Sample records for sulfur dioxide dimethyl

  1. Homogeneous graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose in a sulfur dioxide-diethylamine-dimethyl sulfoxide cellulose solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, M.; Hagiwara, I.; Shiraishi, N.; Yokota, T.

    1980-12-01

    Graft copolymerization of styrene onto cellulose was studied in a homogeneous system (SO/sub 2/(liquid)- diethylamine (DEA)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) medium)) by ..gamma..-ray mutual irradiation technique. At the same time, homopolymerization of styrene was also examined separately in DMSO, SO/sub 2/-DMSO, DEA-DMSO, and SO/sub 2/-DEA-DMSO media by the same technique. Polymerization of styrene hardly occurs on concentrations above 10 mole SO/sub 2/-DEA complex per mole glucose unit. Maximum percent grafting was obtained in concentrations of 4 mole, after which it decreased rapidly. Total conversion and percent grafting increased with the irradiation time. The value (=0.55) of the slope of the total conversion rate plotted against the dose was only a little higher than the 1/2 which was expected from normal kinetics. No retardation in homopolymerization of styrene in DMSO, SO/sub 2/-DMSO, and DEA-DMSO was evident, while the retardation of homopolymerization in the SO/sub 2/-DEA-DMSO medium was measurable. Sulfur atoms were detected in the polymers obtained in both of SO/sub 2/-DMSO and SO/sub 2/-DEA-DMSO solutions. All of the molecular weights of polymers obtained in the present experiment were very low (3.9 x 10/sup 3/-1.75 x 10/sup 4/).

  2. Operational overview of the NASA GTE/CITE 3 airborne instrument intercomparisons for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcneal, Robert J.; Bendura, Richard J.; Drewry, Joseph W.; Barrick, John D.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Motta, Adauto G.; Navarro, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the overall experimental design and gives a brief overview of results from the third airborne Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) mission conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment. The primary objective of CITE 3 was to evaluate the capability of instrumentation for airborne measurements of ambient concentrations of SO2, H2S, CS, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. Ancillary measurements augmented the intercomparison data in order to address the secondary objective of CITE 3 which was to address specific issues related to the budget and photochemistry of tropospheric sulfur species. The CITE 3 mission was conducted on NASA's Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft and included a ground-based intercomparison of sulfur standards and intercomparison/sulfur science flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, followed by flights from Natal, Brazil. Including the transit flights, CITE 3 included 16 flights encompassing approximately 96 flight hours.

  3. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations,...

  7. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  8. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  9. SOLID SORBENT FOR COLLECTING ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid sorbent for collecting atmospheric SO2 was evaluated as part of an overall effort to develop a replacement method for the West-Gaeke method presently used to measure 24-hour ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in ambient air. Research showed that a solid sorbent, consis...

  10. LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition velocities have been carried out in the laboratory with the use of a cylindrical flow reaction. Analysis of data from these experiments was performed with models that specifically account for diffusive transport in the system. Consequentl...

  11. SULFUR DIOXIDE OXIDATION REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the final report on a three year project to study the kinetics and mechanisms of some 105 reactions involving the aqueous oxidation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in mixed catalyst-oxidant systems at low pH (0-3). The 105 systems involve six redox reaction types: S...

  12. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-print Network

    Denver, University of

    Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions the capability to measure nitrogen dioxide in the UV with one spectrometer and to measure SO2 and NH3 along with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides

  13. 78 FR 28143 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards...state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide... and SO 2 NAAQS revised by EPA? Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) On February 9,...

  14. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  15. Heterogeneous Photochemical Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zanan, H. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2007-12-01

    The gas phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the hydroxyl radical is a significant source of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Stockwell and Calvert (1983) performed fifteen chamber experiments where mixtures of HONO, NO, NO2, H2O, SO2 and CO were photolyzed in synthetic air or in nitrogen containing approximately 50 ppm oxygen. They found that the atmospheric oxidation of SO2 by hydroxyl radical was a chain process that occurs through the production of an HO2 radical followed by reaction with NO to reproduce HO. We have reanalyzed this dataset and we have found that a very large amount of the observed SO2 oxidation (70.0 ± 9.1 %) is not explained through the HO + SO2 reaction alone. The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) was used to investigate additional chemical pathways for the oxidation of SO2. A mechanism consisting of photochemical heterogeneous reactions is proposed to account for the observed additional sulfur dioxide oxidation not accounted for by gas phase oxidation. The analysis showed that the measured time dependent SO2, CO2 and nitrogenous compound concentrations could be simulated by the photochemical heterogeneous mechanism in conjunction with the RACM2 mechanism.

  16. RESPONSE OF MAIZE AND WHEAT TO SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four hybrids of maize and seven cultivars of wheat were exposed to relatively low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (0.1 to 0.6 ppm) for up to 100 hours. Maize was found to be tolerant to sulfur dioxide and only minor differences were observed in dry mass, foliar injury, and total...

  17. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...to revise the Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )...

  18. Using broadband absorption spectroscopy to measure concentration of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. S.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wu, S. H.; Lou, X. T.; Zhang, Z. G.; Qin, Y. K.

    2010-09-01

    A linear relationship between concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and optical parameter (OP) is established using the Beer-Lambert law. The SO2 measuring system is set up to measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the wavelength range 275-315 nm. Experimental results indicate that the detection limit of the sulfur dioxide measuring system is below 0.2 ppm per meter of path length, and the measurement precision is better than ±1%. The proposed SO2 measuring method features limited interference from other gases and dust, and high stability and short response time.

  19. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide...Magisterial Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection on...

  20. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. Approval—On April 21, 1997, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) submitted a maintenance...

  1. Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor

    E-print Network

    McCray, James Arthur

    1955-01-01

    LIBRARY A & AI COLLEGE OF TEXAS INTENSITIES OF ELECTRONIC TRANSITIONS IN SULFUR DIOXIDE VAPOR JANES AR1HUR NcCRAY A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment.... Relation between Oscillator Strength and Probability Coefficient of Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 V. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of Sulfur Dioxide Gas . . . . . . 22 ) VI. Experimental Procedure and Computations . . . . . . . . . 23 U A...

  2. Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed

  3. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  4. Synthesis and solution properties of hydrophobically associating ionic polymers made from diallylammonium salts\\/sulfur dioxide cyclocopolymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunusa Umar; Hasan A. Al-Muallem; B. F. Abu-Sharkh; Sk. Asrof Ali

    2004-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, N,N-diallyl-N-carboethoxymethylammonium chloride and the hydrophobic monomers N,N-diallyl-N-dodecylammonium chloride or N,N-diallyl-N-octadecylammonium chloride were cyclocopolymerized in dimethyl sulfoxide using azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator to afford water-soluble cationic polyelectrolyte (CPE) having five-membered cyclic structure on the polymeric backbone. The CPE on acidic (HCl) hydrolysis of the pendent ester groups gave the corresponding cationic acid salt (CAS) which was converted to

  5. Modification of Sulfur Dioxide Injury to Tobacco and Tomato by Varying Nitrogen and Sulfur Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida A. Leone; Eileen Brennan

    1972-01-01

    The body of information presented in this paper is directed to plant scientists who are concerned with factors which modify the susceptibility of plants to air pollutants.Tobacco and tomato plants grown in sand-solution culture with varying levels of nitrogen or sulfur were exposed to injurious levels of sulfur dioxide. Plants of both species which were deficient in either nutrient exhibited

  6. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic%, and 10% wt.% of dry biomass were also tested at 180 °C for 10 min. Sugar yields were tracked for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to identify conditions for the highest total sugar yields

  7. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  8. Lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide for sulfur dioxide control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kirchgessner; Jeffrey M. Lorrain

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)â for sulfur dioxide (SOâ) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from coal-burning utility boilers. The most effective commercial calcium-based sorbent for this process is Ca(OH)â, with SOâ

  9. Responses of Hawaiian plants to volcanic sulfur dioxide: stomatal behavior and foliar injury

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-14

    Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal conductance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.

  10. Responses of Hawaiian Plants to Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide: Stomatal Behavior and Foliar Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Winner; H. A. Mooney

    1980-01-01

    Hawaiian plants exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide showed interspecific differences in leaf injury that are related to sulfur dioxide-induced changes in stomatal condutance. Species with leaves that did not close stomata developed either chlorosis or necrosis, whereas leaves of Metrosideros collina closed stomata and showed no visual symptoms of sulfur dioxide stress.

  11. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY PLANTS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE AND PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the result of a detailed review of European and United States literature regarding the sensitivity of woody vegetation to sulfur dioxide, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), or nitrogen oxides. Reference is made to Russian, Japanese and Austrian literature onl...

  12. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN CLASS I WILDERNESS AREAS, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the state of Washington. Different plot symbols are used for sources which emit less than 100 tons/year, between 100 and 1000 tons/year, and over 1000 tons/year of SO2. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background...

  13. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN WA, OR, AND ID

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: USGS, Nat...

  14. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION: SPECTRORADIOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO2 was...

  15. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  16. Controlling solubility of lithium salts in liquid sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.F.; Thrash, R.J.

    1984-11-13

    The solubility of lithium salts in sulfur dioxide-based solvent systems is enhanced and controlled by the presence of a salt which contains a cation selected from the group consisting of metal cation complexes, quaternary ammonium cations and organic phosphonium cations.

  17. Electrolyte for lithium-sulfur dioxide electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, L.R.; Davidson, I.J.

    1988-06-21

    A nonaqueous conductive liquid is described which comprises a solution of aluminium chloride and at least one lithium salt in a mixture of liquid sulfur dioxide with at least one polar organic compound wherein the polar organic compound has a Donor Number in the range from about 10 to about 25.

  18. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Jr

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a dry process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases by the addition thereto of hydrated lime containing sugar in a coal combustion unit, wherein the flue gases result from the combustion of a coal in a combustion chamber, and the flue gases are treated in an electrostatic precipitator prior to discharge

  19. Direct extraction of sulfur dioxide from sulfates for isotopic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halas, S.; Wolacewicz, W.P.

    1981-04-01

    A convenient method of extraction of sulfur dioxide from natural sulfates (BaSO/sub 4/, SrSO/sub 4/, and CaSO/sub 4/) for sulfur isotopic analysis is described. A sulfate is reacted with NaPO/sub 3/ under vacuum at 850/sup 0/C; SO/sub 3/ thus obtained is then reduced to sulfur dioxide on copper heated to 750/sup 0/C. It has been experimentally shown that the reaction takes place with complete yield and provides very good reproducibility of measurements despite a remarkable variation in /sup 18/O content of analyzed sulfates. The long-term reproducibility of /sup 34/S//sup 32/S ratios is about 0.05 per mil.

  20. Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet-light-sensitive video system

    SciTech Connect

    McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Remote measurements of sulfur dioxide emissions were made using a portable ultraviolet (uv) light-sensitive video system. The instrument system measures the uv light attenuation caused by sulfur dioxide in the effluent plume and relates this absorption to the sulfur dioxide concentration. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using the technique for rapid surveillance of sulfur dioxide emissions. The laboratory studies included testing by viewing cells containing known concentrations of sulfur dioxide and measuring the emissions from a modified smoke generator. The field study was performed in two stages. Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured at a typical coal-fired power plant (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The elevated concentrations were obtained by reducing flue gas scrubber efficiencies. The second stage involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study which involved routine sulfur dioxide emissions measurements at 12 industrial sites.

  1. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    Ambient ozone concentrations at three rural upper-midwestern sites were characterized based upon four years of continuous monitoring. Examination of annual and diurnal fluctuations and individual events revealed a relationship between ozone and temperature, solar radiation, oxides of nitrogen, and stratospheric incursion. Ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations near a large point source in central Minnesota were characterized based upon four years of monitoring during the summer months. Fumigation events were rare, and the concentrations during the events were low. The mean annual concentration of sulfur dioxide was approximately 0.4 ppB. Soybeans were grown in ambient plots and in open-top field chambers which were either filtered or unfiltered to remove pollutants from the incoming air. The results indicated that the programmed ozone and/or sulfur dioxide treatments did not consistently reduce yield, however, they did cause changes in foliar chlorophyll and sulfur concentrations. The 1980 unfiltered ambient air containing high concentrations of ozone caused a yield reduction of approximately four percent compared to soybeans grown in chambers with filtered air.

  2. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur...reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products...

  4. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  5. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Reinert; T. N. Gray

    1981-01-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NOâ), sulfur dioxide (SOâ), and ozone (Oâ) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air

  6. Resistance to Injury by Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Jiro; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Filner, Philip

    1982-01-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO2, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO2 at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H2S. Young leaves emit H2S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed [35S]SO2 to emitted [35S]H2S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO2 to H2S and emission of the H2S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO2. PMID:16662511

  7. Resistance to injury by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, J.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO/sub 2/, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO/sub 2/ at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H/sub 2/S. Young leaves emit H/sub 2/S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 2/ to emitted (/sup 35/S)H/sub 2/S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/S and emission of the H/sub 2/S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO/sub 2/.

  8. Tracking volcanic sulfur dioxide clouds for aviation hazard mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon A. Carn; Arlin J. Krueger; Nickolay A. Krotkov; Kai Yang; Keith Evans

    2009-01-01

    Satellite measurements of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions can provide critical information for aviation hazard mitigation, particularly when ash detection techniques fail.\\u000a Recent developments in space-based SO2 monitoring are discussed, focusing on daily, global ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)\\u000a on NASA’s Aura satellite. OMI’s high sensitivity to SO2 permits long-range tracking of volcanic clouds in the

  9. Benefits and Costs From Sulfur Dioxide Trading: A Distributional Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Shadbegian; Wayne Gray; Cynthia Morgan

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the passage of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), there had been a lively debate involving Congress,\\u000a the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and academics, about the need for reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions due to the problem of acid rain. In addition to domestic pressure, Canada was putting political pressure on the\\u000a United

  10. A comparative study of leaching kinetics of limonitic laterite and synthetic iron oxides in sulfuric acid containing sulfur dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Senanayake; G. K Das

    2004-01-01

    Limonitic laterite ore of particle size 90–125 ?m containing goethite, magnetite and hematite was leached for 6 h at a pulp density of 10% (wt\\/vol) in sulfuric acid in the absence or presence of sulfur dioxide at atmospheric pressure and 90 °C in a glass reactor vessel. The sulfur dioxide flow rate was kept at 0.6 L min?1 L?1 of

  11. MARINE SULFUR CYCLE. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-26

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms. PMID:26113722

  12. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

  13. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

  14. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

  15. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

  16. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 ...excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions...dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected...

  17. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  18. Dimethyl sulfide air-sea fluxes and biogenic sulfur as a source of new aerosols in the Arctic fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempillo, Ofelia; Seguin, Alison Michelle; Norman, Ann-Lise; Scarratt, Michael; Michaud, Sonia; Chang, Rachel; Sjostedt, Steve; Abbatt, Jon; Else, Brent; Papakyriakou, Tim; Sharma, Sangeeta; Grasby, Steve; Levasseur, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and its oxidation products, which have been proposed to provide a climate feedback mechanism by affecting aerosol and cloud radiative properties, were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard ship Amundsen in sampling campaigns in the Arctic in the fall of 2007 and 2008. DMS flux was calculated based on the surface water measurements and yielded 0.1-2.6 ?mol m-2 d-1 along the Northwest Passage in 2007 and 0.2-1.3 ?mol m-2 d-1 along Baffin Bay in 2008. DMS oxidation products, sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane sulfonic acid (MSA), and sulfate in aerosols were also measured. The amounts of biogenic SO2 and sulfate were approximated using stable isotope apportionment techniques. Calculating the threshold amount of SO2 needed for significant new particle formation from the formulation by Pirjola et al. (1999), the study suggests that instances of elevated biogenic SO2 concentrations (between 8 and 9 September 2008) derived using conservative assumptions may have been sufficient to form new aerosols in clean air conditions in the Arctic region.

  19. 75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...dioxide State Implementation Plan revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal updates...

  20. Estimate of the contribution of biologically produced dimethyl sulfide to the global sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Maroulis, P J; Bandy, A R

    1977-05-01

    Atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS) measurements were made on the Atlantic Coast of the United States at Wallops Island and Cape Henry, Virginia, during June 1975. The very low concentrations, typically less than 30 parts per trillion observed at the Cape Henry site, were thought to result from the smog chemistry associated with the Norfolk metropolitan area. Atmospheric DMS concentrations at the Wallops Island site were much higher, having a geometric mean of 58 parts per trillion and a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. At this site the DMS source strength was estimated to be 6 milligrams of sulfur per square meter per year. Because of wind conditions during this experiment, the DMS source strength is thought to be representative of the DMS source strength of the ocean in the Wallops Island area and is much less than the 130 milligrams of sulfur per square meter per year needed to balance the ocean-atmosphere portion of the global sulfur budget. PMID:17760057

  1. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  2. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  3. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. (Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)); Sherwood, S.I. (National Park Service, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  4. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  5. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  6. Effect of endogenous sulfur dioxide in regulating cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2014-09-01

    In the middle of the 1980s, nitric oxide received extensive attention because of its significant effects in life science. Then, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide were discovered to be gasotransmitters playing important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. As a common air pollutant, sulfur dioxide (SO?) can cause great harm to the human body by producing free radicals, which causes oxidative damage to various organs. Recently, endogenous SO2 was found to be produced in the cardiovascular system and might be a bioactive molecule regulating the physiological activities including cardiovascular oxidative stress. PMID:24718903

  7. Lagrangian measurements of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, B. D.

    On the basis of Project MISTT data and proposed homogeneous gas phase oxidation mechanisms for sulfur dioxide, it has been suggested that the degree of mixing with background air, the chemical composition of the background air, and the intensity of the sunlight available are key factors determining the rate of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion. These hypotheses are examined in light of Lagrangian measurements of conversion rates in power plant plumes made during the Tennessee Plume Study and Project Da Vinci. It is found that the Lagrangian conversion rate measurements are consistent with these hypotheses. It has also been suggested that the concentration of ozone may serve as a workable surrogate for the concentrations of the free radicals involved in the homogeneous gas phase mechanism. The night-time Lagrangian data remind one that the gross difference in mean lifetime of ozone and free radicals can lead to situations in which the ozone concentration is not a good surrogate for the free radical concentrations.

  8. Microwave induced reactions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in char and anthracite bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Yul Cha; Dong Sik Kim

    2001-01-01

    Microwaves applied to a pyrolytic carbon matrix enhance the chemical reactions of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) with carbon to produce nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon dioxide. These microwave-induced reactions were investigated to find the feasibility of applying microwaves to directly destroy NO and SO2 in the combustion product gases or to minimize the formation of these pollutants during

  9. Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Sutton, Alan L; Kelly, Dan T; Patterson, John A; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2010-11-01

    Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min(-1)m(-2) and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Because the ammonia release reduction ratio was lower than the manure dilution ratio, dilution could increase the total ammonia emissions from swine manure, especially in lagoons with large liquid surface areas. Carbon dioxide release of 87.3 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Manure dry matter was an important factor for carbon dioxide release from manure. No differences were observed between the treatments (P>0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area. PMID:20850169

  10. Differing response of asthmatics to sulfur dioxide exposure with continuous and intermittent exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Roger, L.J.; Hazucha, M.J.; Horstman, D.H.

    1986-08-29

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 C, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and duration of exercise on the response to sulfur dioxide exposure, the subjects were then exposed to the same environmental conditions, while exercising continuously for 30 minutes. Specific airways resistance (SRaw) was measured by body plethysmography prior to exposures and after each exercise. All SRaw responses with sulfur dioxide exposure were significantly different than the clean air responses. It appears that asthmatics show an attenuated response to repetitive exercise in a 1.00 ppm sulfur dioxide atmosphere and that the response to sulfur dioxide exposure develops rapidly and is maintained during 30 minutes continuous exercise.

  11. Chemistry of ascorbic acid and sulfur dioxide as an antioxidant system relevant to white wine.

    PubMed

    Barril, Célia; Clark, Andrew C; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2012-06-30

    The impact of the combined ascorbic acid and sulfur dioxide antioxidants on white wine oxidation processes was investigated using a range of analytical techniques, including flow injection analysis for free and total sulfur dioxide and two chromatographic methods for ascorbic acid, its oxidative degradation products and phenolic compounds. The combination of different analytical techniques provided a fast and simultaneous means for the monitoring of oxidation processes in a model wine system. In addition, the initial mole ratio of sulfur dioxide to ascorbic acid was varied and the model wine complexity was increased by the inclusion of metal ions (copper(II) and iron(II)). Sulfur dioxide was found not to be a significant binder of ascorbic acid oxidative degradation products and could not prevent the formation of certain phenolic pigment precursors. The results provide a detailed insight into the ascorbic acid/sulfur dioxide antioxidant system in wine conditions. PMID:22688051

  12. Air pollutant sensitivity of pea plants when simulating conditions around sulfur dioxide point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kobriger, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Peas (Pisum sativum L.) are often grown in areas where coal-powered generating stations are present and are exposed to sulfur dioxide from these stations. In addition to sulfur dioxide, ozone is nearly always present in these areas. Present studies were designed to determine sensitivity of peas to sulfur dioxide and ozone at dosages simulating those around stations in Wisconsin. Peas were exposed to several concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide, singly or in combination, for two hours. Injury was observed with ozone concentrations above 0.09 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ and sulfur dioxide concentrations above 0.66 ..mu..l l/sup -1/. Injury was increased by concentrations of ozone as low as 0.02 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ when in combination with sulfur dioxide, and by concentrations of sulfur dioxide as low as 0.12 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ when in combination with ozone. Peas pretreated with ozone at non-injurious concentrations prior to exposure with ozone-sulfur dioxide mixtures at injurious concentrations had less injury than those not pretreated. Reduced injury in pretreated plants was associated with stomatal closure. Plants exposed to ozone-sulfur dioxide mixtures for two hours at different times of the day were injured most at midday. Increased injury at midday was associated with increases in stomatal conductances. However, changes in injury and conductance were not associated with abscisic acid concentrations. Peas preconditioned for six days at 77% relative humidity prior to exposure with ozone and/or sulfur dioxide were injured more than those preconditioned at 36% relative humidity. Increased injury at the higher humidity was associated with greater stomatal conductances. When peas were subjected to 31 or 67% relative humidities during pollutant exposures, injury was similar.

  13. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. CARBON DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON RAMS (REGIONAL AIR MONITORING SYSTEM) SULFUR MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the air on the response of flame photometric sulfur gas analyzers of two types, the Tracor model 270 HA sulfur chromatograph and the Meloy model SA 185 total sulfur analyzer, were studied. These analyzers were used in the Regional Air Mo...

  14. Detection of sulfur dioxide by cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina, David S; Liu, Yingdi; Wang, Liming; Zhang, Jingsong

    2011-03-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a major air pollutant that can contribute to the production of particulate sulfate and increase the acidity in the environment. SO(2) is detected by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) utilizing the SO(2) absorption in the 308 nm region. A ferrous sulfate scrubber and a sodium carbonate annular denuder are used to reduce background interferences and to obtain quantitative values of SO(2). The method is characterized using SO(2) standards in the laboratory and compared to a commercial pulsed fluorescence analyzer (PFA). A limit of detection of 3.5 ppb/10 s (S/N = 2) is demonstrated. Ambient measurements are attempted to demonstrate this technique. PMID:21309509

  15. Lichens and sulfur dioxide pollution in west central Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, G.P.

    1973-01-01

    In west central Scotland a lichen-pollution study was undertaken in the summer of 1972: only vertical deciduous trees (non eutrophiated) were employed as the standard habitat. Since sulfur dioxide concentrations are alleviated by woodland shelter only those trees growing in isolation were selected. Trees standing along major roadways and those which could have been affected by agricultural sprays were avoided in the sample of sites. At each lichen station as many representative trees in the vicinity were investigated for the recording of pollution influenced lichen vegetation and flora. The spatial distribution of lichen observation stations involved in the pollution survey around the Glasgow area was evaluated. An attempt was made to sample fairly systematically in every direction at 2-3 km. within the test area.

  16. Sorption of ozone and sulfur dioxide by petunia leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Elkiey, T.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Shoots of three cultivars of Petunia hybrida Vilm. of differing ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) sensitivity were exposed to O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ in closed chambers for observation of pollutant absorption through the stomates and adsorption by leaf surfaces. The cultivar least sensitive to injury, Capri, absorbed the least ozone or SO/sub 2/ but adsorbed the most. The sensitive White Cascade had the opposite sorption pattern. Absorption of the individual gases was generally less from the mixture, whereas adsorption rates were similar whether the gases were supplied singly or in mixture. The existence of substantial differences in surface adsorption could introduce error in measurements of pollutant absorption by leaves.

  17. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes. PMID:24611597

  18. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  19. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  20. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  1. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-print Network

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  2. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of wine polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Makhotkina, Olga; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2013-06-12

    Electrochemical oxidation of three representative wine polyphenols (catechin, caffeic acid, and quercetin) in the presence of sulfur dioxide in a model wine solution (pH = 3.3) was investigated. The oxidation was undertaken using chronoamperometry at a rotating glassy carbon rod electrode, and the reaction products were characterized by HPLC-MS. The mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of polyphenols in the presence of sulfur dioxide was proposed to be an ECEC mechanism. The polyphenols first underwent a one-electron oxidation to a semiquinone radical, which can be reduced back to the original polyphenol by sulfur dioxide, or further oxidized to the quinone form. In the cases of caffeic acid and catechin, the quinone combined with sulfur dioxide and produced new derivatives. The quercetin quinone underwent further chemical transformations, producing several new compounds. The proposed mechanisms were confirmed by digital simulation of cyclic voltammograms. PMID:23692398

  4. The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas

    E-print Network

    Wieland, Denton R.

    1958-01-01

    THE SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS By Denton R. Wieland A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY January 1958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN METHANE, CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS A Dissertation By DENTON R. WlELAND Library A * "COLLEGE...

  5. Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Aberl, A; Coelhan, M

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time. PMID:23176364

  6. Data composite of airborne in-situ sulfur dioxide measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Hans; Wissmüller, Katharina; Arnold, Frank; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Reiter, Anja; Roiger, Anke

    2015-04-01

    We present sulfur dioxide (SO2) data summaries from a large number of aircraft campaigns performed during the years 2004 to 2014 covering a geographical range from 83°N to 65°S and 105°W to 135°E. The SO2 data have been sampled from the Falcon and Halo research aircraft by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg using chemical ionization mass spectrometry and cover altitudes up to 15 km. The SO2 measurements were gridded onto a 5° latitude by 5° longitude horizontal grid with a 1-km vertical resolution. For selected regions with sufficient data also averaged vertical profiles were generated. The maps and profiles provide information about the SO2 distribution at mid-latitudes, tropical and polar regions for different seasons and are very valuable for comparison with model and satellite data. Median SO2 mixing ratios measured in the different regions will be presented. We also discuss emission sources and transport pathways for specific observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere with strongly enhanced SO2 mixing ratios.

  7. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Greene, S A; Wolff, R K; Hahn, F F; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Lundgren, D L

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) for 2 h/d, 5 d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance; and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO2-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO2 for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO2 exposure. PMID:6492210

  8. The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

    1993-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

  9. Foliar soluble proline accumulation in sulfur dioxide-stressed seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown Hordeum vulgare with 80 to 90% expanded first leaves were fumigated (F) with 1.0 to 10.0 ppM sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 0.25 to 4.00 h within a chamber. Non-fumigated (NF) seedlings (controls) were kept within a greenhouse. Leaves from both F and NF plants were harvested 0 to 168 h after fumigation. Visibly injured F leaves always contained more SP than did NF leaves. Proline within necrotic areas of F leaves was 15 to 30 times > that within NF leaves, while SP of non-necrotic areas of F leaves increased 1.5 to 18-fold above that in corresponding areas of NF leaves. Accumulation of SP occurred prior to the appearance of injury in those plants grown under short daylength, 18 to 21/sup 0/C, high relative humidity (winter greenhouse). In contrast, seedlings raised under long day-length, 21 to 32/sup 0/C, low relative humidity (summer greenhouse) accumulated SP following fumigation only if SO/sub 2/-induced visible foliar injury. These results suggest that foliar, SP accumulation within SO/sub 2/-stressed plants does not result from either proteolysis or synthesis from glutamate.

  10. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  11. Longitudinal distribution of ozone absorption in the lung: effects of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone exposures.

    PubMed

    Rigas, M L; Ben-Jebria, A; Ultman, J S

    1997-01-01

    Investigators used an ozone bolus inhalation method to study the effects of continuous exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide on ozone absorption in the conducting airways of human lungs. Healthy, young nonsmokers (6 males, 6 females) were exposed on separate days for 2 h to air containing 0.36 ppm nitrogen dioxide, 0.75 ppm nitrogen dioxide, 0.36 ppm sulfur dioxide, or 0.36 ppm ozone. Every 30 min, the subject interrupted exposure for approximately 5 min, during which he or she orally inhaled five ozone boluses-each in a separate breath. Investigators targeted penetration of the boluses distal to the lips in the 70-130-ml range, which corresponded to the lower conducting airways. The authors computed the change in absorption resulting from exposure (delta lambda) by comparing the amount of each ozone bolus that was absorbed with a corresponding value obtained prior to exposure. Results indicated that ozone exposure caused delta lambda to decrease relative to air exposure (p < .01), whereas both nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide exposures caused an increase in delta lambda that was not significantly different from air exposure. This resulted, at least in part, to an artifact caused by preexposure to ozone boluses. The authors concluded that exposure of the lower conducting airways to nitrogen dioxide or sulfur dioxide increased their capacity to absorb ozone because more of the biochemical substrates that are normally oxidized by ozone were made available. During continuous ozone exposure, this excess of substrate is depleted and the absorption of ozone boluses decreases. PMID:9169626

  12. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

  13. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  14. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    E-print Network

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes. 1. INTRODUCTION Sulfur is ubiquitous in the biosphere and often increased sulfur deposition and atmospheric sulfate loadings near most industrialized areas. Sulfate acid

  15. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.

  17. PROTOTYPE CORRELATION MASK FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETECTOR FOR MEASURING SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype flame photometric detector system (FPD) to measure gaseous sulfur compounds was fabricated using a previously developed correlation mask optical system and a new flame housing. Also, a new burner for the FPD system was optimized to view the excited molecular sulfur em...

  18. Supplementary Material Sulfur Dioxide and Primary Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    society currently depends greatly on fossil fuels (40% oil, 24% gas, 22% coal) with smaller contributions and technical objectives of each of the three areas are as follows: 2.1.1 Sulfur cycle management. Rationale the quality of gas stored in subsurface reservoirs, because the H2S must be removed Sulfur Cycle Management

  19. Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Dellinger; Gary Grotecloss; Christopher R. Fortune; James L. Cheney; James B. Homolya

    1980-01-01

    Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have

  20. Determination of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and ammonia in ambient air using the passive sampling method associated with ion chromatographic and potentiometric analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa A. Salem; Ahmed A. Soliman; Ismail A. El-Haty

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and ammonia (NH3) were determined in the ambient air of Al-Ain city over a year using the passive sampling method associated with ion chromatographic\\u000a and potentiometric detections. IVL samplers were used for collecting nitrogen and sulfur dioxides whereas Ogawa samplers were\\u000a used for collecting ozone and ammonia. Five sites representing

  1. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  2. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  3. Evidence of Entrainment Impacting Surface Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haman, C.; Lefer, B. L.; Morris, G. A.; Flynn, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary boundary layer dynamics, such as entrainment of the residual layer, can have profound impacts on gaseous species due to changes in turbulent mixing. The lifetime of sulfur dioxide permits us to measure downward mixing of gases from the residual layer into the mixing layer after sunrise. During the 2009 SHARP campaign, elevated levels of sulfur dioxide were found during the morning hours at the Moody Tower (29.92°, -95.34°, 75 m AGL) measurement site on 19 May (22.9 ppbv), 20 May (35.7 ppbv), and 30 May (double peak: 18.7 and 13.8 ppbv). Easterly to east-southeasterly winds persisted between 1.8 and 3.2 ms-1 during these sulfur dioxide events. The Moody Tower site is west-southwest of the Houston Ship Channel Industrial Complex, a major source of sulfur dioxide. Dual ozone and sulfur dioxide balloon sonde profiles show a peak in sulfur dioxide just above the stable nocturnal inversion on days with similar meteorological conditions (e.g. 64 ppbv at 430 m on 30 May). As the nocturnal inversion begins to erode after sunrise, turbulent mixing increases and entrainment from the residual layer begins. An aerosol lidar used to determine mixing heights indicated the surface inversion breakup at approximately 1000 CDT on 19 May and 0845 CDT on 20 May. Corresponding peaks in sulfur dioxide immediately follow inversion erosion. The entrainment rate of sulfur dioxide can often be used to differentiate between increases in surface ozone due to photochemistry and downward mixing. Twenty-nine morning ozonesondes were launched between 2004 and 2010, fifteen of which were coincident with continuous mixing height measurements. The median integrated morning residual layer ozone was 57.5 ppbv*km for all sondes, which is substantial when compared to 81.0 ppbv*km of integrated afternoon fully developed boundary layer ozone. To reduce the importance of the horizontal ozone advection and ozone production terms, this study focused on the data between 0300 and 1000 CDT. Similarly, the calculated ozone entrainment values are compared to calculated photochemical box model net ozone production values during the morning hours. These analyses indicate the potentially large impact residual layer ozone can have on surface ozone values.

  4. Control of air pollution emissions from molybdenum roasting. Volume 2. Alternatives for control of weak sulfur dioxide emissions. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Masarky; R. D. Delleney; K. Schwitzgebel; T. P. Nelson; R. L. Glover

    1983-01-01

    This report covers the second phase of a three phase effort evaluating (1) characterization of particulate control of a molybdenum sulfide roasters, (2) assessment of sulfur dioxide abatement alternatives for nonferrous smelting and, in particular, for molybdenum roasting, and (3) pilot testing of the magnesia slurry process for sulfur dioxide control. It describes the results of a survey and evaluation

  5. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  6. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  7. Biological production and spatial variation of dimethylated sulfur compounds and their relation with plankton in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of dimethylated sulfur compounds and chlorophyll a, as well as biological production and consumption rates of dimethylsulfide (DMS), were measured in the surface water of the North Yellow Sea (NYS, 37-40°N to 121-124°E) in winter 2007. Surface DMS, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) concentrations in the study area increased significantly from offshore to inshore sites, with the average values of 2.00, 4.52 and 7.21 nM, respectively. The biological production and consumption rates of DMS were estimated, with the average values of 5.41 and 3.84 nM d-1, respectively. The spatial variation of chlorophyll a was consistent with that of DMS and DMSP, as well as with that of DMS biological production, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMS and DMSP in the study area. According to the collective data of dimethylated sulfur compounds and DMS biological conversion in China Seas, the dimethylated sulfur compounds concentrations in the NYS during winter were a factor of 2 and 1.3 higher than those in the East China Sea and South China Sea, respectively. Less DMS (DMSP) in NYS was released in winter than that in spring and summer, which could be attributed to the shift in phytoplankton community composition dominated by diatoms to non-diatoms from winter to summer. Quantitative comparison analysis pointed to DMSPp rather than DMSPd as an important precursor of DMS in the surface water. The estimated sea-to-air fluxes of DMS using Liss and Merlivat (LM86), Wanninkhof (W92) and Nightingale (N2000) formulae were 2.72, 5.12 and 4.28 ?mol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the surface water, the biological turnover time of DMS varied from 0.21 to 1.73 d with an average of 0.83 d, which was about 5.43-fold faster than the mean DMS sea-air turnover time (3.12 d), implying that microbial consumption was a main sink of DMS in the surface water.

  8. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005 Supplementary Material

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    massively af- fected the global cycle of atmospheric sulfur mainly through emissions from combustion sources (the burning of fossil fuels, oil and coal) and because the physical and chemical properties of sulfate

  9. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  10. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, propane, and n-butane in poly(glycol ethers)

    SciTech Connect

    Sciamanna, S.F.; Lynn, S.

    1988-03-01

    Data on the solubility of acid and hydrocarbon gases for poly(glycol ethers) are necessary for the development of the University of California, Berkeley, Sulfur Removal Process. An automated gas solubility measurement system was used to collect data on the solubility of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, propane, and n-butane in a variety of these solvents. The partial pressure of solute gas in these experiments was between 3 and 100 kPa. Correlations for Henry's law coefficients are given as a function of temperature. Gas solubility in the organic solvents decreases when small amounts of water (<6 wt %) are also present. Gas solubility in solvent-water mixtures at the conditions tested is shown to follow a simple mixing rule. An improved correlation is presented for previously published solubility data for sulfur dioxide, which includes the effect of composition as well as temperature on the Henry's law coefficient.

