Science.gov

Sample records for sulfur dioxide dimethyl

  1. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  2. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Driedger, Arthur R., III

    1993-01-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  3. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  5. Operational overview of the NASA GTE/CITE 3 airborne instrument intercomparisons for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcneal, Robert J.; Bendura, Richard J.; Drewry, Joseph W.; Barrick, John D.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Motta, Adauto G.; Navarro, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the overall experimental design and gives a brief overview of results from the third airborne Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) mission conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment. The primary objective of CITE 3 was to evaluate the capability of instrumentation for airborne measurements of ambient concentrations of SO2, H2S, CS, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. Ancillary measurements augmented the intercomparison data in order to address the secondary objective of CITE 3 which was to address specific issues related to the budget and photochemistry of tropospheric sulfur species. The CITE 3 mission was conducted on NASA's Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft and included a ground-based intercomparison of sulfur standards and intercomparison/sulfur science flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, followed by flights from Natal, Brazil. Including the transit flights, CITE 3 included 16 flights encompassing approximately 96 flight hours.

  6. Solubility of Sulfur Dioxide in Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. K.; Compton, L. E.; Lawson, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid was evaluated by regular solution theory, and the results verified by experimental measurements in the temperature range of 25 C to 70 C at pressures of 60 to 200 PSIA. The percent (wt./wt.) of sulfur dioxide in 50% (wt./wt.) sulfuric acid is given by the equation %SO2 = 2.2350 + 0.0903P - 0.00026P 10 to the 2nd power with P in PSIA.

  7. Sulfur Dioxide and Material Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Donald G.

    1975-01-01

    This study relates sulfur dioxide levels with material damage in heavily populated or polluted areas. Estimates of loss were determined from increased maintenance and replacement costs. The data indicate a decrease in losses during the past five years probably due to decline in pollution levels established by air quality standards. (MR)

  8. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  10. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  11. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  13. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  15. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 582.3862 Section 582.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur dioxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  17. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    PubMed Central

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  18. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Product. Sulfur...

  19. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  20. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  1. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  2. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  3. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  4. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  5. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOEpatents

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  6. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-84 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sulfur dioxide. 151.50-84 Section 151.50-84 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-84 Sulfur dioxide. (a) Sulfur... respiratory protective device that protects the wearer against sulfur dioxide vapors and provides...

  12. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide by native clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Merkun, I.I.; Kel'tsev, N.V.; Bratchuk, F.N.; Rogovik, M.I.

    1982-11-10

    The purpose of the present work was to study the adsorption capacity of the little-studied native clinoptilolite from Beregovo in the Zakarpatskaya region (Ruthenia) for sulfur dioxide. Adsorption of SO/sub 2/ under analogous conditions by Patrick's silica gel, prepared by us by a known method, was studied for comparison. Results indicated that native clinoptilolite studied has much higher adsorption capacity than Patrick's silica gel for sulfur dioxide in the temperature range studied. The adsorption capacity of this zeolite alters little with increase of temperature in the range 25-75/sup 0/. It is considered that native clinoptilolite can be used for removing sulfur dioxide from waste gases in the temperature and pressure ranges studied.

  13. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  14. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  15. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  16. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  17. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  18. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  19. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  20. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  1. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3862 - Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfur dioxide. 182.3862 Section 182.3862 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3862...

  3. LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition velocities have been carried out in the laboratory with the use of a cylindrical flow reaction. Analysis of data from these experiments was performed with models that specifically account for diffusive transport in the system. Consequentl...

  4. SOLID SORBENT FOR COLLECTING ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid sorbent for collecting atmospheric SO2 was evaluated as part of an overall effort to develop a replacement method for the West-Gaeke method presently used to measure 24-hour ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations in ambient air. Research showed that a solid sorbent, consis...

  5. RETENTION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE BY NYLON FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on laboratory studies, recovery efficiencies of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were determined for nylon filters. The nylon filters used in these experiments were found to retain SO2. A relatively uniform amount (1.7%) was recoverable from each nylon filter, independent of relative...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  7. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  8. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  9. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  11. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  12. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  14. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  15. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  16. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  17. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following raw...

  18. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  19. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.333... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at...

