventilation rate), and may occur at dose rates attainable during outdoor exercise in SO/sub 2/-polluted communities. Effects are rapid in onset, requiring no more than 5 min of exercise during exposure. Thus they may be induced by transient elevations of SO/sub 2/ levels, which may occur near large pollution sources even when longer-term average concentrations meet existing air quality standards. Even very mild asthmatics typically are far more sensitive to SO/sub 2/ than healthy volunteers. The authors discuss an investigation designed to expand and improve the dose-response information on SO/sub 2/. In comparison to earlier work it employed a larger, clinically more diverse population of volunteer subjects. Comparatively severe, medication-dependent asthmatics were included, whereas most prior studies have been limited to mild asthmatics. All subjects' clinical status was documented in detail, in a manner allowing comparison with the National Health survey of community populations. Each exposure condition was replicated to test consistency of response. Short-term lung function changes and respiratory systems were documented.

Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L. (Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Inc., Downey, CA (USA). Professional Staff Association)

1987-01-01

402

Dimethyl Fumarate  

MedlinePLUS

... muscle coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Dimethyl fumarate is in a class of ... your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

403

Erosion of frozen sulfur dioxide by ion bombardment - Applications to Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The erosion of frozen SO2 due to bombardment by both light and heavy ions (He and F) was measured for bombarding energies of 0.08 to 1.3 MeV/amu. The number of SO2 molecules ejected from the target per incident ion (i.e., the sputtering yield) was 50 for 1.5 MeV He ions and 7300 for 6 MeV F ions. Ion bombardment followed by heating produced an oxygen/sulfur residue which was much more stable against subsequent ion bombardment than the initial frozen SO2. The erosion rate of SO2 frost on Jupiter's moon Io depends strongly on the elemental composition and energy spectra of the magnetospheric ion flux which bombards the surface. The combined effects of ion bombardment and heating which produced residues on the target substrates may also occur on Io from magnetospheric ion bombardment and heating by volcanism. The experimental results compare favorably with a new model of the sputtering process which considers the energy loss of the incident ion to electronic excitation in the target.

Melcher, C. L.; Lepoire, D. J.; Cooper, B. H.; Tombrello, T. A.

1982-01-01

404

Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51?gdm-2?day and <0.05mgm-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7?gdm-2day and <0.05mgm-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3?gdm-2?day and 0.5mgm-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7?gm-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10?gm-3); SO2 concentration (0.94mgm-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5mgm-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2?gm-3 and 6.8mgm-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1?gm-3 and 14.4mgm-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

2013-10-01

405

Chemistry of dimethyl sulfide in the equatorial Pacific atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A field study of the chemistry of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was conducted on the island of Kiritimati (Christmas Island) during July and August, 1994. This island is located at 2{degrees}N, 157{degrees}W approximately 2000km south of Hawaii. The authors obtained a very repeatable diurnal variation for both DMS and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during two 5-day and one 2-day experiments. Near sunrise DMS was about 200pptv. It decreased to about 120 pptv by late afternoon. During the daytime SO{sub 2} increased from about 20 pptv to about 75 pptv. At night DMS increased and SO{sub 2} decreased almost linearly. About 62% of the DMS was converted to SO{sub 2}. DMS was emitted from the ocean at an average flux of 3.7 x 10{sup 13} molecules in m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The average dry deposition velocity of SO{sub 2} was 6.8 mm sec{sup {minus}1} Most of the SO{sub 2} appeared to be lost to the ocean although a comparable but not significantly larger flux to aerosol cannot be ruled out. Dimethyl sulfoxide was in the range 10 to 50 pptv with a mean of about 25 pptv. Dimethyl sulfone was in the range 0 to 15 pptv with a mean of about 3 pptv. There was no diurnal trend in other species. A much smaller fraction of the DMS was converted to dimethyl sulfone than dimethyl sulfoxide. 27 refs., 2 fig., 2 tab.

Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Blomquist, B.W. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others] [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

1996-04-01

406

Fundamental study of ammonia-sulfur dioxide reactions to form solid particles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The effects of reaction residence time, presence of inert particles and moisture content on the SO{sub 2} removal and the product particle size distributions have been determined. Results indicated that both gas phase and particle phase reach equilibria in a very short time. The presence of inert particles increases the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency slightly, with a greater increase in removal efficiency at higher surface areas. Moisture content is the most important parameter affecting SO{sub 2} removal. Increasing the moisture content from 1.6% to 6.4% by volume results in a 30% increase of the SO{sub 2} removal at a reaction temperature of 51{degree}C. The products at near anhydrous conditions were concluded to be NH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}, (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}. While the products at humid conditions could be either the 1:1 sulfites, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}, or the 2:1 sulfites, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} {minus}H{sub 2}O, or a mixture of the 1:1 and 2:1 sulfite. Those sulfite particles could subsequently oxidize to form the more stable sulfate particles. A gas-to-particle formation model has been developed to simulate the NH{sub 3}-SO{sub 2} system in the presence and absence of seed aerosols at trace water conditions. This model accounts for simultaneous nucleation, coagulation, condensation and chemical reaction. The applicability of utilizing ammonia injection to a flue gas system has been discussed in terms of two possible removal schemes. One utilizes ammonia injection alone and the other is in conjunction with the injection of Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry in a spray dryer system. Both schemes have the potential of achieving over 90% SO{sub 2} removal from power plants burning high-sulfur coals.

Biswas, P.; Bai, H. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1994-01-18

407

Nucleation by free radicals from the photooxidation of sulfur dioxide in air  

SciTech Connect

Previously reported experimental results of the production of condensation nuclei by the photooxidation of SO/sub 2/ in air are reanalyzed on the basis that the principal photochemical reaction of SO/sub 2/ is SO/sub 2/ + OH + M ..-->.. HSO/sub 3/ + M. The ideas that gaseous H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is the end product of the reaction and that nuclei were formed from clusters of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O molecules are shown to be probably incorrect on the basis of (1) comparison to nucleation rates expected from the theory of heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation and (2) calculations indicating that nucleation rates were kinetically controlled such that the nuclei formed contained only one or two sulfur-bearing entities. The nucleation phenomena are compatible with the idea that free radicals and the hydrated complex SO/sub 3/ . H/sub 2/O are nuclei precursors. We suggest a mechanism involving the formation and recombination of hydrated forms of HSO/sub 3/ and HSO/sub 5/ radicals to explain nucleation for conditions of relative humidity greater than about 5%. For lower relative humidities the reaction SO/sub 2/ + O + M ..-->.. SO/sub 3/ + M followed by the formation of a hydrated complex of SO/sub 3/ is suggested as controlling nucleation. A model based on these mechanisms yields the results that nuclei consist of single molecules of H/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 6/ or possibly H/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/, plus their associated H/sub 2/O molecules, at high relative humidities (>5%) and that at low relative humidities the nuclei consist of single molecules of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, plus associated H/sub 2/O molecules. These mechanisms are used as a basis for suggesting a general explanation for the phenomenon of photoinduced nucleation. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Friend, J.P.; Barnes, R.A.; Vasta, R.M.