  11. Utilization of Dimethyl Sulfide as a Sulfur Source with the Aid of Light by Marinobacterium sp. Strain DMS-S1

    PubMed Central

    Fuse, Hiroyuki; Takimura, Osamu; Murakami, Katsuji; Yamaoka, Yukiho; Omori, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Strain DMS-S1 isolated from seawater was able to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a sulfur source only in the presence of light in a sulfur-lacking medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S ribosomal DNA genes indicated that the strain was closely related to Marinobacterium georgiense. The strain produced dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was a main metabolite, and small amounts of formate and formaldehyde when grown on DMS as the sole sulfur source. The cells of the strain grown with succinate as a carbon source were able to use methyl mercaptan or methanesulfonate besides DMS but not DMSO or dimethyl sulfone as a sole sulfur source. DMS was transformed to DMSO primarily at wavelengths between 380 and 480 nm by heat-stable photosensitizers released by the strain. DMS was also degraded to formaldehyde in the presence of light by unidentified heat-stable factors released by the strain, and it appeared that strain DMS-S1 used the degradation products, which should be sulfite, sulfate, or methanesulfonate, as sulfur sources. PMID:11097944

  12. Mt. Etna sulfur dioxide flux monitoring using ASTER-TIR data and atmospheric observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pugnaghi; G. Gangale; S. Corradini; M. F. Buongiorno

    2006-01-01

    This work is aimed at estimating the sulfur dioxide emission of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) using the thermal infrared images remotely sensed by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A new procedure (named FUN) is presented based on approximating functions which represent the atmospheric terms of the radiative transfer equation: transmittance, up-welling and down-welling radiances. The

  13. Investigation of sulfur dioxide influence on canopy spectral characteristics at early growth stage of rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JinHeng Zhang; Chao Han; Dapeng Li; ShuTang Liu; ZhenHua Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three varieties of rice. Rice samples were exposed to sulfur dioxide at different concentrations inside fumigation chamber. After measurement rice canopy reflectance spectrum, leaves of rice canopy were sampled to analyze physiological characteristic. The investigation mainly focuses on four parts. (1) SO2 concentration was significantly negative correlation with pH

  14. Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marika P. Dalton; I. Matthew Watson; Patricia A. Nadeau; Cynthia Werner; Jeremy M. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated.

  15. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. VOLUME I. SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and computer ana...

  16. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME I: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO sub 2 ) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and comput...

  17. Safety testing of lithium (sulfur dioxide) battery for expendable, mobile, ASW training target (EMATT). Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Peed; M. B. Kepner; J. A. Barnes; F. C. DeBold

    1988-01-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center, White Oak, was requested to perform a safety evaluation of EMATT (Expandable, Mobile, ASW, Training Target) battery system. The EMATT unit contains fifteen lithium sulfur dioxide (Li\\/SO2) size 'DD' cells which provide required power to operate the vehicle. The testing was conducted under the guidelines of NAVSEA NOTICE 9310. This report describes the methods and

  18. Behavior of lichens and mosses as affected by sulfur dioxide gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Daessler; H. Ranft

    1969-01-01

    Smoking tests were carried out on 30 lichen and 20 moss species with sulfur dioxide in various concentrations to study the possible connection between the reduction of the lichen and moss flora and air pollution. The experiments resulted in different categories of damages to various species. The smokings were carried out in three series with daily exposure time of 6-9

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF FEDERAL AIR STANDARDS TO REDUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives EPA's conclusions from analyses which led to the decision to propose percent reduction Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) to control air emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from new industrial boilers. It summarizes the NSPS. The NSPS would require boil...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF FEDERAL AIR STANDARDS TO REDUCE SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM NEW INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives EPA's conclusions from analyses which led to the decision to propose percent reduction Federal new source performance standards (NSPS) to control air emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from new industrial boilers. It summarizes the NSPS, proposed by EPA on June 19,...

  1. Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

    1980-10-01

    Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

  2. The millimeter-wavelength sulfur dioxide absorption spectra measured under simulated Venus conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2015-07-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308 and 343 K and pressures between 0.03 and 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Steffes, P.G. et al. [2015]. Icarus 245, 153-161) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97(2), 200-210; Suleiman, S.H. et al. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 101(E2), 4623-4635). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, H. et al. [1998]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 499-890) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This work will improve the confidence in retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from millimeter-wavelength observations of the Venus atmosphere.

  3. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2525 Control strategy: Sulfur...deletion of section 3.03(b) of West Virginia regulation X as it applies to the Rivesville...Districts area in Hancock County, West Virginia, submitted by the West Virginia...

  7. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...endpoint selected by the Agency for the bystander inhalation risk assessment is 0.25...it is based on effects of concern for bystanders (such as bronchoconstriction, shortness...the requested use is expected to limit bystander exposure potential to sulfur...

  8. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation during photochemistry of sulfur dioxide

    E-print Network

    Whitehill, Andrew (Andrew Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Mass-independent sulfur isotope signatures are observed in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sulfate and sulfide minerals, and provide the most robust constraints on early atmospheric oxygen levels. Smaller ...

  9. Advection of sulfur dioxide over the western Atlantic Ocean during CITE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, D.C.; Bandy, A.R.; Beltz, N.; Driedger, A.R. III; Ferek, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seatlle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    During the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 sulfur intercomparison over the western Atlantic Ocean, five techniques for the determination of sulfur dioxide were evaluated. The response times of the techniques varied from 3 to 30 min. Based on the ensemble of measurements reported, it was clear that advection of SO2 from the North American continent occurred in the boundary layer (altitude less than 1 km) with only one exception. The vertical distribution of SO2 above the boundary layer for the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean was remarkably similar duing this experiment.

  10. Thiol activated prodrugs of sulfur dioxide (SO2) as MRSA inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, Kundansingh A; Malwal, Satish R; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-07-01

    Drug resistant infections are becoming common worldwide and new strategies for drug development are necessary. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-dinitrophenylsulfonamides, which are donors of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a reactive sulfur species, as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inhibitors. N-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dinitro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (5e) was found to have excellent in vitro MRSA inhibitory potency. This compound is cell permeable and treatment of MRSA cells with 5e depleted intracellular thiols and enhanced oxidative species both results consistent with a mechanism involving thiol activation to produce SO2. PMID:25981687

  11. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 °C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

  12. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from K?lauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    K?lauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from K?lauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at K?lauea Volcano for the interval 2007–2010.

  13. Passive samplers for ambient ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide: Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E. [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Time-integrated measurements of air pollutants have many applications in the context of regulations pertaining to indoor air quality, outdoor (ambient) monitoring, and personal exposure assessment. For several years, the passive samplers developed at DGA have been applied to cost-effective measurements of parts per billion levels of ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide. Examples of applications will be described. These include (a) formaldehyde measurements in indoor settings including museums, public buildings and personal exposure; (b) ozone measurements indoor (museums, cultural heritage buildings) and outdoor (Class 1 Wilderness areas; air quality surveys in Europe, Canada and Latin America, long-term monitoring of ozone exposure in forests) and (c) surveys of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in several eastern European countries.

  14. Enhancement of reactivity in surfactant-modified sorbents for sulfur dioxide control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kirchgessner; Wojciech Jozewicz

    1989-01-01

    Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the post-flame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SOâ) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to modify Ca(OH)â by adding calcium lignosulfonate with the water of hydration have succeeded in enhancing its effectiveness. The particle

  15. Adsorption and reaction of sulfur dioxide on alumina and sodium-impregnated alumina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Mitchell; Viktor N. Sheinker; Mark G. White

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption and oxidation of SOâ on alumina and sodium-impregnated alumina has been examined using thermogravimetric analysis and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide chemisorbs initially at basic sites to form an adsorbed sulfite, which is quantitatively converted to sulfate on oxidation. It has been observed that at low coverages, nearly 2.6 μmol\\/m², sodium acts as a promoter

  16. Development of an Ultra-Violet Digital Camera for Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Bluth; J. M. Shannon; I. M. Watson; F. J. Prata; V. J. Realmuto

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to improve monitoring of passive volcano degassing, we have constructed and tested a digital camera for quantifying the sulfur dioxide (SO2) content of volcanic plumes. The camera utilizes a bandpass filter to collect photons in the ultra-violet (UV) region where SO2 selectively absorbs UV light. SO2 is quantified by imaging calibration cells of known SO2 concentrations. Images

  17. Plant community damage and repairability following sulfur dioxide stress on an old-field ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cocking

    1974-01-01

    Parcels of a first-year old-field on the New Jersey Piedmont were fumigated in translucent polyethylene chambers with single 1 ppM sulfur dioxide stresses for 4-hour periods throughout the 1971 growing season and during 1972 (single and repeated stresses) to examine plant damage and repairability effects in the community. Vegetation was clip sampled in treated and control herbage 1 week after

  18. Mechanism of Interaction of Polyphenols, Oxygen, and Sulfur Dioxide in Model Wine and Wine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Danilewicz; John T. Seccombe; Jonathan Whelan

    The interaction of oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and 4-methylcatechol (4-MeC) was studied in a model wine containing catalytic concentrations of iron and copper in order to provide further evidence that when a catechol and oxygen interact, hydrogen peroxide and a quinone are formed, both of which react with SO2. The aerial oxi- dation of the catechol in the presence of benzenesulfinic

  19. Staying hydrated: the molecular journey of gaseous sulfur dioxide to a water surface.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Eric S; Valley, Nicholas A; Moore, Frederick G; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2013-05-14

    A water surface is a dynamic and constantly evolving terrain producing a vast array of unique molecular properties and interactions with chemical species in the environment. The complex dynamics of water surfaces permit life on earth to continue, but also complicate the development of a complete microscopic picture of the specific behaviors that take place within interfacial aqueous environments. This computational study examines a piece of the water puzzle by elucidating the bonding, dynamic interactions, and hydrate structures of sulfur dioxide gas adsorbing to a water cluster. Results described herein address the specific ways in which sulfur dioxide gas molecules bind to a water cluster, and paint a more complete picture of the adsorption pathway than was previously developed from experimental and computational studies. Ab initio molecular dynamics have been employed to study sulfur dioxide and water interactions at two environmentally relevant temperatures on a water cluster. The results of this study on a common environmental and industrially important gas provide molecular insight to aid our understanding of interactions on aqueous surfaces, and gaseous adsorption processes. PMID:23549378

  20. Ion Clusters in Nucleation Experiments in the CERN Cloud Chamber: Sulfuric Acid + Ammonia + Dimethyl Amine + Oxidized Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, D. R.; Schobesberger, S.; Bianchi, F.; Ehrhart, S.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Nucleation from gaseous precursors is an important source of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The CLOUD experiment at CERN provides exceptionally clean and well-defined experimental conditions for studies of atmospheric nucleation and initial growth, in a 26 m3 stainless-steel chamber. In addition, the influence of cosmic rays on nucleation and nanoparticle growth can be simulated by exposing the chamber to a pion beam produced by the CERN Proton Synchrotron. A key to understanding the mechanism by which nucleation proceeds in the CLOUD chamber is the use of state-of-the-art instrumentation, including the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. The APi-TOF is developed by Tofwerk AG, and Aerodyne Research, Inc., and typically obtains resolutions between 4000 and 6000 Th/Th and mass accuracies < 10 ppm. Sampling occurs directly from atmospheric pressure through a critical orifice. Ions are then focused and guided to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, while passing through differentially pumped chambers. No ionization of the sampled aerosol is performed; only ions charged in the chamber are detected in the current configuration. For all studied chemical systems, the APi-TOF detected ion clusters that could directly be linked to nucleation. The composition of these ion clusters could be determined based on their exact masses and isotopic patterns. Aided by the chamber's cleanliness and the possibility of enhancing ion concentrations by using CERN's pion beam, a remarkably large fraction of the ion spectra could be identified, even for more complex chemical systems studied. For the ammonia-sulfuric acid-water system, for instance, growing clusters containing ammonia (NH3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) were observed up to 3300 Th. Adding dimethyl amine and/or pinanediol into the CLOUD chamber, altered the chemical compositions of the observed ion clusters accordingly. Cluster growth then included mixtures of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine and/or a wide range of pinanediol oxidation products. The initial growth of clusters/particles was studied from smallest clusters upwards, using a range of employed instrumentation. Condensation particle counters (such as the Particle Size Magnifier, PSM, by Airmodus Oy), for instance, were specially modified to obtain aerosol number size distributions down to the size of molecular clusters at 1.1 nm (mobility equivalent diameter), and at a time resolution of 2 min. The APi-TOF recorded ion spectra every 5 s; and time series for ion cluster appearance could be usually obtained at a practical time resolution of about 30 s. Therefore, the initial growth of ions could be resolved molecule by molecule, while the largest observable ion clusters corresponded to mobility equivalent diameters of 1.8-2.1 nm. Appearance times and growth rates determined from APi-TOF spectra agreed well with those observed by other instruments such as the PSM.

  1. Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. McKee; I. M. Pritts

    1981-01-01

    Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an 8-h period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their threshold limit values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NHâ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (COâ), hydrogen sulfide (HâS), nitrogen dioxide

  2. [Mechanisms of tolerance to sulfur dioxide and sodium metabisulfite].

    PubMed

    Atzori, L; Corriga, A M; Cannas, E; Congiu, L

    1997-01-01

    Inhalation of sulphur dioxide (250 ppm), (SO2) or sodium metabisulfite (80 mM) (MBS) aerosol or perfusion with MBS (3 mM) induced a reduction in compliance and conductance in the isolated, perfused and ventilated guinea pig lung. Pretreatment of the lung with sodium sulfite (3 mM), a dissolution product of SO2 and MBS, reduced the bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 and MBS. Bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 and MBS in associated to increased levels of Calcitonin gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) in the perfusate effinent, indicating activation of sensory nerves. The release of CGRP induced by SO2 and MBS was not affected by sodium sulfite. Sulfite treatment did not modify lung reactivity towards acethylcholine, bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and substance P (fragment 5-11). An inhibitory effect by sulfite was observed on bronchoconstriction induced by neurokinin A (fragment 4-10). Since bronchoconstriction induced by SO2 and MBS appears to be mediated by neurokinin A release and action, sulfite may act by affecting its signal transduction pathway. In conclusion, the results indicate that during exposure to some environmental and occupational pollutants, e.g. SO2 and MBS, critical modifications of sulfhydryl groups on smooth muscle receptors may occur. We hypothesise this as a possible step in the development of tolerance and hyperreactivity. PMID:9377746

  3. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  4. Study of volume swelling and interfacial tension of the polystyrene-carbon dioxide-dimethyl ether system.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, S H; Xin, C L; Lee, J H; Park, C B

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the interaction of blended carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) with polystyrene (PS) through volume swelling and interfacial tension. The experiments were carried out over a temperature range of 423-483K, and the pressure was varied from 6.89MPa to 20.68MPa. With an incremental concentration of DME in the blend, the volume swelling increased while the interfacial tension between the PS/blend gas mixture and the blend gas decreased. The validity of the Simha-Somcynsky (SS) equation of state (EOS) for the ternary system was established by comparing experimentally measured volume swelling to that obtained via SS-EOS. PMID:26122798

  5. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  6. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  7. Eco-Friendly Catalyst for the Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Weiming; Jiang Qi

    2010-01-01

    In many reactions, the poisonous chemicals can be replaced by eco-friendly dimethyl carbonate(DMC). In this paper, under the effect of eco-friendly catalyst, DMC was synthesized directly from CO2, methanol and propylene oxide, all of which were cheap and innoxious. The effects of prepared conditions of catalyst on the yield of DMC were researched. The results indicated that in order to

  8. Effect of 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide on airway resistance in freely breathing, heavily exercising, asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bethel, R A; Sheppard, D; Geffroy, B; Tam, E; Nadel, J A; Boushey, H A

    1985-04-01

    We sought to determine whether 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide in filtered air causes bronchoconstriction when inhaled by freely breathing, heavily exercising, asthmatic subjects. Nineteen asthmatic volunteers exercised at 750 kilogram meters/min for 5 min in an exposure chamber that contained filtered air at ambient temperature and humidity or, on another day, filtered air plus 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide. The order of exposure to sulfur dioxide and to filtered air alone was randomized, and the experiments were double-blinded. Specific airway resistance, measured by constant-volume, whole-body plethysmography, increased from 6.38 +/- 2.07 cm H2O X s (mean +/- SD) before exercise to 11.32 +/- 8.97 after exercise on days when subjects breathed filtered air alone and from 5.70 +/- 1.93 to 13.33 +/- 7.54 on days when subjects breathed 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide in filtered air. The increase in specific airway resistance on days when subjects breathed 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide was only slightly greater than on days when they breathed filtered air, but the difference was significant. To determine whether 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide causes greater bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects exercising more vigorously, 9 subjects then repeated the experiment exercising at 1,000 instead of 750 kilogram meters/min. Specific airway resistance increased from 6.71 +/- 2.25 to 13.59 +/- 7.57 on days when subjects breathed filtered air alone and from 5.23 +/- 1.23 to 12.54 +/- 6.17 on days they breathed 0.25 ppm sulfur dioxide in filtered air. The increase in specific airway resistance on the 2 days was not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3994163

  9. Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Ammonia, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL W. McCONNAUGHEY; ELMER S. McKEE; IRVIN M. PRITTS

    1985-01-01

    Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an eight-hour period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their Threshold Limit Values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide

  10. Stomatal conductance and sulfur uptake of five clones of Populus tremuloides exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmerer, T.W.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1981-05-01

    Plants of five clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 0.5 microliter per liter SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours in controlled environment chambers. In the absence of the pollutant, two pollution-resistant clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance (LDC) than did a highly susceptible clone or two moderately resistant clones. Rates of recovery following fumigation varied with the clone, but the LDC of all clones had returned to control values by the beginning of the night following fumigation. Fumigation for 16 hours (14 hours day + 2 hours night) with 0.4 microliter per liter SO/sub 2/ decreased night LDC by half. Sulfur uptake studies generally confirmed the results of the conductance measurements. The results show that stomatal conductance is important in determining relative susceptibility of the clones to pollution stress.

  11. [Effects of different processing methods on effective components and sulfur dioxide residue in Gastrodiae Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Ning, Zi-Wan; Mao, Chun-Qin; Lu, Tu-Lin; Ji, De; Liu, Jing; Ji, Lin; Yang, Huan; Wang, Fa-Qin

    2014-08-01

    The contents of adenosine, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, parishin and sulfur dioxide residue were compared in differently-processed Gastrodiae Rhizoma to provide the basis for a reasonable processing method of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. The analysis was performed on a Merck Purospher STAR column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 ?m) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) under gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The eluates were detected at 270 nm, and the column temperature was 35°C. The content of adenosin, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and parishin in processing of boiling or sulfur-fumigated were lower than that of in processing of steaming. Furthermore, the sulfur dioxide residue of sulphur-fumigated groups exceed 400 mg x kg(-1). This stable and reliable method will contribute to the quality control of different processed Gastrodiae Rhizoma. PMID:25507536

  12. [Effects of different processing methods on effective components and sulfur dioxide residue in Gastrodiae Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Ning, Zi-Wan; Mao, Chun-Qin; Lu, Tu-Lin; Ji, De; Liu, Jing; Ji, Lin; Yang, Huan; Wang, Fa-Qin

    2014-08-01

    The contents of adenosine, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, parishin and sulfur dioxide residue were compared in differently-processed Gastrodiae Rhizoma to provide the basis for a reasonable processing method of Gastrodiae Rhizoma. The analysis was performed on a Merck Purospher STAR column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 ?m) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) under gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The eluates were detected at 270 nm, and the column temperature was 35°C. The content of adenosin, gastrodin, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde and parishin in processing of boiling or sulfur-fumigated were lower than that of in processing of steaming. Furthermore, the sulfur dioxide residue of sulphur-fumigated groups exceed 400 mg x kg(-1). This stable and reliable method will contribute to the quality control of different processed Gastrodiae Rhizoma. PMID:25423814

  13. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-temperature corrosion of iron in sulfur dioxide at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilewicz-Wolter, J. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The composition and morphology of scales formed on iron in sulfur dioxide at 3 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 1073 K have been investigated by means of various X-ray techniques of analysis (XRD, EDAX, EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transport phenomena have been studied using platinum markers and tracers. The scales were composed of a sulfide and oxide mixture and grew by outward diffusion of iron. There was also some inward transport of sulfur and oxygen which occured through the discontinuities of the scale. These oxidants, as well as those originating from the dissociation of the scale, take part in the formation of the inner scale layers in the metal-consumption zone. The initial stage of the process proceeds mainly by the reaction of iron with SO{sub 2} molecules.

  15. Technological change for sulfur dioxide scrubbers under market-based regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.; Bellas, A. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Economics

    2005-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) introduced tradable permits for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from coal-burning power plants and forced scrubbers to compete with other SO{sub 2} abatement options. While the flexibility of permits reduced overall compliance costs, a secondary benefit would exist if there were resulting advances in scrubber technology. A hedonic model is used to estimate the effect of changing regulatory regimes on scrubber costs. While scrubbers installed under the 1990 CAAA are cheaper to purchase and operate than older scrubbers, these cost reductions seem to be a one-time drop rather than a continual decline.

  16. Safety hazards associated with the charging of lithium/sulfur dioxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Lawson, D. D.; Barnes, J. A.; Bis, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A continuing research program to assess the responses of spirally wound, lithium/sulfur dioxide cells to charging as functions of charging current, temperature, and cell condition prior to charging is described. Partially discharged cells that are charged at currents greater than one ampere explode with the time to explosion inversely proportional to the charging current. Cells charged at currents of less than one ampere may fail in one of several modes. The data allows an empirical prediction of when certain cells will fail given a constant charging current.

  17. Design and construction of a simple, continuous flow sulfur dioxide exposure chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Leetham, J.W.; Ferguson, W.; Dodd, J.L.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    For experimental purposes, a reasonably large capacity, low cost, low maintenance chamber was needed to study the long-term (2-4 months) effects of sulfur dioxide on developmental rates of grasshoppers and decomposition rates of plant litter. Internal temperature, humidity, and light controls were not required since the chamber would be used in externally controlled environments. The controlled exposure chamber herein described has proved to be adequate for such studies and satisfied most of the conditions discussed by Heagle and Philbeck. Its utility could be increased by use within an environmentally controlled greenhouse. It is comparatively simple and inexpensive to contruct and maintain.

  18. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process. PMID:23768401

  19. Recovery of boric acid from boronic wastes by leaching with water, carbon dioxide- or sulfur dioxide-saturated water and leaching kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?; Haydar Yüksek; ?smail Çakmak; Mehmet M. Küçük; Mustafa Cengiz; Muzaffer Alkan

    2000-01-01

    B2O3 was recovered from waste samples such as borogypsum, reactor waste, boronic sludges, waste mud and concentrator waste by leaching processes using distilled water, sulfur dioxide- and carbon dioxide-saturated water. In the leaching processes, temperature, stirring time and solid-to-liquid ratio were taken as parameters. The amount of B2O3 leached increased with increasing temperature and stirring time and it also increased

  20. Atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to particulate sulfate and nitrogen dioxide to particulate nitrate and gaseous nitric acid in an urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I Khoder

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate sulfate and nitrate, gaseous nitric acid, ozone and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the winter season (1999–2000) and summer season (2000) in an urban area (Dokki, Giza, Egypt). The average particulate nitrate concentrations were 6.20 and 9.80 ?gm?3, while the average gaseous nitric acid concentrations were 1.14 and 6.70 ?gm?3 in

  1. Sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, total reduced sulfur, chlorinated hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants in southern California museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisham, Mohamed W. M.; Grosjean, Daniel

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of the air pollutants ozone, NO 2, SO 2, H 2S, total reduced sulfur (TRS), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), methyl chloroform and tetrachloroethylene, have been measured at three southern California museums. Indoor maxima were 175 ppb for NO 2, 77 ppb for O 3, 0.7 ppb for PAN, 1.2 ppb for C 2Cl 4, >6.3 ppb for CH 3CCl 3, 2.5 ppb for SO 2, 1.4 ppb for TRS, and 46 ppt for H 2S. Indoor levels and indoor/outdoor ( I/ O) ratios for the chlorinated hydrocarbons pointed out to indoor sources. Outdoor and indoor levels of SO 2 and TRS were low at all three museums, but I/ O ratios for SO 2 were high and averaged 0.89. H 2S concentrations were low, 16-46 ppt at one museum and less than 6 ppt at the other two museums. I/ O ratios for the air pollutants with outdoor sources (ozone, PAN and NO 2) showed substantial variations, from low values of 0.02-0.33 at locations without influx of outdoor air to high values of 0.85-0.88 at locations experiencing high influx of outdoor air. Of the 10 institutions we have surveyed in southern California to date, eight exhibit high I/ O ratios, e.g. 0.60-1.00 for PAN. Of the four museums surveyed that were equipped with HVAC and chemical filtration, only two yielded the expected low I/ O ratios.

  2. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'Standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. In the paper, the authors present example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. The approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. They present the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO2, SO3, and O3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. They conclude that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. (Copyright (c) 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  3. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxide/nitrogen dioxide/sulfur dioxide from gas streams by combined plasma scrubbing technology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Moo Been; Lee, How Ming; Wu, Feeling; Lai, Chi Ren

    2004-08-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet scrubbing in series. DBD is used to generate nonthermal plasmas for converting NO to NO2. The water-soluble NO2 then can be removed by wet scrubbing accompanied with SO2 removal. In this work, CPS was tested with simulated exhausts in the laboratory and with diesel-generator exhausts in the field. Experimental results indicate that DBD is very efficient in converting NO to NO2. More than 90% removal of NO, NOx, and SO2 can be simultaneously achieved with CPS. Both sodium sulfide (Na2S) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) scrubbing solutions are good for NO2 and SO2 absorption. Energy efficiencies for NOx and SO2 removal are 17 and 18 g/kWh, respectively. The technical feasibility of CPS for simultaneous removal of NO, NO2, and SO2 from gas streams is successfully demonstrated in this study. However, production of carbon monoxide as a side-product (approximately 100 ppm) is found and should be considered. PMID:15373362

  4. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20–32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence. PMID:26107389

  5. [Spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide around a tobacco bulk-curing workshop cluster].

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Wang, Mei; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jian-Feng; Huang, Wu-Xing; Tian, Bin-Qiang; Gong, Chang-Rong

    2014-03-01

    In order to manifest lower energy consumption and less labor employment, and provide the theoretical basis for constructing environmentally friendly modem tobacco agriculture, this paper analyzed gas composition of the chimney from a bulk-curing barn and the dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) around the workshop cluster using ecom-J2KN flue gas analyzer and air sampler. During curing, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and SO2 in the chimney were both highest at 38 degrees C, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was highest at 42 degrees C. The emission concentration of SO2 from the chimney was 1327.60-2218.40 mg x m(-3). Average SO2 emission would decrease by 49.7% through adding 4.0% of a sulfur-fixed agent. The highest concentrations of SO2 in the surface soil appeared at the yellowing stage. SO2 concentration in horizontal direction localized at 43-80 m exceeded 0.5 mg x m(-3). The highest concentration of SO2 (0.57 mg x m(-3)) was observed at 50 m. At 50 m in the downstream wind direction of the workshop cluster, SO2 concentration in vertical direction localized at 0.9-1.8 m exceeded 0.5 mg x m(-3), and the highest concentration of SO2 in vertical direction was 0.65 mg x m(-3) at 1.6 m. During curing, the average concentration of SO2 was decreased by 0.43 mg x m(-3) by using the sulfur-fixed agent. The polluted boundary was localized at 120 m in the downstream wind direction of the workshop cluster. PMID:24984508

  6. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis response to sulfur dioxide fumigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Yi, Huilan

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) supplies the basic sulfur element to promote plant growth, yet at the same time it is a harmful air pollutant. Currently, the mechanisms of plant adaptation to SO2 stress are largely unknown. Pathways of SO2 metabolism, a range of networks of interacting regulatory signals and defense mechanisms triggered in resistance to SO2 stress, have not yet been clarified. We performed transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis plants fumigated with 30 mg m(-3) SO2 for 72 h and untreated controls using microarrays. This identified 2,780 significantly up- or down-regulated genes in plants response to SO2 stress, indicating a possible genome-scale reprogramming of the transcriptome. Significant changes in the transcript abundance of genes that participated in SO2 metabolic pathways indicated that numerous sulfites were involved in sulfur assimilatory pathways directly and away from sulfite oxidative pathways. Furthermore, the up-regulation of components involved in reactive oxygen species generating and scavenging pathways demonstrated altered redox homeostasis. Transcripts encoding key components in nitric oxide biosynthesis pathways were simultaneously up-regulated by SO2 exposure. In addition, transcripts associated with putative biotic stress were also up-regulated. Therefore, SO2 evokes a comprehensive reprogramming of metabolic pathways, consistent with up-regulation of transcripts involved in tolerance and defense mechanisms, in Arabidopsis. PMID:24889700

  7. Use of stable sulfur isotope systematics for evaluating oxidation reaction pathways and in-cloud-scavenging of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Noriyuki; Rye, D.M.; Xiao, Yitian; Lasaga, A.C. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere is most likely oxidized into sulfate. Two major oxidation pathways are possible: (1) a homogeneous pathway involving gas reaction with hydroxyl radicals and (2) a heterogeneous pathway involving aqueous dissolution or aerosol reactions. The relative importance of these reaction pathways conditions is controversial. Sulfur isotope ratios can be used to quantify the relative importance of these reaction pathways. However, its application was severely hampered by the fact that the isotope fractionation factor for the homogeneous pathway was not known. A significant isotope fractionation in the homogeneous SO[sub 2] oxidation is identified for the first time using an ab initio quantum mechanical calculation. By using the sulfur isotope fractionation factors the authors demonstrate a technique that uses measurements of the sulfur isotope ratio in gaseous SO[sub 2], aerosol SO[sub 4] and sulfate in wet precipitation to quantify the relative importance of the homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction pathways as well as the in-cloud scavenging of sulfur dioxide for a set of isotopic observations at New Haven, CT, USA. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Global dry deposition of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide inferred from space-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Martin, R. V.; Philip, S.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Marais, E. A.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-10-01

    A method is developed to estimate global NO2 and SO2 dry deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution (0.1°×0.1°) using satellite measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite, in combination with simulations from the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). These global maps for 2005-2007 provide a data set for use in examining global and regional budgets of deposition. In order to properly assess SO2 on a global scale, a method is developed to account for the geospatial character of background offsets in retrieved satellite columns. Globally, annual dry deposition to land estimated from OMI as NO2 contributes 1.5 ± 0.5 Tg of nitrogen and as SO2 contributes 13.7 ± 4.0 Tg of sulfur. Differences between OMI-inferred NO2 dry deposition fluxes and those of other models and observations vary from excellent agreement to an order of magnitude difference, with OMI typically on the low end of estimates. SO2 dry deposition fluxes compare well with in situ Clear Air Status and Trends Network-inferred flux over North America (slope = 0.98, r = 0.71). The most significant NO2 dry deposition flux to land per area occurs in the Pearl River Delta, China, at 13.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while SO2 dry deposition has a global maximum rate of 72.0 kg S ha-1 yr-1 to the east of Jinan in China's Shandong province. Dry deposition fluxes are explored in several urban areas, where NO2 contributes on average 9-36% and as much as 85% of total NOy dry deposition.

  9. Trend analysis of monthly sulfur dioxide emissions in the conterminous United States, 1975-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease though the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. In addition, five regions of coherent sulfur dioxide emissions behavior are defined on the basis of seasonal occurrence of maximum and minimum emission loadings. A winter-summer, latitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions maxima, whereas an equinox-summer, longitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions minima.Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease through the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. Additional study results are discussed.

  10. Release of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide and characteristic of coal combustion under the effect of calcium based organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Chunmei Lu

    2011-01-01

    The influences of calcium based organic compounds of calcium propionate (CP), the product of the modified calcium hydroxide by propionic acid (named as MCP) and the product of the modified calcium hydroxide and magnesium oxide by propionic acid (named as MCMP) on the release of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitric oxide (NO) and on the characteristic of coal combustion have

  11. Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bowker, R.G. [Alma Coll., MI (US). Dept. of Biology

    1993-09-01

    Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

  12. Industrial Sources Influence Air Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfur Dioxide in Rural Areas of Western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Burstyn; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan; Hyang-Mi Kim; Nicola M. Cherry; Elise Pietroniro; Cheryl Waldner; George Hidy; Paul Lioy; Herbert McKee; David Mobley; Yasuko Yoshida; Azusa Ito; Masashi Murakami; Takayuki Murakami; Hideharu Fujimoto; Kikuo Takeda; Shigeru Suzuki; Masahiro Hori; Huan Liu; Kebin He; Qidong Wang; Hong Huo; James Lents; Nicole Davis; Nick Nikkila; Changhong Chen; Mauricio Osses; Chunyu He; Thomas Hilber; Michalis Agraniotis; Panagiotis Grammelis; Emmanuel Kakaras; Thomas Glorius; Uwe Becker; Willy Derichs; Hans-Peter Schiffer; Martin Jong; Lucia Torri; Glynis Lough; Charles Christensen; James Schauer; James Tortorelli; Erin Mani; Douglas Lawson; Nigel Clark; Peter Gabele; Aki Virkkula; Timo; Risto Hillamo; Tarja Yli-Tuomi; Anne Hirsikko; Ismo Koponen; Nicholas Doll; John Reisel; Aro´n Jazcilevich; Alejandro Garcý´a-Fragoso; Agustý´n Reynoso; Michel Grutter; Ulises Diego-Ayala; Delbert Eatough; Nolan Mangelson; Richard Anderson; Donald Martello; Natalie Pekney; Cliff Davidson; William Modey

    2007-01-01

    A survey of monthly average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at rural locations in western Canada (provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan) was conducted in 2001– 2002, as part of an epidemiological study of the effects of oil and gas industry emissions on the health of cattle. Repeated measurements were obtained at some months and

  13. SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED FOR SHORT DURATIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS: A SELECTED REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to 1980, essentially no health related effects had been observed for short-term ( < 1 hr) exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels similar to those found in the ambient environment (= or < 1 ppm). In 1980 and 81, the results from several studies indicated that asthmatics' a...

  14. Use of a conical scrubber to remove sulfur dioxide from sintering-machine waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kanenko, G.M.; Kostin, M.P.; Ol'khovskaya, L.N.; Orlova, E.A.; Chapala, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Institute VNIIchermetenergoochistka proposed a technology for removing sulfur dioxide from gas with a conical scrubber. A commercial scrubber was refitted by installing an insert in the hollow cylindrical scrubber which featured a two-stage spraying system using limestone suspension. Results from tests comparing the new scrubber with a cylindrical scrubber found that higher gas flow velocities in the lower part of the conical scrubber lead to increased mass exchange between the gas and the suspension. More limestone entered the reaction which increased limestone utilization. The uniform flow of liquid on scrubber walls prevented deposit formation and reduced downtime for removal of the deposits which in turn was found to increase the amount of sinter gases which could be cleaned.

  15. Combined effects of cigarette smoking and sulfur dioxide on lung function in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Cho, Sung-Il; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Both smoking and air pollution impair lung function, but little information is available regarding the combined effects on the pulmonary system. The potential effects of smoking and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were examined on lung function. Data were collected from family health examinations of 867 subjects, aged 20-86 yr, in a Korean community. The subjects responded to a questionnaire interview and completed lung function tests. Data on SO2 exposure were obtained from the Environmental Management Corporation. Studies showed that exposure to SO2 induced a short, marked decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in smokers compared with nonsmokers. The effect lasted up to 30 h after exposure. Consequently, preventive efforts are necessary to reduce the risks that air pollution and smoking pose to the respiratory system. PMID:18214802

  16. The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T. (Air Quality Field Lab., Raleigh, NC); Murdy, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in vitro to asses the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction in vivo is not valid.

  17. Embryotoxicity of inhaled sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Murray, F J; Schwetz, B A; Crawford, A A; Henck, J W; Quast, J F; Staples, R E

    1979-01-01

    The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of sulfur dioxide (SO2) was evaluated in CF-1 and New Zealand rabbits exposed to SO2 alone or in combination with carbon monoxide (CO). The animals inhaled filtered room air (controls), SO2 (mice, 25 ppm; rabbits, 70 ppm), or SO2 plus CO (250 ppm) for 7 hr/day from days 6 through 15 (mice) and from days 6 through 18 (rabbits) of gestation. In both species, inhalation of SO2 resulted in slight toxicity in the dams and an increased incidence of minor skeletal variants among their offspring; exposure to the combination did not potentiate the increased incidence of these variants. A teratogenic effect was not discerned in either mice or rabbits exposed to SO2 alone or in combination with carbon monoxide, but the fetuses of mice exposed to the combination were significantly smaller than those exposed only to SO2. PMID:555466

  18. Sulfur dioxide removal from flue gases by supported copper and iron absorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Melson, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This project was initiated in response to a need to address the problem of attrition for copper oxide/alumina sorbents for the PETC fluidized bed copper oxide process. The attrition problem is a major drawback to the economic feasibility of the process. Previous attempts to reduce sorbent attrition focused on engineering modifications; however, it was proposed that the method of impregnation and pre-treatment of a copper oxide/alumina sorbent may have a significant effect on the reactivity and stability of the sorbent and thus the attrition rate. Prepared sorbents would be characterized by a variety of techniques. Sorption of sulfur dioxide from simulated flue gas mixtures and regeneration of the sorbents with hydrogen and methane would be studied, particularly by thermogravimetric techniques. Evaluation of the rate of attrition for the prepared sorbents would be made. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Safety testing of lithium (sulfur dioxide) battery for expendable, mobile, ASW training target (EMATT). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Peed, E.R.; Kepner, M.B.; Barnes, J.A.; DeBold, F.C.

    1988-12-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center, White Oak, was requested to perform a safety evaluation of EMATT (Expandable, Mobile, ASW, Training Target) battery system. The EMATT unit contains fifteen lithium sulfur dioxide (Li/SO2) size 'DD' cells which provide required power to operate the vehicle. The testing was conducted under the guidelines of NAVSEA NOTICE 9310. This report describes the methods and the results obtained from the safety testing. The test results indicate that the power source meets the safety requirements provided by NAVSEA NOTICE 9310. The U.S. Navy has developed the Expendable, Mobile, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Training Target, EMATT. The EMATT unit is an air or surface launched vehicle which performs maneuvers in the ocean and emits a magnetic or acoustic signature that is monitored by airborne and surface ships for training purposes. The duration of operation of the vehicle is approximately three hours.