  20. 40 CFR 60.183 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.183... Smelters § 60.183 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or converter gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  2. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for... § 180.444 Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance is established as follows for sulfite residues of the fungicide sulfur dioxide (determined as (SO2)) in or on the following...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  5. 40 CFR 60.163 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.163... Smelters § 60.163 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... converter any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.065 percent by volume, except as provided...

  6. Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide Frost on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide, normally a gas at room temperatures, is known to exist on Io's surface as a frost, condensing there from the hot gases emanating from the Io volcanoes. However, the deposition patterns and relation of the frost distribution to the volcanic activity is unknown, since prior measurements lacked the spatial resolution to accurately map the surface frost.

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtained relatively high spatial and spectral resolution images during the C3 orbit, and the characteristic infrared absorptions of sulfur dioxide frost appearing in the spectra were used to produce the SO2 frost map shown on the right. The comparison image on the left (from 1979 Voyager measurements) shows the same view and indicates the surface brightness as seen in visible light.

    The frost map shows maximum SO2 concentration as white, lesser amounts as blue coloration, and areas with little or no SO2 as black. The resolution of this map is about 120 km (75 miles), which spans the latitude range 120 W to 270 W.

    It is interesting to compare this frost distribution with regions of volcanic activity. Volcanic hotspots identified from NIMS and SSI images occur in many of the dark - low SO2 - areas, a reasonable finding since sulfur dioxide would not condense on such hot regions. The Pele region (to the lower left), N. Colchis hot spots (upper center) and S. Volund (upper right) are good examples of hot spot areas depleted in sulfur dioxide. Much of the rest of this hemisphere of Io has varying amounts of sulfur dioxide present. The most sulfur dioxide-rich area is Colchis Regio, the white area to the right of center.

    Of particular interest is the dark area to the south of Colchis Regio. From the study of other NIMS images, it is seen that this region does not have any large, obvious hotspots. However, it is depleted in sulfur dioxide.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  7. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5 grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  8. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; van Aardenne, John; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

    2011-01-02

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 - 2005. A combination of mass balance and best available inventory data was used in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties of up to 30% were found. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping.

  9. Purification of crude hexafluoroacetone containing nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfield, J. H.; Karsay, B. I.

    1984-09-25

    Crude hexafluoroacetone containing as impurities nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide is purified by admixing with water to form an aqueous solution, admixing the aqueous solution with concentrated sulfuric acid or oleum to form a vapor and scrubbing the vapor with liquid concentrated sulfuric acid to produce purified anhydrous hexafluoroacetone. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides interact with the aqueous solution and conc

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts

  11. Analyzing Sulfur Dioxide Emissions of Nyamuragira Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, A. L.; Bluth, G. J.; Carn, S. A.

    2002-05-01

    Nyamuragira volcano, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is Africa's most active volcano, having erupted 13 times (every 1-3 years) since 1980. The eruption frequency, and the large amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted by this rift volcano, may produce a significant impact on the global sulfur budget. In this project we are attempting to quantify the sulfur dioxide emissions from this volcano over the past 20+ years using satellite data. Since 1978, satellites carrying NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have been orbiting the earth collecting atmospheric data. These instruments use six wavelength bands located within the ultraviolet spectrum to measure solar irradiance and the energy reflected and backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Sunlit planetary coverage is provided once per day by TOMS data. The spatial resolution of these satellites varies from 24 km (Earth Probe, 1996-1997, but raised to 39 km from 1997 to present) to 62 km (Meteor-3, 1991-1994). Nimbus-7, the satellite operating for the longest span of time (1978-1993), had a nadir footprint of 50 km. The (instantaneous) mass retrievals of sulfur dioxide cloud masses are derived using several different image processing schemes and net tonnages are calculated using a background correction. Volcanic activity associated with this volcano typically consists of long term (weeks to months), and often continuous, effusive emissions. Work to date has discovered over 120 days in which sulfur dioxide plumes were observed from the 13 eruptions (ranging from a minimum of one day to a maximum of 32 days). Most (82%) of the sulfur dioxide clouds measured are relatively low-level, below 100 kilotonnes (kt); 16% of the emissions are between 100 and 1000 kt, and 1.5% were measured to have more than 1000 kt. Current work is focusing on deriving net emission fluxes, integrating the TOMS instantaneous measurements of relatively continuous emission activity. The eruptive activity

  12. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15... shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur in excess of 0.8...