1980-09-18

408

Selective Extraction of Metals from Pacific Sea Nodules with Dissolved Sulfur Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to tritrate a rock? The following article illustrates the possibility of titrating a metallic constituent in a mineral with a selective reagent to an endpoint of near complete metal extraction. A very rapid and efficientalmost instantaneous and quantitativemethod has been devised to differentially leach manganese, nickel, and cobalt to the exclusion of copper and iron from deep-sea nodules.1 In this method, a given weight of raw sea nodules ground to -200 mesh in an aqueous slurry is contacted for 10 min at room temperature and ambient pressure with a specified quantity of SO2. An independent leaching parameter R has been defined as the ratio of the number of moles of SO2 in the leaching solution to the weight of sea nodules. Variation of metal extraction with R generates sigmoidal curves characteristic of the metals extracted. A threshold value of R is required to initiate the leaching of a given metal from the mixed oxides. Once this threshold is reached, the metal recovery can rise above 95% in less than 10 minutes. For increasing value of R the extractability of various metals from Pacific sea nodules by SO2 follows the order: Mn > Ni > Co ? Fe, Al, Cu. Disparity in the R values permits a variety of selective leaching systems and metal separations simply by changing the quantity of SO2 in the contacting solution. Success in this leaching system depends on comminuting the nodules to less than 100 mesh. Above this critical size, leaching is slowed due to the inaccessibility of the inner particle reacting groups to the SO2 leaching agent, resulting in lower and nonselective extractions of preferred metal values. Leaching with HCl solutions of the same pH level as dissolved SO2 yielded mixed, slow, and incomplete metal extractions. This finding rules out any interpretation based on hydrogen ion from the ionization of sulfurous acid as the leaching agent. The leaching curves observed in the new system resemble the complexometric titration curves of heavy metals with specific coordination species.

Khalafalla, Sanaa E.; Pahlman, John E.

1981-08-01

409

Sulfur X-ray absorption and vibrational spectroscopic study of sulfur dioxide, sulfite, and sulfonate solutions and of the substituted sulfonate ions X3CSO3- (X = H, Cl, F).  

PubMed

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra have been recorded and the S(1s) electron excitations evaluated by means of density functional theory-transition potential (DFT-TP) calculations to provide insight into the coordination, bonding, and electronic structure. The XANES spectra for the various species in sulfur dioxide and aqueous sodium sulfite solutions show considerable differences at different pH values in the environmentally important sulfite(IV) system. In strongly acidic (pH < approximately 1) aqueous sulfite solution the XANES spectra confirm that the hydrated sulfur dioxide molecule, SO2(aq), dominates. The theoretical spectra are consistent with an OSO angle of approximately 119 degrees in gas phase and acetonitrile solution, while in aqueous solution hydrogen bonding reduces the angle to approximately 116 degrees . The hydration affects the XANES spectra also for the sulfite ion, SO32-. At intermediate pH ( approximately 4) the two coordination isomers, the sulfonate (HSO3-) and hydrogen sulfite (SO3H-) ions with the hydrogen atom coordinated to sulfur and oxygen, respectively, could be distinguished with the ratio HSO3-:SO3H- about 0.28:0.72 at 298 K. The relative amount of HSO3- increased with increasing temperature in the investigated range from 275 to 343 K. XANES spectra of sulfonate, methanesulfonate, trichloromethanesulfonate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate compounds, all with closely similar S-O bond distances in tetrahedral configuration around the sulfur atom, were interpreted by DFT-TP computations. The energy of their main electronic transition from the sulfur K-shell is about 2478 eV. The additional absorption features are similar when a hydrogen atom or an electron-donating methyl group is bonded to the -SO3 group. Significant changes occur for the electronegative trichloromethyl (Cl3C-) and trifluoromethyl (F3C-) groups, which strongly affect the distribution especially of the pi electrons around the sulfur atom. The S-D bond distance 1.38(2) A was obtained for the deuterated sulfonate (DSO3-) ion by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction data of CsDSO3. Raman and infrared absorption spectra of the CsHSO3, CsDSO3, H3CSO3Na, and Cl3CSO3Na.H2O compounds and Raman spectra of the sulfite solutions have been interpreted by normal coordinate calculations. The C-S stretching force constant for the trichloromethanesulfonate ion obtains an anomalously low value due to steric repulsion between the Cl3C- and -SO3 groups. The S-O stretching force constants were correlated with corresponding S-O bond distances for several oxosulfur species. PMID:17784748

Risberg, Emiliana Damian; Eriksson, Lars; Mink, Jnos; Pettersson, Lars G M; Skripkin, Mikhail Yu; Sandstrm, Magnus

2007-10-01

410

Industrial sources influence air concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in rural areas of western Canada.  

PubMed

A survey of monthly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at rural locations in western Canada (provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan) was conducted in 2001-2002, as part of an epidemiological study of the effects of oil and gas industry emissions on the health of cattle. Repeated measurements were obtained at some months and locations. We aimed to develop statistical models of the effect of oil and gas infrastructure on air concentrations. The regulatory authorities supplied the information on location of the different oil and gas facilities during the study period and, for Alberta, provided data on H2S content of wells and flaring volumes. Linear mixed effects models were used to relate observed concentrations to proximity and type of oil and gas infrastructure. Low concentrations were recorded; the monthly geometric mean was 0.1-0.2 ppb for H2S, and 0.3-1.3 ppb for SO2. Substantial variability between repeated measurements was observed. The precision of the measurement method was 0.005 ppb for both contaminants. There were seasonal trends in the concentrations, but the spatial variability was greater. This was explained, in part, by proximity to oil/gas/bitumen wells and (for SO2) gas plants. Wells within 2 km of monitoring stations had the greatest impact on measured concentrations. For H2S, 8% of between-location variability was explained by proximity to industrial sources of emissions; for SO2 this proportion was 18%. In Alberta, proximity to sour gas wells and flares was associated with elevated H2S concentrations; however, the estimate of the effect of sour gas wells in the immediate vicinity of monitoring stations was unstable. Our study was unable to control for all possible sources of the contaminants. However, the results suggest that oil and gas extraction activities contribute to air pollution in rural areas of western Canada. PMID:17972769

Burstyn, Igor; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Kim, Hyang-Mi; Cherry, Nicola M; Pietroniro, Elise; Waldner, Cheryl

2007-10-01

411

Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis  

E-print Network

The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

Harris, E.

412

N2-, O2- and He-collision-induced broadening of sulfur dioxide ro-vibrational lines in the 9.2 ?m atmospheric window.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of considerable interest for both atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics. In the Earth's atmosphere, it enters in the sulfur cycle and it is ubiquitous present in polluted atmospheres, where it is responsible for acid rains. It is also of astrophysical and planetological importance, being present on Venus and in interstellar clouds. In this work the collisional broadening of a number of ?1 ro-vibrational lines of SO2 perturbed by N2, O2 and He are investigated at room temperature in the 9 ?m atmospheric region by means of high resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared spectroscopy. From N2- and O2-broadening coefficients, the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide in air, useful for atmospheric applications, are derived as well. From the present measurements some conclusions on the quantum number dependence of the N2-, O2- and He-broadening coefficients are drawn. While the J dependence is weak for all the perturbers investigated, different trends with Ka are reported. N2-broadening coefficients show a slight decrease with increasing values of Ka, whereas O2 and He broadening cross sections first increase up to Ka(?)?6 and then they keep a nearly constant value. A comparison and a brief discussion on the efficiency of self-, N2-, O2- and He-collisional dynamics are given. The data obtained represent a significant analysis on foreign broadening of SO2 useful for atmospheric remote sensing and astrophysical applications. PMID:24060483

Tasinato, Nicola; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi; Buffa, Giovanni