  20. Chemical transformations and disproportionation of sulfur dioxide on transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kubas, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Aside from its renown as a source of acid precipitation, sulfur dioxide is remarkable in possessing physicochemical and coordination properties that are more diverse than those of any other small molecule. SO{sub 2} is amphoteric, behaving as a Lewis acid or base, mild oxidant or reductant, or oxygen donor or acceptor. It is an excellent nonaqueous solvent when liquefied at -10{degrees}C and coordinates to many types of compounds, including metal complexes at both metal and ligand sites, strong Lewis acids, and virtually all nucleophiles, even halide ion. SO{sub 2} can bind strongly to low-valent metals like CO or NO or completely reversibly like O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The diversity of metal-SO{sub 2} bonding geometries is unmatched and has been reviewed. This Account will focus on the reactivity of SO{sub 2} e.g. SO double bond cleavage. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Sulfur dioxide effects on yield and seed quality in field-grown soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Sprugel, D.G.; Miller, J.E.; Muller, R.N.; Smith, H.J.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots of soybeans were periodically exposed to elevated levels of sulfur dioxide with an open-air fumigation system which minimized disruption of the normal crop environment. Although visible injury was observed in only two plots, yield at harvest was reduced in every fumigated plot compared to nearby unfumigated control plots. These yield decreases ranged from 5% to 48% and were somewhat greater than might have been expected from previous studies. Yield reductions seemed to be due to decreases in both the mean weight per seed and the number of seeds per plant. Seed quality was affected less than seed yield, although at the higher exposure levels protein content decreased slightly and concentrations of some mineral elements were altered.

  2. Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

    1996-02-01

    Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

  3. The effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorine dioxide in the clinical reduction of volatile sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Soares, Leo Guimaraes; Guaitolini, Roberto Luiz; Weyne, Sergio de Carvalho; Falabella, Marcio Eduardo Vieira; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto; da Silva, Denise Gomes

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouthrinse containing 0.3% chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in reducing oral volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Halitosis was induced by L-cysteine in 11 volunteers, and 4 solutions were compared: a test solution containing 0.3% ClO2, 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 0.05% sodium fluoride; a placebo; a solution containing 0.05% CPC; and a control solution of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). VSC levels were assessed using a Halimeter, and 6 measurements were made from baseline to 3 hours postrinse. The VSC reduction rate of the test mouthrinse was superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. There was no difference between the test solution and the CHX solution in VSC reduction rates immediately postrinse, or at 2 and 3 hours postrinse; both solutions were statistically superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. PMID:23823344

  4. The use of cyclic voltammetry for wine analysis: determination of polyphenols and free sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Makhotkina, Olga; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The use of cyclic voltammetry to characterize wines and wine polyphenols in a pH 3.3 model wine solution has been extended to take into account the effects of sulfur dioxide and polyphenol adsorption processes. A good correlation was obtained between a cyclic voltammetric measure, based upon the response produced before and after acetaldehyde additions, and the concentration of free sulfur dioxide in eight white wines (r(2)=0.974). By the addition of acetaldehyde to the white wines, an important new step in the methodology, the area under the anodic scan in the potential range from -100 to 1200 mV (Ag/AgCl) closely matched the spectroscopic measure of total polyphenols (absorbance at 280 nm) for the white wines, when both were measured in terms of caffeic acid equivalents (r(2)=0.949). The anodic peak area accounted for about 70% of the 280 nm total phenols measure, in catechin equivalents, for the red wines, and a good linear correlation was also obtained (r(2)=0.942). The level of catechol and galloyl-containing polyphenols in the wines was calculated by measuring the size of the first anodic peak at around 450 mV after treatment of the wines with acetaldehyde; the peak current correlated well with the total caffeic acid derivatives in the white wines determined by HPLC (r(2)=0.982). The concentration of flavonols was estimated by selective adsorption of these compounds onto the carbon electrode and determining the anodic peak current at 1120 mV, with good correlations obtained when compared to total flavonols as measured by HPLC (r(2)=0.984 for the red wines, and r(2)=0.987 for the white wines). PMID:20493292

  5. Sulfur dioxide does not acutely increase nasal symptoms or nasal resistance in subjects with rhinitis or in subjects with bronchial responsiveness to sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Tam, E K; Liu, J; Bigby, B G; Boushey, H A

    1988-12-01

    We examined whether brief exposures to moderately high concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) causes acute increases in nasal symptoms and nasal resistance in subjects with chronic rhinitis. We studied 19 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 3 subjects with chronic intermittent rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and sneezing without any other manifestation of allergy. We found that the change in nasal resistance and symptoms caused by nasal inhalation of 4 ppm of SO2 for 10 min was no greater than the changes caused by nasal inhalation of conditioned room air. In a second set of experiments, we examined whether allergic subjects with demonstrable bronchomotor responsiveness to SO2 also had nasal responsiveness to the gas. We studied 8 subjects with a history of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Each subject developed symptoms of dyspnea or wheezing and an increase in specific airway resistance of at least 8 L x cm H2O/L/s after breathing 1 or 2 ppm of SO2 by mouthpiece at 20 L/min, and did not develop these changes after breathing room air under the same conditions. No subject, however, developed more nasal symptoms or a greater increase in nasal airway resistance after tidally breathing SO2 through the nose than after breathing room air, even when the concentration of SO2 delivered to the nose was double the concentration delivered through the mouthpiece to the lower airways. We conclude that brief exposure to SO2 at a concentration of 4 ppm or less is unlikely to cause significant nasal dysfunction in most subjects with chronic rhinitis, and that in subjects with both allergic rhinitis and asthma, responsiveness to SO2 is not uniform throughout the respiratory tract. PMID:3202507

  6. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  7. Water-accelerated OH addition to sulfur dioxide SO?: direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) study.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2014-05-01

    Ionization dynamics of water microsolvated sulfur dioxide SO2(H2O)n (n = 1-3 and 6) have been investigated by means of direct ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method to elucidate the hydration effects of OH addition reaction to SO2 following the ionization. The calculations showed that the neutral 1:1 complex SO2-H2O has a C(s) symmetry and the sulfur of SO2 interacts with the oxygen of H2O with an eclipsed form. In the case of ionization of SO2-H2O 1:1 complex (n = 1), the cation complex composed of [H2O-SO2](+) with a face-to-face form was obtained as the product. The OH addition reactions to SO2 were found in larger systems (n = 2, 3, and 6) following the ionization. The reaction was expressed as SO2(+)(H2O)n ? SO2(OH)···H(+)(H2O)(n-1) (n = 2, 3, and 6). The proton generated as (SO2-H2O)(+) ? (HSO3) + H(+) was stabilized by the second water molecule as the reaction: H(+) + H2O ? H3O(+). These processes occurred and were completed within the cluster. The OH addition mechanism in SO2(+)(H2O)n cluster was discussed on the basis of the present results. PMID:24735078

  8. The influence of hydroxyl volatile organic compounds on the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Dhayal, Yogpal; Chandel, C P S; Gupta, K S

    2014-01-01

    Although the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide by oxygen has been the subject of many investigations, this is the first study which examines the effect of a large number of precisely 16 hydroxy compounds. The kinetics both in the absence and the presence of VOCs was defined by rate laws (A and B): -d[S(IV)]dt = R? = k?[S(IV)] (A) -d[S(IV)]dt = R(i) = k(i)[S(IV)] (B) where R? and k? are the initial rate and first-order rate constant, respectively, in the absence of VOCs, R(i), and k(i) are the initial rate and the first-order rate constant, respectively, in the presence of VOCs, and [S(IV)] is the concentration of dissolved sulfur dioxide, sulfur(IV). The nature of the dependence of k(i) on the concentration of inhibitor, [Inh], was defined by Eq. (C). [k(i) = k?/(1 + B[Inh]) (C) where B is an empirical inhibition parameter. The values of B have been determined from the plots of 1/k(i) versus [Inh]. Among aliphatic and aromatic hydroxy compounds studied, t-butyl alcohol and pinacol were without any inhibition effect due to the absence of secondary or tertiary hydrogen. The values of inhibition parameter, B, were related to k(inh), the rate constant for the reaction of SO?(-) radical with the inhibitor, by Eq. (D). B = (9 ± 2) x 10?? x k(inh) (D) Equation (D) may be used to calculate the values of either of B or k(inh) provided that the other is known. The extent of inhibition depends on the value of the composite term, B[Inh]. However, in accordance with Eq. (C), the extent of inhibition would be sizeable and measurable when B[Inh]?> 0.1 and oxidation of S(IV) would be almost completely stopped when B[Inh]???10. B[Inh] value can be used as a guide whether the reaction step: SO4 (-)?+ organics???SO?(2-)?+ non-chain products: should be included in the multiphase models or not. PMID:24638831

  9. Cu +2 cation+3,5-dimethyl pyrazole mixture as a corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in sulfuric acid solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Abdallah; M. M El-Naggar

    2001-01-01

    The inhibition effect of [Cu+2 cation+3,5-dimethyl pyrazole] mixture of different molar ratios on the corrosion of carbon steel in a 0.5M H2SO4 solution was studied using both weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The inhibiting solutions were analyzed using UV–visible spectrophotometric before and after polarization measurements. The results revealed a complex formation between the two components, which was much more

  10. Enhancement of microbial removal of pyritic sulfur from coal using concentrated cell suspension of T. ferrooxidans and an external carbon dioxide supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fikret Kargi

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported of preliminary experiments conducted to improve the rate of sulfur removal from coal particles using a concentrated cell suspension of pure T. ferrooxidans and an external source of carbon dioxide.

  11. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions from biomass burning in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2003-05-01

    We identify dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the major reduced sulfur-containing gas emitted from bushfires in Australia's Northern Territory. Like dimethyl sulfide (DMS), DMDS is oxidized in the atmosphere to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), which are intermediates in the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The mixing ratios of DMDS and DMS were the highest we have ever detected, with maximum values of 113 and 35 ppbv, respectively, whereas background values were below the detection limit (10 pptv). Molar emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were [1.6 +/- 0.1] × 10-5 and [6.2 +/- 0.3] × 10-6, for DMDS and DMS respectively, while molar emission ratios relative to carbon dioxide (CO2) were [4.7 +/- 0.4] × 10-6 and [1.4 +/- 0.4] × 10-7, respectively. Assuming these observations are representative of biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning could yield up to 175 Gg/yr of DMDS (119 Gg S/yr) and 13 Gg/yr of DMS.

  12. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

  13. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-07-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual FGD removal efficiency are the main contributors to the uncertainties of SO2 emissions. Biofuel combustion related parameters (i.e., technology divisions, fuel use, and emission factor determinants) are the largest source of OC uncertainties, whereas BC emissions are also sensitive to the parameters of coal combustion in the residential and industrial sectors and the coke-making process. Comparing our results with satellite observations, we find that the trends of estimated emissions in both China and India are in good agreement with the trends of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and SO2 retrievals obtained from different satellites.

  14. From Sulfur Dioxide to Greenhouse Gases: Trends and Events Shaping Future Emissions Trading Programs in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Kruger

    The success of the United States sulfur dioxide (SO2) trading program has led to worldwide interest in emissions trading. The program has become a model for policymakers in the\\u000a United States and in other countries that are considering cap-and-trade programs to reduce emissions. Once a theoretical option\\u000a discussed only by economists, emissions trading is now considered a mainstream policy instrument

  15. Prediction of ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide using ISCST3 model in Mangalore industrial region of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitava Bandyopadhyay

    2009-01-01

    Ambient air quality management in any industrial area is of prime concern in India considering the industrial growth since\\u000a last two decades. High concentrations of ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) in many Indian places are responsible for non-compliance of ambient air quality standards. Dispersion modeling finds an\\u000a important tool to simulate the ambient air quality of a region and to predict

  16. Feasibility of installing sulfur dioxide scrubbers on stationary sources in the south coast air basin of California. Volume II: technical discussion. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Leo; J. Rossoff

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and costs of flue gas scrubbing to remove sulfur dioxide were determined for selected oil-fired power plants and industrial sources of SOâ (including flue gas from fluid catalytic cracking units, coke calcining kilns and sulfuric acid plants) in the Los Angeles area. The objective was to achieve a 90 percent reduction in SOâ emissions from each facility. Technical

  17. Holocene Concentrations of Methane in the Atmosphere are in Part Proportional to Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide and Inversely Proportional to the Oxidizing Capacity of the Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Ward

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere cleans itself by oxidizing pollutants. The primary oxidant is the hydroxyl radical (OH) formed by photodissociation of ozone in the near ultra-violet. Ozone and OH are in limited supply. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbs near ultraviolet light limiting production of OH and reacts immediately with any available OH, forming sulfuric acid. Methane reacts more slowly with OH and will

  18. Degradation of ?-carotene with the effects of light and sulfur dioxide may be responsible for the formation of white spot in dried apricots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pelin Onsekizo?lu; Vural Gökmen; Jale Acar

    2005-01-01

    Light and sulfur-induced degradation of ?-carotene flushing out of cells with the effect of salivary pectolytic enzymes of bugs belonging to the family of Heteroptera have been shown to be responsible for the formation of white spot in dried apricots affecting the product quality adversely. The effects of light and sulfur dioxide on the degradation of ?-carotene were studied in

  19. Charged particle formation by the ionization of air containing sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagato, Kenkichi

    2009-08-01

    Experimental investigation of charged particle formation by the ionization of air containing sulfur dioxide (SO2) was performed using a nano-DMA (differential mobility analyzer) and an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. A radioactive ion source of 241Am and a negative dc corona discharge were used to ionize SO2/H2O/air mixtures. The results showed that the number of charged particles that formed had increased as H2O concentration increased (ca. 20-3 × 103 ppm) for both ion sources, but also that the number of charged particles produced when using the negative corona discharge was more than two orders of magnitude greater than what was produced using 241Am. During ionization by [alpha]-ray irradiation, SO4-(H2O)n ions predominated coincident with the formation of charged particles. The negative corona discharge produced a more complicated ion mass spectrum, which included ion groups of NO3-, SOx- (x = 2-5) and HSOx- (x = 3-5). The relative abundance of the ion groups varied depending on H2O concentration and ion reaction time. The ions with an HSO4- core surpassed the ions of other groups as H2O concentration increased. The formations of NO3- ions and cluster ions containing HNO3 also were enhanced at higher H2O concentrations. Possible ion-molecule reactions responsible for the observed mass spectra are discussed in detail.

  20. Fast sulfur dioxide measurements correlated with cloud concentration nuclei spectra in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Hudson, J. G.

    2011-05-01

    During the Rain in (shallow) Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) project simultaneous measurements of high rate sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra were made for the first time. During research flight 14 (14 January 2005) the convective boundary layer was impacted by precipitation and ship plumes in midday but not in the late afternoon. Accumulation mode aerosols (0.14 to 0.2 ?m diameter) were a factor of two greater in the latter period while CCN were 30 % to 65 % greater for aerosols that activate at supersaturations >0.1 %. Linear correlations of SO2 and CCN were found for SO2 concentrations ranging from 20 to 600 parts-per-trillion (pptv). The greatest sensitivities were for SO2 and CCN that activate at supersaturations >0.1 % for both clean and polluted air. In a region affected by a cold pool event SO2 was only linearly correlated with CCN at >0.2 % S.

  1. Relationship between ambient sulfur dioxide levels and neonatal mortality near the Mt. Sakurajima volcano in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinkura, R; Fujiyama, C; Akiba, S

    1999-11-01

    We examined the association between neonatal mortality and ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, Yamashita public health district of Kagoshima City, during the period between 1978 and 1988. The analysis using Poisson regression models showed that the monthly average level of SO2 was positively associated with the neonatal mortality (P = 0.002). When the SO2 levels were categorized into four groups to estimate the relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality using the lowest exposure category as a reference, the RR increased with elevated exposure levels (P for trend < 0.001) and was the highest in the group with the highest level of exposure (RR = 2.2, 95% confidence interval; 1.2-4.1). Other than SO2, we also examined the number of eruptions, the amount of ashfall, and the average level of suspended particulate matter. None of these factors was associated with neonatal mortality. Although the present study suggests that increase in SO2 levels has had an adverse effect on neonatal mortality in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, it is difficult to determine the source of the SO2. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of the excess neonatal mortality probably associated with the volcanic SO2 levels. PMID:10616268

  2. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  3. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1979-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the volcano. Beginning in 1983, the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu`u `O`o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  5. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). A compilation of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 1997 is available as Open-File Report 98-462 (Elias and others, 1998) and on the web at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/products/OF98462/. The purpose of this report is to update the existing database through 2001. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (fig. 1), as described in previous reports (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). These two distinct sources are quantified independently. The summit and east rift zone emission rates reported here were derived using vehicle-based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements as described in Elias and others (1998). In 1998 and 1999, these measurements were augmented with airborne and tripod-based surveys.

  6. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of sulfur dioxide in air

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.S.M.; Balasubramanian, N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Madras (India)

    1992-11-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in air after SO{sub 2} has been fixed in a buffered formaldehyde solution. The reaction of iodate with the fixed SO{sub 2} in the presence of an acid an an excess of chloride leads to the formation of ICI{sub 2} ions. The resulting ICI{sub 2} species forms an ion-pair with pararosaniline cation; the product is extracted into isopentyl alcohol and measured spectrophotometrically at 560 nm. The color system obeys Beer`s law over the range 0-40 {mu}g SO{sub 2}. The color is stable for 72 h from the time of extraction. The molar absorption coefficient of the color system is 4.5 {times} 10{sup 3}Lmol{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1}. The coefficient of variation is 3.6% for 10 determinations at 20 {mu}g SO{sub 2}. The effect of interfering gases on the determination is discussed. The method was applied to the determination of SO{sub 2} at low concentrations, and the results obtained were compared with the widely used West and Gaeke method. The method can be used to determine as low as 2 {mu}g SO{sub 2}. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L [ORNL; Montgomery, Fred C [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

  8. Induction effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation on chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Zhang, Bo

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the induction of chromosome aberrations (CA) in mouse bone marrow cells by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) inhalation, mice were treated by SO(2) exposure for 4 h/day for 7 days at various concentrations of SO(2), then mitotic indices and CA in mouse bone marrow cells were analyzed. The present results show that SO(2) might increase the frequencies of CA and aberrant cells in mouse bone marrow in a dose-dependent manner. The frequencies (%) of aberrant cells in mouse bone marrow induced by SO(2) at concentrations of 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 mg/m(3) were 1.81, 3.00, 3.58, 4.26, 4.86, respectively. At low concentrations SO(2) induced only chromatid-type CA, while at high concentrations SO(2) induced both chromatid-type and chromosome-type CA. SO(2) inhalation decreased the mitotic indices of bone marrow cells. The results imply that SO(2) inhalation may inhibit mitoses and increase CA frequencies of bone marrow cells and that it is a clastogenetic and genotoxic agent. Long exposure to SO(2) pollution at low concentrations in the environment may be a potential risk for induction of cytogenetic damage in vivo in humans. PMID:11971992

  9. Histopathologic changes in the olfactory epithelium in mice after exposure to sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Min, Y G; Rhee, C S; Choo, M J; Song, H K; Hong, S C

    1994-07-01

    To investigate the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on olfactory epithelium, an experiment was performed with 56 mice from the same colony. Experimental animals were divided into three groups consisting of a 30-min exposure group (group 1), a 60-min exposure group (group 2), and a 120-min exposure group (group 3). The olfactory mucosa in these mice were studied by light microscopy immediately, and after 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h exposure to 20 ppm of SO2. Edema, loss of cilia, epithelial thinning, and epithelial desquamation in the olfactory epithelium were observed in groups 2 and 3. The basal lamina and the connective tissue were well preserved throughout the entire mucosa. Injuries to olfactory epithelium became severer with exposure time. These changes were further pronounced 24 h after exposure. Regenerated epithelia were not observed in any group. Scanning electron microscopic findings were consistent with light microscopic findings. Olfactory epithelial surface were consistent with light microscopic findings. Olfactory epithelial surface was sloughed off and revealed, underlining intact basal lamina. The results of this study suggest that early lesions of olfactory epithelium after exposure to SO2 may be primarily degenerative. PMID:7976318

  10. Blood pressure of rats lowered by sulfur dioxide and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Geng, Hong; Bai, Juli; Yan, Guanghai

    2003-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and its derivatives (bisulfite and sulfite) on the rat blood pressure. The blood pressures of male Wistar rats exposed to SO(2) and its derivatives at various doses were measured. Findings were that: (1) with acute-one time exposure to SO(2) for 6 h, the rat blood pressures were lowered in contrast to their controls and their background levels in a dose-dependent manner. (2) There were both a dose-response relationship and a time-response relationship between subchronic SO(2) exposure and the rat blood pressure. For SO(2) exposure at 10 ppm, first the blood pressures decreased significantly with exposure days in contrast to their controls and their background levels, and then these decreases became not significant, suggesting an adaption mechanism might be induced. However, SO(2) exposures at 40 ppm caused significant decreases of the blood pressures during the whole experiment, and no adaptation process was found. (3) SO(2) derivatives (bisulfite and sulfite) also caused the decreases of rat blood pressures in a dose-dependent manner. There are two conclusions: (1) Short-time, even acute one-time, exposure to SO(2) or its derivatives may cause a decrease of blood pressure of the animals in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. (2) SO(2) is a systemic toxic agent, not only to the respiratory system. SO(2) can cause at least functional damage to the cardiovascular system. PMID:12872180

  11. Adsorption and reaction of sulfur dioxide on alumina and sodium-impregnated alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; Sheinker, V.N. [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States)] [Clark Atlanta Univ., GA (United States); White, M.G. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-05-02

    The adsorption and oxidation of SO{sub 2} on alumina and sodium-impregnated alumina has been examined using thermogravimetric analysis and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide chemisorbs initially at basic sites to form an adsorbed sulfite, which is quantitatively converted to sulfate on oxidation. It has been observed that at low coverages, nearly 2.6 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}, sodium acts as a promoter for the formation of an adsorbed sulfite and sulfate which have structures similar to those of aluminum sulfite and sulfate, respectively. At higher sodium loadings, a second type of adsorbed SO{sub 2} is formed, similar to sodium sulfite and sulfate. The species with the aluminum sulfate structure appears to be more easily decomposed than does the sodium sulfate species and accounts for the regenerable adsorption capacity. Formation of the sodium sulfate species appears to account for the loss of adsorption capacity as the number of adsorption/regeneration cycles increases. Oxidation of the sulfite form to the sulfate form can occur in the absence of added oxygen, but it is an activated process and begins to occur in measurable amounts at temperatures between 150 and 300{degree}C. Partitioning of adsorbed SO{sub 2} between aluminum and sodium forms is not a function of temperature and depends on only sodium loading. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

  13. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100?mL of this absorption solution at 298?K (flue gas rate of 0.12?m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63?g SHA-Na is 0.946?mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037?g SO2 g?1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  14. Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system

    SciTech Connect

    McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

  15. Open-air fumigation system for investigating sulfur dioxide effects on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Sprugel, D.G.; Muller, R.N.; Smith, H.J.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    An open-air fumigation system for treating large field plots of crop plants with sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) has been designed and tested. The fumigation system consists of an array of pipes suspended over the field plots through which SO/sub 2/ gas is released at controlled rates. The data from 2 yr experiments (three plots in 1977 and five in 1978) were examined for temporal and spatial variations in SO/sub 2/ concentrations. The SO/sub 2/ concentrations in the plots fluctuated with time due to changing wind speed and turbulence, although the SO/sub 2/ concentrations could be controlled within given ranges by adjustment of the SO/sub 2/ release rates. Statistical analysis indicated that the SO/sub 2/ concentrations (1-min averages) were neither normally nor log-normally distributed, and generally appeared to be intermediate between the two. The technique is discussed with regard to its suitability for air pollutant-crop effects studies.

  16. Influence of soil moisture on macroscopic sulfur dioxide injury to pinto bean foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, J.A.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of soil moisture stress on sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) injury to pinto bean foliage was investigated in relation to stomatal conductance rate, soil moisture content, and plant water potential. Pinto bean plants were grown at four soil water potentials (-1/3, -1, -3, and -5 atm) and exposed to 5,720 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (2.2 ppm) SO/sub 2/ for 3 hr. Macroscopic injury was severe on plants grown at -1/3 and -1 atm soil water potential and negligible on plants grown at -3 and -5 atm water potential. Injury was highly correlated with percentage of soil moisture, and both injury and soil moisture were highly correlated with stomatal conductance rate and water potential of the plants. The duration of soil moisture stress (1, 2, or 3 days) did not affect the amount of macroscopic injury induced by SO/sub 2/, the stomatal conductance rate, or plant water potential. Stomatal conductance rates of plants grown at -1/3 and -1 atm soil water potential decreased when the plants were exposed to SO/sub 2/, while those of plants grown at -3 and -5 atm soil water potential were not affected by exposure to SO/sub 2/.

  17. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400-650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach cannot be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

  18. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  19. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  20. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  1. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

  2. Expression of caspase and apoptotic signal pathway induced by sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juli; Meng, Ziqiang

    2010-03-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a common air pollutant that is released in low concentrations into the atmosphere and in higher concentrations in some work places. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00 +/- 1.01, 28.00 +/- 1.77, and 56.00 +/- 3.44 mg/m(3) SO(2) for 7 days (6 hr/day), while control rats were exposed to filtered air under the same conditions. The mRNA and protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were analyzed using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and an immunohistochemistry method. Activities of caspases were detected using colorimetric and fluorescent assays. Chromatin degradation and cell morphological changes were investigated by TUNEL assay and H&E staining in livers and lungs, respectively. The results showed that mRNA levels, protein levels and activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were increased in a dose-dependent manner in livers and lungs of rats after SO(2) inhalation. In addition, livers were infiltrated with lymphocytes, congestion and inflammation occurred in lungs, and eosinophil cells and apoptotic cells increased in both livers and lungs after SO(2) inhalation. These results suggest that SO(2) exposure increases the expression and activity of both initiator and and effector caspases, and may induce apoptosis in liver and lung of rats through both death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. PMID:19621461

  3. The spontaneously hypertensive rat: an experimental model of sulfur dioxide-induced airways disease.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Ortuno, Roselia Villalobos; Suffia, Marie; Evansky, Paul; Richards, Judy H; Jaskot, Richard H; Thomas, Ronald; Karoly, Edward; Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Costa, Daniel L; Gilmour, Peter S; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2006-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airway obstruction, inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion, features that are common in bronchitis, emphysema, and often asthma. However, current rodent models do not reflect this human disease. Because genetically predisposed spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats display phenotypes such as systemic inflammation, hypercoagulation, oxidative stress, and suppressed immune function that are also apparent in COPD patients, we hypothesized that SH rat may offer a better model of experimental bronchitis. We, therefore, exposed SH and commonly used Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (male, 13- to 15-weeks old) to 0, 250, or 350 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), 5 h/day for 4 consecutive days to induce airway injury. SO(2) caused dose-dependent changes in breathing parameters in both strains with SH rats being slightly more affected than SD rats. Increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) total cells and neutrophilic inflammation were dose dependent and significantly greater in SH than in SD rats. The recovery was incomplete at 4 days following SO(2) exposure in SH rats. Pulmonary protein leakage was modest in either strain, but lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity were increased in BALF of SH rats. Airway pathology and morphometric evaluation of mucin demonstrated significantly greater impact of SO(2) in SH than in SD rats. Baseline differences in lung gene expression pattern suggested marked immune dysregulation, oxidative stress, impairment of cell signaling, and fatty acid metabolism in SH rats. SO(2) effects on these genes were more pronounced in SH than in SD rats. Thus, SO(2) exposure in SH rats may yield a relevant experimental model of bronchitis. PMID:16929007

  4. Relationship between the airway response to inhaled sulfur dioxide, isocapnic hyperventilation, and histamine in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, H; Jörres, R; Wagner, H M; von Nieding, G

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether bronchoconstriction induced by sulfur dioxide can be predicted by the airway response to inhaled histamine, we exposed on two days 46 patients with asthma to air or 0.5 ppm SO2. The exposure protocol consisted of 10 min of tidal breathing followed by 10 min of isocapnic hyperventilation at a rate of 30 l/min. Airway response was measured before (baseline) and after hyperventilation in terms of specific airway resistance, SRaw. Exposure to air increased baseline mean (SD) SRaw from 6.27 (2.12) to mean (SD) maximum post-hyperventilation SRaw of 9.10 (4.38) cmH2O*s (P less than 0.0001). Exposure to SO2 increased mean (SD) baseline SRaw from 6.93 (3.29) to mean (SD) maximum post-hyperventilation SRaw of 18.21 (18.69) cmH2O*s (P less than 0.0001). Mean (SD) effect of SO2 defined as difference between maximum post-hyperventilation SRaw after SO2 versus air was 9.11 (16.14) cm H2O*s. When evaluated individually, 26 and 34 of the 46 patients showed an airway response to hyperventilation of air and SO2, respectively. Airway response to histamine was determined as the histamine concentration necessary to increase specific airway resistance by 100%, PC100SRaw. The airway response after SO2 and PC100SRaw showed a weak but significant correlation (R = -0.48), whereas the responses to hyperventilation and SO2 did not correlate. We suggest that the mechanisms by which histamine and SO2 exert their bronchomotor effects are different and that in asthmatic patients the risk of pollutant-induced asthmatic symptoms can be poorly predicted by histamine responsiveness. PMID:2289820

  5. Replicated dose-response study of sulfur dioxide effects in normal, atopic, and asthmatic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Linn, W S; Avol, E L; Peng, R C; Shamoo, D A; Hackney, J D

    1987-11-01

    To help assess respiratory health risks from sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution, we studied 24 normal, 21 atopic, 16 minimal/mild asthmatic, and 24 moderate/severe, medication-dependent asthmatic subjects classified according to history, lung function, allergy skin tests, serum IgE level, and airway reactivity to methacholine. All were exposed in a chamber (21 degrees C, 50% humidity) to 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ppm SO2 in random order at 1-wk intervals; then exposures were repeated to test consistency of response. The 1-h exposures included three 10-min exercise periods (ventilation approximately 40 L/min). Physiologic response was measured early (approximately 15 min) and late (approximately 55 min) in exposure. Symptoms were evaluated during exposure and for 1 wk afterward. Normal and most atopic subjects showed little response at these SO2 levels. A few atopic subjects and many asthmatics developed bronchoconstriction and respiratory symptoms, but most were able to maintain their exercise. Effects were not markedly different between early and late measurements, nor between the first and second round of studies; however, late and second-round responses appeared slightly more favorable. No statistically significant effect of SO2 on symptoms was found 1 day or 1 wk after exposure. Minimal/mild asthmatics showed, on the average, slight responses at 0.0 ppm (attributable to exercise) and increasing responses at increasing SO2 concentrations. Moderate/severe asthmatics reacted more at 0.0 ppm, but their increments in response with increasing SO2 concentration were roughly similar to those of minimal/mild asthmatics. Thus, responses to SO2 per se were not strongly dependent on clinical severity of asthma, nor on SO2 exposure history during previous weeks. PMID:3674575

  6. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  7. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  8. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

  9. Involvement of NO and ROS in sulfur dioxide induced guard cells apoptosis in Tagetes erecta.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aili; Fu, Baocun; Wang, Yunshan; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Xin, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2015-04-01

    Both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are very important signal molecules, but the roles they play in signal transduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) induced toxicities on ornamental plants is not clear. In this study, the functions of NO and ROS in SO2-induced death of lower epidermal guard cells in ornamental plant Tagetes erecta were investigated. The results showed that SO2 derivatives (0.4-4.0 mmol L(-1) of final concentrations) could reduce the guard cells' viability and increase their death rates in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the significant increase of cellular NO, ROS, and Ca(2+) levels (P<0.05) and typical apoptosis features including nucleus condensation, nucleus break and nucleus fragmentation were observed. However, exposure to 2.0 mmol L(-1) of SO2 derivatives combined with either NO antagonists (NO scavenger c-PTIO; nitrate reductase inhibitor NaN3; NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME), ROS scavenger (AsA or CAT) or Ca(2+) antagonists (Ca(2+) scavenger EGTA or plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel blocker LaCl3) can effectively block SO2-induced guard cells death and corresponding increase of NO, ROS and Ca(2+) levels. In addition, addition of L-NAME or AsA in 2.0 mmol L(-1) of SO2 derivatives led to significant decrease in the levels of NO, ROS and Ca(2+), whereas addition of LaCl3 in them just resulted in the decrease of Ca(2+) levels, hardly making effects on NO and ROS levels. It was concluded that NO and ROS were involved in the apoptosis induced by SO2 in T. erecta, which regulated the cell apoptosis at the upstream of Ca(2+). PMID:25645141

  10. Effects of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on Phyllosphere Fungi from Three Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Mark E.; Dunn, Paul H.; Durall, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O3) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O3 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of California, Riverside, for 4 years with filtered air, ambient air plus filtered air (1:1), ambient air, or filtered air plus SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million. Populations of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, two of the four most common fungi isolated from orange leaves, were significantly reduced by chronic exposure to ambient air. In the short-term experiments, seedlings of giant sequoia or California black oak were fumigated in open-top chambers in Sequoia National Park for 9 to 11 weeks with filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air plus O3. These short-term fumigations did not significantly affect the numbers of phyllosphere fungi. Exposure of Valencia orange trees to SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million for 4 years reduced the number of phyllosphere fungi isolated by 75% compared with the number from the filtered-air treatment and reduced the Simpson diversity index value from 3.3 to 2.5. A significant chamber effect was evident since leaves of giant sequoia and California black oak located outside of chambers had more phyllosphere fungi than did seedlings within chambers. Results suggest that chronic exposure to ambient ozone or SO2 in polluted areas can affect phyllosphere fungal communities, while short-term exposures may not significantly disturb phyllosphere fungi. PMID:16347849

  11. Proposal for novel metabolic pathway of highly toxic dimethylated arsenics accompanied by enzymatic sulfuration, desulfuration and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yasuyo; Kurosawa, Hidetoshi; Kato, Koichi; Endo, Yoko; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Endo, Ginji

    2015-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that dimethylarsinic acid [(CH3)2AsO(OH), DMA(V)], a main metabolite of inorganic arsenic, is responsible for carcinogenesis in urinary bladder and lung in rodents, and various modes of carcinogenic action have been proposed. One theory concerning the mode of action is that the biotransformation of dimethylarsinous acid [(CH3)2AsOH, DMA(III)] from DMA(V) plays an important role in the carcinogenesis by way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, dimethylmonothioarsinic acid [(CH3)2AsS(OH), DMMTA(V)], a metabolite of DMA(V), has also been noted because of its higher toxicity. However, the metabolic mechanisms of formation and disappearance of DMA(III) and DMMTA(V), and their toxicity are not fully understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to clarify the mechanism of metabolic formation of DMMTA(V) and DMA(V) from DMA(III). The in vitro transformation of arsenicals by treatment with liver homogenate from rodents and sulfur transferase was detected by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-tandem MS. DMMTA(V) is produced from DMA(III) but not DMA(V) by cellular fractions from mouse liver homogenates and by rhodanese from bovine liver in the presence of thiosulfate, a sulfur donor. Not only DMMTA(V) thus produced but also DMA(III) are re-converted into DMA(V) by an in vitro addition of S9 mix. These findings indicate that the metabolic process not only of DMA(III) to DMA(V) or DMMTA(V) but also of DMMTA(V) to DMA(V) consists of a complicated mode of interaction between monooxygenase including cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or sulfur transferase. PMID:25559201

  12. First results of an Investigation of Sulfur Dioxide in the Ultraviolet from Pioneer Venus through Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin; Molaverdikhani, K.; Esposito, L. W.; Pankratz, C. K.

    2010-10-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics is carrying on a project to restore and preserve data products from several past missions for archival and use by the scientific community. This project includes the restoration of data from Mariner 6/7, Pioneer Venus, Voyager 1/2, and Galileo. Here, we present initial results of this project that involve Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer (PVO UVS) data. Using the Discrete Ordinate Method for Radiative Transfer (DISORT), we generate a suite of models for the three free parameters in the upper atmosphere of Venus in which we are interested: sulfur dioxide abundance at 40mb, scale height of sulfur dioxide, and the typical radius of the upper haze particles (assumed to be composed of 84.5% sulfuric acid). We calculate best fits to our radiative transfer model results for multi-spectral images taken with PVO UVS, as well as the 'visible' channel (includes wavelengths from 290nm to about 1000nm) of the mapping mode of the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS-M-Vis) on the Venus Express spacecraft, currently orbiting Venus. This work is funded though the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program, NNH08ZDA001N.

  13. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of detectable sulfur-organic compounds: Ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senent, M. L.; Puzzarini, C.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.; Carvajal, M.; Hochlaf, M.