  13. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15... shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur in excess of 0.8...

  14. 40 CFR 60.333 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Turbines § 60.333 Standard for sulfur dioxide. On and after the date on which the performance test required... stationary gas turbine any gases which contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 0.015 percent by volume at 15... shall burn in any stationary gas turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur in excess of 0.8...

  15. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  16. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  17. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... After January 20, 1984, and on or Before August 23, 2011 § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a... minimum, an SO2 emission reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur...

  18. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  19. 40 CFR 60.642 - Standards for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide. 60.642... Gas Processing: SO2 Emissions § 60.642 Standards for sulfur dioxide. (a) During the initial... reduction efficiency (Zi) to be determined from table 1 based on the sulfur feed rate (X) and the...

  20. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and sulfur dioxide in pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Kangas, J; Jäppinen, P; Savolainen, H

    1984-12-01

    An hygienic survey for hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and its derivatives and sulfur dioxide in kraft mills and in sulfite mills revealed concentrations varying from 0 to 20 ppm hydrogen sulfide, 0 to 15 ppm methyl mercaptan and comparable amounts of dimethyl sulfide with dimethyl disulfide up to 1.5 ppm. The greatest emissions were detected at chip chutes and evaporation vacuum pumps. Batch operations yielded clearly higher sulfur dioxide concentrations (up to 20 ppm) as compared to a continuous ammonia-base digester. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation with the season in the sulfite mills where higher concentrations were found in the winter when natural ventilation was poorer. As to the health effects, the exposed workers complained of headaches and a decrease in concentration capacity more often than matched controls. The number of sick leaves was greater in the exposed workers than among the controls. PMID:6517022

  1. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  4. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.82 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Sulfuric Acid... contain sulfur dioxide in excess of 2 kg per metric ton of acid produced (4 lb per ton), the...

  6. Sensitivity of ginseng to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, J.T.A.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1981-10-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), was injured by exposure to 20 pphm ozone and/or 50 pphm (v/v) sulfur dioxide for 6 hr daily for 4 days. Ozone induced upper surface leaflet stippling along the veins and interveinally, and sulfur dioxide induced mild chlorosis to irregular necrotic areas. Ginseng was less sensitive to ozone and as sensitive to sulfur dioxide as 'Cherry Belle' radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and 'Bel W-3' tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

  7. Modeling sulfur dioxide absorption by fine water spray

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng-Hsiung Huang

    2005-07-01

    A novel theoretical model was developed to determine the removal efficiency of sulfur dioxide using fine water spray. The droplet pH, diameter, S(IV) concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, and liquid-to-gas ratio are found to influence the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray. The results demonstrate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the fine water spray increases as the droplet diameter falls. The concentration gradient between the interface of the gaseous and liquid phases causes the absorption of sulfur dioxide by the droplets to increase as the initial S(IV) concentration decreases or the sulfur dioxide concentration increases. The results indicate that the performance of the fine water spray in removing sulfur dioxide is generally improved by reducing the droplet diameter or the initial S(IV) concentration, or by increasing the sulfur dioxide concentration, the droplet pH or the liquid-to-gas ratio. The proposed model reveals the parameters that should be controlled in using a fine water spray device and a method for improving its performance in removing sulfur dioxide.

  8. Sulfur dioxide removal from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.; Ginger, E.A.

    1986-11-11

    A process is described for removal of sulfur dioxide pollutant gas from gas stream which comprises contacting the gas stream with pretreated shale in the form of an aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate including from about 0.1 to about 2.0% by weight of the pretreated shale. The pretreatment of the shale comprises the heating of the shale in the presence of a gas unable to support combustion at a temperature in a range of from about 340/sup 0/C. to about 480/sup 0/C.