2014-01-24

413

N2-, O2- and He-collision-induced broadening of sulfur dioxide ro-vibrational lines in the 9.2 ?m atmospheric window  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of considerable interest for both atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics. In the Earth's atmosphere, it enters in the sulfur cycle and it is ubiquitous present in polluted atmospheres, where it is responsible for acid rains. It is also of astrophysical and planetological importance, being present on Venus and in interstellar clouds. In this work the collisional broadening of a number of ?1 ro-vibrational lines of SO2 perturbed by N2, O2 and He are investigated at room temperature in the 9 ?m atmospheric region by means of high resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared spectroscopy. From N2- and O2-broadening coefficients, the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide in air, useful for atmospheric applications, are derived as well. From the present measurements some conclusions on the quantum number dependence of the N2-, O2- and He-broadening coefficients are drawn. While the J dependence is weak for all the perturbers investigated, different trends with Ka are reported. N2-broadening coefficients show a slight decrease with increasing values of Ka, whereas O2 and He broadening cross sections first increase up to Ka??6 and then they keep a nearly constant value. A comparison and a brief discussion on the efficiency of self-, N2-, O2- and He-collisional dynamics are given. The data obtained represent a significant analysis on foreign broadening of SO2 useful for atmospheric remote sensing and astrophysical applications.

Tasinato, Nicola; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi; Buffa, Giovanni

2014-01-01

414

Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

1999-01-01

415

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOEpatents

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20

416

Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

1990-01-01

417

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2009-01-01

418

Determination of the effects of sulfur dioxide on recovery systems for CO/sub 2/. Final report, 1977-1980  

SciTech Connect

The present study was initiated to investigate the problems associated with recovery of CO/sub 2/ from flue gases for enhanced oil recovery. In particular, the scope of this work may be stated: determine the type of impurities formed in ammonia, monoethanolamine (MEA), and potassium carbonate systems when extracting CO/sub 2/ from oxidizing flue gases containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides; determine the levels of impurity build-up in the solvents; estimate the impurity level in the recovered CO/sub 2/; evaluate the effect on corrosion in metals by these solvents in a flue gas environment; determine the carbon-dioxide absorption coefficients in solvents contaminated due to the pollutants present in the flue gas; evaluate the effect of particulate matter on absorption coefficients in the solvents; and recommend potential absorption systems for CO/sub 2/ from flue gas and estimate the cost of recovery. The results of this study indicate that in ammonia, ammonia sulfate is quickly formed to render that portion of the absorbent inactive. In MEA, amine sulfite and amine sulfate are the dominant impurities formed. In amine-activated potassium carbonate solutions, only sulfite and sulfate ions were found. No nitrogen-oxide species were found in any solution. The impurity levels obtained in the present experiments indicated no limit on contaminant build-up. The impurity level in the recovered CO/sub 2/ was estimated to be less than or equal to 100 ppM non-condensible gases, 20 to 200 ppM SO/sub 2/, and < 20 ppM NO/sub x. Corrosion in the absorption systems will be similar to that observed in CO/sub 2/ absorption systems from reducing gas streams. The absorption rate of CO/sub 2/ in solutions decreases with increasing loading of CO/sub 2/ in almost a linear fashion. Several alternative absorption systems were evaluated in a preliminary cost evaluation, and a K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (EAE activated) solution was recommended.

Sears, J.T.

1981-01-01

419

A Comparison of Sulfur Dioxide Column Content Between Aircraft and Satellite Over the U.S. Mid-Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is a major contributor to air pollution in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Sources of SO2 include coal fired power plants as well as diesel engines. Fine particulate sulfate (with diameter less than 2.5 mm) formed from SO2 can cause health problems as well as decreased visibility. Reliable measurements of SO2 within the lower troposphere are needed to determine sources, test emission inventories and to evaluate federal air quality standards. Monthly averages of SO2 lower-tropospheric column content for various points in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States have been calculated from episodic aircraft measurements during the summer months of 2000 and 2001 (http://www.meto.umd.edu/~umdair/rammpp01.html). A Thermo Environmental Instruments 4 3C SO2 analyzer was used to obtain data during aircraft spiral profiles, usually made from the near-surface to an altitude in the range of 2.3 to 3.1 km. From June to August 2000, 44 columns of SO2 were calculated from aircraft profiles over 11 different locations between North Carolina and Pennsylvania. Individual column concentrations of SO2 ranged from 0.10 to 2.31 Dobson Units (DU). Monthly averaged column concentrations were made for each location and the average concentrations for 2000 ranged from 0.02 to 1.18 DU. In 2001, 149 columns of SO2 were obtained from 36 different locations for the months of May through August. The individual column concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.40 DU and the monthly averaged columns ranged from 0.05 to 3.40 DU. UV-visible spectra collected by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) have been analyzed for SO2 by the research group at the University of Bremen in Germany (http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/gome/). The period of data collection by the University of Maryland team coincide with data collection by the University of Bremen. The monthly averages of SO2 determined from aircraft measurements are compared with measurements from the satellite in order to characterize the transport and dynamics of SO2 over the mid-Atlantic region.

Hains, J. C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Doddridge, B. G.; Burrows, J. P.; Richter, A.

2002-12-01

420

The impact of aqueous sulfur dioxide upon the reactions and availability of hydrocyanic acid and formaldehyde on prebiotic Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formaldehyde (CH2O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are important precursors of biomolecules critical to life. Individually, CH2O solutions yield sugars while HCN solutions yield nucleobases. The formation of sugars and nucleobases is inhibited in solutions containing both CH 2O and HCN, however due to the reaction of CH2O with HCN to form glycolonitrile. Since the hydrosphere of primitive Earth is thought to have contained both CH2O and HCN, it is important to limit glycolonitrile formation so these biomolecules can arise. The problem presented by glycolonitrile's formation in solutions containing both CH2O and HCN is called the Miller paradox. This study sought to address the Miller paradox by evaluating the role that sulfur dioxide (SO 2) plays in the polymerization reactions of these precursor molecules. In the aqueous phase, SO2 hydrates and dissociates to bisulfite (HSO3-) and sulfite (SO32-), both of which react with CH2O to form hydroxymethanesulfonic acid (HMSA). Because of this, SO2 should compete with HCN for CH 2O. It was hypothesized that equimolar solutions of CH2O, NaCN, and Na2SO3 would form HMSA, leaving an equivalent amount of cyanide free to polymerize to its tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN). HMSA was measured using capillary electrophoresis (CE) while DAMN was measured using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method developed for this study. HMSA and DAMN concentrations were measured in solutions of variable CH2O, NaCN, and Na2SO 3 composition, pH, and oxygen availability. Room-temperature bicarbonate-buffered NaCN solutions at pH values near the pKa of HCN (pH9) polymerized rapidly, forming DAMN at concentrations near 30 muM over 8 days. The addition of equimolar CH 2O to similar NaCN solutions eliminated DAMN formation (<0.02 muM), consistent with the Miller paradox. The addition of SO2 (as Na 2SO3) to solutions containing CH2O and NaCN, however, allowed the polymerization of HCN to DAMN (1-2 muM) through the reaction of CH2O with HSO3- to form HMSA (20 mM). DAMN and HMSA were also formed from the reaction of glycolonitrile with HSO3-. Measured HMSA concentrations were consistent with concentrations predicted from equilibrium model calculations. Results from this study suggest that SO2 may have played a critical role in the chemical origins of life.

Whiteford, Jamie Keith

421

Sensitive and selective flow injection analysis of hydrogen sulfite/sulfur dioxide by fluorescence detection with and without membrane separation by gas diffusion.  