    2014-03-01

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used for the spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH232SH, ETSH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH332SCH3, DMS), considering them on the vibrational ground and excited torsional states. Since both molecules show non-rigid properties, torsional energy barriers and splittings are provided. Equilibrium geometries and the corresponding rotational constants are calculated by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and core-correlation effects. The ground and excited states rotational constants are then determined using vibrational corrections obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ force-field calculations, which are also employed to determine anharmonic frequencies for all vibrational modes. CCSD(T) and CCSD force fields are employed to predict quartic and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. Equilibrium rotational constants are also calculated using CCSD(T)-F12. The full-dimensional anharmonic analysis does not predict displacements of the lowest torsional excited states due to Fermi resonances with the remaining vibrational modes. Thus, very accurate torsional transitions are calculated by solving variationally two-dimensional Hamiltonians depending on the CH3 and SH torsional coordinates of ethyl mercaptan or on the two methyl groups torsions of dimethyl-sulfide. For this purpose, vibrationally corrected potential energy surfaces are computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For ethyl mercaptan, calculations show large differences between the gauche (g) and trans (t) conformer spectral features. Interactions between rotating groups are responsible for the displacements of the g-bands with respect to the t-bands that cannot therefore be described with one-dimensional models. For DMS, the CCSD(T) potential energy surface has been semi-empirically adjusted to reproduce experimental data. New assignments are suggested for the methyl torsion bands of ETSH and a reassignment is proposed for the infrared bands of DMS (0 3 ? 0 4 and 1 0 ? 1 1). Our accurate spectroscopic data should be useful for the analysis of the microwave and far infrared spectra of ETSH and DMS recorded, at low temperatures, either in laboratory or in the interstellar medium.

  14. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of detectable sulfur-organic compounds: ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Senent, M L; Puzzarini, C; Domínguez-Gómez, R; Carvajal, M; Hochlaf, M

    2014-03-28

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used for the spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2 (32)SH, ETSH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH3 (32)SCH3, DMS), considering them on the vibrational ground and excited torsional states. Since both molecules show non-rigid properties, torsional energy barriers and splittings are provided. Equilibrium geometries and the corresponding rotational constants are calculated by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and core-correlation effects. The ground and excited states rotational constants are then determined using vibrational corrections obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ force-field calculations, which are also employed to determine anharmonic frequencies for all vibrational modes. CCSD(T) and CCSD force fields are employed to predict quartic and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. Equilibrium rotational constants are also calculated using CCSD(T)-F12. The full-dimensional anharmonic analysis does not predict displacements of the lowest torsional excited states due to Fermi resonances with the remaining vibrational modes. Thus, very accurate torsional transitions are calculated by solving variationally two-dimensional Hamiltonians depending on the CH3 and SH torsional coordinates of ethyl mercaptan or on the two methyl groups torsions of dimethyl-sulfide. For this purpose, vibrationally corrected potential energy surfaces are computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For ethyl mercaptan, calculations show large differences between the gauche (g) and trans (t) conformer spectral features. Interactions between rotating groups are responsible for the displacements of the g-bands with respect to the t-bands that cannot therefore be described with one-dimensional models. For DMS, the CCSD(T) potential energy surface has been semi-empirically adjusted to reproduce experimental data. New assignments are suggested for the methyl torsion bands of ETSH and a reassignment is proposed for the infrared bands of DMS (0 3 ? 0 4 and 1 0 ? 1 1). Our accurate spectroscopic data should be useful for the analysis of the microwave and far infrared spectra of ETSH and DMS recorded, at low temperatures, either in laboratory or in the interstellar medium. PMID:24697436

  15. Relating Summer Ambient Particulate Sulfur, Sulfur Dioxide, and Light Scattering to Gaseous Tracer Emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent A. Mirabella; Robert J. Farber

    2000-01-01

    Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-northeast of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur,

  16. The Impact of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Simulated Atmospheric Marine Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 ?m) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 ?m). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol. PMID:26000788

  17. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  18. Chemiluminescence determination of sulfur dioxide in air using tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium-KIO{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Wu, F.; Meng, H.; Yuan, L.; Luo, Q.; Zeng, Y. [Wuhan Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    The emission produced by sulfite in its oxidation by periodate in acidic solution in the presence of Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} is used to determine 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/L sulfite. The limit of detection is 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} mol/L and the relative standard deviation is 2.3% for a 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/L sulfite solution (n = 9). The method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of sulfur dioxide in air by using triethanolamine (TEA) as absorbent material.

  19. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  20. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  1. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  2. Sulfur mass-independent fractionation patterns in the broadband UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide: Pressure and third body effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Andrew L.; Farquhar, James; Wing, Boswell A.

    2011-06-01

    The production of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) in the products of the middle/far UV photolysis of SO 2 isotopologues has been linked to large S-MIF signatures observed in the pre-2.45 Ga rock record, and provides a valuable proxy for the evolution of atmospheric O 2. The origin of such large MIF signatures in photolytic products has recently been ascribed to the optical self-shielding of SO 2 isotopologues in photon-limited regions of the lower atmosphere. To better characterize the origin of such a signal we have performed pressure-variant broadband UV photolysis experiments of SO 2 and SO 2-He mixtures. Low pressure (~ 20 Torr) photolysis of SO 2 produces extractable sulfur with large ? 34S ? 120-180‰, ? 33S ~ 20‰, and ? 36S/? 33S ? - 2.5, while near atmospheric pressures produce sulfur with ? 33S ~ 2‰, and ? 36S/? 33S ? - 12. Similar experiments conducted with variable pressures of helium bath gas produce a similar diminution in ? 33S, and in both cases a ? 36S/? 33S ratio that is a linear function of pressure over several orders of magnitude. We postulate a photochemical and kinetic origin for the large S-MIF observed in these static cell experiments, produced from the excited state predissociative dynamics of SO 2, but cannot expressly rule out self-shielding as a contributor to fractionations observed here.

  3. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, M.; Boone, C. D.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Günther, A.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Roiger, A.; Stiller, G.; Schlager, H.; von Clarmann, T.; Wissmüller, K.

    2015-06-01

    Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70-100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3 to 5 km. Comparison with observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of -20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS data set in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within -10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10-20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS data set with in situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period - Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 - derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10-14, 14-18 and 18-22 km are 13.3 ± 2.1, 23.6 ± 1.2 and 32.3 ± 5.5 days respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual cycle at northern mid- and high latitudes with maximum values in summer and an amplitude of about 30 pptv. At higher altitudes of about 16-18 km, enhanced mixing ratios of SO2 can be found in the regions of the Asian and the North American monsoons in summer - a possible connection to an aerosol layer discovered by Vernier et al. (2011b) in that region.

  4. Continuous monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission rate at Suwanosejima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, M.; Mori, T.; Iguchi, M.; Nishimura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Suwanosejima is a remote volcanic island located about 240 km southwest of Kyushu Island, Japan. It is an andesitic volcano, which intermittently erupts since 1950s. The eruption styles are from Strombolian to Vulcanian, and now the main activity is continuous degassing from the vent. There are a few previously reported sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate data which ranged 500-1000 ton/day [Mori et al, 2004; Oikawa et al, 2004]. Therefore, the motivation of this study is to get the average SO2 emission rate of continuous measurements and to evaluate relationships among SO2 emission rates, video images and geophysical data. Our scanning DOAS device was set at 3.2 km south-southwest of the crater. The device was based on the scan system of Edmonds et al [2003] or Galle et al [2010], and partly improved by making a rotating mirror inside of a non-rotating cylinder with a quartz glass window. This device with a UV spectrometer USB2000+ (Ocean Optics, Inc.) and a computer were powered by a solar panel. The measurements were carried out from January 20 to May 7, 2013 between 8 am to 5 pm. Each scan took 3-15 minutes. For wind velocity data, we used weather model values provided by JMA via Kyoto University (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/jmadata/). We obtained an average daily SO2 emission rate of about 700 ton/day, which had a variation ranging from 300 to 1300 ton/day. These values were comparable to emission rates in the previous studies. Typical daily variations ranged from 100 ton/day to a few thousand ton/day. Some of increase in emission rates corresponded to puffs according to the video images. We also found a positive correlation between the emission rate and seismic RMS amplitude in good observational condition days. References Edmonds et al (2003) Bull. Volcanol., 65, 578-586. Galle et al (2010) J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi: 10.1029/2009JD011823. Mori et al (2004) Annuals Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., 47(C), 157-162. Oikawa et al (2004) Programme Abstracts Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 66.

  5. Mortality from lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Jin; Teschke, Kay; Kauppinen, Timo; Andersen, Aage; Jäppinen, Paavo; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena; Pearce, Neil; Persson, Bodil; Bergeret, Alain; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Kishi, Reiko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Rix, Bo Andreassen; Henneberger, Paul; Sunyer, Jordi; Colin, Didier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Boffetta, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the mortality of workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry. The cohort included 57,613 workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 12 countries. We assessed exposure to SO(2) at the level of mill and department, using industrial hygiene measurement data and information from company questionnaires; 40,704 workers were classified as exposed to SO(2). We conducted a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on age-specific and calendar period-specific national mortality rates. We also conducted a Poisson regression analysis to determine the dose-response relations between SO(2) exposure and cancer mortality risks and to explore the effect of potential confounding factors. The SMR analysis showed a moderate deficit of all causes of death [SMR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.96] among exposed workers. Lung cancer mortality was marginally increased among exposed workers (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.18). After adjustment for occupational coexposures, the lung cancer risk was increased compared with unexposed workers (rate ratio = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.14-1.96). There was a suggestion of a positive relationship between weighted cumulative SO(2) exposure and lung cancer mortality (p-value of test for linear trend = 0.009 among all exposed workers; p = 0.3 among workers with high exposure). Neither duration of exposure nor time since first exposure was associated with lung cancer mortality. Mortality from non-Hodgkin lymphoma and from leukemia was increased among workers with high SO(2) exposure; a dose-response relationship with cumulative SO(2) exposure was suggested for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For the other causes of death, there was no evidence of increased mortality associated with exposure to SO(2). Although residual confounding may have occurred, our results suggest that occupational exposure to SO(2) in the pulp and paper industry may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:12361923

  6. Oxidative damage of sulfur dioxide inhalation on stomachs and intestines of mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Zhang, Bo; Bai, Juli; Geng, Hong; Liu, Chengyun

    2003-04-11

    Effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in stomachs and intestines of Kunming albino mice of both sexes. SO(2) exposure at different concentrations (22, 56, and 112 mg/m(3)) was administered to the animals of SO(2) groups in the exposure chambers for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control groups were exposed to filtered air under the same condition. Our results show that SO(2) caused lipid peroxidation and changes of antioxidative status in stomachs and intestines of mice. Exposure to SO(2) at all concentrations tested caused significantly the increase of TBARS levels in stomachs and intestines of mice. For the stomachs, activities of these antioxidant enzymes and levels of GSH were significantly unaltered by SO(2) at low concentrations, except significant increase of SOD activity in the stomachs of male mice. However, higher SO(2) caused the significant increases of CAT activities and the significant decreases of GSH levels and activities of SOD and GPx. For intestines, SO(2) at all concentrations tested decreased significantly activities of SOD relative to control animals; SO(2) caused the decreases of GPx activities, but only the decreases of GPx activities caused by SO(2) exposures at higher concentrations (56 and 112 mg/m(3)) were statistically significant. SO(2) at all concentrations tested tended to increase the CAT activities in a dose-dependent manner, but the decreases of CAT activities caused by higher SO(2) were significant. SO(2) at all concentrations tested decreased significantly levels of GSH in intestines of both sexual mice. These results lead to conclusion that SO(2) exposure can caused oxidative damage to stomachs and intestines of mice, and SO(2) is a toxic agent to stomachs and intestines of mammals, not only to respiratory system. Further work is required to understand toxicological role of SO(2) on multiple or even all organs in human and animal. PMID:12635006

  7. Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on cytokine levels in lungs and serum of mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Liu, Yuxiang; Wu, Dongmei

    2005-05-01

    In order to elucidate the immunotoxic mechanism exerted by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), we investigated the effect of SO(2), a major air pollutant, on the cytokine levels in lungs and serum of male mice. Levels of interlukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in lungs and serum from male mice exposed to SO(2) at various concentrations were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty Kunming albino male mice were divided randomly into six equal groups: three groups exposed to SO(2) (14.00 +/- 1.25, 28.00 +/- 1.98, and 56.00 +/- 3.11 mg/m(3), which are 5 +/- 0.45, 10 +/- 0.71, and 20 +/- 1.11 ppm) and their respective control groups. The results were as follows: (1) For lung tissues of male mice, exposure to SO(2) at 14 mg/m(3) (5 ppm) caused statistically significant increase of levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha (p < .05) compared with the control group; exposure at 28 mg/m(3) (10 ppm) caused a statistically highly significant increase of level of IL-6 (p < .01) and a significant increase of TNF-alpha (p < .05); and exposure at 56 mg/m(3) (20 ppm) caused no any significant increase of levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha. SO(2) at all concentrations tested could not cause significant change of level of TGF-beta1 in lungs. (2) For serum from male mice, after exposure to SO(2) at 14 mg/m(3) (5 ppm), the level of TNF-a was significantly increased (p < .05) compared with the control group, but the changes of levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta1 were not significant. After exposure to SO(2) at 28 mg/m(3) (10 ppm) and 56 mg/m(3) (20 ppm), levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were increased nonsignificantly, but the level of TGF-beta1 was decreased nonsignificantly. These results imply that inflammation reaction could be induced in lung tissue by SO(2) inhalation and the inflammation reaction might relate to these cytokines. And determination of cytokines in lung may be more valuable than in serum when lung injury caused by SO(2). PMID:15814492

  8. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, M.; Boone, C. D.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Günther, A.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Roiger, A.; Stiller, G.; Schlager, H.; von Clarmann, T.; Wissmüller, K.

    2015-02-01

    Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~ 20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70-100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3-5 km. Comparison with ACE-FTS observations revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of -20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS dataset in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within -10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10-20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS dataset with in-situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than thirty volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period - Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 - derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10-14, 14-18, and 18-22 km are 13.3±2.1, 23.6±1.2, and 32.3±5.5 d, respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual cycle at northern mid- and high latitudes with maximum values in summer and an amplitude of about 30 pptv. At higher altitudes of about 16-18 km enhanced mixing ratios of SO2 can be found in the region of the Asian and the North-American monsoon in summer - a possible connection to an aerosol layer discovered by Vernier et al. (2011b) in that region.

  9. Acoustical Studies. III. The Rates of Excitation of Vibrational Energy in Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Disulfide and Sulfur Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Richards; James A. Reid

    1934-01-01

    Measurements on these three gases at various pressures, temperatures and frequencies are reported. In all cases double collisions provide the predominant mechanism of excitation. The van der Waals or capillary forces follow the acoustical cycle without lag under the conditions of the experiments. The velocity of sound at 9 kc in carbon dioxide shows that a part of the heat

  10. Changes in somatosensory evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes: effect of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Küçükatay, Vural; A?ar, Aysel; Yargiço?lu, Piraye; Gümü?lü, Saadet; Aktekin, Berrin

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on brain antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was investigated in diabetic rats. A total of 40 rats were divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), SO2 + C (SO2), diabetic (D), and SO2 + D (DSO2). Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by i.v. injection of alloxan at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm SO2 was administered to the rats in the sulfur dioxide groups (SO2 and DSO2) in an exposure chamber. Exposure occurred 1 hr/day, 7 days/wk, for 6 wk; control rats were exposed to filtered air during the same time periods. Although SO2 exposure markedly increased copper, zinc Superoxide dismutase activity, it significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, compared with the C group. Brain catalase activity was unaltered; however, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in all experimental groups with respect to the C group. SEP components P1, N1, P2, and N2 were significantly increased in all experimental groups, compared with the C group, and these components were also prolonged in the DSO2 group with respect to the other groups. The authors' findings suggest that exposure to SO2, because it increases lipid peroxidation, can change antioxidant enzyme activities and affect SEP components in diabetic rats. PMID:12747514

  11. Reactivity of volatile thiols with polyphenols in a wine-model medium: impact of oxygen, iron, and sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Chichuc, Igor; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Darriet, Philippe

    2010-02-15

    As volatile thiols are nucleophiles, they are capable of additional reactions with electrophiles. In enology, this concerns reactions between volatile or non-volatile thiols and oxidized phenolic compounds. Initial studies concerning the reactivity of volatile thiols with polyphenols showed that (+)-catechin played a detrimental role in the level of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH), in the absence of sulfur dioxide. Our experiment revealed that (-)-epicatechin was more reactive with volatile thiols than (+)-catechin. Furthermore, Fe (III) was shown to play a crucial role in catalyzing polyphenol oxidation reactions, by affecting the direct reaction of phenolic compounds with oxygen. It was noted that, even if the volatile thiols studied were members of the same chemical family, they exhibited a different behavior pattern under oxidation conditions. 2-furanmethanethiol (2FMT) was more reactive than 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol with both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. In contrast, 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) was less reactive with these phenolics. Additionally, the vital role of sulfur dioxide in protecting 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, 2-furanmethanethiol, and 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one was demonstrated in the model medium. PMID:20103150

  12. Sinergistic effect of titanium dioxide and iron oxide aerosols in adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of dimethyl methylphosphonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besov, A. S.; Vorontsov, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Kinetics of adsorption, dark and photocatalytic destruction of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapors was investigated on the surface of nanosized FeOOH (3 nm) and mixture of FeOOH with TiO2 (5 nm) (1 : 1) in aerosol state in a closed chamber. FeOOH aerosol adsorbs DMMP (100 ppm) with characteristic time 32 s and does not show photocatalytic activity. Adsorbed DMMP undergoes hydrolysis with formation of gaseous methanol with characteristic time 11 min, while mixed FeOOH-TiO2 aerosol adsorbs DMMP and converts it into CO and CO2 under the action of UV light.

  13. The solubility of elemental sulfur in methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gas 

    E-print Network

    Wieland, Denton R.

    1958-01-01

    . In addition, the solubili? ties in three ternary mixtures at the same temperatures and pressures were determined. To saturate the gas with sulfur, the gas was passed through a bomb filled with granulated sulfur of 48-80 mesh, at the desired pressure..." and could be adjusted by varying the c BURNING ZONE OXYGEN NATURAL s GAS SODIUM CARBONATE FIGURE 2 - SULFUR DETERMINATION APPARATUS ST AIN LE SS ST EE L 15 FIG UR E 3- VA LV E AD AP TE R FO R VY CO R GL AS S TU...

  14. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  15. Sulfur dioxide estimations in the planetary boundary layer using dispersion models and satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarauz, Jorge V.

    The health and environmental conditions in the Central Andes city La Oroya, Peru, have been seriously damaged by the heavy metal mining activities in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the complex topography, which prevents proper mixing and dissolution of particles and gases released into the atmosphere. Understanding how pollutants are dispersed in populated regions, especially in complex terrain, would help to create mitigation strategies. The present study uses CALPUFF and HYSPLIT dispersion/deposition models to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2) dispersion from the main stack of the La Oroya metallurgical plant. Due to the lack of meteorological data in the area, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used with observational nudging for temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields of three surface meteorological stations specifically installed for the study. The pollutant dispersion models are sensitive to a precise estimation of the turbulent vertical transport of mass, energy and moisture in the low atmosphere; therefore, two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are tested, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic and Yonsei University models. The dispersion models are run and results compared with field measurements at La Oroya, and Huancayo. The observation-nudging and YSU scheme considerably improved the prognostic variables. CALPUFF and HYSPLIT models showed similar patterns; however, HYSPLIT overestimated SO2 concentrations for low PBLs. Moreover, recent enhancements on spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric scanning sensors of chemical constituents from the space, have led to detecting trace gases of anthropogenic origin in the lower troposphere. This contribution also explores the SO2 level 2 dataset from Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with atmospheric optical depth and Angstrom coefficient data products, extracted from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate SO2 loads in the PBL for clear and turbid atmospheric conditions. A narrow temporal sampling (three days) with no clear atmospheres and best sensor viewing geometry are examined and compared with a pollutant dispersion and deposition model (CALPUFF) and field observations. The efficacy of the developed method is further examined incorporating synchronous wind vectors, and daily accumulated precipitation derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. The source and trajectories of SO2 concentrations are detected by satellite based observations, and the pollutant plume is correctly traced downwind. Then, the spatial patterns of SO2 loads are analyzed for clear atmospheres and optimal viewing conditions (for 55 samples found in 467 days) and compared with field measurements. A logarithmic model is found between in situ observations and OMI estimations. The correlation can be increased when Angstrom exponents are between 0.7 and 1 and a linear relationship obtained when very high SO2 loads are extracted. Results show that the spatio-temporal dynamics of SO2 as monitored from space is in agreement with both field measurements and CALPUFF, which takes into account topography and wind field patterns. The study concludes that anthropogenic pollutants, i.e., SO2, and its trajectory can be monitored from OMI sensor even for turbid sky conditions. Findings of the research have great potential in public health managements and predictions.

  16. Total fluxes of sulfur dioxide from the Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano measured by differential absorption lidar and passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Edner; P. Ragnarson; S. Svanberg; E. Wallinder; R. Ferrara; R. Cioni; B. Raco; G. Taddeucci

    1994-01-01

    The total flux of sulfur dioxide from the Italian volcanoes Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano was determined using the differential absorption lidar technique. The measurements were performed from an oceanographic research ship making traverses under the volcanic plumes with the lidar system sounding vertically. By combining the integrated gas concentration over the plume cross section with wind velocity data, it was

  17. Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Irradiated a -Pinene/Tolueme/NOx Mixtures and the Effect of Isoprene and Sulfur Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating a series of a-pinene/toluene/NOx mixtures in the absence and presence of isoprene or sulfur dioxide. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the extent to which chemical perturbations to this base-case (a-pinene/...

  18. Determination of equilibrium data for sulfur dioxide-water systems in the range of low concentrations of SO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowiak, J. (Envicon Engineering, Dinslaken (Germany)); Koziol, A.

    1993-07-01

    Various methods for determining equilibrium data for sulfur dioxide-water systems were analyzed. Large differences are encountered in the literature data for the range of low concentrations of SO[sub 2]. An algorithm proposed by Pearson et al. for determining equilibrium data in this range is presented and demonstrated by an example.

  19. Theoretical prediction of the importance of the 3B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide

    E-print Network

    Camille Lévêque; Richard Taïeb; Horst Köppel

    2013-12-08

    While, the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photoexcitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present for the first time a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet $^3$B$_2$ state which has not been discussed before, giving new insights into the dynamics of the intersystem crossing in $SO_2$.

  20. Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the (3)B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Camille; Taïeb, Richard; Köppel, Horst

    2014-03-01

    Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet (3)B2 state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO2. PMID:24606344

  1. Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the 3B2 state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévêque, Camille; Taïeb, Richard; Köppel, Horst

    2014-03-01

    Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet 3B2 state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO2.

  2. Lung function among employees of a copper mine smelter: lack of effect of chronic sulfur dioxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, C.F.; Layne, J.T.; Auer, C.; Bruce, J.

    1980-07-01

    Lung function among 599 white male employees of a southeastern Tennessee copper mine/smelter operation was compared according to smoking history and occupational experience. The job categories compared included employees with work histories in low sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) environments (both underground mining and non-mining), in high SO/sub 2/ exposure work areas, and in those with transient exposure to SO/sub 2/. Miners with low SO/sub 2/ exposure were found to have lower lung function indices (both FVC and FEV/sub 1/) than did employees in other job categories. Smoking history was strongly associated with low FEV/sub 1/. After adjusting for smoking history, cumulative long-term exposure to SO/sub 2/ was not demonstrated to contribute to decreased lung function.

  3. Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waclawek, J. P.; Lewicki, R.; Moser, H.; Brandstetter, M.; Tittel, F. K.; Lendl, B.

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) trace gas detection based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) using a continuous wave, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating at 7.24 ?m was performed. Influence of water vapor addition on monitored QEPAS SO2 signal was also investigated. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of NNEA (1 ?) = 1.21 × 10-8 cm-1 W Hz-1/2 was obtained for the ? 3 SO2 line centered at 1,380.93 cm-1 when the gas sample was moisturized with 2.3 % H2O. This corresponds to a minimum detection limit (1 ?) of 63 parts per billion by volume for a 1 s lock-in time constant.

  4. The effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on visual evoked potentials, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    A?ar, A; Küçükatay, V; Yargiço?lu, P; Aktekin, B; Kipmen-Korgun, S; Gümü?lü, D; Apaydin, C

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 10 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) exposure on visual evoked potentials (VEPs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the activities of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in diabetes mellitus. Forty healthy male albino rats, aged 3 months, were divided into four equal groups: control (C), sulfur dioxide + control (CSO(2)), diabetic (D), and sulfur dioxide + diabetic (DSO(2)) groups. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by IV injection of alloxane monohydrate in a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm sulfur dioxide was administered to the animals of sulfur dioxide-exposed groups in an exposure chamber for 1 h/day x 7 days/week x 6 weeks while control and diabetic groups were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. SO(2) exposure, though markedly decreasing retina CAT and GSH-Px activities, significantly increased retina Cu,Zn-SOD activity in the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In contrast to SO(2)-related increase in the activity of Cu,Zn-SOD, decrease in GSH-Px activity was observed in the brain of those groups. Brain CAT activity was unaltered. SO(2) exposure caused the significant elevation in brain TBARS levels of CSO(2) and DSO(2) groups, whereas only in the retina TBARS level of the CSO(2) group. SO(2) exposure caused the significant prolongations of P(1), N(1), P(2), and P(3) components of VEPs in the nondiabetic and all components of VEPs in the diabetic groups. SO(2) exposure also resulted in significant amplitude reductions in both experimental groups. PMID:10871429

  5. Inhalation route effects on exposure to 2.0 parts per million sulfur dioxide in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Bedi, J F; Horvath, S M

    1989-11-01

    A number of investigations have attributed the control of the nasal to oral/nasal ventilation transition to nasal resistance. To investigate possible changes in nasal resistance due to sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure, 14 subjects (7 men and 7 women), healthy non-smokers, between the ages of 20 and 46 years, were exposed for 30 minutes to filtered air while free breathing and to 2.0 ppm SO2 with either free breathing, forced oral or forced nasal breathing with continuous exercise at a workload 300 kg.m/min below the workload which initiated cross-over from nasal to oral/nasal breathing in a preliminary incremental workload test. An incremental work test under the ambient conditions was performed immediately following the 30-minute exercise to ascertain any change in the cross-over ventilation. Pre- and post-measures of pulmonary functions were obtained to ascertain any changes in these parameters due to the exposure. There was a significant difference in the workload at which cross-over occurred following forced oral breathing in 2.0 ppm sulfur dioxide. The nasal ventilation prior to cross-over and the nasal component of ventilation were significantly smaller for this exposure condition, indicating a possible change in nasal dynamics following the 30 minutes of forced oral breathing in 2.0 ppm SO2. Lack of concomitant changes in pulmonary function tests including airway resistance suggests that breathing 2.0 ppm SO2 does not affect normal subjects whether administration is by free, forced oral or forced nasal breathing. PMID:2607361

  6. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Amancio, C.T.; Nascimento, L.F.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD) of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6). Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06) in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants. PMID:22892828

  7. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) study

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Haidong; Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Qian, Zhengmin

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity, but few studies were conducted in Asian countries. Previous studies suggest that SO2 may have adverse health effects independent of other pollutants. In the Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project, the short-term associations between ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) and daily mortality were examined in Bangkok, Thailand, and three Chinese cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. The impact of alternative model specifications, such as lag structure of pollutants and degree of freedom (df) for time trend, on the estimated effects of SO2 were also examined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant effects of SO2 on total non-accidental and cardiopulmonary mortality were observed. An increase of 10 ?g/m3 of 2-day moving average concentrations of SO2 corresponded to 1.00% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.24], 1.09% (95% CI, 0.71-1.47), and 1.47% (95% CI, 0.85-2.08) increase of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively, in the combined analysis. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. After adjustment for PM10 or O3, the effect of SO2 remained significant in three Chinese cities. However, adjustment for NO2 diminished the associations and rendered them statistically insignificant in all four cities. In conclusion, ambient SO2 concentration was associated with daily mortality in these four Asian cities. These associations may be attributable to SO2 serving as a surrogate of other substances. Our findings suggest that the role of outdoor exposure to SO2 should be investigated further in this region. PMID:20122685

  8. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION - PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spectral reflectances were measured by tri-band densitometry of aerial color-infrared photographs of soybean (Glycine mas fields that had been affected by sulfur dioside (SO2) emissions from large, coal-fired power plants in northwestern Alabama and western Tennessee. The photogr...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...colorless, oily liquid. It is prepared by reacting sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) with oxygen and mixing the resultant sulfur trioxide (SO3 ) with water, or by reacting nitric oxide (NO) with sulfur dioxide and water. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...colorless, oily liquid. It is prepared by reacting sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) with oxygen and mixing the resultant sulfur trioxide (SO3 ) with water, or by reacting nitric oxide (NO) with sulfur dioxide and water. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...colorless, oily liquid. It is prepared by reacting sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) with oxygen and mixing the resultant sulfur trioxide (SO3 ) with water, or by reacting nitric oxide (NO) with sulfur dioxide and water. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...colorless, oily liquid. It is prepared by reacting sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) with oxygen and mixing the resultant sulfur trioxide (SO3 ) with water, or by reacting nitric oxide (NO) with sulfur dioxide and water. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...colorless, oily liquid. It is prepared by reacting sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) with oxygen and mixing the resultant sulfur trioxide (SO3 ) with water, or by reacting nitric oxide (NO) with sulfur dioxide and water. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  14. Effects of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on the growth of eastern white pine. [Pinus strobus L

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    Eight clones of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) with predetermined sensitivity to air pollution were fumigated with 5 pphm and 10 pphm ozone (O/sub 3/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x) singly, and in combination for 4h/day for 35 consecutive days. During the fumigation period, needle length, visible symptoms, and dry wt. were evaluated weekly. The carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) exchange rate was measured during the 10 pphm O/sub 3/ and 10 pphm SO/sub 2/ fumigation for 4h/day for 7 consecutive days. Needle length was not significantly different among different clones and treatments, whereas, there was a correlation between needle dry wt. (mg/mm of fascicle) and air pollution injury. Ten pphm O/sub 3/ and 10 pphm SO/sub 2/ slightly decreased CO/sub 2/ exchange rate during the first 1h of fumigation. Recovery phenomenon occurred after the end of each day's 4h fumigation. There was a trend of continuous decrease in relative CO/sub 2/ exchange rates over the 7 day period, however.

  15. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide by a Slurry of Jordanian Oil Shale Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Al-Harahsheh; R. A. Shawabkeh; M. S. Al-Harahsheh; M. M. Batiha

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a study on the capacity of oil shale ash to remove sulphur dioxide from air streams before escaping into the atmosphere. Slurries of different concentrations of this ash showed an uptake capacity of 4 × 10 mol SO2\\/g ash obtained after 250 sec. This value increases with the increase of solution pH, temperature, and ash concentration, and

  16. Particulate and sulfur dioxide emission control costs for large coal-fired boilers. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Gibbs; D. S. Rorste; Y. M. Shah

    1978-01-01

    Cost cases developed include five processes, i.e., lime, limestone, mag-ox, double alkali, and Wellman-Lord; five plant sizes from 25 to 1000 MW; three SOâ control levels, current, 90% efficiency, 0.5 lbs SOâ\\/million Btu; three particulate levels, current (43 ng\\/j), 22 ng\\/j, and 13 ng\\/j; and coals of varying sulfur, heating value, and ash content. Averaging times, redundancy, sludge disposal, and

  17. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO?), sulfur dioxide (SO?), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO? emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO? emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO? emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO? and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO? emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO? emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO? emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO? emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants. PMID:25004854

  18. Leaf nitrogen dioxide uptake coupling apoplastic chemistry, carbon\\/sulfur assimilation, and plant nitrogen status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanbo Hu; Guangyu Sun

    2010-01-01

    Emission and plant uptake of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2) significantly influence regional climate change by regulating the oxidative chemistry of the lower atmosphere, species composition\\u000a and the recycling of carbon and nutrients, etc. Plant uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is concentration-dependent and species-specific, and covaries with environmental factors. An important factor determining\\u000a NO2 influx into leaves is the replenishment of

  19. Vertical distribution of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol ions, and radon over the northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Andreae, T. W.; Kritz, M. A.; Bates, T. S.

    1988-01-01

    The vertical distributions, in temperate latitudes, of dimethylsulfide (DMS), SO2, radon, methanesulfonate (MSA), nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-sulfate), and aerosol Na(+), NH4(+), and NO(-) ions were determined in samples collected by an aircraft over the northeast Pacific Ocean during May 3-12, 1985. DMS was also determined in surface seawater. It was found that DMS concentrations, both in seawater and in the atmospheric boundary layer, were significantly lower than the values reported previously for subtropical and tropical regions, reflecting the seasonal variability in the temperate North Pacific. The vertical profiles of DMS, MSA, SO2, and nss-sulfate were found to be strongly dependent on the convective stability of the atmosphere and on air mass origin. Biogenic sulfur emissions could account for most of the sulfur budget in the boundary layer, while the long-range transport of continentally derived air masses was mainly responsible for the elevated levels of both SO2 and nss-sulfate in the free troposphere.

  20. Vertical distribution of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol ions, and radon over the northeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Andreae, T. W.; Kritz, M. A.; Bates, T. S.

    1988-02-01

    The vertical distributions, in temperate latitudes, of dimethylsulfide (DMS), SO2, radon, methanesulfonate (MSA), nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-sulfate), and aerosol Na(+), NH4(+), and NO(-) ions were determined in samples collected by an aircraft over the northeast Pacific Ocean during May 3-12, 1985. DMS was also determined in surface seawater. It was found that DMS concentrations, both in seawater and in the atmospheric boundary layer, were significantly lower than the values reported previously for subtropical and tropical regions, reflecting the seasonal variability in the temperate North Pacific. The vertical profiles of DMS, MSA, SO2, and nss-sulfate were found to be strongly dependent on the convective stability of the atmosphere and on air mass origin. Biogenic sulfur emissions could account for most of the sulfur budget in the boundary layer, while the long-range transport of continentally derived air masses was mainly responsible for the elevated levels of both SO2 and nss-sulfate in the free troposphere.

  1. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  2. Diagnostic organometallic and metallodendritic materials for SO2 gas detection: reversible binding of sulfur dioxide to arylplatinum(II) complexes

    PubMed

    Albrecht; Gossage; Lutz; Spek; van Koten G

    2000-04-14

    A series of square-planar platinum(II) complexes of the N,C,N'-terdentate-coordinating monoanionic "pincer" ligand, [PtX(4-E-2,6-[CH2NRR']2-C6H2](X=Cl, Br, I, tolyl; R, R'=Et, Me; E=H, OH, OSiMe2tBu) has been prepared. In the presence of sulfur dioxide, these complexes spontaneously adsorb this gas to form penta-coordinated adducts. Solid-state crystal-structure analyses of the SO2 adducts 8c (X=I, R=R=Me, E=OSiMe2tBu) and 11 (X=Cl, R=R'=Me, E=OH) show a square-pyramidal geometry around the metal center with SO2 in the apical position. Most interestingly. the adduct 11 forms similar Pt-Cl... H-O hydrogen-bonded alpha-type networks as the corresponding SO2-free complex 5. The conservation of the supramolecular information (hydrogen-bonded self-assembly) throughout a reaction (SO2 adsorption) is unprecedented in crystal engineering. Adduct formation in the solid state or in solution is fast and reversible and is indicated by a characteristic color change of the material from colorless to bright orange. Since facile methods have been developed to remove SO2 from the adducts and to regenerate the square-planar starting complexes, these complexes fulfill several essential prerequisites of sensor materials for repeated diagnostic SO2 detection. The platinum sensors have been found to be highly selective for sulfur dioxide and particularly sensitive for submilimolar to molar gas quantities. Their response capacity is tuneable by electronic and steric modifications of the ligand array by introduction of, for example, different substituents on the nitrogen donors. The periphery of dendrimers is shown to be an appropriate macromolecular support for anchoring the detection-active sites, thus allowing full recovery of the sensor materials for repeated use. By using this concept, metallo-dendrimers 3 and 15 have been prepared. Owing to the dendritic connectivity, these sensors are suitable for repetitive qualitative and quantitative detection of small amounts of SO2. PMID:10840966

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ammonium Sulfinates from Aryl Halides and a Sulfur Dioxide Surrogate: A Gas- and Reductant-Free Process**

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward J; Hayter, Barry R; Willis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonyl-derived functional groups populate a broad range of useful molecules and materials, and despite a variety of preparative methods being available, processes which introduce the most basic sulfonyl building block, sulfur dioxide, using catalytic methods, are rare. Described herein is a simple reaction system consisting of the sulfur dioxide surrogate DABSO, triethylamine, and a palladium(0) catalyst for effective convertion of a broad range of aryl and heteroaryl halides into the corresponding ammonium sulfinates. Key features of this gas- and reductant-free reaction include the low loadings of palladium (1?mol?%) and ligand (1.5?mol?%) which can be employed, and the use of isopropyl alcohol as both a solvent and formal reductant. The ammonium sulfinate products are converted in situ into a variety of sulfonyl-containing functional groups, including sulfones, sulfonyl chlorides, and sulfonamides. PMID:25066222

  4. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of ammonium sulfinates from aryl halides and a sulfur dioxide surrogate: a gas- and reductant-free process.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Edward J; Hayter, Barry R; Willis, Michael C

    2014-09-15

    Sulfonyl-derived functional groups populate a broad range of useful molecules and materials, and despite a variety of preparative methods being available, processes which introduce the most basic sulfonyl building block, sulfur dioxide, using catalytic methods, are rare. Described herein is a simple reaction system consisting of the sulfur dioxide surrogate DABSO, triethylamine, and a palladium(0) catalyst for effective convertion of a broad range of aryl and heteroaryl halides into the corresponding ammonium sulfinates. Key features of this gas- and reductant-free reaction include the low loadings of palladium (1?mol%) and ligand (1.5?mol%) which can be employed, and the use of isopropyl alcohol as both a solvent and formal reductant. The ammonium sulfinate products are converted in situ into a variety of sulfonyl-containing functional groups, including sulfones, sulfonyl chlorides, and sulfonamides. PMID:25066222

  5. Stability Studies of Waste Produced in Pilot-Plant Testing using Ferrous-EDTA and Magnesium-Enhanced Lime for Combined Sulfur-Dioxide\\/Nitrogen Oxides Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Mendelsohn; C. D. Livengood

    1998-01-01

    A pilot-plant-scale study of combined sulfur dioxide\\/nitrogen oxides (SO2\\/NOx) removal has been performed by the Dravo Lime Company at the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company's Miami Fort Station in North Bend, Ohio. This study used Dravo's patented Thiosorbic® lime process along with Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) patented process for combined SO2\\/NOx removal using the chelate ferrous·ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe·EDTA). For approximately nine

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy at transition metal-gas interfaces: Adsorption and reactions of sulfur dioxide on platinum-, rhodium-, and ruthenium-coated gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wilke; Xiaoping Gao; C. G. Takoudis; M. J. Weaver

    1991-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra obtained using 647-nm excitation are reported for the adsorption and oxidation of sulfur dioxide in flowing argon-based streams at ambient pressures and at 300 K on electrochemically roughened Au, and on Au surfaces modified by thin (2-3 monolayer) electrodeposited films of Pt, Rh, and Ru. The spectra were recorded by using a spectrograph\\/charge-coupled device (CCD) detector

  7. Replacement of Hazardous Chromium Impregnating Agent from Silver\\/Copper\\/Chromium-Impregnated Active Carbon Using Triethylenediamine to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide, Trichloromethane, Ammonia, and Sulfur Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Chun Wu; Ying-Chien Chung; Tracy Glenz; Lisa Brosseau; Richard Hoffbeck; Kyoko Yamashita; Naomichi Yamamoto; Atsushi Mizukoshi; Miyuki Noguchi; Yueyong Ni; Yukio Yanagisawa; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; James Schwab; John Spicer; Kenneth Demerjian; Mark Gibson; Judith Guernsey; Stephen Beauchamp; David Waugh; Mathew Heal; Jeffrey Brook; Robert Maher; Graham Gagnon; Johnny McPherson; Barbara Bryden; Richard Gould; Liming Zhou; Philip Hopke; Weixiang Zhao; Elisabeth Hawley; Neven Kresic; Alexandra Wright; Michael Kavanaugh; Pat Saathoff; Amit Gupta; Ted Stathopoulos; Louis Lazure; ABM Khan; Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons; Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used as an effective adsorbent in many applications, including industrial-scale air purification systems and air filter systems in gas masks. In general, ACs without chemical impregnation are good adsorbents of organic vapors but poor adsorbents of low-molecular-weight or polar gases such as chlorine, sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, and ammonia (NH3). Impregnated ACs modified with metallic

  8. Supercritical carbon dioxide and sulfur in the Madison Limestone: A natural analog in southwest Wyoming for geologic carbon–sulfur co-sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Kaszuba; Alexis Navarre-Sitchler; Geoffrey Thyne; Curtis Chopping; Tom Meuzelaar

    2011-01-01

    The Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, southwest Wyoming, USA contains large volumes (65–95%) of supercritical CO2 that it has stored naturally for 50millionyears. This reservoir also contains supercritical H2S, aqueous sulfur complexes (SO42? and HS?), and sulfur-bearing minerals (anhydrite and pyrite). Although SO2 is not present, these sulfur-bearing phases are known products of SO2 disproportionation in other water–rock systems.