  9. Heterogeneous Photochemical Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Zanan, H. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2007-12-01

    The gas phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by the hydroxyl radical is a significant source of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Stockwell and Calvert (1983) performed fifteen chamber experiments where mixtures of HONO, NO, NO2, H2O, SO2 and CO were photolyzed in synthetic air or in nitrogen containing approximately 50 ppm oxygen. They found that the atmospheric oxidation of SO2 by hydroxyl radical was a chain process that occurs through the production of an HO2 radical followed by reaction with NO to reproduce HO. We have reanalyzed this dataset and we have found that a very large amount of the observed SO2 oxidation (70.0 ± 9.1 %) is not explained through the HO + SO2 reaction alone. The Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) was used to investigate additional chemical pathways for the oxidation of SO2. A mechanism consisting of photochemical heterogeneous reactions is proposed to account for the observed additional sulfur dioxide oxidation not accounted for by gas phase oxidation. The analysis showed that the measured time dependent SO2, CO2 and nitrogenous compound concentrations could be simulated by the photochemical heterogeneous mechanism in conjunction with the RACM2 mechanism.

  10. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  11. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  12. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  13. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  14. Cyclic process for the removal of sulfur dioxide and the recovery of sulfur from gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, C.L.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from a gas containing sulfur dioxide. It comprises contacting a gas containing sulfur dioxide with an aqueous solution comprising water, ferric chloride and a salt selected from the group consisting of barium chloride and calcium chloride to form ferrous chloride, hydrochloric acid and a precipitate selected from the group consisting of barium sulfate and calcium sulfate; and treating the aqueous solution with an oxidizing agent to convert ferrous chloride to ferric chloride.

  15. The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

  16. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  17. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  18. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide. 60.173... Smelters § 60.173 Standard for sulfur dioxide. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any roaster any gases which contain...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  2. Sulfur Dioxide Capture by Heterogeneous Oxidation on Hydroxylated Manganese Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haodong; Cai, Weimin; Long, Mingce; Wang, Hairui; Wang, Zhiping; Chen, Chen; Hu, Xiaofang; Yu, Xiaojuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate that sulfur dioxide (SO2) is efficiently captured via heterogeneous oxidation into sulfate on the surface of hydroxylated manganese dioxide (MnO2). Lab-scale activity tests in a fluidized bed reactor showed that the removal efficiency for a simulated flue gas containing 5000 mg·Nm(-3) SO2 could reach nearly 100% with a GHSV (gas hourly space velocity) of 10000 h(-1). The mechanism was investigated using a combination of experimental characterizations and theoretical calculations. It was found that formation of surface bound sulfate proceeds via association of SO2 with terminal hydroxyls. Both H2O and O2 are essential for the generation of reactive terminal hydroxyls, and the indirect role of O2 in heterogeneous SO2 oxidation at low temperature was also revealed. We propose that the high reactivity of terminal hydroxyls is attributed to the proper surface configuration of MnO2 to adsorb water with degenerate energies for associative and dissociative states, and maintain rapid proton dynamics. Viability analyses suggest that the desulfurization method that is based on such a direct oxidation reaction at the gas/solid interface represents a promising approach for SO2 capture. PMID:27123922

  3. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  4. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  5. Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.

    1982-02-01

    Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

  6. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  7. DYNAMIC DILUTION SYSTEM FOR AUDITING AMBIENT SULFUR DIOXIDE ANALYZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the development, evaluation, and field performance of a device designed to provide accurate sulfur dioxide concentration standards suitable for auditing the accuracy of continuous, ambient SO2 monitors. This compact, lightweight, device has been subjected to ...

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2006-05-01

    A previously proposed model for molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of liquid sulfur dioxide, SO(2), has been reviewed. Thermodynamic, structural, and dynamical properties were calculated for a large range of thermodynamic states. Predicted (P,V,T) of simulated system agrees with an elaborated equation of state recently proposed for liquid SO(2). Calculated heat capacity, expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility are also in good agreement with experimental data. Calculated equilibrium structure agrees with X-ray and neutron scattering measurements on liquid SO(2). The model also predicts the same (SO(2))(2) dimer structure as previously determined by ab initio calculations. Detailed analysis of equilibrium structure of liquid SO(2) is provided, indicating that, despite the rather large dipole moment of the SO(2) molecule, the structure is mainly determined by the Lennard-Jones interactions. Both single-particle and collective dynamics are investigated. Temperature dependency of dynamical properties is given. The MD results are compared with previous findings obtained from the analysis of inelastic neutron scattering spectra of liquid SO(2), including wave-vector dependent structural relaxation, tau(k), and viscosity, eta(k). PMID:16640437

  9. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  10. Sensing free sulfur dioxide in wine.