PubMed

Highly sensitive and selective FIA flow injection analysis procedures for the determination of sulfite/hydrogen sulfite/sulfur dioxide were developed on the basis of an in situ-generated o-phthalaldehyde (OPA)/ammonium reagent and fluorescence detection. The highest sensitivity was achieved at an excitation wavelength of 330 nm, an emission wavelength of 390 nm, and at pH 6.5. Sulfite concentrations between 2.5 nM and 5 microM can be determined with relative standard deviations between 10.5 and 1.0% (n = 5, confidence level alpha = 0.05) by utilization of a reagent that contains 0.2 mM OPA and 0.4 M NH4Cl in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer. A concentration of 0.1 mM sulfite can be selectively detected in the presence of thiosulfate, thioglycolate, tetrathionate, cysteine, and ascorbate. The fluorometric sulfite detection was combined with a membrane gas diffusion step to improve the selectivity with respect to nonvolatile fluorescing substances. The total sulfite content can be quantitatively separated as sulfur dioxide into an acceptor solution before its flow detection. Between 40 nM and 0.1 mM sulfite can be determined. After 1,000-fold dilution, the total sulfite content can be determined in white and red wines. PMID:11467572

Mana, H; Spohn, U

2001-07-01

422

Thermal decomposition of barium sulfate-vanadium pentaoxide-silica glass mixtures for preparation of sulfur dioxide in sulfur isotope ratio measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously reported procedure for the thermal decomposition of BaSO-VO-SiO for the preparation of SO in sulfur isotope ratio measurements has been studied in detail, certain portions of the procedure have been modified, and certain aspects of the reaction mechanism have been defined. It was determined that the ¹⁸O\\/¹⁶O ratio of SO must be kept constant in order to apply

F. Yanaglsawa; Hitoshi. Sakai

1983-01-01

423

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants  

E-print Network

pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime...

Schwartz, M. H.

1979-01-01

424

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-print Network

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01

425

Sulfur X-Ray Absorption And Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite, And Sulfonate Solutions And of the Substituted Sulfonate Ions X(3)CSO(3-)(X = H, Cl, F)  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra have been recorded and the S(1s) electron excitations evaluated by means of density functional theory-transition potential (DFT-TP) calculations to provide insight into the coordination, bonding, and electronic structure. The XANES spectra for the various species in sulfur dioxide and aqueous sodium sulfite solutions show considerable differences at different pH values in the environmentally important sulfite(IV) system. In strongly acidic (pH < {approx}1) aqueous sulfite solution the XANES spectra confirm that the hydrated sulfur dioxide molecule, SO{sub 2}(aq), dominates. The theoretical spectra are consistent with an OSO angle of {approx}119{sup o} in gas phase and acetonitrile solution, while in aqueous solution hydrogen bonding reduces the angle to {approx}116{sup o}. The hydration affects the XANES spectra also for the sulfite ion, SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. At intermediate pH (4) the two coordination isomers, the sulfonate (HSO{sub 3{sup -}}) and hydrogen sulfite (SO{sub 3}H{sup -}) ions with the hydrogen atom coordinated to sulfur and oxygen, respectively, could be distinguished with the ratio HSO{sub 3{sup -}}:SO{sub 3}H{sup -} about 0.28:0.72 at 298 K. The relative amount of HSO{sub 3{sup -}} increased with increasing temperature in the investigated range from 275 to 343 K. XANES spectra of sulfonate, methanesulfonate, trichloromethanesulfonate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate compounds, all with closely similar S-O bond distances in tetrahedral configuration around the sulfur atom, were interpreted by DFT-TP computations. The energy of their main electronic transition from the sulfur K-shell is about 2478 eV. The additional absorption features are similar when a hydrogen atom or an electron-donating methyl group is bonded to the -SO{sub 3} group. Significant changes occur for the electronegative trichloromethyl (Cl{sub 3}C-) and trifluoromethyl (F{sub 3}C-) groups, which strongly affect the distribution especially of the {pi} electrons around the sulfur atom. The S-D bond distance 1.38(2) {angstrom} was obtained for the deuterated sulfonate (DSO{sub 3{sup -}}) ion by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction data of CsDSO{sub 3}. Raman and infrared absorption spectra of the CsHSO{sub 3}, CsDSO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na, and Cl{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na{center_dot}H{sub 2}O compounds and Raman spectra of the sulfite solutions have been interpreted by normal coordinate calculations. The C-S stretching force constant for the trichloromethanesulfonate ion obtains an anomalously low value due to steric repulsion between the Cl{sub 3}C- and -SO{sub 3} groups. The S-O stretching force constants were correlated with corresponding S-O bond distances for several oxosulfur species.

Risberg, E.Damian; Eriksson, L.; Mink, J.; Pettersson, L.G.M.; Skripkin, M.Yu.; Sandstrom, M.

2009-06-02

426

Dimethyl Disulfide Produced by the Naturally Associated Bacterium Bacillus sp B55 Promotes Nicotiana attenuata Growth by Enhancing Sulfur Nutrition[W  

PubMed Central

Bacillus sp B55, a bacterium naturally associated with Nicotiana attenuata roots, promotes growth and survival of wild-type and, particularly, ethylene (ET)insensitive 35S-ethylene response1 (etr1) N. attenuata plants, which heterologously express the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana receptor ETR1-1. We found that the volatile organic compound (VOC) blend emitted by B55 promotes seedling growth, which is dominated by the S-containing compound dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). DMDS was depleted from the headspace during cocultivation with seedlings in bipartite Petri dishes, and 35S was assimilated from the bacterial VOC bouquet and incorporated into plant proteins. In wild-type and 35S-etr1 seedlings grown under different sulfate (SO4?2) supply conditions, exposure to synthetic DMDS led to genotype-dependent plant growth promotion effects. For the wild type, only S-starved seedlings benefited from DMDS exposure. By contrast, growth of 35S-etr1 seedlings, which we demonstrate to have an unregulated S metabolism, increased at all SO4?2 supply rates. Exposure to B55 VOCs and DMDS rescued many of the growth phenotypes exhibited by ET-insensitive plants, including the lack of root hairs, poor lateral root growth, and low chlorophyll content. DMDS supplementation significantly reduced the expression of S assimilation genes, as well as Met biosynthesis and recycling. We conclude that DMDS by B55 production is a plant growth promotion mechanism that likely enhances the availability of reduced S, which is particularly beneficial for wild-type plants growing in S-deficient soils and for 35S-etr1 plants due to their impaired S uptake/assimilation/metabolism. PMID:23903320

Meldau, Dorothea G.; Meldau, Stefan; Hoang, Long H.; Underberg, Stefanie; Wunsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T.

2013-01-01

427

Gas-phase synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide over Co(1.5)PW(12)O(40) Keggin-type heteropolyanion.  