  9. Direct imaging of biological sulfur dioxide derivatives in vivo using a two-photon phosphorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanying; Chen, Yu; Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Jingheng; Gasser, Gilles; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and its derivatives sulfite and bisulfite play important roles in biological systems. However, in vivo detection of sulfite/bisulfite remains challenging. In this study, we developed a dinuclear Ir(III) complex (Ir4) as a two-photon phosphorescent probe for sulfite and bisulfite. Ir4 selectively and rapidly responded, with high sensitivity, to sulfite/bisulfite over other bio-related ions and molecules. One-photon and two-photon microscopy images revealed that Ir4 preferentially targeted mitochondria and was capable of imaging biological sulfite/bisulfite levels in vitro and in vivo. In situ sulfite generation in Caenorhabditis elegans was visualized by two-photon excitation real-time imaging. Finally, Ir4 was employed to monitor sulfite distribution in rat brain and other tissues. This study is the first report of the direct visualization of SO2 derivatives in vivo. These results provide new insights into the biological importance of SO2. PMID:26100342

  10. Protective effects of salicylic acid and vitamin C on sulfur dioxide-induced lipid peroxidation in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiping; Xu, Xin; Na, Jie; Hao, Lin; Huang, Linli; Li, Guangzhe; Xu, Qiang

    2008-07-01

    The antioxidant effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and vitamin C (Vit C) on the oxidative stress induced by 56 mg/m(3) of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in mouse livers and brains were investigated. The exposure of SO2 caused significant elevation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and reduction of enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in brain and liver, accompanied by a decrease in relative growth rate, when compared with controls. Application of moderate concentrations of SA and Vit C markedly reduced the SO2-induced elevation of TBARS levels, with 5.5 mg/kg SA or 200 mg/kg Vit C being most effective. In contrast to the decrease of TBARS levels, the levels of SOD, POD, and CAT in liver and brain were significantly increased in comparison with controls. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of total liver proteins showed that the SO2 inhalation caused a 30-kD protein band disappearance compared with the control. However, the band remained unchanged in the samples treated with 5.5 and 8.25 mg/kg SA or 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg Vit C. Therefore, this protein band may serve as a marker for the damage induced by SO2 and an additional basis for drug screening and selection. PMID:18645726

  11. Effect of exercise rate and route of inhalation on sulfur-dioxide-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bethel, R A; Erle, D J; Epstein, J; Sheppard, D; Nadel, J A; Boushey, H A

    1983-10-01

    Nine asthmatic subjects exercised at low, moderate, and high work rates on a cycle ergometer while breathing filtered, humidified air with or without 0.5 ppm of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a double-blind study. Subjects first performed these experiments breathing through a mouthpiece while wearing a noseclip (oral breathing) and then repeated the experiments breathing through a facemask that separated and permitted independent measurement of oral and nasal air flow (oronasal breathing). We determined specific airway resistance before and after exercise by body plethysmography. Inhaled by mouthpiece, 0.5 ppm So2 caused bronchoconstriction at moderate and high but not at low work rates. There was a dose-response relationship between the work rate performed and the degree of bronchoconstriction induced. Inhaled oronasally, 0.5 ppm SO2 caused bronchoconstriction only at the high work rate. These findings demonstrate that So2-induced bronchoconstriction is dependent on the work rate of exercise during exposure, that oronasal breathing is only partially effective in preventing the bronchoconstriction observed with oral breathing, and that oronasal breathing is less effective in preventing bronchoconstriction with high than with moderate exercise at this concentration of SO2. PMID:6354021

  12. Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    PubMed Central

    Capriotti, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid derived as a by-product from wood pulp in the production of paper. This colorless liquid found immediate application as a polar, aprotic solvent miscible with water and able to dissolve an enormous catalog of polar and nonpolar small molecules. It is presently scarcely used in dermatology, but given its useful properties as a penetration-enhancing solvent excipient and active anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical agent, dimethyl sulfoxide has the potential to be used in a much broader capacity. The authors review the history, chemistry, and clinical utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as it pertains to dermatology. PMID:23050031

  13. Investigation on mercury removal method from flue gas in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Wang, Wenhua; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-30

    A new integrated process was developed for the removal and reclamation of mercury from the flue gas in the presence of SO2, typically derived from nonferrous metal smelting. The new process contains a pre-desulfurization unit (Stage I) and a co-absorption unit (Stage II). In Stage I, 90% of the SO2 from flue gas can be efficiently absorbed by ferric sulfate and reclaimed sulfuric acid. Meanwhile, the proportion of Hg(2+) and Hg(0) in the flue gas can be redistributed in this stage. Then, over 95% of the Hg(0) and the residual SO2 can be removed simultaneously with a composite absorption solution from the flue gas in Stage II, which is much more efficient for the Hg(0) reclaiming than the traditional method. The composite absorption solution in Stage II, which is composed of 0.1g/L HgSO4, 1.0% H2O2 and H2SO4, could effectively remove and reclaim Hg(0) overcoming the negative effect of SO2 on Hg(0) absorption. Moreover, the concentrations of HgSO4 and H2O2 were adjusted with the changes in of the concentrations of Hg(0) and SO2 in the flue gas. It is a potential and promising technology for the mercury removal and reclaim from the flue gas in the presence of SO2. PMID:25072135

  14. H2SO4 photolysis: A souce of sulfur dioxide in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Ko, M. K. W.; Weisenstein, D. W.; Zander, R.; Abrams, M. C.; Goldman, A.; Sze, N. D.; Yue, G. K.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous absoption lines of stratospheric sulfer dioxide (SO2) were identified in solar occulation spectra recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1 shuttle mission (March 24-April 2, 1992). based on their analysis, a volume mixing ratio profile of SO2 increasing from (13 +/- 4) p.p.t.v. (parts per 10(exp -12) by volume) at 16 mbar (approximately 28 km) to 455 +/- 90 p.p.t.v. at 0.63 mbar (approximately 52 km) was measured with no significant profile differences between 20 deg N and 60 deg S latitude. The increase in the SO2 mixing ratios with altitude indicates the presence of a source of SO2 in the upper stratosphere. Profiles retrieved from ATMOS spectra recorded during shuttle flights in April-May 1985 and April 1993 show similar vertical distributions but lower concentrations. Two-dimensional model calculations with SO2 assumed as the end product of H2SO4 photolysis produce SO2 profiles consistent with the ATMOS measuremnts to within about a factor 2.

  15. Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-burning endemic area in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan

    2013-10-01

    The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-burning endemic fluorosis areas of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township area was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm-2?day and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) Average concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-burning endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.

  16. The Effects of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartledge, B. T.; Marcotte, A.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.; Majestic, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current study focuses on studying how iron (Fe) solubility is affected by particle size, relative humidity, and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Fe, the most abundant transition metal in atmospheric particulate matter, plays a critical role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle and is a micronutrient for phytoplankton in remote regions of the ocean. To mimic oceanic particles, iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, goethite, and illite) were resuspended with sodium chloride and size-segregated on Teflon filters into five different size fractions: 10-2.5 ?m, 2.5-1.0 ?m, 1.0-0.5 ?m, 0.5-0.25 ?m, and <0.25 ?m. Mineral phases were then exposed to 5 ppm SO2 in air at marine environment humidity (>80%) and arid environment humidity (24%). Trials with no SO2 ­were also performed as comparisons. Total Fe was determined by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and soluble Fe was determined by extracting the samples in a simulated cloud water buffer (pH 4.25, 0.5 mM acetate, 0.5 mM formate, and 0.2 mM ammonium nitrate). Both total and soluble Fe concentrations were determined via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that, as particle size decreased, Fe percent solubility increased for hematite, magnetite, and goethite. The percent solubility of Fe in these mineral phases steadily increased from 0.5-10% as particle size decreased. In contrast, the Fe percent solubility in illite was relatively constant for the largest four size fractions but increased dramatically in the smallest size fraction. The percent solubility of Fe in illite ranged from 5-20% as the particle size decreased. Additionally, increased Fe solubility was linked to increased relative humidity with higher percent solubility generally observed in all mineral phases for the samples exposed at the higher humidity. No correlation was observed for the effects of the SO2 on Fe percent solubility. The likely lack of Fe-SO2 interactions were also supported by synchrotron-based x-ray spectroscopy. These results help further the knowledge of how the solubilization of particulate Fe is affected by atmospheric transport.

  17. Fundamental study of ammonia-sulfur dioxide reactions to form solid particles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, P.; Bai, H. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1994-01-18

    The effects of reaction residence time, presence of inert particles and moisture content on the SO{sub 2} removal and the product particle size distributions have been determined. Results indicated that both gas phase and particle phase reach equilibria in a very short time. The presence of inert particles increases the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency slightly, with a greater increase in removal efficiency at higher surface areas. Moisture content is the most important parameter affecting SO{sub 2} removal. Increasing the moisture content from 1.6% to 6.4% by volume results in a 30% increase of the SO{sub 2} removal at a reaction temperature of 51{degree}C. The products at near anhydrous conditions were concluded to be NH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}, (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}. While the products at humid conditions could be either the 1:1 sulfites, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}, or the 2:1 sulfites, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} {minus}H{sub 2}O, or a mixture of the 1:1 and 2:1 sulfite. Those sulfite particles could subsequently oxidize to form the more stable sulfate particles. A gas-to-particle formation model has been developed to simulate the NH{sub 3}-SO{sub 2} system in the presence and absence of seed aerosols at trace water conditions. This model accounts for simultaneous nucleation, coagulation, condensation and chemical reaction. The applicability of utilizing ammonia injection to a flue gas system has been discussed in terms of two possible removal schemes. One utilizes ammonia injection alone and the other is in conjunction with the injection of Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry in a spray dryer system. Both schemes have the potential of achieving over 90% SO{sub 2} removal from power plants burning high-sulfur coals.

  18. Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have examined the association between air pollutants (including sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitric oxide [NO], ozone [O3], and particulate matter < 10 ?m [PM10]) and lung cancer. However, data from previous studies on pathological cell types were limited, especially for SO2 exposure. We aimed to explore the association between SO2 exposure from outdoor air pollutants and female lung cancer incidence by cell type specificity. Methods We conducted an ecological study and calculated annual average concentration of 6 air pollutants (SO2, CO, NO2, NO, O3, and PM10) using data from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration air quality monitoring stations. The Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between SO2 and age-standardized incidence rate of female lung cancer by two major pathological types (adenocarcinoma [AC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]). In order to understand whether there is a dose-response relationship between SO2 and two major pathological types, we analyzed 4 levels of exposure based on quartiles of concentration of SO2. Results The Poisson regression results showed that with the first quartile of SO2 concentration as the baseline, the relative risks for AC/SCC type cancer among females were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.37)/1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.01) for the second, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43)/1.58 (95% CI, 1.06-2.37) for the third, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.06-1.52)/1.80 (95% CI, 1.15-2.84) for the fourth quartile of SO2 concentration. The tests for trend were statistically significant for both AC and SCC at P = 0.0272 and 0.0145, respectively. Conclusion The current study suggests that SO2 exposure as an air pollutant may increase female lung cancer incidence and the associations with female lung cancer is much stronger for SCC than for AC. The findings of this study warrant further investigation on the role of SO2 in the etiology of SCC. PMID:22214195

  19. Estimating Sulfur Dioxide in Volcanic Plumes Using an Ultraviolet Camera. First Results from Lascar, Ollagüe and Irruputuncu Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, C. A.; Amigo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic gas fluxes give important information on both the amount of degassing and magma reservoirs. In most of magmas, water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are major components of volcanic gas. However, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the targets of remote sensing due to their low concentration in the environment and easy detection by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Accordingly, plume imaging using passive ultraviolet cameras is a relatively simple method to study volcanic degassing, expeditious manner and can be used up from distances of about 10 km from source of emissions. We estimated SO2 concentrations and fluxes in volcanic plumes with the ultraviolet camera Envicam-2, developed by Nicarnica Aviation, acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile (SERNAGEOMIN). The camera has filters that allow passage of ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths of interest. For determining whether there is absorption of radiation associated with the presence of SO2 the Beer-Lambert law was used for quantifying concentrations using appropriate calibration cells. SO2 emissions to the atmosphere were estimated using wind speed as an approximation to the plume transport. In this study we reported the implementation of a new methodology for using Envicam-2 and subsequent collection of SO2 concentrations and fluxes in passive degassing volcanoes. Measurements were done at Lascar, Ollagüe and Irruputuncu volcanoes, located in northern Chile. The volcanoes were chosen because of optimal atmospheric conditions for ultraviolet imaging. Results indicate concentrations within the expected ranges for three volcanoes generally between 400-1700 ppm•m. In the case of Láscar volcano, the emission rates of SO2 range from 250 to 500 tonnes/day for a same image of the plume. In particular, wind speed was determined from scaling images and are consistent with data from regional numerical models, as well as records of the meteorological stations installed at the ALMA astronomical center, located about 40 km north of the volcano. This study reveals new insights and challenges related to remote sensing of volcanic gases in Chile. In particular, the evolution of the SO2 emission in active volcanoes can be a powerful monitoring tool that can be complemented with other geophysical techniques.

  20. Comparison of thermoelectric and permeation dryers for sulfur dioxide removal during sample conditioning of wet gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dunder, T.A. [Entropy, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Research Div.; Leighty, D.A. [Perma Pure, Inc., Toms River, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Flue gas conditioning for moisture removal is commonly performed for criteria pollutant measurements, in particular for extractive CEM systems at combustion sources. An implicit assumption is that conditioning systems specifically remove moisture without affecting pollutant and diluent concentrations. Gas conditioning is usually performed by passing the flue gas through a cold trap (Peltier or thermoelectric dryer) to remove moisture by condensation, which is subsequently extracted by a peristaltic pump. Many air pollutants are water-soluble and potentially susceptible to removal in a condensation dryer from gas interaction with liquid water. An alternative technology for gas conditioning is the permeation dryer, where the flue gas passes through a selectively permeable membrane for moisture removal. In this case water is transferred through the membrane while other pollutants are excluded, and the gas does not contact condensed liquid. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the relative removal of a water-soluble pollutant (sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}) by the two conditioning techniques. A wet gas generating system was used to create hot, wet gas streams of known composition (15% and 30% moisture, balance nitrogen) and flow rate. Pre-heated SO{sub 2} was dynamically spiked into the wet stream using mass flow meters to achieve concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 ppm. The spiked gas was directed through a heated sample line to either a thermoelectric or a permeation conditioning system. Two gas analyzers (Western Research UV gas monitor, KVB/Analect FTIR spectrometer) were used to measure the SO{sub 2} concentration after conditioning. Both analytic methods demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is removed to a significantly greater extent by the thermoelectric dryer. These results have important implications for SO{sub 2} monitoring and emissions trading.

  1. Age-related alterations in antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxide levels, and somatosensory-evoked potentials: effect of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Yargiço?lu, P; A?ar, A; Gümü?lü, S; Bilmen, S; O?uz, Y

    1999-11-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) on somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the activities of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in young (3 months), middle-age (12 months), and old (24 months) Swiss male albino rats. Ten ppm SO(2) was administrated to the animals of SO(2) groups in an exposure chamber for 1 h/day x 7 days/week x 6 while control groups were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. SO(2) exposure caused increased levels of brain Cu,Zn-SOD activity and decreased levels of brain GSH-Px activity in all experimental groups with respect to their corresponding control groups. Brain CAT activities were unaltered. Brain TBARS levels of all SO(2)-exposed groups were significantly increased in comparison with their respective control groups. The mean latencies of P(1), P(2), and N(2) components in the older group were either significantly different from the young or from the middle-age groups. The mean latency of the N(1) component in the older group and that of P(1) and N(1) in the middle-age group were significantly increased compared with the young group. SO(2) exposure caused the prolongation of all components in the young group, whereas it affected only the P(2) component in the middle-age group, but it did not result in any latency change in the older group in comparison with their corresponding control groups.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p554.html

  2. Retrieval of near-surface sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at a global scale using IASI satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theys, Nicolas; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2015-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an atmospheric trace gas with both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the troposphere, SO2 released by industrial activities mainly stays close to the ground level. The IASI/MetOp infrared remote sensor has shown over the years good performances for tracking SO2 plumes in the free troposphere. Probing anthropogenic SO2 pollution on the other hand is a challenge due to the generally low sensitivity of infrared measurements to the near-surface atmosphere, itself caused by the weak thermal contrasts between the ground and the air above it. Recent studies, which have focused on local sources (the industrial area of Norilsk and of the North China Plain), have however demonstrated that IASI was able to retrieve SO2 near-surface concentrations in favorable meteorological situations, and in particular in case of large temperature inversions. Expanding on these findings, this work presents new observations of near-surface SO2 at global scale from IASI observations. The method, which includes the determination of the SO2 plume altitude and SO2 boundary layer column, will be briefly presented. Global distributions of anthropogenic pollution will be shown, focusing on the identification of the principal hotspots and of exceptional pollution events. A first assessment of the retrieved columns with correlative measurements will be provided for some local sources. IASI measurements and new OMI SO2 retrievals will be compared. This will highlight the complementarity of these current TIR and UV sounders for measuring SO2 pollution, which could be exploited in the future with IASI-NG and Sentinel-5 instruments.

  3. Risk of Asthmatic Episodes in Children Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Stack Emissions from a Refinery Point Source in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom; Hicks, John; Plante, Céline; Armstrong, Ben; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goudreau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respiratory effects of short-term exposures to petroleum refinery emissions in young children. This study is an extension of an ecologic study that found an increased rate of hospitalizations for respiratory conditions among children living near petroleum refineries in Montreal (Canada). Methods We used a time-stratified case–crossover design to assess the risk of asthma episodes in relation to short-term variations in sulfur dioxide levels among children 2–4 years of age living within 0.5–7.5 km of the refinery stacks. Health data used to measure asthma episodes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions from 1996 to 2004. We estimated daily levels of SO2 at the residence of children using a) two fixed-site SO2 monitors located near the refineries and b) the AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model) atmospheric dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios associated with an increase in the interquartile range of daily SO2 mean and peak exposures (31.2 ppb for AERMOD peaks). We adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, and regional/urban background air pollutant levels. Results The risks of asthma ED visits and hospitalizations were more pronounced for same-day (lag 0) SO2 peak levels than for mean levels on the same day, or for other lags: the adjusted odds ratios estimated for same-day SO2 peak levels from AERMOD were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.22] and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.82), over the interquartile range, for ED visits and hospital admissions, respectively. Conclusions Short-term episodes of increased SO2 exposures from refinery stack emissions were associated with a higher number of asthma episodes in nearby children. PMID:19440507

  4. Pre-exposure to sulfur dioxide attenuates most allergic reactions upon trimellitic anhydride challenge in sensitized Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Jacobs, Erik J; Kuper, C Frieke

    2010-02-01

    Irritant-induced inflammation of the airways may aggravate respiratory allergy induced by chemical respiratory allergens. Therefore, it was studied whether airway irritation by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) would enhance respiratory allergic reactions to trimellitic anhydride (TMA), using a rat model. Brown Norway (BN) rats were topically sensitized, subsequently exposed for a single time or repeatedly to 300 ppm SO(2), and challenged by inhalation to a distinctly irritating or minimally irritating concentration of TMA after the (last) SO(2) exposure. Repeated exposure to SO(2) alone reduced breathing frequency during exposure, and caused epithelial alterations including hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and infiltration of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells into nasal tissues, larynx, trachea, and bronchi/bronchioli. Histopathological changes were less prominent after 1 day of SO(2) exposure. Repeated pre-exposure to SO(2) reduced the number of TMA-induced apnoeas, in an SO(2) exposure duration-dependent manner. This effect of SO(2) on TMA-induced functional allergic reactions (apnoeas) was distinct only when the TMA challenge concentration was not too irritating itself. Repeated pre-exposure to SO(2) reduced TMA-induced laryngeal ulceration, goblet-cell hyperplasia, and inflammation in the lungs in most animals, regardless of the TMA challenge concentration. The SO(2)-induced replacement of normal respiratory epithelium by less sensitive, squamous epithelium may offer an explanation for the, unexpected, reduced allergic manifestation. However in a few animals, SO(2) appeared to facilitate TMA-induced irritation, probably due to incomplete protection. Overall, SO(2) exposure of TMA-sensitized rats reduced TMA-related allergic respiratory responses in most animals. PMID:20067440

  5. Flux determinations and physiological response in the exposure of red spruce to gaseous hydrogen peroxide, oxone, and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, C.A.; Lazrus, A.L.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Monson, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide is reported on. The exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and SO{sub 2} that have been observed during the summertime on the summit of Whiteface Mountain, New York. Fluxes of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and the three pollutants were determined throughout the exposure. At weekly intervals, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, and hydrocarbon emissions were made. The response of the branch was compared to an equivalent branch of the same tree which received no pollutants but was otherwise treated identically. The exposure produced no visible injury symptoms but did produce an increase in dark respiration; the respiration rate more than doubled during the 21-day exposure period. Net photosynthesis was unaffected for both the experimental and the control branches. Nighttime fluxes of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to external plant surfaces were significant. The stomatal component of O{sub 3} uptake by the branch displayed a linear increase during the experiment, and showed no evidence of saturating. Daytime and nighttime fluxes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were increasing at the end of the experiment. It was observed that isoprene is emitted from red spruce, but saw no clear-cut change in emission rate in response to the exposure experiment.

  6. N2-, O2- and He-collision-induced broadening of sulfur dioxide ro-vibrational lines in the 9.2 ?m atmospheric window.

    PubMed

    Tasinato, Nicola; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi; Buffa, Giovanni

    2014-01-24

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a molecule of considerable interest for both atmospheric chemistry and astrophysics. In the Earth's atmosphere, it enters in the sulfur cycle and it is ubiquitous present in polluted atmospheres, where it is responsible for acid rains. It is also of astrophysical and planetological importance, being present on Venus and in interstellar clouds. In this work the collisional broadening of a number of ?1 ro-vibrational lines of SO2 perturbed by N2, O2 and He are investigated at room temperature in the 9 ?m atmospheric region by means of high resolution tunable diode laser (TDL) infrared spectroscopy. From N2- and O2-broadening coefficients, the broadening parameters of sulfur dioxide in air, useful for atmospheric applications, are derived as well. From the present measurements some conclusions on the quantum number dependence of the N2-, O2- and He-broadening coefficients are drawn. While the J dependence is weak for all the perturbers investigated, different trends with Ka are reported. N2-broadening coefficients show a slight decrease with increasing values of Ka, whereas O2 and He broadening cross sections first increase up to Ka(?)?6 and then they keep a nearly constant value. A comparison and a brief discussion on the efficiency of self-, N2-, O2- and He-collisional dynamics are given. The data obtained represent a significant analysis on foreign broadening of SO2 useful for atmospheric remote sensing and astrophysical applications. PMID:24060483

  7. Effects of sulfur dioxide on expansion of lesions caused by Corynebacterium nebraskense in maize and by Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, J.A.; Aluisio, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of air pollution on plant disease development, the authors investigated the effects of SO/sub 2/ on lesion development by two bacterial pathogens. Maize or soybean plants were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ or 262 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ before, after or before and after inoculation with Corynebacterium nebraskense or Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis, respectively. Lesion development was inhibited in both cases, regardless of when the exposures occurred. The time of exposure, however, altered the subsequent effect on lesion size. Dry weight and sulfur content of host tissue were not altered by the joint effects of the pollutant and the pathogens.

  8. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  9. A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

  10. The defense potential of glutathione-ascorbate dependent detoxification pathway to sulfur dioxide exposure in Tagetes erecta.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aili; Fu, Baochun; Wang, Yunshan; Li, Rui; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Duan, Jiuju

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure is associated with increased risk of various damages to plants. However, little is known about the defense response in ornamental plants. In this study, an artificial fumigation protocol was carried out to study the defense potential of the glutathione (GSH)-ascorbate (AsA) dependent detoxification pathway to SO2 exposure in Tagetes erecta. The results show that when the plants were exposed to different doses of SO2 (0, 15, 30, 50 or 80 mg m(-3)) for different times (6, 12, 18, 24 or 33 h), SO2 induced oxidative stress was confirmed by the increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative conductivity of membrane (RC) in a dose-dependent manner for different exposure times. However, the increased levels for H2O2, MDA and RC were not significant vis-a-vis the control when SO2 doses and exposure times were lower than 15 mg m(-3)/33 h, 30 mg m(-3)/24 h or 50 mg m(-3)/12 h (p>0.05). The results could be explained by the increases in the content of reduced form of glutathione (GSH), total glutathione (TGSH), ascorbate (AsA), ratio of GSH/GSSG (oxidized form of glutathione), activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). On the other hand, exposure to higher doses of SO2 and longer exposure times, the values of the GSH-AsA dependent antioxidative indices decreased significantly (p<0.01), manifested by increased levels of H2O2. Furthermore, the levels of H2O2, MDA and RC varied little when SO2 doses and exposure times reached a 'critical' value (50 mg m(-3)/24 h). The defense ability of T. erecta to SO2 reached nearly extremity. To summarize, the response of T. erecta to elevated SO2 was related to higher H2O2 levels. GSH-AsA dependent detoxification pathway played an important role in against SO2-induced toxicity, although the defense response could not sufficiently alleviate oxidative damage when SO2 doses and exposure times reached critical value. PMID:25450923

  11. Using a mobile laboratory to characterize the distribution and transport of sulfur dioxide in and around Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, J. P.; Zhang, Q. H.; Lin, W. W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2011-06-01

    Megacities are places with intensive human activity and energy consumption. To reduce air pollution, many megacities have relocated energy supplies and polluted industries to their outer regions. However, regional transport then becomes an important source of air pollution in megacities. To improve air quality before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, a wide range of control strategies were implemented, including the relocation of polluting industries. High sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were occasionally observed during this period. Potential sources from southern regions of Beijing were indicated by backward trajectories and urban/rural stationary measurements, but direct evidence was lacking. Here we used a mobile laboratory to characterize the spatial distribution and regional transport of SO2 to Beijing during the Campaign for Air Quality Research in Beijing and the Surrounding Region (CAREBEIJING)-2008. Among the five days chosen for the case studies during the Olympic air pollution control period, four had high SO2 concentrations (6, 20 August and 3, 4 September 2008) while one had low SO2 concentration (11 September 2008). The average values of SO2 during the low SO2 concentration day were 3.9 ppb, much lower than during the high concentration days (7.8 ppb). This result implied an impact by regional transport from outside Beijing. During these days, we captured transport events of SO2 from areas south of Beijing, with a clear decrease in SO2 concentrations southeast of the 6th to 4th Ring Roads around Beijing and along the 140 km highway from Tianjin to Beijing. The influx of SO2 through the 4th to 6th Ring Roads ranged from 2.07 to 4.64 kg s-1 on 4 September and 0.21 to 1.56 kg s-1 on 20 August 2008. Locally emitted SO2 from a source located along Jingshi Highway outside the southwest section of the 5th Ring Road of Beijing was identified using wind field data generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the measured particle size distribution, with an estimated flux of 0.11 kg s-1 to Beijing.

  12. Using a mobile laboratory to characterize the distribution and transport of sulfur dioxide in and around Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, J. P.; Zhang, Q. H.; Lin, W. W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z. F.

    2011-11-01

    Megacities are places with intensive human activity and energy consumption. To reduce air pollution, many megacities have relocated energy supplies and polluted industries to their outer regions. However, regional transport then becomes an important source of air pollution in megacities. To improve air quality before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, a wide range of control strategies were implemented, including the relocation of polluting industries. High sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were occasionally observed during this period. Potential sources from southern regions of Beijing were indicated by backward trajectories model and urban/rural stationary measurements, but direct evidence was lacking. Here we used a mobile laboratory to characterize the spatial distribution and regional transport of SO2 to Beijing during the Campaign for Air Quality Research in Beijing and the Surrounding Region (CAREBEIJING)-2008. Among the five days chosen for the case studies during the Olympic air pollution control period, four had high SO2 concentrations (6, 20 August and 3, 4 September 2008) while one had low SO2 concentration (11 September 2008). The average values of SO2 during the low SO2 concentration day were 3.9 ppb, much lower than during the high concentration days (7.8 ppb). This result implied an impact by regional transport from outside Beijing. During these days, we captured transport events of SO2 from areas south of Beijing, with a clear decrease in SO2 concentrations southeast of the 6th to 4th Ring Roads around Beijing and along the 140 km highway from Tianjin to Beijing. The influx of SO2 through the 4th to 6th Ring Roads ranged from 2.1 to 4.6 kg s-1 on 4 September and 0.2 to 1.6 kg s-1 on 20 August 2008. The differences of influx in days were due to the variations of emission changes, transport directions and dilutions. Locally emitted SO2 from a source located along Jingshi Highway outside the southwest section of the 5th Ring Road of Beijing was identified using wind field data generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the measured particle size distribution, with an estimated flux of 0.1 kg s-1 to Beijing. Estimated uncertainties for SO2 influx were approximately 31%.

  13. Determination of the effects of sulfur dioxide on recovery systems for CO/sub 2/. Final report, 1977-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The present study was initiated to investigate the problems associated with recovery of CO/sub 2/ from flue gases for enhanced oil recovery. In particular, the scope of this work may be stated: determine the type of impurities formed in ammonia, monoethanolamine (MEA), and potassium carbonate systems when extracting CO/sub 2/ from oxidizing flue gases containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides; determine the levels of impurity build-up in the solvents; estimate the impurity level in the recovered CO/sub 2/; evaluate the effect on corrosion in metals by these solvents in a flue gas environment; determine the carbon-dioxide absorption coefficients in solvents contaminated due to the pollutants present in the flue gas; evaluate the effect of particulate matter on absorption coefficients in the solvents; and recommend potential absorption systems for CO/sub 2/ from flue gas and estimate the cost of recovery. The results of this study indicate that in ammonia, ammonia sulfate is quickly formed to render that portion of the absorbent inactive. In MEA, amine sulfite and amine sulfate are the dominant impurities formed. In amine-activated potassium carbonate solutions, only sulfite and sulfate ions were found. No nitrogen-oxide species were found in any solution. The impurity levels obtained in the present experiments indicated no limit on contaminant build-up. The impurity level in the recovered CO/sub 2/ was estimated to be less than or equal to 100 ppM non-condensible gases, 20 to 200 ppM SO/sub 2/, and < 20 ppM NO/sub x. Corrosion in the absorption systems will be similar to that observed in CO/sub 2/ absorption systems from reducing gas streams. The absorption rate of CO/sub 2/ in solutions decreases with increasing loading of CO/sub 2/ in almost a linear fashion. Several alternative absorption systems were evaluated in a preliminary cost evaluation, and a K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (EAE activated) solution was recommended.

  14. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Bonding in O3 and SO2.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tyler Y; Lindquist, Beth A; Dunning, Thom H

    2015-07-16

    There are many well-known differences in the physical and chemical properties of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). O3 has longer and weaker bonds than O2, whereas SO2 has shorter and stronger bonds than SO. The O-O2 bond is dramatically weaker than the O-SO bond, and the singlet-triplet gap in SO2 is more than double that in O3. In addition, O3 is a very reactive species, while SO2 is far less so. These disparities have been attributed to variations in the amount of diradical character in the two molecules. In this work, we use generalized valence bond (GVB) theory to characterize the electronic structure of ozone and sulfur dioxide, showing O3 does indeed possess significant diradical character, whereas SO2 is effectively a closed shell molecule. The GVB results provide critical insights into the genesis of the observed difference in these two isoelectronic species. SO2 possesses a recoupled pair bond dyad in the a?(?) system, resulting in SO double bonds. The ? system of O3, on the other hand, has a lone pair on the central oxygen atom plus a pair of electrons in orbitals on the terminal oxygen atoms that give rise to a relatively weak ? interaction. PMID:26068052

  15. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol using supported copper (Ni, V, O) catalyst with photo-assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Wang; M. Xiao; S. J. Wang; Y. X. Lu; Y. Z. Meng

    2007-01-01

    The photo-catalytic effect of a copper modified (Ni, V, O) semiconductor complex catalyst on the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO2 and CH3OH was investigated. The synthesized catalysts were fully characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet visible drift reflection spectra (UV–vis DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-scale catalyst particles were observed with

  16. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime...

  17. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants 

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime...

  18. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption And Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite, And Sulfonate Solutions And of the Substituted Sulfonate Ions X(3)CSO(3-)(X = H, Cl, F)

    SciTech Connect

    Risberg, E.Damian; Eriksson, L.; Mink, J.; Pettersson, L.G.M.; Skripkin, M.Yu.; Sandstrom, M.

    2009-06-02

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra have been recorded and the S(1s) electron excitations evaluated by means of density functional theory-transition potential (DFT-TP) calculations to provide insight into the coordination, bonding, and electronic structure. The XANES spectra for the various species in sulfur dioxide and aqueous sodium sulfite solutions show considerable differences at different pH values in the environmentally important sulfite(IV) system. In strongly acidic (pH < {approx}1) aqueous sulfite solution the XANES spectra confirm that the hydrated sulfur dioxide molecule, SO{sub 2}(aq), dominates. The theoretical spectra are consistent with an OSO angle of {approx}119{sup o} in gas phase and acetonitrile solution, while in aqueous solution hydrogen bonding reduces the angle to {approx}116{sup o}. The hydration affects the XANES spectra also for the sulfite ion, SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. At intermediate pH (4) the two coordination isomers, the sulfonate (HSO{sub 3{sup -}}) and hydrogen sulfite (SO{sub 3}H{sup -}) ions with the hydrogen atom coordinated to sulfur and oxygen, respectively, could be distinguished with the ratio HSO{sub 3{sup -}}:SO{sub 3}H{sup -} about 0.28:0.72 at 298 K. The relative amount of HSO{sub 3{sup -}} increased with increasing temperature in the investigated range from 275 to 343 K. XANES spectra of sulfonate, methanesulfonate, trichloromethanesulfonate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate compounds, all with closely similar S-O bond distances in tetrahedral configuration around the sulfur atom, were interpreted by DFT-TP computations. The energy of their main electronic transition from the sulfur K-shell is about 2478 eV. The additional absorption features are similar when a hydrogen atom or an electron-donating methyl group is bonded to the -SO{sub 3} group. Significant changes occur for the electronegative trichloromethyl (Cl{sub 3}C-) and trifluoromethyl (F{sub 3}C-) groups, which strongly affect the distribution especially of the {pi} electrons around the sulfur atom. The S-D bond distance 1.38(2) {angstrom} was obtained for the deuterated sulfonate (DSO{sub 3{sup -}}) ion by Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction data of CsDSO{sub 3}. Raman and infrared absorption spectra of the CsHSO{sub 3}, CsDSO{sub 3}, H{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na, and Cl{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na{center_dot}H{sub 2}O compounds and Raman spectra of the sulfite solutions have been interpreted by normal coordinate calculations. The C-S stretching force constant for the trichloromethanesulfonate ion obtains an anomalously low value due to steric repulsion between the Cl{sub 3}C- and -SO{sub 3} groups. The S-O stretching force constants were correlated with corresponding S-O bond distances for several oxosulfur species.

  19. Determination of sulfur forms in wine including free and total sulfur dioxide based on molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide in the air-acetylene flame.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Heitmann, Uwe; Okruss, Michael; Patz, Claus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the determination of sulfur forms in wine, i.e., free SO(2), total SO(2), bound SO(2), total S, and sulfate, is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the carbon monosulfide (CS) molecular absorption produced in a conventional air-acetylene flame using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry. Individual sulfur forms can be distinguished because of the different sensitivities of the corresponding CS molecular absorption. The sensitivity of free SO(2) is about three times higher than the value for bound SO(2) and sulfate. The method makes use of procedures similar to those used in classic reference methods. Its performance is verified by analyzing six wine samples. Relative standard deviations are between 5 and 13% for free SO(2) and between 1 and 3% for total SO(2). For the validation of the accuracy of the new method, the results are compared with those of reference methods. The agreement of the values for total SO(2) with values of the classic method is satisfactory: five out of six samples show deviations less than 16%. Due to the instability of free SO(2) in wine and the known problems of the used reference method, serious deviations of the free SO(2) results are found for three samples. The evaluation of the limits of detection focuses on the value for free SO(2), which is the sulfur form having by far the lowest concentration in wine. Here, the achievable limit of detection is 1.8 mg L(-1). [figure: see text] Detection of non-metal elements using continuum source flame absorption spectrometry. PMID:17972067

  20. Dimethyl Disulfide Produced by the Naturally Associated Bacterium Bacillus sp B55 Promotes Nicotiana attenuata Growth by Enhancing Sulfur Nutrition[W

    PubMed Central

    Meldau, Dorothea G.; Meldau, Stefan; Hoang, Long H.; Underberg, Stefanie; Wünsche, Hendrik; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus sp B55, a bacterium naturally associated with Nicotiana attenuata roots, promotes growth and survival of wild-type and, particularly, ethylene (ET)–insensitive 35S-ethylene response1 (etr1) N. attenuata plants, which heterologously express the mutant Arabidopsis thaliana receptor ETR1-1. We found that the volatile organic compound (VOC) blend emitted by B55 promotes seedling growth, which is dominated by the S-containing compound dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). DMDS was depleted from the headspace during cocultivation with seedlings in bipartite Petri dishes, and 35S was assimilated from the bacterial VOC bouquet and incorporated into plant proteins. In wild-type and 35S-etr1 seedlings grown under different sulfate (SO4?2) supply conditions, exposure to synthetic DMDS led to genotype-dependent plant growth promotion effects. For the wild type, only S-starved seedlings benefited from DMDS exposure. By contrast, growth of 35S-etr1 seedlings, which we demonstrate to have an unregulated S metabolism, increased at all SO4?2 supply rates. Exposure to B55 VOCs and DMDS rescued many of the growth phenotypes exhibited by ET-insensitive plants, including the lack of root hairs, poor lateral root growth, and low chlorophyll content. DMDS supplementation significantly reduced the expression of S assimilation genes, as well as Met biosynthesis and recycling. We conclude that DMDS by B55 production is a plant growth promotion mechanism that likely enhances the availability of reduced S, which is particularly beneficial for wild-type plants growing in S-deficient soils and for 35S-etr1 plants due to their impaired S uptake/assimilation/metabolism. PMID:23903320

  1. Combining organometallic reagents, the sulfur dioxide surrogate DABSO, and amines: a one-pot preparation of sulfonamides, amenable to array synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deeming, Alex S; Russell, Claire J; Willis, Michael C

    2015-01-19

    We describe a method for the synthesis of sulfonamides through the combination of an organometallic reagent, a sulfur dioxide equivalent, and an aqueous solution of an amine under oxidative conditions (bleach). This simple reaction protocol avoids the need to employ sulfonyl chloride substrates, thus removing the limitation imposed by the commercial availability of these reagents. The resultant method allows access to new chemical space, and is also tolerant of the polar functional groups needed to impart favorable physiochemical properties required for medicinal chemistry and agrochemistry. The developed chemistry is employed in the synthesis of a targeted 70 compound array, prepared using automated methods. The array achieved a 93% success rate for compounds prepared. Calculated molecular weights, lipophilicities, and polar surface areas are presented, demonstrating the utility of the method for delivering sulfonamides with drug-like properties. PMID:25431118

  2. Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the {sup 3}B{sub 2} state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lévêque, Camille [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France) [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR, UMR 7614, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Taïeb, Richard [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France) [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR, UMR 7614, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Köppel, Horst [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-07

    Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet {sup 3}B{sub 2} state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO{sub 2}.

  3. The formation of acid rain in the atmosphere, adjacent to the TTP with the joint-condensing of sulfur dioxide and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdyakov, D. V.; Gubin, V. E.; Matveeva, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Presents the results of mathematical simulation of the condensation process of sulphur dioxide and water vapor on the condensation nuclei surface under the action of natural factors. Numerical investigations were carried out for the summer at a moderate speed of the wind. The influence of the parameter of condensation on the speed of the process of sulfuric acid drops formation in the air space was analyzed. Time ranges, sufficient for the formation of the acid rain sedimentation in the atmosphere, adjacent to the areas of thermal power station work were established. It is shown that the speed of air masses movement effects on the process of acid anthropogenic admixtures dispersion in the atmosphere. Approbation of the obtained results was carried out by checking the difference scheme conservative and solution of test problems.

  4. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee

    1994-01-01

    SOâ from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SOâ emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show

  5. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A. [Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States)

    1994-12-15

    SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Toxic effect of nitrogen and sulfur dioxides on the chemical composition of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl.: IR spectroscopic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Meysurova; S. D. Khizhnyak; P. M. Pakhomov

    2011-01-01

    Effect of some pollutants on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes is investigated. It is established experimentally that the greatest changes in the chemical composition of the lichen are\\u000a caused by short-term exposure to 32 and 65% nitric acid and long-term exposure (14–21 days) to low concentrations (3 and 6%)\\u000a of sulfuric acid.

  7. An acid-stable Zn(II) complex: electrodeposition in sulfuric acid and the effect on the zinc-lead dioxide battery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao Miao; Gong, Yun; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Hui Fang; Lin, Jian Hua

    2014-12-01

    An acid-stable Zn(II) complex formulated as Zn2(HL)2(SO4)·H2O (1) and an acid-unstable complex formulated as Zn2L2·12H2O (2) were hydro(solvo)thermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 features a uninodal 6-connected 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) dense architecture with {4(12)·6(3)}-pcu topology, and complex 2 exhibits a 2-nodal (3, 6)-connected 3D open architecture with (4·6(2))2(4(2)·6(10)·8(3))-rtl topology. The results indicate that the stability of complex 1 in sulfuric acid is probably associated with the coordinated SO4(2-) in the quite dense structure, and complex 1 can also be synthesized via electrodeposition in sulfuric acid; it can improve the discharging characteristics of the zinc-lead dioxide battery at room temperature. PMID:25312385

  8. Operational overview of the NASA GTE\\/CITE 3 airborne instrument intercomparisons for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Hoell; Douglas D. Davis; Gerald L. Gregory; Robert J. McNeal; Richard J. Bendura; Joseph W. Drewry; John D. Barrick; Volker W. J. H. Kirchhoff; Adauto G. Motta; Roger L. Navarro; William D. Dorko; Dennis W. Owen

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the overall experimental design and gives a brief overview of results from the third airborne Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) mission conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment. The primary objective of CITE 3 was to evaluate the capability of instrumentation for airborne measurements of ambient concentrations of SO2,

  9. Capacitive dependence on the thickness of silicon dioxide films grown by Atomic Layer deposition on silicon substrates using Tris (Dimethyl Amino) Silane (TDMAS) and Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyi, Ekembu Kevin; Pradhan, Sangram K.; Pradhan, Aswini

    2014-03-01

    ALD of SiO2 using Tris (Dimethyl Amino) Silane has been reported in a number of research articles using this same precursor as well as water, hydrogen peroxide or ozone. SiO2 is used widely in manufacture of MOS capacitors and MOS transistors where the quality of oxide formed is of utmost importance. In this comprehensive study, we fabricated MOS-Capacitors by patterning thin films of SiO2 grown by ALD at 200 °C on silicon substrates with front and back chromium metal contacts. The electrical characteristics were investigated for different film thicknesses ranging from 1 to 40 nm. The thicknesses of the films were measured using the EOT calculations. These were then compared to thickness measurements made with Ellipsometry and the mismatch is reported here. Published here are also the X-Ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy results. What makes our data unique is that, we also provide valuable information, often missing in key fabrication process using ALD system for process compatibility. The effects of the choice of metal used on the electrical results as well as the effects of thermal processing have been explored for the high performance on the final characteristics of these MOS capacitors. This work is supported by the DoD (CEAND) Grant Number W911NF-11-1-0209 (US Army Research Office), NSF-CREST (CNBMD) Grant number HRD 1036494.

  10. Sulfur dioxide and particles in quiescent volcanic plumes from Poas, Arenal, and Colima volcanos, Costa Rica and Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadevall, T. J.; Rose, W. I., Jr.; Fuller, W. H.; Hunt, W. H.; Woods, D. C.; Hart, M. A.; Moyers, J. L.; Chuan, R. L.; Friend, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of SO2 emission rates and concentrations and of particle distribution, size, shape, and composition were made in quiescent volcanic plumes emitted into the troposphere from Poas and Arenal volcanos, Costa Rica, and Colima volcano, Mexico. SO2 emission rates were 700 + or - 180 metric tons per day (t/d) for Poas, 210 + or - 30 t/d for Arenal, and 320 + or - 50 t/d for Colima. The concentrations of SO2 calculated from the COSPEC/lidar data were 5-380 ppb. Concentrations of SO2 measured directly by flame photometry were 10-250 ppb. Particles collected in the plumes with a quartz crystal microbalance impactor were mostly less than 3 microns in diameter and consisted of droplets of dilute sulfur-bearing solutions and minor amounts of layer silicate particles coated with a sulfur-bearing film or crust. Total particle concentrations were 4.7 micrograms per cu.m for Poas and 18.8 micrograms per cu.m for Colima. Comparison of concentrations of SO2 in the plumes with gas samples collected at fumaroles on the ground suggests that the plumes are diluted by the atmosphere by factors of up to 100,000.

  11. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOEpatents

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  12. Methods for removing malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mill flue gases and the like by using green liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Farin, W.G.

    1984-02-14

    This is an improved method for removing malodorous sulfur compounds from flue gases generated in kraft or sodium sulfite pulping operations and the like by the absorption process using green liquor, an aqueous solution containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The malodorous gas compounds, including hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide are preferentially absorbed by the sodium sulfide forming sodium hydrosulfide and methanol. Any sulfur dioxide in the gas is absorbed and neutralized by sodium carbonate. In this method carbon dioxide absorption is minimized and the formation of sodium bicarbonate is limited. Sodium bicarbonate formation is minimized in order to avoid its reaction with sodium hydrosulfide which would then release undesirable hydrogen sulfide during absorption, as well as to forestall the need to increase chemical and lime kiln capacity requirements when the green liquor returned to the kraft recovery process contains excess amounts of sodium bicarbonate.

  13. Investigation of a potential cotumorigenic effect of the dioxides of nitrogen and sulfur, and of diesel-engine exhaust, on the respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, U; Mohr, U; Fuhst, R; Brockmeyer, C

    1989-05-01

    Syrian golden hamsters (480 males and 480 females) allocated into 24 groups were exposed 19 hours per day and 5 days per week for 6, 10.5, 15, or 18 months to total diesel exhaust, diesel exhaust without particles, a mixture of nitrogen dioxide (5 parts per million [ppm]2) and sulfur dioxide (10 ppm), or clean air. Two exposure groups from each test atmosphere were also treated by a single subcutaneous injection of either 3 mg or 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine/kg of body weight to evaluate an enhancing effect of diethylnitrosamine on exposure-related changes. Morphological evaluation was done by histopathology. Minor changes of the larynx and trachea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loss of ciliated cells in all exhaust-exposed groups. After exposure to diesel exhaust with or without particles, focal metaplasia and dysplasia of the respiratory epithelium were seen in the oldest animals by scanning electron microscopy. In the same specimens, attached mucous droplets indicated changes in mucous cells and mucous viscosity. Only the exposure to total diesel exhaust significantly increased the tumor rate in the upper respiratory tract of male hamsters treated with 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine per kg of body weight. At the lower diethylnitrosamine dose, no exposure-related effects on the tumor rates could be observed. The results from this study and from our other inhalation experiments appear to be insufficiently conclusive to demonstrate that diesel-engine exhaust should be classified as a cocarcinogen or enhancer for the test system used. PMID:2481467

  14. Investigation of a potential cotumorigenic effect of the dioxides of nitrogen and sulfur, and of diesel-engine exhaust, on the respiratory tract of Syrian golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, U.; Mohr, U.; Fuhst, R.; Brockmeyer, C. (Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-05-01

    Syrian golden hamsters (480 males and 480 females) allocated into 24 groups were exposed 19 hours per day and 5 days per week for 6, 10.5, 15, or 18 months to total diesel exhaust, diesel exhaust without particles, a mixture of nitrogen dioxide (5 parts per million (ppm)2) and sulfur dioxide (10 ppm), or clean air. Two exposure groups from each test atmosphere were also treated by a single subcutaneous injection of either 3 mg or 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine/kg of body weight to evaluate an enhancing effect of diethylnitrosamine on exposure-related changes. Morphological evaluation was done by histopathology. Minor changes of the larynx and trachea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loss of ciliated cells in all exhaust-exposed groups. After exposure to diesel exhaust with or without particles, focal metaplasia and dysplasia of the respiratory epithelium were seen in the oldest animals by scanning electron microscopy. In the same specimens, attached mucous droplets indicated changes in mucous cells and mucous viscosity. Only the exposure to total diesel exhaust significantly increased the tumor rate in the upper respiratory tract of male hamsters treated with 6 mg of diethylnitrosamine per kg of body weight. At the lower diethylnitrosamine dose, no exposure-related effects on the tumor rates could be observed. The results from this study and from our other inhalation experiments appear to be insufficiently conclusive to demonstrate that diesel-engine exhaust should be classified as a cocarcinogen or enhancer for the test system used.

  15. Ab initio study of the effect of CH ... O hydrogen bonding on the Exo/Endo stereoselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, D.; Lopex, R. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-02-05

    Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-31G*//HF/3-21G* level have been carried out to study Diels-Alder reactions of 2-substituted-1,3-dienes with sulfur dioxide. The CH ... O electrostatic interaction detected in some of the transition structures located could be decisive in the control of the exo/endo stereoselectivity of this type of reaction. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Reduced Airway Inflammation and Remodeling in Parallel with Mucin 5AC Protein Expression Decreased by S-Carboxymethylcysteine, a Mucoregulant, in the Airways of Rats Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumihisa Sueyoshi; Yuki Miyata; Yoshihiro Masumoto; Yuji Ishibashi; Shigeki Matsuzawa; Naoki Harano; Kiyoyuki Tsuru; Shigeru Imai

    2004-01-01

    Background: Human obstructive airway diseases are histopathologically characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and mucus hypersecretion in airways. We prepared a rat model of airway injury by exposure of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and then evaluated the effects of S-carboxymethylcysteine (S-CMC), a mucoregulant. Methods: Rats were exposed to SO2 gas for 44 days and orally given S-CMC at 250

  17. c-jun mRNA expression and profilin mRNA amplification in rat alveolar macrophages exposed to volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Samukawa, Takuya; Arasidani, Keiichi; Hori, Hajime; Hirano, Hideyasu; Arima, Terukatsu

    2003-10-01

    Local residents exposed to heavy falls of ash discharged by Mt. Sakurajima, an active volcano, have been reported to develop acute and chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract. The present study aimed to determine the primary cause of this inflammation using an experimental model. Wistar rats were exposed for 5 days (4 h/d) to air containing 100 mg/m3 volcanic ash (mass median aerodynamic diameter, 4.3 microm; geometric standard deviation, 1.7) with or without 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2). The lungs were then lavaged, and mRNA was extracted from alveolar macrophages and assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the lavage fluid, no change in cellularity or increase in the content of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was detected. However, at 1 h following exposure, 80% of macrophages were seen to have phagocytosed the volcanic ash. This percentage was unchanged at 24 h after exposure. Profilin mRNA content of the macrophages was elevated, and c-jun mRNA was expressed. Alveolar macrophages exposed to volcanic ash and SO2, therefore, are likely to have some inflammatory and fibrogenic potential. PMID:14620666

  18. Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of inhaled sulfur dioxide and endogenously generated sulfite in the respiratory tract of normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Gunnison, A F; Sellakumar, A; Currie, D; Snyder, E A

    1987-01-01

    We report on the distribution, metabolism, and toxicity of sulfite in the respiratory tract and other tissues of rats exposed to endogenously generated sulfite or to inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO2). Graded sulfite oxidase deficiency was induced in several groups of rats by manipulating their tungsten to molybdenum intake ratio. Endogenously generated sulfite and S-sulfonate compounds (a class of sulfite metabolite) accumulated in the respiratory tract tissues and in the plasma of these rats in inverse proportion to hepatic sulfite oxidase activity. In contrast to this systemic mode of exposure, sulfite exposure of normal, sulfite oxidase-competent rats via inhaled SO2 (10 and 30 ppm) was restricted to the airways. Minor pathological changes consisting of epithelial hyperplasia, mucoid degeneration, and desquamation of epithelium were observed only in the tracheas and bronchi of the rats inhaling SO2, even though the concentration of sulfite plus S-sulfonates in the tracheas and bronchi of these rats was considerably lower than that in the endogenously exposed rats. We attribute this histological damage to hydrogen ions stemming from inhaled SO2, not to the sulfite/bisulfite ions that are also a product of inhaled SO2. In addition to the lungs and trachea, all other tissues examined, except the testes, appeared to be refractory to high concentrations of endogenously generated sulfite. The testes of grossly sulfite oxidase-deficient rats were severely atrophied and devoid of spermatogenic cells. PMID:3573068

  19. Understanding particle growth events response to changes in hydrocarbons and sulfur dioxide for a rural/urban site in Beltsville, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, M. K.; Joseph, E.; Stockwell, W. R.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol formation events have been studied in depth over the past few decades, yet large uncertainties remain on the mechanisms responsible for the generation of new particles. At a rural/urban research facility in Beltsville, MD ultrafine and fine mode aerosol number and size distributions were collected during July 2011 along with volatile organic compounds canister samples. Multiple particle growth events (PGEs) were detected during the summer and occurred on days following strong synoptic cold frontal passages. Though these events occurred in clean air masses, moderate sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios were observed during the PGEs. A chemical-box with the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism, version 2 (RACM2) was used to simulate the gas-phased chemical species concentrations during the PGEs. Simulated chemical mixing ratios from the RACM2 box model were used as input to an equilibrium aerosol model, the Simulating Composition of Atmospheric Particle at Equilibrium, version 2 (SCAPE2) that was used to estimate the state and composition of the aerosols. The goal of this research was to determine whether SO2 was contributing to the growth of the PGEs and to have a better understanding of the mechanism responsible for the formation of the PGEs. This research is significant because some of the largest uncertainties in observations and model results are determining the mechanisms that create and grow new particles throughout the lower atmosphere and their role on air quality, cloud formation, and climate.

  20. Pulmonary function in normal and elastase-treated hamsters exposed to a complex mixture of olefin-ozone-sulfur dioxide reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Raub, J.A.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    An elastase-induced emphysema model was utilized to determine if hamsters with preexisting lung disease were more susceptible to lung damage from air-pollutant exposure. Male golden hamsters, divided into two treatment groups, were given a single intratracheal injection of either 6 units of porcine pancreatic elastase (EMP) or buffer (CNT). After a 4-week recovery period, equal numbers of each group were exposed 23 hr/day x 28 day to filtered air (AIR) or to the complex by-products from a dark-phase-reaction mixture of trans-2-butene, ozone, and sulfur dioxide (MIX). Lung-function measurements on the elastase-treated groups showed changes consistent with mild emphysema. There were no significant differences in lung volumes or lung compliance between the AIR- and MIX-exposed animals. However, the nitrogen washout slope decreased and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide increased in both the CNT and EMP hamsters exposed to the MIX. The change in diffusing capacity was greater in normal hamsters than in hamsters with emphysema, and it is hypothesized that animals with impaired lung function had a decreased ability to respond to a pulmonary insult from the mix.

  1. Evaluation of advanced separation techniques for application to flue gas cleanup processes for the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Drummond, C.J.; Ekmann, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    Thirteen advanced separation techniques were reviewed in detail for application to flue gas cleanup processes. Of these, the three most promising for application to systems for simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas are solvent extraction, electrodialysis, and inverse thermal phase separation. Gas separation membranes would also be promising if a membrane could be developed that would be selective for SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/. Specific utility or industrial systems incorporating some of these processes are suggested. Preliminary estimates of annual revenue requirements for three gas-separation-membrane flue gas cleanup systems and an electrodialysis system are compared with an estimate for a limestone system with selective catalytic reduction. In addition, fourteen wet simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ flue gas cleanup processes that have progressed beyond bench scale were reviewed for possible modification to incorporate advanced separation techniques. It appeared that in processes where modifications were possible, either such modification would result in marginal improvement, or the process would no longer be recognizable. 147 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared via a simple ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. High-resolution transmission and scanning electronic microscopy observations showed the formation of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-like structure consisting of graphene with uniform sulfur coating on its surface. The electrochemical properties of the resulting composite cathode were investigated in a lithium cell with a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) prepared by trapping 1 mol dm?3 solution of lithium bistrifluoromethanesulfonamide in tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether in a polymer matrix composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/silicon dioxide (PVDF-HFP/PMMA/SiO2). The GPE battery delivered reversible discharge capacities of 809 and 413 mAh g?1 at the 1st and 50th cycles at 0.2C, respectively, along with a high coulombic efficiency over 50 cycles. This performance enhancement of the cell was attributed to the suppression of the polysulfide shuttle effect by a collective effect of S/GNS composite cathode and GPE, providing a higher sulfur utilization. PMID:24655466

  3. Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Russell L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Smoot, John M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2008-10-01

    Volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) were collected using static headspace SPME and determined using GC-PFPD, pulsed flame photometric detection, and GC-MS. Leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), which is the insect vector of Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. Seven sulfur volatiles were detected: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methional, and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Identifications were based on matching linear retention index values on ZB-5, DB-Wax, and PLOT columns and MS spectra in the case of DMDS and DMS. DMDS is an insect toxic, defensive volatile produced only by wounded guava but not citrus leaves and, thus, may be the component responsible for the protective effect of guava against the HLB vector. DMDS is formed immediately after crushing, becoming the major headspace volatile within 10 min. Forty-seven additional leaf volatiles were identified from LRI and MS data in the crushed guava leaf headspace. PMID:18778077

  4. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  5. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect

    John E. Pinkerton [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Quality Program

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Temporal variations of flux and altitude of sulfur dioxide emissions during volcanic eruptions: implications for long-range dispersal of volcanic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, M.; Clarisse, L.; Péré, J.-C.; Herbin, H.; Goloub, P.; Thieuleux, F.; Ducos, F.; Clerbaux, C.; Tanré, D.

    2015-02-01

    Sulfur-rich degassing, which is mostly composed of sulfur dioxide (SO2), plays a major role in the overall impact of volcanism on the atmosphere and climate. The accurate assessment of this impact is currently hampered by the poor knowledge of volcanic SO2 emissions. Here, using an inversion procedure, we show how assimilating snapshots of the volcanic SO2 load derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) allows for reconstructing both the flux and altitude of the SO2 emissions with an hourly resolution. For this purpose, the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to describe the dispersion of SO2 when released in the atmosphere. As proof of concept, we study the 10 April 2011 eruption of the Etna volcano (Italy), which represents one of the few volcanoes instrumented on the ground for the continuous monitoring of SO2 degassing. We find that the SO2 flux time-series retrieved from satellite imagery using the inverse scheme is in agreement with ground observations during ash-poor phases of the eruption. However, large discrepancies are observed during the ash-rich paroxysmal phase as a result of enhanced plume opacity affecting ground-based ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic retrievals. As a consequence, the SO2 emission rate derived from the ground is underestimated by almost one order of magnitude. Altitudes of the SO2 emissions predicted by the inverse scheme are validated against a RGB MODIS image capturing the near-source atmospheric pathways followed by Etna plumes, in combination with forward trajectories from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. At large distance from the source, modeled SO2 altitudes are confronted with independent information on the volcanic cloud height. We find that the altitude predicted by the inverse scheme is in agreement with snapshots of the SO2 height retrieved from recent algorithms exploiting the high spectral resolution of IASI. The validity of the modeled SO2 altitude is further confirmed by the detection of a layer of particles at the same altitude by the spaceborne CALIOP LiDAR. Analysis of CALIOP color and depolarization ratios suggests that these particles consist of sulfate aerosols formed from precursory volcanic SO2. The reconstruction of emission altitude, through inversion procedures which assimilate volcanic SO2 column amounts, requires specific meteorological conditions, especially sufficient wind shear so that gas parcels emitted at different altitudes follow distinct trajectories. We consequently explore the possibility and limits of assimilating in inverse schemes infrared (IR) imagery of the volcanic SO2 cloud altitude which will render the inversion procedure independent of the wind shear prerequisite.

  7. Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in rat liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Meng, Ziqiang

    2006-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled SO2 on the O-dealkylase of pentoxyresorufin (PROD) and p-nitrophenol hydroxylases (p-NP) activities and mRNA levels of CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in the lung and liver of Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.11 +/- 1.53, 28.36 +/- 2.12, and 56.25 +/- 4.28 mg/m3 SO2 for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNAs of CYP2B1/2 and -2E1 were analyzed in livers and lungs by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that the PROD activities and mRNA of CYP2B1/2 were decreased in livers and lungs of rats exposed to SO2. The p-NP activities and mRNA of CYP2E1 were decreased in lungs but not in livers of rats exposed to SO2. Total liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) contents were diminished in SO2-exposed rats. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) SO2 exposure can suppress CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in lungs and CYP2B1/2 in livers of rats, thus modifying the liver and lung toxication/detoxication potential, and (2) the total liver microsomal CYP contents were diminished, although the activity and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 in rat livers were not affected by SO2 exposure. PMID:16717030

  8. Holocene Concentrations of Methane in the Atmosphere are in Part Proportional to Concentrations of Sulfur Dioxide and Inversely Proportional to the Oxidizing Capacity of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    The atmosphere cleans itself by oxidizing pollutants. The primary oxidant is the hydroxyl radical (OH) formed by photodissociation of ozone in the near ultra-violet. Ozone and OH are in limited supply. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbs near ultraviolet light limiting production of OH and reacts immediately with any available OH, forming sulfuric acid. Methane reacts more slowly with OH and will typically not be oxidized until there is little SO2. Thus a high concentration of methane indicates low oxidizing capacity. The rate at which SO2 is injected into the atmosphere controls oxidizing capacity and climate change in four ways: 1. Moderate rate: Large volcanic eruptions (VEI >=6) lower global temperatures for a few years when they are separated by years to decades so the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere can fully recover. In 1991, Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines erupted 20 Mt SO2 and 491 Mt H2O, the largest volcanic eruption since 1912. The SO2 was oxidized primarily by OH to form a 99% pure aerosol of sulfuric acid and water at an elevation of 20-23 km. This aerosol reflected sunlight, lowering the world's temperature on average 0.4°C for three years. Ozone levels were reduced by 10%. Methane increased by 15 ppb for a year. The e-folding time for SO2 was 35 days. 2. High rate: When large eruptions occur once to several times per year, there is insufficient oxidizing capacity leading to increases in methane and other greenhouse gases and global warming. There were 15 times in the Holocene when large volcanoes erupted on average at least every year for 7 to 21 years. Man is now putting as much SO2 from burning fossil fuels into the atmosphere every year as one large volcano, causing current global warming. The two previous times were from 818-838 AD, the onset of the Medieval Warming Period, and from 180-143 BC, the onset of the Roman Warm Period. 3. Low rate: When there are no large eruptions for decades, the oxidizing capacity can catch up, cleaning the atmosphere, removing most of the methane and other pollutants. A clean atmosphere leads to cooling and drought. The 8.2 ka event is a classic example, but similar decadal droughts around 6.2, 5.8, 5.4, 4.2, and 2.9 ka caused the demise of major civilizations. 4. Extreme rate: Whereas large volcanic eruptions produce 10-1000 km3 of andesitic and silicic tephra, flood basalt eruptions produce as much as 3,000,000 km3 of basalt containing 10 to 100 times more SO2 per km3. The result is runaway global warming, widespread acid rain, and mass extinctions. The link between SO2 and global warming is good news because we have developed many efficient technologies that burn fossil fuels with less SO2 emission and scrub SO2 out of smoke stacks. Efforts to reduce acid rain have been successful in reducing manmade emissions of SO2 by >20% since 1980 and thereby reducing methane concentrations. Sudden increases in methane during the Pleistocene Dansgaard-Oeschger events follow sudden increases in volcanism. High rainfall especially in the Sahara and high methane concentrations in the early Holocene are clearly related to increased volcanism that brought about the end of the Ice Age. Increases in global warming at 3170 BC, 161 BC, and 828 AD are contemporaneous with short-term increases in methane. The rapid increase in SO2 from burning fossil fuels since 1850 can explain much of the corresponding rapid increase in methane. But during the last 5000 years, volcanism has been relatively constant and thus it can not explain the observed gradual increase in methane.

  9. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  10. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  11. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the ?Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  12. Reduction of sulfuric acid by natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kogtev, S.E.; Nikandrov, I.S.

    1987-12-01

    The reduction of sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide was studied to obtain a higher yield of sulfur dioxide. The reactions which take place in the presence of excess methane were listed. Gibbs energy reactions were presented showing the thermodynamic probability for the occurrence of the reactions within a wide temperature range. Gas analysis for the content of sulfur and carbon dioxides, methane hydrogen, hydrogen sulfate, and carbon monoxide was performed chromatographically using a katharometer and sequential columns packed with Polysorb 1 and NaX zeolite. It was shown that through high-temperature reduction of sulfuric acid by natural gas, the yield of sulfur dioxide could be raised to 100% at 1173 K.

  13. Toxicology of sulfur in ruminants: review

    SciTech Connect

    Kandylis, K.

    1984-10-01

    This review deals with the toxicology of sulfur in ruminants including toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and mechanism of toxic action of hydrogen sulfide, clinical signs, and treatment. It will report effects of excessive intake of sulfur by ruminants on feed intake, animal performance, ruminal digestion and motility, rumination, and other physiological functions. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above .3 to .4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. 53 references, 1 table.

  14. DSRP, Direct Sulfur Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; McMichael, W.J.; Agarwal, S.K.; Jang, B.L.; Howe, G.B. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Chen, D.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization processes for IGCC and other advanced power applications utilize regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from raw coal gas. Regeneration of these sorbents produces an off-gas typically containing I to 3 percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Production of elemental sulfur is a highly desirable option for the ultimate disposal of the SO{sub 2} content of this off-gas. Elemental sulfur, an essential industrial commodity, is easily stored and transported. As shown in Figure 1, the DSRP consists of two catalytic reactors, each followed by a sulfur condenser. Hot regenerator off-gas is mixed with a hot coal-gas slip stream and fed to the first DSRP reactor. Approximately 95 percent of the sulfur gas in the inlet stream of the first reactor is converted to elemental sulfur. The outlet gas of the first DSRP reactor is cooled, condensing out sulfur. The gas could be recycled after the Stage I condenser. Alteratively, by adjusting the proportion of coal gas to regenerator off-gas, the effluent composition of the first reactor can be controlled to produce an H{sub 2}S-to-SO{sub 2} ratio of 2 to 1 at 95 percent sulfur conversion. The cooled gas stream is then passed to the second DSRP reactor where 80 to 90 percent of the remaining sulfur compounds are converted to elemental sulfur via the modified Claus reaction at high pressure. The total efficiency of the two reactors for the conversion of sulfur compounds to elemental sulfur is projected to be about 99.5 percent.

  15. The effect of inhaled sulfur dioxide and systemic sulfite on the induction of lung carcinoma in rats by benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Gunnison, A F; Sellakumar, A; Snyder, E A; Currie, D

    1988-06-01

    In a previous study at this Institute, inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO2) was shown to enhance the induction by inhaled benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) of squamous cell carcinoma (SQCA) of the respiratory tract of rats (S. Laskin, M. Kuschner, A. Sellakumar, and G. V. Katz, 1976, In "Air Pollution and the Lung," pp. 190-213). We attempted to confirm and extend this finding by using an experimental protocol intended to illuminate the role of SO2. Rats were treated with BaP by 15 consecutive weekly intratracheal instillations. Some of these rats were simultaneously exposed either to SO2 by inhalation or to sulfite/bisulfite anions that accumulated systemically from endogenous generation in rats with induced sulfite oxidase deficiency. The total treatment period spanned 21 weeks, after which the rats were observed for the development of tumors. BaP-treated rats began to die with SQCA of the respiratory tract at approximately 200 days after the first BaP treatment and at 2 years after the first treatment nearly all rats in the BaP-treated groups had died, most with SQCA. Survival in the control groups was excellent and the health of all groups (aside from pulmonary SQCA in BaP-treated groups) was also excellent. The probability of dying with a pulmonary SQCA in the experimental groups treated with BaP, BaP plus inhaled SO2, and BaP plus systemic sulfite/bisulfite was calculated by the logrank analysis. The data sets of SQCA probability from these groups were not statistically different (i.e., P greater than 0.05) by the chi 2 test indicating that, in this experiment, neither inhalation exposure to SO2 nor systemic exposure to sulfite/bisulfite anions affected the induction of SQCA of the lung by intratracheally instilled BaP. We conclude that the results of this study do not support an etiological role for either SO2 or sulfite/bisulfite anions in the induction of SQCA of the respiratory tract by BaP. PMID:3371292

  16. The effects of ageing and sulfur dioxide inhalation exposure on visual-evoked potentials, antioxidant enzyme systems, and lipid-peroxidation levels of the brain and eye.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Derya

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ageing and 10 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) inhalation exposure on visual-evoked potentials (VEPs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a product of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) of brain and eye were investigated in young (3-month), adult (12-month), and mature (24-month) Swiss male albino rats. The experimental groups were placed in an exposure chamber containing a constant level of 10 ppm SO(2), while control groups were placed in an exposure chamber, which was continually pumped with filtered air, for 1 h/day x 7 days/week for 6 weeks. SO(2) inhalation exposure caused increased levels of brain, retina, and lens Cu, Zn SOD activity, and decreased levels of brain and lens GSH-Px activity in all experimental groups with respect to their corresponding control groups, whereas no change was observed in the level of retina GSH-Px activity. No alterations were observed in brain CAT activity. On the other hand, retina CAT activity was slightly decreased in SO(2)-exposed rats, but no change was observed in their lens CAT activity. The brain and lens TBARS levels of all SO(2)-exposed groups were significantly increased in comparison with their respective control groups. The amount of TBARS was only increased in the retina of the SO(2)-exposed 3-month group compared with its control. Of the SO(2)-exposed rats, the mean latencies of the P(1), N(1), P(2), and P(3) components of the 3-month group, P(1), N(1), and N(2) components of the 12-month group, and only P(3) of the 24-month group were significantly prolonged in comparison with those of their control groups. The amplitudes of N(1)P(2) and P(2)N(2) in the 12- and 24-month control groups were significantly decreased compared with those of the 3-month group. On the other hand, no differences were observed among those of SO(2)-exposed groups. These findings suggest that ageing and SO(2) inhalation exposure have the potential to induce antioxidant enzymes in the brain and eye, and VEP alterations, which are the primary target for air pollutants. It could be concluded that lipid peroxidation could play a critical role in the mechanism responsible for VEP alterations with ageing. PMID:12972072

  17. Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J

    2013-01-01

    A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and effective for the determination of high levels of sulfites in dried fruits. PMID:24282955

  18. The interaction of atmospheric and soil sulfur on the sulfur and selenium concentration of range plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Milchunas; W. K. Lauenroth; J. L. Dodd

    1983-01-01

    Summary A native northern mixed prairie, Montana, U.S.A., was exposed to three controlled levels of sulfur dioxide and subplots fertilized with sulfur and\\/or selenium. Plant species that accumulated relatively greater quantities of soil sulfur did not necessarily accumulate relatively greater quantities of atmospheric sulfur, andvisa versa. Plant-sulfur concentrations increased with increasing time and level of exposure, but the rate of

  19. Method of detecting sulfur dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard D. Spicer; Dennis W. Bennett; Jon F. Davis

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants

  20. APPLICATION OF AN SO2-DENUDER FOR CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR IN SUBMICROMETRIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described for the continuous measurement of total sulfur in submicrometric aerosols suspended in air containing sulfur dioxide. The aerocolloid is passed through a tube coated internally with lead dioxide. The gaseous sulfur dioxide diffuses to the surface of the tube...