PubMed

The reactivity of Co(1.5)PW(12)O(40) in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO(2) and CH(3)OH was investigated. The synthesized catalyst has been characterized by means of FTIR, XRD, TG, and DTA and tested in gas phase under atmospheric pressure. The effects of the reaction temperature, time on stream, and methanol weight hourly space velocity (MWHSV) on the conversion and DMC selectivity were investigated. The highest conversion (7.6%) and highest DMC selectivity (86.5%) were obtained at the lowest temperature used (200 degrees C). Increasing the space velocity MWHSV increased the selectivity of DMC, but decreased the conversion. A gain of 18.4% of DMC selectivity was obtained when the MWHSV was increased from 0.65 h(-1) to 3.2 h(-1). PMID:20480023

Aouissi, Ahmed; Al-Othman, Zeid Abdullah; Al-Amro, Amro

2010-01-01

428

The formation of acid rain in the atmosphere, adjacent to the TTP with the joint-condensing of sulfur dioxide and water vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presents the results of mathematical simulation of the condensation process of sulphur dioxide and water vapor on the condensation nuclei surface under the action of natural factors. Numerical investigations were carried out for the summer at a moderate speed of the wind. The influence of the parameter of condensation on the speed of the process of sulfuric acid drops formation in the air space was analyzed. Time ranges, sufficient for the formation of the acid rain sedimentation in the atmosphere, adjacent to the areas of thermal power station work were established. It is shown that the speed of air masses movement effects on the process of acid anthropogenic admixtures dispersion in the atmosphere. Approbation of the obtained results was carried out by checking the difference scheme conservative and solution of test problems.

Gvozdyakov, D. V.; Gubin, V. E.; Matveeva, A. A.

2014-08-01

429

Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88  

SciTech Connect

SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A. [Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)

1994-12-15

430

Determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in wine samples by vapour-generation inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is used as a preservative and stabilizer in wine production to prevent undesired biochemical processes in the must and the final product. The concentration of SO(2) is restricted by national regulations. There are two main forms of SO(2) in wine-free (inorganic forms) and bound (fixed to organic compounds, e.g. aldehydes). Iodometric titration is commonly employed for determination of SO(2) concentration (either by direct titration or after pre-separation by distillation); other techniques are also used. In this work inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry with vapour generation was used for determination of free and total SO(2) in wine. Gaseous SO(2) is released from the sample by addition of acid and swept into the ICP by an argon stream. The intensity of the sulfur atomic emission lines is measured in the vacuum UV region. Determination of total SO(2) is performed after hydrolysis of bound forms with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Concentrations of acid for vapour generation and NaOH for hydrolysis were optimised. The method was used for determination of free and total SO(2) in red and white wine samples and results were compared with those from iodometric titration. PMID:16052345

Cmelk, Jir; Macht, Jir; Niedobov, Eva; Otruba, Vtezslav; Kanick, Viktor

2005-10-01

431

Bonding interactions between sulfur dioxide (SO?) and mono-ruthenium(II)-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates: electronic structures of ruthenium-SO? adducts.  

PubMed

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis were carried out to investigate the electronic structures and bonding features between the ruthenium(ii) atom and the SO2 molecule in two ruthenium-sulfur dioxide (SO2) adducts, trans-Ru(NH3)4(SO2)Cl(+) and [{SiW11O39}Ru(II)(SO2)](6-). In addition, the bonding interactions between SO2 and the metal-ruthenium fragment were determined by binding energy (?Eabs) calculation and electronic structures. The results indicate that the ?(1)-S-planar model in both trans-Ru(NH3)4(SO2)Cl(+) and [{SiW11O39}Ru(II)(SO2)](6-) are more favorable. NBO analysis of the bonding interaction between ruthenium and sulfur centers in the [{SiW11O39}Ru(II)(SO2)](6-) complex shows that it possesses a ? and a ? bond. It predicts that the polyoxometalate [SiW11O39Ru](6-) can serve as a potential adsorbent for the SO2 molecule because of the strong Ru-S bond relative to Ru(NH3)4Cl(+). PMID:25050910

Zhu, Bo; Lang, Zhong-Ling; Ma, Na-Na; Yan, Li-Kai; Su, Zhong-Min

2014-09-01

432

The shadow price of substitutable sulfur in the US electric power plant: A distance function approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given restrictions on sulfur dioxide emissions, a feasible long-run response could involve either an investment in improving boiler fuel-efficiency or a shift to a production process that is effective in removing sulfur dioxide. To allow for the possibility of substitution between sulfur and productive capital, we measure the shadow price of sulfur dioxide as the opportunity cost of lowering sulfur

Myunghun Lee

2005-01-01

433

Sulfur dioxide and particles in quiescent volcanic plumes from Poas, Arenal, and Colima volcanos, Costa Rica and Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of SO2 emission rates and concentrations and of particle distribution, size, shape, and composition were made in quiescent volcanic plumes emitted into the troposphere from Poas and Arenal volcanos, Costa Rica, and Colima volcano, Mexico. SO2 emission rates were 700 + or - 180 metric tons per day (t/d) for Poas, 210 + or - 30 t/d for Arenal, and 320 + or - 50 t/d for Colima. The concentrations of SO2 calculated from the COSPEC/lidar data were 5-380 ppb. Concentrations of SO2 measured directly by flame photometry were 10-250 ppb. Particles collected in the plumes with a quartz crystal microbalance impactor were mostly less than 3 microns in diameter and consisted of droplets of dilute sulfur-bearing solutions and minor amounts of layer silicate particles coated with a sulfur-bearing film or crust. Total particle concentrations were 4.7 micrograms per cu.m for Poas and 18.8 micrograms per cu.m for Colima. Comparison of concentrations of SO2 in the plumes with gas samples collected at fumaroles on the ground suggests that the plumes are diluted by the atmosphere by factors of up to 100,000.

Casadevall, T. J.; Rose, W. I., Jr.; Fuller, W. H.; Hunt, W. H.; Woods, D. C.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.; Chuan, R. L.; Friend, J. P.

1984-01-01

434

The reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle of carbon dioxide assimilation: initial studies and purification of ATP-citrate lyase from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide is fixed largely by the reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle in green sulfur bacteria. One of the key enzymes, ATP-citrate lyase, was purified to apparent homogeneity from the moderately thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was about 550,000, and the preponderance of evidence indicated that the protein is composed of identical subunits (Mr of approximately 135,000) which degraded to two major proteins with Mrs of approximately 65,000 and approximately 42,000. Western immunoblots and in vitro phosphorylation experiments indicated that these two species could have been the result of proteolysis by an endogenous protease, similar to what has been observed with mammalian, yeast, and mold ATP-citrate lyase. In addition to apparent structural similarities, the catalytic properties of C. tepidum ATP-citrate lyase showed marked similarities to the eukaryotic enzyme, with significant differences from other prokaryotic ATP-citrate lyases, including the enzyme from the closely related organism Chlorobium limicola. Phosphorylation of C. tepidum ATP-citrate lyase occurred, presumably on a histidine residue at the active site, similar to the case for the mammalian enzyme. In contrast to the situation observed for other prokaryotic ATP-citrate lyase enzymes, the C. tepidum enzyme was not able to replace ATP and GTP for activity or use Cu2+ to replace Mg2+ for enzyme activity. Given the apparent structural and catalytic similarities of the enzyme from C. tepidum and its eukaryotic counterpart, the C. tepidum system should serve as an excellent model for studies of the enzymology and regulation of this protein. PMID:9244275