  1. Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants 

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

  2. Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

  3. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  4. Biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide: Krill grazing

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, K.L.; DiTullio, G.R. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a dominant sulfur compound in sea water, is a possible precursor for cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere and may influence global climate. The primary source of DMS is phytoplankton, but the mechanisms remain uncertain, and concentrations of DMS in the ocean vary spatially and temporally. Laboratory studies suggest zooplankton grazing may be an important process leading to the formation of DMS in the ocean. This paper describes ocean studies which examine the suggestion that grazing by krill may be a significant source for DMS production in the antarctic coastal region. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Diversity of Sulfur Compound Production in Lactic Acid Bacteria1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Seefeldt; B. C. Weimer

    2000-01-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds such as methanethiol, di- methyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and hydrogen sul- fide constitute an important fraction of Cheddar cheese flavor. These compounds are products of the catabolism of methionine and cysteine by bacteria in the cheese matrix. The objectives of this study were to examine the levels and types of volatile sulfur compounds produced from methionine by

  6. Oceanic emissions of sulfur: Application of new techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Mary Jodwalis

    1998-01-01

    Sulfur gases and aerosols are important in the atmosphere because they play major roles in acid rain, arctic haze, air pollution, and climate. Globally, man-made and natural sulfur emissions are comparable in magnitude. The major natural source is dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the oceans, where it originates from the degradation of dimethysulfonioproprionate (DMSP), a compound produced by marine phytoplankton. Global

  7. Fructose metabolism of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of carbon dioxide on growth, and production of bacteriochlorophyll and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Christiane; Grammel, Hartmut

    2012-04-01

    During fermentative metabolism, carbon dioxide fixation plays a key role in many bacteria regarding growth and production of organic acids. The present contribution, dealing with the facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, reveals not only the strong influence of ambient carbon dioxide on the fermentative break-down of fructose but also a high impact on aerobic growth with fructose as sole carbon source. Both growth rates and biomass yield increased with increasing carbon dioxide supply in chemoheterotrophic aerobic cultures. Furthermore, intracellular metabolite concentration measurements showed almost negligible concentrations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate under aerobic growth, in contrast to several metabolites of the glycolysis. In addition, we present a dual phase fed-batch process, where an aerobic growth phase is followed by an anaerobic production phase. The biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and the secretion of organic acids were both affected by the carbon dioxide supply, the pH value and by the cell density at the time of switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions. The formation of pigmented photosynthetic membranes and the amount of bacteriochlorophyll were inversely correlated to the secretion of succinate. Accounting the high biotechnological potential of R. rubrum, optimization of carbon dioxide supply is important because of the favored application of fructose-containing fermentable feedstock solutions in bio-industrial processes. PMID:22418264

  8. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide with Neutral Vanadium Oxide Clusters in the Gas Phase. II. Experimental Study Employing Single-Photon Ionization

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    presented in part I (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 13339). A weak feature at the SO3 mass channel (80 amu to SO3 facilitated by condensed-phase vanadium oxides as catalysts are suggested. I. Introduction for oxidation of SO2 to SO3 (sulfuric acid production, SO2 removal), selective reduction of NOx with NH3

  9. Mutual antagonism of sulfur dioxide and abscisic acid in their effect on stomatal aperture in broad bean (Vicia faba L. ) epidermal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.; Reid, D.M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) was found to counteract the stomatal opening in Vicia faba L. caused by SO/sub 2/. The antagonism between SO/sub 2/ and ABA was mutual, and their combined effect depended upon which compound was in the greatest concentration. Stomatal apertures were monitored in detached epidermal strips floated in the light on aqueous solutions of SO/sub 2/ (sulfurous acid) and/or ABA in 0.01 molar sodium citrate buffer (pH 5.8). Low concentrations of sulfurous acid (10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -7/ molar) increased stomatal aperture, but concentrations greater than 10/sup -5/ molar decreased it. A progressive decrease in aperture size occurred as ABA was increased from 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. No evidence was found for a direct chemical reaction between the buffered sulfurous acid and ABA (exogenous or endogenous). Extractable, endogenous ABA in the strips remained relatively constant after exposure to several different concentrations of sulfurous acid. A technique for quantitating ABA from methanolic extracts of small samples of epidermis (20 milligrams dry weight) using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography is described.

  10. Hepatoprotection by Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Lind; Carmen K. Begay; A. Jay Gandolfi

    2000-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has previously been shown to have the ability to attenuate chloroform (CHCl3)-induced liver injury in the naive rat even when administered 24 h after the toxicant. These studies were undertaken to determine if the protective action by late administration of DMSO is due to an inhibition of the bioactivation of CHCl3. This was done by comparing the

  11. Chemolithotrophic nitrite oxidation by Nitrobacter: coupling with carbon dioxide fixation for growth and influence of metal ions and inorganic compounds of sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    The growth of Nitrobacter winogradskyi was completely inhibited by 0.1 mM persulfate, 0.5 mM tetrathionate, or by 5 mM each of dithionite, metabisulfite, or trithionate. The oxygen uptake activity of washed N. agilis cell suspensions was not influenced by persulfate or tetrathionate. Carbon dioxide fixation was insensitive to tetrathionate and in fact an enhancement by tetrathionate was observed. Persulfate inhibited the fixation of carbon dioxide only at a high concentration. The oxygen uptake activity of washed ell suspensions of N. agilis was tested in the presence of copper, nickel, aluminum, uranyl, and molybdate ions. Copper ion was slightly stimulatory at 0.17 M and strongly inhibitory at 17 mM. Molybdate ion showed either slight enhancement or no inhibition at all test concentrations. With the other test ions inhibition of oxygen uptake was observed.

  12. SO2 from episode 48A eruption, Hawaii: Sulfur dioxide emissions from the episode 48A East Rift Zone eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andres, R.J.; Kyle, P.R.; Stokes, J.B.; Rose, William I., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An SO2 flux of 1170??400 (1??) tonnes per day was measured with a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) in October and November 1986 from the continuous, nonfountaining, basaltic East Rift Zone eruption (episode 48A) of Kilauea volcano. This flux is 5-27 times less than those of highfountaining episodes, 3-5 times greater than those of contemporaneous summit emissions or interphase Pu'u O'o emissions, and 1.3-2 times the emissions from Pu'u O'o alone during 48A. Calculations based on the SO2 emission rate resulted in a magma supply rate of 0.44 million m3 per day and a 0.042 wt% sulfur loss from the magma upon eruption. Both of these calculated parameters agree with determinations made previously by other methods. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    SciTech Connect

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  14. 60 FR 12492 - Proposed Requirements for Implementation Plans and Ambient Air Quality Surveillance for Sulfur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-03-07

    ...Implementation Plans and Ambient Air Quality Surveillance for Sulfur Oxides (Sulfur Dioxide...changes to the ambient air quality surveillance requirements. DATES: Written comments...541-5593. For part 58 ambient air quality surveillance, contact David Lutz, Emissions...

  15. Dimethyl Sulfide in the Surface Ocean and the Marine Atmosphere: A Global View

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meinrat O. Andreae; Hans Raemdonck

    1983-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) has been identified as the major volatile sulfur compound in 628 samples of surface seawater representing most of the major oceanic ecozones. In at least three respects, its vertical distribution, its local patchiness, and its distribution in oceanic ecozones, the concentration of DMS in the sea exhibits a pattern similar to that of primary production. The global

  16. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuck, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  17. Lunar sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  18. Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate using reduced copper-cerium oxide catalysts as low as 353 K and 1.3 MPa and the reaction mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Seiki; Oka, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Izumi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO2 and methanol under milder reaction conditions was performed using reduced cerium oxide catalysts and reduced copper-promoted Ce oxide catalysts. Although the conversion of methanol was low (0.005–0.11%) for 2 h of reaction, DMC was synthesized as low as 353 K and at total pressure of as low as 1.3 MPa using reduced Cu–CeO2 catalyst (0.5 wt% of Cu). The apparent activation energy was 120 kJ mol?1 and the DMC synthesis rates were proportional to the partial pressure of CO2. An optimum amount of Cu addition to CeO2 was 0.1 wt% for DMC synthesis under the conditions at 393 K and total pressure of 1.3 MPa for 2 h (conversion of methanol: 0.15%) due to the compromise of two effects of Cu: the activation of H2 during reduction prior to the kinetic tests and the block (cover) of the surface active site. The reduction effects in H2 were monitored through the reduction of Ce4+ sites to Ce3+ based on the shoulder peak intensity at 5727 eV in the Ce L3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The Ce3+ content was 10% for reduced CeO2 catalyst whereas it increased to 15% for reduced Cu–CeO2 catalyst (0.5 wt% of Cu). Moreover, the content of reduced Ce3+ sites (10%) associated with the surface O vacancy (defect sites) decreased to 5% under CO2 at 290 K for reduced Cu–CeO2 catalyst (0.1 wt% of Cu). The adsorption step of CO2 on the defect sites might be the key step in DMC synthesis and thus the DMC synthesis rate dependence on the partial pressure of CO2 was proportional. Subsequent H atom subtraction steps from methanol at the neighboring surface Lewis base sites should combine two methoxy species to the adsorbed CO2 to form DMC, water, and restore the surface O vacancy. PMID:24790937

  19. Research Articles The Formation of Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur

    E-print Network

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Conditions: Implications for Early Earth H. Langley DeWitt,1,2 Christa A. Hasenkopf,2,3 Melissa G. Trainer,4 years old is thought to be evidence for an early anoxic atmosphere. Photolysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2 aerosols on early Earth are discussed. Key Words: S-MIF--Archean atmosphere--Early Earth--Sulfur aerosols

  20. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  1. AIRWAY SENSITIVITY OF ASTHMATICS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airways' sensitivity to SO2, (PC(SO2)), was defined as the concentration of SO2 which provoked a 100% increase in specific airways' resistance (SRaw). PC(SO2) was determined for 2. asthmatics performing moderate exercise while exposed to several concentrations of SO2 up to 2.0 pp...

  2. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emission allowance trading

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Burtraw, D. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a preliminary draft of the paper to be given at the A&WMA Acid Rain Conference on January 20-22, 1997. This version was prepared for a conference on {open_quotes}Market Tools for Green Goals{close_quotes} at the Chicago Board of Trade, November 1, 1996. The conference was sponsored by the Workshop on Market-Based Approaches to Environmental Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the Chicago Board of Trade. We are grateful to Richard Kosobud for comments on an earlier draft.

  3. Inhibition of lignifying processes by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pfanz, H.; Oppmann, B.

    1991-05-01

    Intercellular washing fluids (IWF) from spruce needles (Picea abies L. Karst.) contain peroxidases 1-2% of total IWF protein. These apoplastic enzymes show the ability to polymerize monophenols or phenylpropanes to form lignin precursors in vitro. In the presence of potentially acidic air pollutants like NO{sub 2}, HF(20 mM of salts in solution), and in the presence of Pb-, Cd- (0.5 mM) or Al-salts (8 mM) no inhibitory effect on the polymerization reactions examined was detectable. In contrast, the anions of SO{sub 2} (sulfite and bisulfite) revealed a strong inhibition on the dimerization of ferulic and caffeic acid (Ki ca. 1 mM), and on the dehydration of syringaldazine (Ki ca. 8 {mu}M). Polymerization of coniferyl alcohol, on the other hand, seemed to be enhanced. Maier-Maercker and Koch (1986) demonstrated that the cell walls of guard cells from undamaged spruce needles are properly lignified, whereas those of damaged needles seem to be affected. It is therefore assumed that cell wall lignification, and concomitantly stomatal regulation of coniferous needles are disturbed in regions with high atmospheric SO{sub 2} pollution (e.g. Ore Mountains in CSFR).

  4. Fire at Iraqi sulfur plant emits SO2 clouds detected by Earth Probe TOMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Carn; A. J. Krueger; N. A. Krotkov; M. A. Gray

    2004-01-01

    A fire started at the Al-Mishraq State Sulfur plant near Mosul, Iraq on 24 June 2003 and burned for almost a month. Combustion of elemental sulfur in the fire produced dense clouds of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that were detected from space by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) on 18 days. Estimated daily SO2 production from the

  5. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO,) and particulate sulfate (SO42-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimat...

  6. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  7. Microbial populations analysis and field application of biofilter for the removal of volatile-sulfur compounds from swine wastewater treatment system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Ling Ho; Ying-Chien Chung; Yueh-Hsien Lin; Ching-Ping Tseng

    2008-01-01

    A biofilter packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) was applied to eliminate volatile-sulfur compounds (VSC) emitted from solid–liquid separation tank in swine wastewater treatment system. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl sulfide were effectively reduced to 96–100% at gas residence times of 13–30s. Elemental sulfur and sulfate are their primary oxidation metabolites. Regarding odor, an average of 86% reduction

  8. Physicochemical properties of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl diselenide

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, U. (National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde, DE (United States). Dept. of Marine Ecology and Microbiology); Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences); Spencer, W.F. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Soil and Environmental Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Volatilization of selenium (Se) is a dissipation mechanism by which gaseous Se is redistributed in the environment. The vapor pressures of dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and dimethyl diselenide (DMDSe) were determined using the isoteniscope method, and the solubility of DMSe in H[sub 2]O was determined in a closed system by headspace analysis. The vapor pressure at 25 C were 32.03 and 0.38 kPa for DMSe and DMDSe, respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization were calculated as 31.90 and 74.92 kJ mol[sup [minus]1], respectively. The solubility of DMSe was 0.0244 g/g of H[sub 2]O. The Henry's law constant for DMSe was calculated as 143 kPa kg mol[sup [minus]1] (0.144 kPa m[sup 3] mol[sup [minus]1]).

  9. A Review of Sustainable Energy – Recent Development and Future Prospects of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En Sup Yoon; Chonghun Han

    2009-01-01

    DME can be synthesized from natural gas, coal, biomass, and\\/or coal seam, and is a sulfur-free, near-zero aromatics synthetic fuel which is considered as an excellent substitute for conventional diesel and liquefied petroleum gas. Currently, various production technologies are developed and many commercial projects are actively being progressed. This paper presents recent development and future prospect of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

  10. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOEpatents

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  11. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOEpatents

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  12. Numerical study of sulfur trioxide decomposition in bayonet type heat exchanger and chemical decomposer with porous media zone and different packed bed designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijaisri Nagarajan; Valery Ponyavin; Yitung Chen; Milton E. Vernon; Paul Pickard; Anthony E. Hechanova

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative was investigating thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production using high temperature heat exchangers. The present work was concerned with use of bayonet type heat exchanger as silicon carbide integrated decomposer (SID) which produces sulfuric acid decomposition product – sulfur dioxide. The product can be used within the sulfur–iodine thermochemical cycle and hybrid sulfur

  13. Toxicologic Appraisal of Particulate Matter, Oxides of Sulfur, and Sulfuric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary O. Amdur

    1969-01-01

    An examination of the available toxicological literature indicates that sulfur dioxide itself would be properly classified as a mild respiratory irritant, the main portion of which is absorbed in the upper respiratory tract. The reported industrial experience of symptoms of mild chronic respiratory irritation from exposures at or above 5 ppm is compatible with what would have been predicted on

  14. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally considered the dominant sources of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios lasting up to 8 h (up to 160 parts per trillion (ppt)) often occurred within the canopy and near the surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light- and temperature-dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks.

  15. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  16. System for recovering sulfur from gases, especially natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gryka, G.E.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and operate a laboratory reactor to convert hydrogen sulfide into liquid sulfur, using a patented PIPco process as a basis. Reaction conditions will be studied, continuous regenerative operation demonstrated, and data necessary to design a field test system will be collected. The subject process is a regenerative buffered water circulating system with two primary steps: (1) loading of the solution with SO[sub 2] (which can be generated by buming sulfur or H[sub 2]S), and (2) H[sub 2]S separation - reaction to form sulfur - and sulfur separation. Many regenerative liquid redox sulfur recovery systems offer potential for combining H[sub 2]S separation and sulfur formation into one step. PIPco's data and engineering study suggest the process may have advantages over other liquid systems: Use of potassiurti citrate buffer increases sulfur dioxide (oxidizing agent) loading by a factor of 8 or more, up to 160 grams SO[sub 2]/liter of solution can be carried to the separator - reactor, thereby reducing liquid circulating rates and equipment size. The separator - reactor is operated at a temperature above 120[degrees]C (the melting point of elemental sulfur). Therefore, sulfur is produced and separated in liquid form. This eliminates sulfur plugging and separation problems by avoiding the production of solid sulfur.

  17. Sulfur dioxide gas detection with Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Y/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ solid electrolyte by a solid reference electrode method

    SciTech Connect

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1987-03-01

    The electromotive force (EMF) measurement for a Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Y/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ solid electrolyte was performed both with NiSO/sub 4/-NiO and CoSO/sub 4/-Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ solid reference SO/sub 2/ electrodes. The measured EMF coincided well with the calculated EMF for a sulfur dioxide gas concentration from 30 ppm to 1% at 973 K. Good agreement between the measured and calculated EMF was also obtained for the SO/sub 2/ gas content from 100 ppm to 1%, at 923 K with the NiSO/sub 4/-NiO electrode.

  18. Oxygen and sulfur interactions with a clean iron surface and the effect of rubbing contact on these interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    The interaction of sulfur and oxygen with an iron surface was studied with Auger spectroscopy analysis both statically and during sliding-friction experiments in a vacuum environment. Oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and sulfur dioxide were adsorbed to an iron surface. Results indicate that sulfide films formed on clean iron surfaces are completely displaced by oxygen. Hydrocarbons containing sulfur, such as methyl mercaptan, adsorb dissociatively. Less sulfur is adsorbed during sliding with hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan than in the absence of sliding. With both oxygen and sulfur dioxide, sliding did not affect the amount of material adsorbed to iron.

  19. Effect of chromizing conditions and heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of chromized steel in hot sulfur-containing gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Osintsev; N. S. Gorbunov; N. A. Lavrenko; N. E. Litvinova; É. A. Sidel'nikova

    1975-01-01

    The development of elemental sulfur production requires solution of the problem of increasing the life of equipment operating in the corrosive medium of hot sulfur-containin g gases. It is known that the corrosion resistance of chromium diffusion coatings on carbon steels is greater than that of carbon steel in moist gases containing hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide [1] and in

  20. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.333 - Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). 721.333 Section 721...Substances § 721.333 Dimethyl alkylamine salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a Dimethyl alkylamine salt (PMNs P-99-0368 and...

  4. Selective Detection of Sulfur Derivatives Using Microfabricated Tuning Fork-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Anant; Tsow, Francis; Nassirpour, Sanam; Bankers, Jeffrey; Spinatsch, Martina; He, M. Pete; Forzani, Erica; Tao, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes an integtrated sensor system that can selectively and reversibly detect sulfur derivatives in the presence of interferent molecules. This is accomplished by integrating analyte-specific sensing materials with optimized filter materials. Microfabricated quartz tuning fork arrays are used to provide fast, accurate and low-cost transduction of the analyte binding events into electronic signals. The concept is demonstrated for detection of three sulfur derivatives – dimethyl disulfide, ethanethiol and methylsulfide. PMID:20160943

  5. MAPPING CRITICAL LEVELS OF OZONE, SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE FOR CROPS, FORESTS AND NATURAL VEGETATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a "Standards-based" approach. his approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the eco...

  6. Radio detection of interstellar dimethyl ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Buhl, D.; Schwartz, P. R.; Clark, F. O.; Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Giguere, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The detection of interstellar dimethyl ether, in emission from the direction of the Orion Nebula molecular cloud, is reported. The largest molecule detected in space, dimethyl ether has a large collisional cross section and C (sub 2V) symmetry. Hence, it should be useful for future studies of molecular pumping models.

  7. Selective determination of volatile sulfur compounds in wine by gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Tracey E; Solomon, Mark R; Pollnitz, Alan P; Jeffery, David W

    2010-09-01

    Volatile sulfur compounds can be formed at various stages during wine production and storage, and some may impart unpleasant "reduced" aromas to wine when present at sensorially significant concentrations. Quantitative data are necessary to understand factors that influence the formation of volatile sulfur compounds, but their analysis is not a trivial undertaking. A rapid and selective method for determining 10 volatile sulfur-containing aroma compounds in wine that have been linked to "off-odors" has been developed. The method utilizes static headspace injection and cool-on-column gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD). Validation demonstrated that the method is accurate, precise, robust, and sensitive, with limits of quantitation around 1 microg/L or better, which is below the aroma detection thresholds for the analytes. Importantly, the method does not form artifacts, such as disulfides, during sample preparation or analysis. To study the contribution of volatile sulfur compounds, the GC-SCD method was applied to 68 commercial wines that had reductive sensory evaluations. The analytes implicated as contributors to reductive characters were hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide, whereas carbon disulfide played an uncertain role. PMID:20707415

  8. Improved Chromatographic Techniques for Sulfur Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes several improvements in instrumental techniques for the analysis of low ppb concentrations of sulfur gases using gas chromatography (G.C.). This work has focused on the analytical problem of ambient air monitoring of the two main sulfur gas pollutants, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The most significant technical improvement that will be reported here is the newly developed silica gel column for ppb concentrations of the light sulfur gases (COS, H2S, CS2, SO2, CH3SH). A simplified inlet system will be described which improves reliability of the GC system. The flame photometric detector is used as the means of selectively and sensitively detecting the low concentrations of sulfur gases. Improvements will be described which have yielded better performance than previously reported for this application of the detector. Also included in this paper will be a report of field monitoring using this improved GC system. Reliability and repeatability of performance at the low ppb concentrations of sulfur gases will be demonstrated.

  9. Fractionation of Sulfur and Carbon Isotopes in a Meromictic Lake.

    PubMed

    Deevey, E S; Nakai, N; Stuiver, M

    1963-02-01

    In the permanently stagnant depths of Green Lake (near Syracuse, N.Y.), sulfide made by bacteria is depleted in heavy sulfur (S(34)), and sulfate is enriched. The fractionation factor, 1.0575, is the greatest yet observed. Isotopic resemblance to salt-dome sulfur deposits is evident, and, like saltdome calcite, the lake's carbon dioxide is depleted in heavy carbon (C(13)). PMID:17742167

  10. A study on dimethyl sulfide in a coastal upwelling region, formaldehyde in a coniferous forest, and estimating boundary layer height over a mountainous terrain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Sik Choi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of biosphere as sources on two atmospheric trace gases: dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and formaldehyde (HCHO) are predominant primary and secondary trace gases in oceanic and forested environments, respectively. DMS is mainly emitted from the ocean surface by phytoplankton, and significantly contributes to global sulfur budget and sulfate aerosol formation. In this study, DMS was measured

  11. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  12. Laboratory investigation of the atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, Shawn Peter

    1999-11-01

    On a global scale dimethyl sulfide (DMS, CH3SCH3) is the largest natural source of reduced gas phase sulfur and this compound may play an important role in cloud and aerosol formation processes through its atmospheric oxidation products. Clouds and aerosol constitute a major component of the global climate system via the earth's radiation budget. The work comprising this dissertation entails kinetic, spectroscopic, and mechanistic studies of sulfur containing compounds that are key intermediates in the atmospheric oxidation of DMS. The goal of this dissertation is to improve the quantitative understanding of the DMS atmospheric oxidation mechanism through the determination of rate coefficients and product yields of important elementary gas phase reactions. The experimental approach employed utilized laser flash photolysis (LFP) to initiate free radical chemistry coupled with tune-resolved tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) and/or time-resolved UV-VIS long path absorption spectroscopy (LPAS) to monitor the time dependent concentrations of reactants or products. Key reactions examined in this dissertation research include: OH + CH3S(O)CH3, CH3SCH2OO + CH 3SCH2OO, Cl- S(CH3)2+ O2/NO/NO 2. Chemical species monitored in the course of these studies include SO2, CH4, HCL CH2O, and CH3 by TDLAS and CH3OO and Cl-S(CH3)2 using UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy.

  13. Molecular Structure of sulfur

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    The discoverer of sulfur remains anonymous because of lack of records. However, one can trace back to the discovery of R.W. Wood when he used ultra-violet rays to find a sulfur deposit near the crater of Aristarchus on the moon. Sulfur is also found in meteorites. In the United States, Sulfur can be found along the Gulf Coast in wells sunk along salt domes. It is brought to the surface using the Frasch Process in which heated water is forced into the wells and melts the surface. Sulfur may also be found in volcanos or hot springs. Other uses of Sulfur include making phosphatic fertilizers, matches, and medicine. The mineral is a good insulator and takes part in bleaching dried fruit. Sulfur is a minor constitute of body fluids, fats, and skeletal minerals. It can be said that Sulfur is essential to life.

  14. EVALUATION OF MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR POWER PLANT AND SULFUR RECOVERY PLANT EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was conducted to evaluate a number of commercially available extractive-type sampling and monitoring systems for monitoring sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide source emissions. Evaluation testing was performed at a Fossil Fuel-Fired Power Plant and at a Claus Sulfur...

  15. Effects of simulated rain acidified with sulfuric acid on host-parasite interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shriner

    1974-01-01

    The acidity of precipitation in certain regions of the world, including northern Europe and the Northeastern United States, has increased during the past decade. An important contributing factor is an increase in strong acids such as sulfuric and nitric, which can result from sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide air pollution. A major impediment to studying effects of acid rain is

  16. SUPPRESSION EFFECT OF CO2 ON FPD TOTAL SULFUR AIR ANALYZERS AND RECOMMENDED CORRECTIVE ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of quality assurance performance audits on three U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient air monitoring projects, the suppression in the total sulfur response due to carbon dioxide was measured on flame photometric detector (FPD) total sulfur analyzers. Each analyzer...

  17. Evaluation of Single Column Trapping/Separation and Chemiluminescence Detection for Measurement of Methanethiol and Dimethyl Sulfide from Pig Production

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. PMID:22997603

  18. OH-induced oxidative cleavage of dimethyl disulfide in the presence of NO.

    PubMed

    Bil, Andrzej; Grzechnik, Katarzyna; Mierzwicki, Krzysztof; Mielke, Zofia

    2013-08-29

    We report the results of the theoretical study of (•)OH-induced oxidative cleavage of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and the experimental study of the CH3SSCH3 + (•)OH reaction in the presence of (•)NO. Infrared low temperature argon matrix studies combined with ab initio calculations allowed us to identify cis-CH3SONO, which evidences the formation of the CH3SO(•) and CH3SH molecules in the course of the CH3SSCH3 + (•)OH reaction. Ab initio/quantum chemical topology calculations revealed details of the oxidative cleavage of dimethyl disulfide, which is a complex multistep process involving an alteration of S-O and S-S covalent bonds as well as a hydrogen atom transfer. The ability of delocalization of the unpaired electron density by sulfur atoms and a formation of a hydrogen bond by CH3SO(•) and CH3SH are the factors which seem to explain antiradical properties of DMDS. PMID:23947660

  19. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m.

    PubMed Central

    Kanagawa, T; Mikami, E

    1989-01-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day. PMID:2930168

  20. Integrating entrapped mixed microbial cell (EMMC) technology for treatment of wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for reuse in semiconductor industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Y. Yang; Tin Tin Myint

    2003-01-01

    Solvents containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used in the rinse process of stripping photoresistors in semiconductor\\u000a manufacturing industries. The disposal\\/reuse of wastewater containing DMSO is a serious problem because of its high concentration\\u000a of organic carbon and the need to suppress the odor from its sulfur contents. An entrapped mixed microbial cell (EMMC) process\\u000a was used to investigate the

  1. Pressure dependent aerosol formation from the cyclohexene gas-phase ozonolysis in the presence and absence of sulfur dioxide: a new perspective on the stabilisation of the initial clusters.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Philip Thomas Michael; Dege, Janina Elisabeth; Keunecke, Claudia; Krüger, Bastian Christopher; Wolf, Jan Lennard; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    The ozonolysis of cyclohexene is studied with respect to the pressure dependent formation of stable gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as well as the influence of the presence of SO(2). In addition the rate coefficient for the initial reaction cyclohexene + O(3) was determined at 295 K. The observed increase in CO and ethene yields at low pressures and the absence of ketene in the product spectrum confirm previously proposed reaction pathways forming these decomposition products. An enhanced ethene formation at pressures below 300 mbar coincides with drastically decreased aerosol yields pointing to a high influence on SOA formation of chemical activation driven dynamics in the vinylhydroperoxide channel. The static reactor experiments at 450 mbar in the presence of SO(2) in the present study showed a similar sensitivity of additional particle formation to H(2)SO(4) number densities as found in near-atmospheric flow reactor experiments [Sipiläet al., Science, 2010, 327, 1243], a surprising result with regard to the very different experimental approaches. At low pressures (around 40 mbar) no significant new particle formation is observed even at high H(2)SO(4) concentrations. These findings indicate that the collisional stabilisation of initial clusters is an important aspect for SOA formation processes involving sulfuric acid and organic compounds. The results may have implications for geo-engineering strategies based on stratospheric sulfur injection, but caution is mandatory when room temperature laboratory results are extrapolated to stratospheric conditions. PMID:22825796

  2. Organic haze, glaciations and multiple sulfur isotopes in the Mid-Archean Era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn D. Domagal-Goldman; James F. Kasting; David T. Johnston; James Farquhar

    2008-01-01

    We use sulfur (S) isotope signatures within ancient sediments and a photochemical model of sulfur dioxide (SO2) photolysis to interpret the evolution of the atmosphere over the first half of Earth's history. A decrease in mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation has been reported in Archean rocks deposited between ~ 2.7 Ga and ~ 3.2 Ga, and is reinforced by new S isotope data

  3. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  4. Sulfur and nitrogen reactions for cometary comae ion chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.

    1992-01-01

    The low pressure reactions of sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and hydrazine with H2O+ and H3O+ were studied by the ion cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potentially important for sulphur chemistry in cometary comae. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels are presented.

  5. RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO SULFUR OXIDES AND PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute lower respiratory disease was surveyed by questionnaire among parents of 10,000 children aged 1 to 12 years in two Southeastern communities representing intermediate and high exposures to particulates and low sulfur dioxide levels. Morbidity reporting patterns with respect ...

  6. Potential effects of sulfur pollutants on grape production in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, D.A.; Viessman, S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a prototype analysis of sulfur pollutants on graph production in New York State. Principal grape production areas for the state are defined and predictions of sulfur dioxide concentrations associated with present and projected sources are computed. Sulfur dioxide concentrations are based on the results of a multi-source dispersion model, whereas concentrations for other pollutants are derived from observations. This information is used in conjunction with results from experiments conducted to identify threshold levels of damage and/or injury to a variety of grape species to pollutants. Determination is then made whether the subject crop is at risk from present and projected concentrations of pollutants.

  7. Chemically activated manganese dioxide for dry batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, M.; Abbas, H.

    1994-10-01

    The present investigation has enabled us to convert inactive beta-manganese dioxide to high electrochemically active types by chemical processes. Natural and chemically prepared beta-manganese dioxides were roasted at 1050 C to form Mn3O4. This compound was subjected to activation treatment using hydrochloric and sulfuric acid under various reaction conditions. The manganese dioxide so obtained was examined by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential thermal, and chemical analyses. The structure of the dioxide obtained was found to be greatly dependent on the origin of MnO2 and type of acid used. Treatment with hydrochloric acid yielded the so-called gamma-variety while sulfuric acid tended to produce gamma- or alpha-MnO2. In addition, waste manganese sulfate obtained as by-product from sulfuric acid digestion treatment was recycled and electrolytically oxidized to gamma-MnO2. The discharge performance of the above-mentioned MnO2 samples as battery cathodic active material was evaluated and compared with the ordinary battery grade.

  8. Cinder Pool's Sulfur Chemistry: Implications for the Origin of Life in Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydow, L.; Bennett, P.; Nordstrom, D.

    2012-12-01

    One theory of the origin of life posits the abiotic formation of alkyl thiols as an initial step to forming biomolecules and eventually a simple chemoautotrophic cell. The premise of this theory is that a recurring reaction on the charged surfaces of pyrite served as a primordial metabolism analogous to the Acetyl-CoA pathway (Wächtershäuser 1988) and was later enveloped by a primitive cellular membrane. However, alkyl thiols have not previously been identified in terrestrial hot springs as unequivocally abiogenic. We have identified methanethiol (CH3SH), the simplest of the alkyl thiols, as well as dimethyl sulfide and dimethyldisulfide, in Cinder Pool, an acid-sulfate-chloride hot spring in the One Hundred Spring Plain of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. It is unusual in that it contains a molten sulfur layer on the bottom (~20 m depth) and thousands of iron-sulfur-spherules floating on the surface (the iconic "cinders" the pool is named for), created by gas bubbling through the molten basement of the spring. These unique features make it a good candidate for abiotically generated CH3SH. Gas samples were collected from Cinder pool as well as an adjacent hydrothermal feature in the autumn of 2011 using the bubble strip method modified for use with hydrothermal waters. Several samples contained measurable quantities of methanethiol and other organic sulfur gases, with concentrations increasing with depth in the pool. Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to investigate the geochemical conditions required to abiotically form CH3SH. Sterile, artificial Cinder Pool water was injected into sterilized 60 mL serum bottles containing different iron-sulfur compounds, including cinders collected from the pool itself, as catalytic surfaces for the methanethiol-generating reaction. The bottles were then charged with hydrogen and carbon dioxide as reaction gases and incubated for a week at temperatures between 60 and 120oC. Bottles using FeS as a catalytic surface consistently produced methanethiol as expected from previous work. Bottles containing pyrite or cinders also generated lower but measurable quantities of CH3SH. While CH3SH is central to the autotroph-first theory and has been synthesized in the laboratory (e.g. Heinen and Lauwers 1996), it has not previously been observed to form abiotically in natural systems (although it is a common microbial byproduct of sulfur metabolism). We have identified CH3SH in a natural hydrothermal feature where it is unlikely to have formed secondary to microbial activity, as the only microorganism found in Cinder Pool is Aquificales Hydrogenobaculum (Spear et al. 2005) which can oxidize reduced sulfur compounds and would use methanethiol as a substrate, but should not form it as a byproduct. We have duplicated our field findings in sterile laboratory experiments using the cinders as a reactive surface. Also of note, the autotroph-first theory suggests that the primitive cellular membrane that enclosed the first metabolism was an FeS bubble created by a redox front (Russell and Hall 1997). While the cinders are not purely FeS, they could potentially serve this purpose based on the material's ability to function as a catalytic surface.

  9. Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, L.L.; Engleman, E.E.; Peard, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur was determined in plants and lichens by combustion of the sample and infrared detection of evolved sulfur dioxide using an automated sulfur analyzer. Vanadium pentaoxide was used as a combustion accelerator. Pelletization of the sample prior to combustion was not found to be advantageous. Washing studies showed that leaching of sulfur was not a major factor in the sample preparation. The combustion-IR analysis usually gave higher sulfur content than the turbidimetric analysis as well as shorter analysis time. Relative standard deviations of less than 7% were obtained by the combustion-IR technique when sulfur levels in plant material ranged from 0.05 to 0.70%. Determination of sulfur in National Bureau of Standards botanical reference materials showed good agreement between the combustion-IR technique and other instrumental procedures. Seven NBS botanical reference materials were analyzed.

  10. Io - Geochemistry of sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence from Voyager imaging, Earth-based spectral reflectivity studies, and thermal emission measurements combine to suggest an extremely fresh, volcanically recycled sulfur-rich crust for Io, with very shallow large-scale melting. Two present styles of volcanism are possible, depending on the thickness of local deposits of sulfur: shallow liquid sulfur magma generation with quiescent flooding, and high-temperature volcanism with violet eruption of a sulfur-iron magma driven by SO2. Evolutionary considerations preclude direct derivation of Io's lithosphere from any metal-bearing chondritic source material. Metal-free C3V- or C2M-type parent material of either primary or secondary origin is the most plausible direct antecedent of the present sulfur-rich crust. Sulfates are almost certainly important constituents of the mantle, and can participate in the recycling of reduced, dense sulfide species to prevent total extraction of sulfur into the core.

  11. Carbon dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arie Melamed-Katz (None; )

    2007-06-19

    Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

  12. Minimizing Chlorite Ion and Chlorate Ion in Water Treated With Chlorine Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Gordon; Bregt Slootmaekers; Satoshi Tachiyashiki; Delmer W. Wood III

    1990-01-01

    Minimizing the inorganic by-products chlorite ion and chlorate ion in drinking water treated with chlorine dioxide is important if ClO? is to remain a viable alternative in potable water treatment. The use of sulfur dioxide-sulfite ion chemistry to quantitatively remove chlorite ion to below the 0.1-mg\\/L level is described, along with the use of free chlorine to remove the sulfur

  13. 40 CFR 721.4133 - Dimethyl-3-substituted heteromonocyclic amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dimethyl-3-substituted heteromonocyclic amine. 721.4133 Section 721.4133 Protection of Environment... § 721.4133 Dimethyl-3-substituted heteromonocyclic amine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  14. Positive and negative ion formation in deep-core excited molecules: S 1s excitation in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, L H; Gardenghi, D J; Schlachter, A S; de Souza, G G B; Stolte, W C

    2014-01-14

    The photo-fragmentation of the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecule was studied using synchrotron radiation and a magnetic mass spectrometer. The total cationic yield spectrum was recorded in the photon energy region around the sulfur K edge. The sulfur composition of the highest occupied molecular orbital's and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital's in the DMSO molecule has been obtained using both ab initio and density functional theory methods. Partial cation and anion-yield measurements were obtained in the same energy range. An intense resonance is observed at 2475.4 eV. Sulfur atomic ions present a richer structure around this resonant feature, as compared to other fragment ions. The yield curves are similar for most of the other ionic species, which we interpret as due to cascade Auger processes leading to multiply charged species which then undergo Coulomb explosion. The anions S(-), C(-), and O(-) are observed for the first time in deep-core-level excitation of DMSO. PMID:24437884

  15. Sulfur recovery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Recovery of chemicals from a sodium sulfide containing pulping liquor which is cycled from a digester through a recovery system is effected by separating hydrogen sulfide gas, either from the cooking liquor or from various points in the recovery system, to provide a source of sulfide sulfur which is oxidized to sulfur. When separated from the cooking liquor, it is

  16. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  20. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660a Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains...