Wahlund, T M; Tabita, F R

1997-01-01

435

Volcanic Eruption Detection by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Instruments: a 22-Year Record of Sulfur Dioxide and Ash Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their first deployment in November 1978, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have provided a unique, robust and near-continuous record of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash emissions from active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the four TOMS satellites that have flown to date (Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, ADEOS and Earth Probe) have been incorporated into a TOMS volcanic emissions database that presently covers 22 years of SO2 and ash emissions, representing one of the longest satellite-derived records of volcanic activity in existence. At the beginning of 2002, this database comprised 194 individual eruptive events produced during 100 eruptions from 60 volcanoes, resulting in a total of 666 days of volcanic cloud observations by TOMS. Regular eruptions of the African volcano Nyamuragira (DR Congo) since 1978, accompanied by copious SO2 production (Guth et al., 2002), have alone contributed approximately 20% of the days on which clouds were observed. Indonesian volcanoes have produced over 30% of detected eruptive events, due largely to frequent explosive activity at Galunggung, Soputan and Colo during the 1980s. The latest SO2 retrieval results from Earth Probe (EP) TOMS document a period (1996-2001) lacking large explosive eruptions, and also dominated by SO2 emission from 4 eruptions of Nyamuragira. EP TOMS has detected the SO2 and ash produced during 39 eruptive events from 15 volcanoes to date, with volcanic clouds observed on 128 days. Data from EP TOMS have recently begun to degrade, and its erstwhile successor (QuikTOMS) failed to achieve orbit in 2001. New SO2 algorithms are currently being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which will continue the TOMS record of UV remote sensing of volcanic emissions from 2004. OMI will offer SO2 detection limits up to 50 times lower than TOMS and comparable to COSPEC, offering the prospect of regular space-based measurement of passive degassing. Reference: A.L. Guth, G.J.S. Bluth & S.A. Carn (2002). Analyzing sulfur dioxide emissions of Nyamuragira, Abstract (this meeting).

Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Schaefer, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Watson, I. M.; Datta, S.

2002-05-01

436

Rice husk ash/calcium oxide/ceria sorbent for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide from flue gas at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions has become an isssue of great importance to government regulatory agencies and general public due to their negative effect towards the environment and human health. In this work, the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxide (NO) from simulated flue gas was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor using rice husk ash (RHA)/CaO/CeO{sub 2} sorbent. Attention was focused on the major reactor operation parameters affecting sorption capacity of RHA/CaO/CeO{sub 2} sorbent, which include feed concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO, relative humidity (RH), operating temperature and space velocity (GHSV). This is because such information is unavailable for RHA-based sorbent and the effects of these parameters reported in the literature are also not reliable. Enhancement effect of NO on removal of SO{sub 2} was observed and the presence of SO{sub 2} was essential to the removal of NO. However, at a high level of SO{sub 2}/NO concentration, competition in the sorption of NO and SO{sub 2} on the sorbent active sites might have occurred. RH was found to significantly enhance the SO{sub 2} sorption of the RHA/CaO/CeO{sub 2} sorbent. By contrast, NO sorption capacity decreases when RH was further introduced, as it was not easy to sorb NO in the presence of water. Apart from that, the results also shows that there was a threshold value for the RH to ensure higher SO{sub 2} and NO removal and this value was observed at 50% RH. Higher operating temperatures were favored for SO{sub 2} and NO removal. Nevertheless, beyond 150 degrees C the SO{sub 2} removal was found to decrease. On the other hand, a lower space velocity resulted in a higher SO{sub 2} and NO removal.

Dahlan, I.; Lee, K.T.; Kamaruddin, A.H.; Mohamed, A.R. [University of Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

2009-06-15

437

Nu sub 1 plus nu sub 3 combination band of SO2. [measurement of infrared-active vibration-rotation fundamental bands of sulfur dioxide at high spectral resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared-active vibration-rotation combination band nu sub 1 + nu sub 3 of sulfur dioxide was measured with moderately high spectral resolution. Quantum number identifications of spectral lines were made by comparison with theoretically computed spectra which include the effects of centrifugal distortion. Relative line intensities were also calculated. The band center for nu sub 1 + nu sub 3 was determined to be 2499.60 + or - 0.10/cm.

Corice, R. J., Jr.; Fox, K.; Tejwani, G. D. T.

1972-01-01

438

Ab initio study of the effect of CH ... O hydrogen bonding on the Exo/Endo stereoselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-31G*//HF/3-21G* level have been carried out to study Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide. The CH ... O electrostatic interaction detected in some of the transition structures located could be decisive in the control of the exo/endo stereoselectivity of this type of reaction. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Suarez, D.; Lopex, R. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

1996-02-05

439

Reduced Airway Inflammation and Remodeling in Parallel with Mucin 5AC Protein Expression Decreased by S-Carboxymethylcysteine, a Mucoregulant, in the Airways of Rats Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human obstructive airway diseases are histopathologically characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and mucus hypersecretion in airways. We prepared a rat model of airway injury by exposure of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and then evaluated the effects of S-carboxymethylcysteine (S-CMC), a mucoregulant. Methods: Rats were exposed to SO2 gas for 44 days and orally given S-CMC at 250

Sumihisa Sueyoshi; Yuki Miyata; Yoshihiro Masumoto; Yuji Ishibashi; Shigeki Matsuzawa; Naoki Harano; Kiyoyuki Tsuru; Shigeru Imai

2004-01-01

440

Process development in removing sulfur dioxide from hot flue gases (in four parts). III. Pilot plant study of the alkalized alumina system for SO removal. [625°F  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alkalized alumina in removing sulfur dioxide from a coal-combustion flue gas at 625°F was investigated on a pilot plant scale. The absorber was 26 feet long and 1.6 inches ID. Countercurrent gas-solids flow at gas velocities of 8 to 15 ft\\/sec in the presence and absence of baffles, as well as solids entrainment at gas velocities of

D. Beinstock; J. H. Field; J. G. Myers

1967-01-01

441

40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1117 Section 52.1117...Maryland 52.1117 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) [Reserved] ...attainment and maintenance of the national sulfur dioxide standards. [40 FR...

2012-07-01

442

Inorganic Sulfur Compounds as Electron Donors in Purple Sulfur Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria can use inorganic sulfur compounds (e.g. sulfide, elemental sulfur, polysulfides, thiosulfate,\\u000a or sulfide) as electron donors for reductive carbon dioxide fixation during photolithoautotrophic growth. In these organisms,\\u000a light energy is used to transfer electrons from sulfur compounds to the level of the more highly reducing electron carriers\\u000a NAD(P)+ and ferredoxin. In this chapter the sulfur oxidizing

Christiane Dahl

443

Method for manufacture of ammonium thiosulfate from ammonia and solid sulfur or HS rich gas stream and\\/or both solid sulfur and HS gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the manufacture of aqueous ammonium thiosulfate from sulfur dioxide wherein ammonium sulfite is formed as an intermediate product by the scrubbing reaction of ammonia with sulfur dioxide in the presence of water. Preferably, the ammonia is added to the sulfur dioxide in the bottom of the second scrubbing reaction vessel so as to maintain the sulfur dioxide

Ott

1984-01-01

444

Soap bubbles in analytical chemistry. Conductometric determination of sub-parts per million levels of sulfur dioxide with a soap bubble.  

PubMed

Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble. PMID:16615794

Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

2006-04-15

445

Sulfur dioxide emission flux measurements from point sources using airborne near ultraviolet spectroscopy during the New England Air Quality Study 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission fluxes from point sources using airborne near-ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. A Czerny-Turner spectrograph has been optimized to measure SO2 and the oxygen collision complex (O4) in the wavelength region of 286-408 nm from an aircraft platform. The spectrograph was deployed aboard the NOAA WP-3D Orion aircraft during the New England Air Quality Study during the summer of 2004. The spectrograph has zenith and nadir field of views, allowing for measurements of pollution plumes when the aircraft is in or above the planetary boundary layer. The near-UV spectra are analyzed using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method to retrieve SO2 and O4 differential slant column densities (DSCDs). The SO2 DSCDs are used to identify point source plumes and are converted to vertical column densities (VCDs), which are needed to calculate emissions of SO2 from point sources. The conversion to VCDs requires knowledge of the photon optical path length or the air mass factor (AMF). We present a novel approach to calculate the AMF using observations of the absorption of solar radiation by O4. The SO2 VCDs, wind speed and direction, and aircraft speed are then used to obtain emission fluxes from power plants. The measured SO2 power plant emission fluxes are compared to the reported emissions from the power plants. The measured and reported SO2 emission fluxes are in good agreement.

Melamed, M. L.; Langford, A. O.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Miller, H. L.; Eubank, C. S.; Schofield, R.; Holloway, J.; Solomon, S.

2008-01-01

446

Development of a gas diffusion multicommuted flow injection system for the determination of sulfur dioxide in wines, comparing malachite green and pararosaniline chemistries.  

PubMed

A flow system based on the multicommutation concept was developed for the determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in table wines, exploiting gas diffusion separation and spectrophotometric detection. The system allowed the comparison of malachite green and pararosaniline chemistries, using the same manifold configuration. Free and total SO(2) were determined within the ranges 1.00-40.0 and 25.0-250 mg L(-1), at determination throughputs of 25 and 23 h(-1), respectively. Employing the malachite green reaction, detection limits of 0.3 and 0.8 mg L(-1) were attained for free and total SO(2), respectively. Pararosaniline chemistry provided detection limits of 0.6 mg L(-1) for free SO(2) and 0.8 mg L(-1) for total SO(2). Relative standard deviations better than 1.8 and 1.4% were obtained by the malachite green and pararosaniline reactions, respectively. With regard to the two tested chemistries, 18 wines were analyzed and the results achieved by the pararosaniline reaction compared better with those furnished by the recommended procedure. PMID:19309149

Oliveira, Sara M; Lopes, Teresa I M S; Tth, Ildik V; Rangel, Antnio O S S

2009-05-13

447

Experimental Study of Closed System in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodide-Sulfuric Acid Reaction by UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Method  

PubMed Central

The mole ratio r(r = [I?]0/[ClO2]0) has great influence on ClO2-I?-H2SO4 closed reaction system. By changing the initiate concentration of potassium iodide, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was obtained at 350?nm and 297?nm for triiodide ion, and 460?nm for iodine. The changing point of the absorbance curve's shape locates at r = 6.00. For the reaction of ClO2-I? in the absence of H2SO4, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time can be obtained at 350?nm for triiodide ion, 460?nm for iodine. The mole ratio r is equal to 1.00 is the changing point of the curve's shape no matter at which wavelength to determine the reaction. For the reaction of ClO2-I?-H+ in different pH buffer solution, the curve of absorbance along with the reaction time was recorded at 460?nm for iodine. When r is greater than 1.00, the transition point of the curve's shape locates at pH 2.0, which is also the point of producing chlorite or chloride for chlorine dioxide at different pH. When r is less than 1.00, the transition point locates at pH 7.0. PMID:21808646

Li, Na; Shi, Laishun; Wang, Xiaomei; Guo, Fang; Yan, Chunying

2011-01-01

448

High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

2011-07-31

449

A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte  

PubMed Central

A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared via a simple ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. High-resolution transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations showed the formation of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-like structure consisting of graphene with uniform sulfur coating on its surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting composite cathode were investigated in a lithium cell with a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) prepared by trapping 1moldm?3 solution of lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonamide in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether in a polymer matrix composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/silicon dioxide (PVDF-HFP/PMMA/SiO2). The GPE battery delivered reversible discharge capacities of 809 and 413 mAh g?1 at the 1st and 50th cycles at 0.2C, respectively, along with a high coulombic efficiency over 50cycles. This performance enhancement of the cell was attributed to the suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect by a collective effect of S/GNS composite cathode and GPE, providing a higher sulfur utilization. PMID:24655466

2014-01-01

450

A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte.  

PubMed

A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared via a simple ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. High-resolution transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations showed the formation of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-like structure consisting of graphene with uniform sulfur coating on its surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting composite cathode were investigated in a lithium cell with a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) prepared by trapping 1moldm-3 solution of lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonamide in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether in a polymer matrix composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/silicon dioxide (PVDF-HFP/PMMA/SiO2). The GPE battery delivered reversible discharge capacities of 809 and 413 mAh g-1 at the 1st and 50th cycles at 0.2C, respectively, along with a high coulombic efficiency over 50cycles. This performance enhancement of the cell was attributed to the suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect by a collective effect of S/GNS composite cathode and GPE, providing a higher sulfur utilization. PMID:24655466

Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Bakenov, Zhumabay

2014-01-01

451

A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared via a simple ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. High-resolution transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations showed the formation of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-like structure consisting of graphene with uniform sulfur coating on its surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting composite cathode were investigated in a lithium cell with a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) prepared by trapping 1 mol dm-3 solution of lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonamide in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether in a polymer matrix composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/silicon dioxide (PVDF-HFP/PMMA/SiO2). The GPE battery delivered reversible discharge capacities of 809 and 413 mAh g-1 at the 1st and 50th cycles at 0.2C, respectively, along with a high coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles. This performance enhancement of the cell was attributed to the suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect by a collective effect of S/GNS composite cathode and GPE, providing a higher sulfur utilization. PACS: 82.47.Aa; 82.45.Gj; 62.23.Kn

Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Bakenov, Zhumabay

2014-03-01

452

Synthesis and pharmacological activity of N-(2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-3-carboxamides 1,1-dioxides on rat uterus, rat aorta and rat pancreatic ?-cells.  

PubMed

N-(2,2-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-3-carboxamides 1,1-dioxides were prepared and evaluated on rat uterus, rat aortic rings and rat pancreatic ?-cells. Pharmacological studies conducted on rat uterus indicated that several of these original hybrid compounds displayed a strong myorelaxant activity. The most active compounds hold a bromine atom at the 6-position of the dihydrobenzopyran ring. Moreover, the compounds failed to display a marked inhibitory effect on insulin secretion and vascular myogenic activity. These features suggest that the 6-bromo compounds could be relatively selective towards the uterine smooth muscle. PMID:22647221

Khelili, Smail; Kihal, Nadjib; Yekhlef, Mohamed; de Tullio, Pascal; Lebrun, Philippe; Pirotte, Bernard

2012-08-01

453

Constraints on the partitioning of K?lauea's lavas between surface and tube flows, estimated from infrared satellite data, sulfur dioxide emission rates, and field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) degassing rates (obtained in situ), thermal emission rates (obtained from infrared satellite data), and semiquantitative flow field observations can be used to elucidate the partitioning of lava between the surface and tube systems at K?lauea volcano, Hawai'i, over a decadal timescale. For most of our study period, 2000 to 2009, we found that the infrared spectral radiance measured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer from the flow field under clear-sky conditions is controlled by the lava effusion rate and the amount of flow accommodated by the subsurface tube system. At K?lauea, the degree of tubing is estimated qualitatively using field observations, and we show that the satellite data and in situ gas data can be used to estimate the percentage of lava on the surface relative to the total amount erupted. This empirical relationship works to describe many cases in the past decade at K?lauea but breaks down when there is a lack of concurrent clear-sky radiance and SO2 data or when magma is being stored and degassed prior to eruption. Our observations provide a simple way to estimate the partitioning of K?lauea's total lava supply between surface and tube-fed flows using a long-term dataset. This is important because the transition between periods when lava is distributed primarily by surface flows to periods where tubes dominate has been suggested to indicate significant changes in the character of decadal-scale eruptions at K?lauea (Heliker et al., Bull Volcanol 59:381-393, 1998). In addition, it is during those times when surface flows predominate that the flow field does most of its lateral expansion and the hazards associated with the lava effusion become more pronounced.