  1. 21 CFR 524.660a - Dimethyl sulfoxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. 524.660a Section 524.660a Food and Drugs FOOD...DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.660a Dimethyl sulfoxide solution. (a) Specifications. Dimethyl sulfoxide contains...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721.3550 Section 721.3550 ...721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN P-93-507; CAS No....

  3. Oxygen and sulfur interactions with a clean iron surface and the effect of rubbing contact on these interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the nature of the chemical interactions of oxygen and sulfur with iron when surfaces are stationary and also during sliding in a vacuum environment. Various gases that contained sulfur, oxygen, or both were adsorbed to iron at 23 C. The gases included oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and sulfur dioxide. Friction experiments were conducted with a hemispherical rider sliding on a rotating disk. An Auger cylindrical mirror analyzer was used to monitor the iron surface chemistry. The results of this study indicate that oxygen will completely displace sulfide films from iron surfaces. Organic thiols containing sulfur, such as methyl mercaptan, adsorb to an iron surface dissociatively. Only sulfur is detected on the iron surface. Sliding inhibits the formation of sulfide films on iron with the adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan. With oxygen and sulfur dioxide, the sliding process does not affect adsorption behavior.

  4. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  5. Catalytic sulfur degassing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.C.

    1988-07-05

    A process is described for the preparation of (1) synthesis gas reduced in solids and acidic gases and (2) elemental sulfur which comprises (a) treating coal, shale or tar sands with oxygen to produce a synthesis gas stream containing inorganic sulfide; (b) recovering slag particles from the treatment of coal in step (a) and selecting particles thereof suitable for use as a catalyst carrier; (c) treating the slag from step (b) with the synthesis gas substantially free of slag particles to deposit on the surface slag particles a catalytic amount of at least one metal sulfide; (d) treating the synthesis gas from step (c) to remove acidic gases suitable for sulfur production; (e) converting the acid gases from step (d) to liquid sulfur; and (f) contacting the liquid sulfur with the catalytic slag particles from step (c) to reduce the hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen polysulfide content of the sulfur.

  6. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  7. Chemistry of sulfur oxides on transition metal surfaces: a bond order conservation-Morse potential modeling perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harrell Sellers; Evgeny Shustorovich

    1996-01-01

    We have employed the bond order conservation-Morse potential (BOC-MP) method to analyze the chemistry of sulfur oxides on the copper and nickel group metals. Specifically, we have calculated the reaction energetics (heats of adsorption, reaction enthalpies and intrinsic activation barriers) of the decomposition and oxidation of sulfur dioxide at low coverages on fcc (111) surfaces of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni,

  8. Agglomeration of Athabasca petroleum cokes in the presence of various additives as a means of reducing sulfur emissions during combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Majid; V. P. Clancy; B. D. Sparks

    1987-01-01

    The relatively high sulfur content of coke produced during the upgrading of Athabasca bitumen, makes it environmentally unsuitable as a fuel. We have attempted to coagglomerate these cokes with sulfur dioxide capture agents such as: lime, hydrated lime and limestone in an attempt to reduce emissions during combustion. By providing an environment where there is intimate contact between fuel and

  9. Workshop to Obtain Input on Draft Materials for the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides (SOx): Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the review of the air quality criteria for sulfur oxides (SOX) and primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide (SO2), EPA is announcing a teleconference workshop to evaluate preliminary draft materials ...

  10. Identification of sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma using an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Wan, Jun; Chu, Liang; Liu, Wengang; Jing, Yafeng; Wu, Chunjie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used Chinese herb which will change brown during the natural drying process. However, sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma will get a better appearance than naturally dried one. Sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is potentially toxical due to sulfur dioxide and sulfites formed during the fuming procedures. The odor components in sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is complex. At present, there is no analytical method available to determine sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma simply and rapidly. To ensure medication safety, it is highly desirable to have an effective and simple method to identify sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma. Materials and Methods: This paper presents a novel approach using an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors to identify whether Pinelliae Rhizoma was fumed with sulfur, and to predict the fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used for data analyzing and identification. The use of the electronic nose to discriminate between different fuming degrees Pinelliae Rhizoma and naturally dried Pinelliae Rhizoma was demonstrated. Results: The electronic nose was also successfully applied to identify unknown samples including sulfur fumed samples and naturally dried samples, high recognition value was obtained. Quantitative analysis of fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma was also demonstrated. The method developed is simple and fast, which provides a new quality control method of Chinese herbs from the aspect of odor. Conclusion: It has shown that this electronic nose based metal oxide sensor is sensitive to sulfur and sulfides. We suggest that it can serve as a supportive method to detect residual sulfur and sulfides. PMID:24914293

  11. Dimethyl sulfide in the marine atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Andreae; R. J. Ferek; F. Bermond; K. P. Byrd; R. T. Engstrom; S. Hardin; P. D. Houmere; F. LeMarrec; H. Raemdonck; R. B. Chatfield

    1985-01-01

    We have performed over 900 measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in five different marine locations: the equatorial Pacific; Cape Grim, Tasmania; the Bahamas; the North Atlantic; and the Sargasso Sea. At all locations, DMS concentrations were usually in the range of 100-400 ng S m-3, with similar avarage concentrations of approximately 150 ng S m-3 (107 parts per thousand

  12. Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Dimethyl Sulphoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mitchell Sams; Nicholas V. Carroll

    1966-01-01

    DIMETHYL sulphoxide (DMSO) has long been known for its solvent properties and its ability to prevent freezing damage to living cells1. More recently, it has been found to cross intact cellular membranes and the skin very readily and to effect rapid penetration through these tissues of some substances dissolved in it2,3. Despite these remarkable abilities, very few undesirable effects in

  13. Dimethyl Sulfoxide: Interactions with Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Kocsis; S. Harkaway; M. C. Santoyo; R. Snyder

    1968-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) enhanced the hypertaurinuria produced by benzene, chlorobenzene, and toluene in rats. Undiluted DMSO was more effective than DMSO diluted with water in potentiating the toxicity of benzene in both rats and mice. Supernatants (9000g) prepared from livers of rats treated with DMSO 24 hours earlier metabolized more benzene than those from control rats.

  14. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  15. System for recovering sulfur from gases, especially natural gas. Final report, February 1991--July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gryka, G.E.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and operate a laboratory reactor to convert hydrogen sulfide into liquid sulfur, using a patented PIPco process as a basis. Reaction conditions will be studied, continuous regenerative operation demonstrated, and data necessary to design a field test system will be collected. The subject process is a regenerative buffered water circulating system with two primary steps: (1) loading of the solution with SO{sub 2} (which can be generated by buming sulfur or H{sub 2}S), and (2) H{sub 2}S separation - reaction to form sulfur - and sulfur separation. Many regenerative liquid redox sulfur recovery systems offer potential for combining H{sub 2}S separation and sulfur formation into one step. PIPco`s data and engineering study suggest the process may have advantages over other liquid systems: Use of potassiurti citrate buffer increases sulfur dioxide (oxidizing agent) loading by a factor of 8 or more, up to 160 grams SO{sub 2}/liter of solution can be carried to the separator - reactor, thereby reducing liquid circulating rates and equipment size. The separator - reactor is operated at a temperature above 120{degrees}C (the melting point of elemental sulfur). Therefore, sulfur is produced and separated in liquid form. This eliminates sulfur plugging and separation problems by avoiding the production of solid sulfur.

  16. Method of absorbing sulfur oxides from flue gases in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Ellestad, A.; Tokerud, A.

    1982-06-29

    A method of absorbing sulfur oxides from flue gases in seawater, comprising adding to the seawater calcium based alkali subsequent to the absorption, and then introducing the seawater to which alkali has been supplied into a decarbonation/oxidation reactor to which an oxygen-containing gas is supplied in order to oxidize sulfur oxides in the seawater and to strip carbon dioxide from the seawater. When the seawater has been removed from the decarbonation/oxidation reactor, calcium based alkali is again added to the seawater in order to increase its ph.

  17. Rain sulfates in West linked to sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ember, L.

    1985-09-02

    Research carried out by the Environmental Defense Fund has shown that in Rocky Mountain states a linear, or one-to-one relationship exists between acid sulfates in rainfall and sulfur dioxide emissions from copper smelters located up to 1000 miles away. The study tracks wet deposition from eight sites that are part of a national monitoring network, and sulfur emissions from 10 smelters distant from the monitoring sites and located in four states nestled between the Sierra Mountains and the Continental Divide. The basic conclusion of the study is that the transport of pollutants from southern Arizona and Mexico contributes to acid rain in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains. 1 figure.

  18. Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C2H6) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH4) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases—and therefore the life that produces them—if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere. Key Words: Exoplanets—Biosignatures—Anoxic atmospheres—Planetary atmospheres—Remote life detection—Photochemistry. Astrobiology 11, 419–441. PMID:21663401

  19. Removal of sulfur compounds from utility pipelined synthetic natural gas using modified activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Cui; Scott Q. Turn; Mark A. Reese

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG), which is produced from petroleum and distributed via pipeline in Honolulu by The Gas Company, was analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC\\/SCD). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (MM), ethyl mercaptan (EM), dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), tetrahydrothiophene (THT), ethyl disulfide (EDS), and one unidentified compound (UN1) were detected. Among these

  20. Spatial distributions of volatile sulfur compounds in surface seawater and overlying atmosphere in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yayoi Inomata; Masahiko Hayashi; Kazuo Osada; Yasunobu Iwasaka

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of volatile sulfur compounds (carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), dimethyl sulfide (DMS)) in surface seawater and overlying atmosphere were measured in the northwestern Pacific, eastern Indian, and Southern Oceans (40°N–66°S, 40°E–140°E) in November–December 1996 during the 38th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition cruise. Seawater measurements revealed that DMS was the dominant sulfur compound, with concentrations of

  1. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  2. Enhanced removal of dimethyl sulfide from a synthetic waste gas stream using a bioreactor inoculated with Microbacterium sp. NTUT26 and Pseudomonas putida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Hang Shu; Ching-Kuo Chen

    2009-01-01

    The removal of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from industrial gas streams has received a high priority due to its very low odorous\\u000a threshold value and relatively low biodegradability compared to other reduced sulfur compounds. A variety of bacteria that\\u000a utilize DMS as a carbon\\/energy source have been studied and the degradation pathway elucidated. However, to date, there have\\u000a been few reports

  3. Comparison of the UCB sulfur recovery process with conventional sulfur recovery technology for treating recycle gas from a crude oil residuum hydrotreater. [UCBSRP sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Neumann, D.W.; Sciamanna, S.F.; Vorhis, F.H.

    1986-03-31

    The University of California, Berkeley, Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) is being developed as an alternative to conventional sulfur recovery technology for removing hydrogen sulfide from gas streams and converting it to elemental sulfur. In the UCBSRP the hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by a physical solvent and the resulting solution of H/sub 2/S is mixed with a stoichiometrically equivalent amount of slulfur dioxide dissolved in the same solvent. The reaction between the two sulfur compounds forms water, which is miscible with the solvent, and elemental sulfur, which crystallizes from solution when its solubility is exceeded. Part of the sulfur formed in the reaction is burned to make the SO/sub 2/ needed in the process, and the heat of combustion is recovered in a waste-heat boiler. Sulfur is recovered by cooling the solution, settling the additional crystals that form, and centrifuging the slurry pumped from the bottom of the crystallizer-surge tank. In this report the UCBSRP is compared to conventional technology for the case of the removal of H/sub 2/S from the recycle gas of a high-pressure petroleum residuum hydrotreater. The conventional technology selected for this comparison consists of an absorber/stripper operation using diethanol amine as the absorbent, a Claus sulfur plant, and a SCOT tail-gas treating unit. From this comparison it is estimated that the DFC for the UCBSRP would be about 61% of that for the conventional technology. The utility costs for this application of the UCBSRP are estimated to be less than the credit for the high-pressure steam produced whereas the utility costs for the conventional process are substantially more. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. No sulfur flows on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of elemental sulfur are incompatible with the suggestion that the colored flows associated with volcanoes on Io are quenched unstable allotropes of sulfur. Either the volcanic flows are not sulfur, or some mechanism other than quenching is required to produce colored forms of sulfur in them. The properties of sulfur are unsuited to the production and survival of colored unstable allotropes on Io. The color of this object is probably due to some other material, possibly iron compounds.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of sulfur compounds derived from cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kyung, K H; Fleming, H P

    1997-01-01

    Selected sulfur compounds found in cabbage and its fermentation product, sauerkraut, were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against growth of 15 species of bacteria and 4 species of yeasts. S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, sinigrin, and dimethyl sulfide at 500 ppm were not inhibitory to any of the bacteria and yeasts tested. Dimethyl disulfide at 500 ppm retarded some, but did not prevent growth of any of the test microorganisms. Dimethyl trisulfide had an MIC to bacteria of 200 ppm and to yeast of 20 ppm. Methyl methanethiosulfinate had an MIC between 50 and 200 ppm for all bacteria, and between 6 and 10 ppm for all yeasts tested. Methyl methanethiosulfonate had an MIC between 20 and 100 ppm for bacteria and between 50 and 500 ppm for yeasts. Allyl isothiocyanate had an MIC between 50 and 500 ppm for bacteria and between 1 and 4 ppm for yeasts. Methyl methanethiosulfinate was 10 to 100 times more inhibitory against Listeria monocytogenes at pH values of 5, 6, and 7 and was much less influenced by pH than was sodium benzoate. PMID:10465044

  6. Lithium-Sulfix Dioxide Batteries on Mars Rovers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Ratnakumar; M. C. Smart; R. C. Ewell; L. D. Whitcanack; A. Kindler; S. R Narayanan; S. Surampudi

    NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions on Mars. These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during

  7. IMPACT OF OZONE AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE ON SOYBEAM YIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little dose-response information exists on the effects of chronic ozone (O3) and intermittent sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposures on the yield of important agricultural crops. Such information is needed for refinement of estimates of air pollution induced crop losses. Field-grown plan...

  8. Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle Effects of Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBee, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Carbonyl Sulfide(OCS) is considered to be one of the major sources of sulfur appearing in the stratosphere due to its relative inertness, about I to 10 yearsl. However, the roles of OCS as well as other reduced sulfur compounds such as carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and dimethyl disulfide(CH3)2S2, are not completely understood in the atmosphenc sulfur cycle. Consequently vely little information is available about the effect of sulfur compounds in the stratosphere. The ability of OCS to penetrate into the stratosphere makes it an excellent tracer for study of the role of the sulfi r cycle in stratospheric chemistry. Previously techniques such as gas chromatography and whole air sampling have been used to measure OCS analytically. Each technique had its drawbacks however, with both being quite slow, and whole air sampling being somewhat unreliable. With molecular spectroscopy, however, it has been found in recent years that the tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDL) provides a very rapid and accurate method of measuring OCS and other trace gases

  9. A comparison of the UCB sulfur recovery process with conventional sulfur recovery technology for treating recycle gas from a crude oil residuum hydrotreater

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Neumann, D.W.; Sciamanna, S.F.; Vorhis, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley, Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) is being developed as an alternative to conventional sulfur recovery technology for removing hydrogen sulfide from gas streams and converting it to elemental sulfur. In the UCBSRP the hydrogen sulfide is absorbed by a physical solvent and the resulting solution of H/sub 2/S is mixed with a stoichiometrically equivalent amount of sulfur dioxide dissolved in the same solvent. In this paper the UCBSRP is compared to conventional technology for the case of the removal of H/sub 2/S from the recycle gas of a high-pressure petroleum residuum hydrotreater. The conventional technology selected for this comparison consists of an absorber/stripper operation using diethanol amine as the absorbent, a Claus sulfur plant, and a SCOT tail-gas treating unit. From this comparison it is estimated that the Direct Fixed Capital for the UCBSRP would be about 61% of that for the conventional technology.

  10. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  11. Fluorine-Induced Chemiluminescence Detection of Biologically Methylated Tellurium, Selenium, and Sulfur Compounds and Methyldithiocarbhydrazide as a Formaldehyde Derivatization Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Thomas Girard

    1990-01-01

    The first part of this dissertation describes capillary chromatography coupled to a fluorine-induced chemiluminescence detector as a sensitive method by which biologically methylated metalloids can be determined in the presence of high concentrations of potentially interfering molecules. With a wide linear range and excellent sensitivity, this method was applied to the detection of dimethyl selenide (DMSe), dimethyl diselenide (DMDSe), and dimethyl telluride (DMTe), often found in biological environments in the presence of interfering methylated sulfur gases, such as methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. Detection limits for DMSe, DMDSe, and DMTe were 30, 9, and 7 picograms, respectively. This DMTe detection limit is the lowest reported to date for a volatile tellurium gas. A variety of selenium-resistant bacteria emitted mixtures of methylated sulfur/selenium gases when dosed with inorganic selenium salts in the presence of sulfur containing growth media. One of the gases detected was dimethyl selenenyl sulfide, CH_3SeSCH _3, reported here for the first time in headspace above microorganisms. In addition, this detector responded to reduced phosphorus compounds such as phosphine. The detection limit for this compound was 2.8 picograms. Detection limits for alkylated phosphines trimethyl and triethyl phosphine were 0.5 and 17 picograms respectively, based on the relative response of these compounds compared to dimethyl sulfide. This method can be used for the simultaneous determination of methylated sulfur, selenium, tellurium compounds found in biological systems. Part II of this dissertation describes work with methyldithiocarbhydrazide, a compound that has been synthesized for use as a derivatization reagent to capture formaldehyde in the gas phase. Chosen for its ability to react in a manner similar to 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, this molecule was selected based on two structural characteristics: a hydrazine tag to react with and thereby capture carbonyls and a methyl sulfide group to allow for sensitive detection by fluorine-induced chemiluminescence. Although in the final analysis methyldithiocarbohydrazide failed as a successful means by which formaldehyde can be determined using gas chromatography in conjunction with fluorine-induced chemiluminescence, it did successfully derivatize formaldehyde in both solution and the gas phase without the need for low pH conditions.

  12. Bio-controlled thermostasis involving the sulfur cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn E. Shaw

    1983-01-01

    The Gaia hypothesis proposed by Lovelock and Margulis presumes the existence of an unspecified biological means of ameliorating\\u000a climate that has operated since the emergence of life 3500 Myr ago: Recently it was suggested that the mechanism of thermostasis\\u000a may involve biospheric cycling of atmospheric carbon dioxide.\\u000a \\u000a We suggest an alternative hypothesis of biothermostasis operating through the sulfur cycle, rather

  13. Reduction of produced elementary sulfur in denitrifying sulfide removal process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zhou; Lihong Liu; Chuan Chen; Nanqi Ren; Aijie Wang; Duu-Jong Lee

    2011-01-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial\\u000a wastewater into elemental sulfur, dinitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. The failure of a DSR process is signaled\\u000a by high concentrations of sulfide in reactor effluent. Conventionally, DSR reactor failure is blamed for overcompetition for\\u000a heterotroph to autotroph communities. This study indicates that the elementary

  14. Morphologic effects of a sulfur(IV) aerosol on the nasal cavity of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, S; Fürst, G; Heilmann, P; Heini, A; Heinzmann, U; Karg, E; Murray, A B; Ruprecht, L; Heyder, J

    1994-06-01

    Morphologic changes were observed in nasal cavities of beagle dogs after long-term exposure to a respirable sulfur(IV) aerosol at a concentration equivalent to a sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentration of 0.6 mg/m3. The changes were characterized by a thickened epithelial layer resulting from epithelial proliferation, by a loss of secretory material, and by moderate mononuclear cell infiltration. PMID:8202926

  15. Identification of sulfur sources and isotopic equilibria in submarine hot-springs using multiple sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Jill M.; Ono, Shuhei; Tivey, Margaret K.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Solow, Andrew R.

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sulfur isotopes were measured in metal sulfide deposits, elemental sulfur, and aqueous hydrogen sulfide to constrain sulfur sources and the isotopic systematics of precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal vents. Areas studied include the Eastern Manus Basin and Lau Basin back-arc spreading centers and the unsedimented basalt-hosted Southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) and sediment-hosted Guaymas Basin mid-ocean ridge spreading centers. Chalcopyrite and dissolved hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ?34S values range from -5.5‰ to +5.6‰ in Manus Basin samples, +2.4‰ to +6.1‰ in Lau Basin samples, and +3.7‰ to +5.7‰ in SEPR samples. Values of ?34S for cubic cubanite and H2S range from -1.4‰ to +4.7‰ in Guaymas Basin samples. Multiple sulfur isotope systematics in fluid-mineral pairs from the SEPR and Lau Basin show that crustal host rock and thermochemical reduction of seawater-derived dissolved sulfate (SO4) are the primary sources of sulfur in mid-ocean ridge and some back-arc systems. At PACMANUS and SuSu Knolls hydrothermal systems in the Eastern Manus Basin, a significant contribution of sulfur is derived from disproportionation of magmatic sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the remaining sulfur is derived from crustal host rocks and SO4 reduction. At the sedimented Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system, sulfur sources include crustal host rock, reduced seawater SO4, and biogenic sulfide. Vent fluid flow through fresher, less-mature sediment supplies an increased quantity of reactant organic compounds that may reduce 34S-enriched SO4, while fluid interaction with more highly-altered sediments results in H2S characterized by a small, but isotopically-significant input of 34S-depleted biogenic sulfides. Near-zero ?33S values in all samples implicate the abiotic processes of SO4 reduction and leaching of host rock as the major contributors to sulfur content at a high temperature unsedimented mid-ocean ridge and at a back-arc system. ?33S values indicate that SO2 disproportionation is an additional process that contributes sulfur to a different back-arc system and to acid spring-type hydrothermal fluid circulation. At the sedimented Guaymus Basin, near-zero ?33S values are also observed, despite negative ?34S values that indicate inputs of biogenic pyrite for some samples. In contrast with previous studies reporting isotope disequilibrium between H2S and chalcopyrite, the ?34S values of chalcopyrite sampled from the inner 1-2 mm of a chimney wall are within ±1‰ of ?34S values for H2S in the paired vent fluid, suggesting equilibrium fluid-mineral sulfur isotope exchange at 300-400 °C. Isotopic equilibrium between hydrothermal fluid H2S and precipitating chalcopyrite implies that sulfur isotopes in the chalcopyrite lining across a chimney wall may accurately record past hydrothermal activity.

  16. Development of combined nitrogen oxide\\/sulfur oxide environmental-control technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. L. Harkness; R. D

    1985-01-01

    Using a statistically designed series of batch experiments, we investigated simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas from coal-fired boilers. Our results were consistent with mechanisms in which NO (nitrogen monoxide) and NOâ (nitrogen dioxide) are coscrubbed as HNOâ (nitrous acid), which reacts with SOâ (sulfur dioxide) as (HSOâ⁻) (the bisulfite ion) to form hydroxylamine-N-sulfonates. Significant pathways for aqueous-phase denitrification

  17. Molecular Spectra of Sulfur Molecules and Solid Sulfur Allotropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bodo Eckert; Ralf Steudel

    Molecular spectroscopy is one of the most important means to characterize the various species in solid, liquid and gaseous elemental sulfur. In this chapter the vibrational, UV-Vis and mass spectra of sulfur molecules with between 2 and 20 atoms are critically reviewed together with the spectra of liquid sulfur and of solid allotropes including polymeric and high-pressure phases. In particular,

  18. Low quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kuehn, L. [Bovar Corp., Houston, TX (United States). Western Research

    1995-06-01

    The project comprises a Base Program and an Optional Program. The Base Program, which included NEPA reporting, process design and an experimental research plan for the optional program, was completed August 31, 1993 with submission of the Task 2 Final Report. The Optional Program, Task 3, began in July 1994. The project goal is to further develop and demonstrate two of the component technologies of the CFZ-CNG Process: (1) pilot-scale triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide, producing commercially pure carbon dioxide from contaminated carbon dioxide at the rate of 25 ton/day, and (2) bench-scale modified high pressure Claus technology, recovering elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide at the rate of 200 lb/day.

  19. Abatement of volatile organic sulfur compounds in odorous emissions from the bio-industry.

    PubMed

    Smet, E; Van Langenhove, H

    1998-01-01

    Compounds of interest in this work are methanethiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (Me2S), dimethyl polysulfides (Me2Sx) and carbon disulfide (CS2) since these volatiles have been identified as predominant odorants in the emission of a wide range of activities in the bio-industry (e.g. aerobic waste water treatment plants, composting plants, rendering plants). In these processes, the occurrence of volatile organic sulfur compounds is mainly related to the presence of anaerobic microsites with consecutive fermentation of sulfur containing organic material and/or to the breakdown of the latter due to thermal heating. Due to the chemical complexity of these low-concentrated waste gas streams and the high flow rates to be handled, mainly biotechnological techniques and scrubbers can be used to control the odour emission. When using biofilters or trickling filters, inoculation with specific microorganisms and pH-control strategies should be implemented to optimise the removal of volatile organic sulfur compounds. In scrubbers, chemical oxidation of the volatile organic sulfur compounds can be obtained by dosing hypochlorite, ozone or hydrogen peroxide to the scrubbing liquid. However, optimal operational conditions for each of these abatement techniques requires a further research in order to guarantee a long-term and efficient overall odour abatement. PMID:10022070

  20. 40 CFR 721.10352 - Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates...721.10352 Dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted benzoates...generically as dimethyl terephthalate, polymer with alkyl diol and substituted...

  1. Analysis of secondary lithium cells with sulfur dioxide based electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. McDonald; Peter Harris; Sohrab Hossain; Franz Goebel

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in lithium rechargeable cells using liquid SO 2-based electrolyte have led to the demonstration of 100-200 cycles at practical energy densities of over 100 Wh\\/kg in flat-plate cells. Analytical studies were conducted to confirm the discharge mechanism and to explore the effects of using various cycling voltage limits in Li\\/CuCl2 cells. These cells have excellent shelf-life potential and

  2. Reactive collisions of sulfur dioxide with molten carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Thomas; Nathanson, Gilbert M.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering experiments are used to investigate reactions of SO2 at the surface of a molten alkali carbonate eutectic at 683 K. We find that two-thirds of the SO2 molecules that thermalize at the surface of the melt are converted to gaseous CO2 via the reaction . The CO2 product is formed from SO2 in less than 10-6 s, implying that the reaction takes place in a shallow liquid region less than 100 ? deep. The reaction probability does not vary between 683 and 883 K, further implying a compensation between decreasing SO2 residence time in the near-interfacial region and increasing reactivity at higher temperatures. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency of SO2 ? CO2 conversion by molten carbonates, which appear to be much more reactive than dry calcium carbonate or wet slurries commonly used for flue gas desulfurization in coal-burning power plants. PMID:20133648

  3. Improved methodology for the estimation of sulfur dioxide in shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, B.J. III

    1987-01-01

    A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.

  4. Intensities of electronic transitions in sulfur dioxide vapor 

    E-print Network

    McCray, James Arthur

    1955-01-01

    the Einstein probability coefficient of absorotion for the 2900 A system. The value obtained was B - 4. 93 x 10 trans 17 per second per molecule per (ergs per cm3-sec" ). The oscillator strength of the 2900 A system was comouted from equation (43) to be (4...

  5. Comparison between Sulfur Dioxide estimates using COSPEC and MODIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Escalona, Jose Carlos; Monsivais-Huertero, Alejandro; Ddelgado-Granados, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the synergy of both remote sensing methods in order to utilize information derived from these two techniques for continuous volcano monitoring. Particularly, this paper aims at (1) showing the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques individually and (2) Comparing both sources of measurements and (3) coupling the dynamics showed by COSPEC measurements and static satellite image (MODIS) information. For this end, we use as a case of study the emissions of Popocatépetl volcano between November 2006 and February 2007. During this period, Popocatépetl volcano showed a phase of increased activity, and COSPEC measurement campaigns were made. A few days the dates and times of acquisition of MODIS images coincide with the COSPEC measurements. In the case to make a comparison of both techniques some considerations must be made in such a way that seeks to reproduce the conditions that used a method and the other. In the case of COSPEC is to be understood that measurements are carried out in transects of the plume. On the other hand, we must consider the vehicle that transports the COSPEC, which in this case was terrain, ?t takes a while to cross the plume from side to side and you need to consider that the plume is moving at all times measuring the effect of the prevailing wind at the height where it is located. On the other hand, a satellite image provides instant volcanic plume. It also has information of the whole event in a given time. The resolution of each pixel is one square kilometer while for COSPEC the resolution is a few hundred meters. Results showed that the SO2 estimates data could be comparable in magnitude but should take into account gaps and drawbacks for both methods such as the time spent in making the measurement COSPEC and the route used to transect the plume. While for MODIS, it should be taken into account the image resolution that limits the ability to measure relatively small areas of SO2 concentration. This could be one of the consequences that makes measurements of SO2 by MODIS images present an overestimation.

  6. Symptomatic bronchoconstriction after short-term inhalation of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Balmes, J R; Fine, J M; Sheppard, D

    1987-11-01

    We studied the relationship between duration and concentration of exposure in SO2-induced bronchoconstriction in 8 asthmatic subjects. On separate days, we administered SO2 in humidified air through a mouthpiece at 2 concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 ppm) for 3 time periods (1, 3, and 5 min) during eucapnic hyperpnea (60 L/min). Humidified air was administered for 5 min as a control. Bronchoconstriction was assessed by measurement of specific airway resistance (SRaw). The magnitude of the bronchoconstrictor response to both concentrations of SO2 increased progressively over the 3 time periods studied. The mean (+/- SE) increase in SRaw (in L x cm H2O/L/s) and percent increase above baseline (in parentheses) after each exposure to SO2 were as follows: 2.5 +/- 0.3 (34%) after 0.5 ppm for 1 min; 7.5 +/- 4.7 (93%) after 1.0 ppm for 1 min; 13 +/- 3.2 (173%) after 0.5 ppm for 3 min; 31.4 +/- 7.4 (395%) after 1.0 ppm for 3 min; 19.6 +/- 4.0 (234%) after 0.5 ppm for 5 min; 44.1 +/- 9.8 (580%) after 1.0 ppm for 5 min; 3.5 +/- 1.5 (46%) after humidified air for 5 min. For the group, the increases in SRaw caused by inhalation of both concentrations of SO2 for 1 min were small. However, 2 of 8 subjects did develop large increases in SRaw and chest tightness after inhalation of 1.0 ppm for 1 min. Seven of 8 subjects developed wheezing, chest tightness, or dyspnea and used an inhaled bronchodilator after inhalation of 0.5 ppm for 3 and 5 min and 1.0 ppm for 3 minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3674573

  7. Oxidation of sulfur dioxide in high concentrations in fluidized bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Gujarathi; S. K. Raman

    1976-01-01

    Air?SO2 mixtures containing 14, 18, 22 and 26% SO2 were reacted using an attrition-resistant vanadium catalyst in fluidized bed. Change of bed height was found to be the most suitable method for attaining a desired conversion.

  8. A wet plasma scrubber for removal of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhali, Shirshak; Seetamsetty, Sreeram; Dave, Bakul

    2001-10-01

    We have modified the dielectric barrier discharge to create a discharge in a gas, liquid and solid medium. The electric discharge takes place in the gas bubbles formed in this mixture. The discharge behaves like a partial discharge in voids. It is excited with a 2- 5 kHz high voltage source. In this paper, we present some basic characteristics of the wet plasma scrubber followed by removal of SO2. The configuration is a cross flow reactor with the water coming down and the gas moving up. It consists of a glass dielectric cylinder with the inside filled with glass pellets. The inner electrode is a stainless steel rod and the outer electrode is a conducting film on the outer surface of the dielectric. The plasma is created in the gas and liquid mixture between the beads. This produces a heterogeneous medium and enhances the removal rate considerably. The removal efficiency of SO2 was studied under various conditions. It was found to work better compared to dry plasma techniques. The power requirements were less by a factor of 5 compared to dry reactors. The addition of water in the reactor causes enhanced production of OH radicals, which improves the removal efficiency. In addition, the water removes H2SO4 from the discharge and prevents regeneration of SO2. Due to the relative changes in gas and dielectric capacitance, it was found that the power coupled to the discharge decreases due to water flow.

  9. Physiological responses of Vicia faba plants to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, P.K.; Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S.B.; Rao, D.N. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1990-02-01

    Exposure of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants to 270 +/- 32 and 670 +/- 45 micrograms m 3SO{sub 2} for 1.5 hr daily between 40 and 85 days of their ages resulted in an increase in their transpiration rate, water saturation deficit, phenol content, and peroxidase activity and a decrease in protein content. With the increase in number of exposures of plants to SO{sub 2}, chlorotic and brown, necrotic visible injury signs were also developed in leaves. It was further noted that the magnitude of undesirable biochemical changes, which possibly helped in the formation of new pigment characteristic of necrotic tissue of SO{sub 2}-exposed plants, was not totally dependent on the pollutant concentration.

  10. Sulfur dioxide incorporation into ice depositing from the vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, M.P.; Dawson, G.A.; Bales, R.C. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1989-01-20

    An experimental study has been made of the incorporation of SO{sub 2} into ice depositing from the vapor at {minus}15C. Surprisingly, SO{sub 2} was captured in deposited ice at concentrations comparable to those given by SO{sub 2}/S(IV) aqueous equilibrium at 0C. A consequence of this result is that, in the remote troposphere, unrimed snow scavenging ratios for SO{sub 2} may be comparable to those for sulfate. In addition, ozone and HCHO appeared to inhibit, rather than enhance, SO{sub 2} uptake. An aqueous-film model is developed to account for SO{sub 2} capture. If SO{sub 2} dissolves in a liquidlike layer on growing ice surfaces, the concentration of S(IV) species may become enhanced within the layer as a result of retarded diffusional transport away from the advancing ice/layer interface. Such a concentration increase can produce significant solute incorporation into the bulk ice, despite effective solute rejection from the ice.

  11. Preservation of chopped sweet sorghum using sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhoff, S.R.; Bender, D.A.; Okos, M.R.; Peart, R.M.

    1983-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an attractive feedstock for fermentation but its sugars degrade quickly after harvest. The effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage and temperature on the storability of chopped Rio sweet sorghum was studied. Four SO/sub 2/ dosage levels (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% w.b.) and five storage temperatures (-16, 2, 12, 22 and 32/sup 0/C) were investigated. The samples were stored in constant temperature incubators for three months. Fermentable sugars, sample pH and initial and final SO/sub 2/ levels were determined. All three non-zero levels of SO/sub 2/ adequately preserved the chopped sweet sorghum with no significant decrease in the total fermentable sugars.

  12. Dimethyl fumarate protection against collagen II degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Tang, Jie; Hu, Yong

    2014-11-14

    Degradation of collagen type II caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is one of the major pathological characteristics of osteoarthritis (OA). Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an oral multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy. In this study, we found that DMF ameliorated collagen type II degradation by inhibiting the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 caused by TNF-?. Mechanistically, DMF attenuated MMPs expression by suppressing JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings imply that DMF treatment might be a potential therapeutic strategy for chondroprotective therapy. PMID:25305493

  13. Electron Irradiation of Carbon Disulfide-Oxygen Ices: Toward the Formation of Sulfur-bearing Molecules in Interstellar Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2013-08-01

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS2)-oxygen (O2) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide (SO3), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS2) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and/or methanol (CH3OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  14. Alkali metal-sulfur cells

    SciTech Connect

    Auborn, J.J.; Granstaff, S.M.

    1982-11-02

    An alkali metal, such as sodium, sulfur cell having an alkali metal anode, a solid ionic electrolyte, such as sodium beta alumina, and a liquid catholyte formed by sulfur, a halosulfane, such as sulfur monochloride and a haloacid, such as aluminum chloride, is described.

  15. CONTROLLING SULFUR OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Research Summary describes EPA's program to develop new and improve existing technologies for sulfur oxides control. As we increasingly turn to coal as the primary utility and industrial fuel, while trying to deal with the problems of acid precipitation, visibility degradati...

  16. Sulfur in basaltic magmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Wallace; Ian S. E. Carmichael

    1992-01-01

    The concentration of S in basaltic magmas at 1 atm pressure is strongly dependent on temperature, the fugacities of oxygen ( f O 2 ) and sulfur ( f S 2 ), and bulk composition. Microprobe analyses of total S in rapidly quenched, submarine basalt glasses, used in conjunction with wet chemical analyses of Fe 2 O 3 \\/ FeO

  17. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

  18. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  19. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  20. THE EFFECT OF DIMETHYL SULPHOXIDE ON HEPATIC CELLS OF RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KB Shilkin; JM Papadimitriou; MN-I Walters

    1966-01-01

    The dipolar aprotic solvent dimethyl sulphoxide, although generally used in biology to preserve cells, is shown to be capable of producing morphological changes in hepatocytcs of the rat. These changes have features similar to those caused by other hepatotoxins. The damage due to dimethyl sulphoxide is not prevented by compounds stabilizing the cell membrane. The substance probably exerts its effect