Koeppen, W. C.; Patrick, M.; Orr, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Dow, D.; Wright, R.

2013-05-01

454

Retrievals of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) using an optimal estimation approach: Algorithm and initial validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply an optimal estimation algorithm originally developed for retrieving ozone profiles from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to make global observations of sulfur dioxide from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) on the MetOp-A satellite. Our approach combines a full radiative transfer calculation, retrieval algorithm, and trace gas climatologies to implicitly include the effects of albedo, clouds, ozone, and SO2 profiles in the retrieval. Under volcanic conditions, the algorithm may also be used to directly retrieve SO2 plume altitude. Retrieved SO2 columns over heavy anthropogenic pollution typically agree with those calculated using a two-step slant column and air mass factor approach to within 10%. Retrieval uncertainties are quantified for GOME-2 SO2 amounts; these are dominated by uncertainty contributions from noise, surface albedo, profile shape, correlations with other retrieved parameters, atmospheric temperature, choice of wavelength fitting window, and aerosols. When plume altitudes are also simultaneously retrieved, additional significant uncertainties result from uncertainties in the a priori altitude, the model's vertical layer resolution, and instrument calibration. Retrieved plume height information content is examined using the Mount Kasatochi volcanic plume on 9 August 2008. An a priori altitude of 10 km and uncertainty of 2 km produce degrees of freedom for signal of at least 0.9 for columns >30 Dobson units. GOME-2 estimates of surface SO2 are compared with in situ annual means over North America in 2008 from the Clear Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET; r = 0.85, N = 65) and Air Quality System (AQS) and National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS; r = 0.40, N = 438) networks.

Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Cai, Z.; Kurosu, T. P.; Lee, C.; Martin, R. V.

2011-09-01

455

A complete listing of sulfur dioxide self-broadening coefficients for atmospheric applications by coupling infrared and microwave spectroscopy to semiclassical calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of proved atmospheric relevance, the main sources being anthropogenic, which is one of the main causes of acid rains. Besides, it is also of interest in astrophysics, as it is present in the atmosphere of Venus and in star forming regions. For these reasons SO2 is one of the target molecules in all of the most important spectroscopic databases which collect the spectroscopic line-by-line parameters for atmospheric remote sensing, astrophysics soundings, and climate changing investigations. Although over the years the spectroscopic properties of this molecule have been widely studied, and line-by-line listings of line positions and intensities have been compiled, at present an analogous systematic and complete database of broadening coefficients is still lacking. The aim of this work is to fill in this vacancy, starting from self-broadening coefficients, by coupling experimental measurements to theoretical calculations. The laboratory experiments are carried out for 12 pure rotational transitions of the vibrational ground state (and 2 of vibrational excited states) and for 25 ro-vibrational lines of the ?1 band, lying in the 9 ?m atmospheric window. Theoretical calculations of broadening coefficients are performed employing a semiclassical formalism based on the ATC (Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte) approximation. From the interplay between theory and experiment the vibrational and quantum number dependence of the collisional cross-sections is first assessed and studied and then a complete database of self-broadening coefficients for 1635 transitions in a wide quantum number range (0?K?a?16, 2?J??68) is compiled, presented and made available.

Tasinato, Nicola; Charmet, Andrea Pietropolli; Stoppa, Paolo; Buffa, Giovanni; Puzzarini, Cristina

2013-11-01

456

Attribution of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide at Texas City during SHARP/formaldehyde and olefins from large industrial releases (FLAIR) using an adjoint chemistry transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

adjoint version of the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) neighborhood air quality model with 200 m horizontal resolution, coupled offline to the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC-URB) fast response urban wind model, was used to perform 4-D variational (4Dvar) inverse modeling of an industrial release of formaldehyde (HCHO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Texas City, Texas during the 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP). The source attribution was based on real-time observations by the Aerodyne mobile laboratory and a high resolution 3-D digital model of the emitting petrochemical complex and surrounding urban canopy. The inverse model estimate of total primary HCHO emitted during the incident agrees very closely with independent remote sensing estimates based on both Imaging and Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Whereas a previous analysis of Imaging DOAS data attributed the HCHO release to a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), the HARC model attributed most of the HCHO event emissions to both the FCCU and desulfurization processes. Fugitives contributed significantly to primary HCHO, as did combustion processes, whereas the latter accounted for most SO2 event emissions. The inferred HCHO-to-SO2 molar emission ratio was similar to that computed directly from ambient air measurements during the release. The model-estimated HCHO-to-CO molar emission ratio for combustion units with significant inferred emissions ranged from 2% to somewhat less than 7%, consistent with other observationally-based estimates obtained during SHARP. A model sensitivity study demonstrated that the inclusion of urban morphology has a significant, but not critical, impact on the source attribution.

Olaguer, Eduardo P.; Herndon, Scott C.; Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Kolb, Charles E.; Brown, Michael J.; Cuclis, Alex E.

2013-10-01

457

Method and apparatus for producing chlorine dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous method and apparatus are described for the efficient production of gaseous chlorine dioxide by the reaction between gaseous sulfur dioxide and an aqueous solution of a metallic chlorate. The chlorate solution and a highly concentrated sulfur dioxide gas are introduced into a packed columnar chamber at closely adjacent locations at the bottom of the chamber so as to

P. W. Santillie; D. M. Ramras

1984-01-01

458

Determination of Gas-Phase Dimethyl Sulfate and Monomethyl Hydrogen Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analytical techniques have been developed for the collection and determination of gas phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid in the flue lines and plumes of power plants and in the ambient atmosphere. The techniques involve the collection of ...

L. D. Hansen, V. F. White, D. J. Eatough

1986-01-01

459

Identification of biogenic dimethyl selenodisulfide in the headspace gases above genetically modified Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli JM109 cells were modified to express the genes encoded in a 3.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment from a metalloid-resistant thermophile, Geobacillus stearothermophilus V. Manual headspace extraction was used to collect the gases for gas chromatography with fluorine-induced sulfur chemiluminescence analysis while solid-phase microextraction was used for sample collection in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. When grown in the presence of selenate or selenite, these bacteria produced both organo-sulfur and organo-selenium in the headspace gases above the cultures. Organo-sulfur compounds detected were methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. Organo-selenium compounds detected were dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide. Two mixed sulfur-selenium compounds, dimethyl selenenyl sulfide and a chromatographically late-eluting compound, were detected. Dimethyl selenodisulfide, CH(3)SeSSCH(3), and dimethyl bis(thio)selenide, CH(3)SSeSCH(3), were synthesized and analyzed by GC/MS and fluorine-induced chemiluminescence to determine which corresponded to the late-eluting compound that was bacterially produced. CH(3)SeSSCH(3) was positively identified as the compound detected in bacterial headspace above Se-amended cultures. Using GC retention times, the boiling point of CH(3)SeSSCH(3) was estimated to be approximately 192 degrees C. This is the first report of CH(3)SeSSCH(3) produced by bacterial cultures. PMID:16289446

Swearingen, Jerry W; Frankel, Danielle P; Fuentes, Derie E; Saavedra, Claudia P; Vsquez, Claudio C; Chasteen, Thomas G

2006-01-01

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