    PubMed

    Monro, Tanya M; Moore, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K; Elsey, Gordon M; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO(2) over time, resulting in wines with little SO(2) protection. Furthermore, SO(2) and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO(2) in wine require the SO(2) to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  11. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  12. Method of removing sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, K.; Konno, K.; Miyamori, T.; Saitoh, S.; Watanabe, T.; Yaguchi, K.

    1983-05-10

    A method of removing sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gas containing sulfur dioxide by contacting the exhaust gas with an aqueous solution containing at least one organic acid salt expressed by the formula rcoom (Wherein R represents H, CH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ or C/sub 3/H/sub 7/, and M represents an alkali metal or NH/sub 4/) to efficiently dissolve sulfur dioxide contained in the gas in the form of a sulfite in the aqueous solution by reacting the sulfur dioxide with the salt. The resultant solution which dissolves the sulfite may be contacted with a calcium compound for producing calcium sulfite by reaction of the sulfite with the calcium compound thereby effectively removing the sulfur dioxide in the form of calcium sulfite from the combustion exhaust gas. Alternatively, the sulfite-dissolving aqueous solution may be contacted with oxygen or air for oxidizing the sulfite contained in the solution into a sulfate, followed by contacting the sulfate, which is now dissolved in the aqueous solution, with a calcium compound. The sulfate is satisfactorily reacted with the calcium compound to produce calcium sulfate and thus sulfur dioxide may be effectively ultimately removed in the form of calcium sulfate from the combustion exhaust gas.

  13. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON DIMETHYL SULFUR IN MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is anticipated that under stress, the cellular DMSP concentration should drop, as sulfur is transferred from the DMSP pool to DMS. Sulfur in the DMS pool will be transferred to the DMSO pool as radicals are scavenged. Enzyme activities such as DMSP lyase, which converts D...

  14. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  16. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  17. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  18. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  19. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  20. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  1. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  2. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... comply.) 3 Source is in compliance per 204(e)(3). CIPS=Central Illinois Public Service....

  3. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Indiana submitted a request to redesignate the Lake County sulfur dioxide (SO2) nonattainment area to... Townships in Marion County and the remainder of the county, and requested that it be redesignated to... redesignation to attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulphur dioxide for each county...

  4. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Indiana submitted a request to redesignate the Lake County sulfur dioxide (SO2) nonattainment area to... Townships in Marion County and the remainder of the county, and requested that it be redesignated to... redesignation to attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulphur dioxide for each county...

  5. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Indiana submitted a request to redesignate the Lake County sulfur dioxide (SO2) nonattainment area to... Townships in Marion County and the remainder of the county, and requested that it be redesignated to... redesignation to attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulphur dioxide for each county...

  6. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indiana submitted a request to redesignate the Lake County sulfur dioxide (SO2) nonattainment area to... Townships in Marion County and the remainder of the county, and requested that it be redesignated to... redesignation to attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for sulphur dioxide for each county...

  7. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS §...

  9. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... producing steam by heat transfer. (v) Heat input means the total gross calorific value (where gross....0 × 10 6 BTU per hour total rated capacity of heat input, the emission rate in pounds of sulfur... allowable emission rate in pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input. (ii) For fossil...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... producing steam by heat transfer. (v) Heat input means the total gross calorific value (where gross....0 × 10 6 BTU per hour total rated capacity of heat input, the emission rate in pounds of sulfur... allowable emission rate in pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input. (ii) For fossil...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... producing steam by heat transfer. (v) Heat input means the total gross calorific value (where gross....0 × 10 6 BTU per hour total rated capacity of heat input, the emission rate in pounds of sulfur... allowable emission rate in pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input. (ii) For fossil...

  13. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  14. [Determination of sulfur dioxide residues in sulfur fumigated Chinese herbs with headspace gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zheng-Wei; Mao, Bei-Ping; Miao, Shui; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Ji, Shen

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to establish a method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in sulfur fumigation Chinese herbs. Sample powder and hydrochloric acid solution were isolated by paraffin layer in order to avoid early reactions, with the generation of sulfur dioxide, headspace with airtight needle was used to transfer sulfur dioxide into gas chromatograph, and detected with thermal conductivity detector. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of 12 herbs, spiked at four concentration levels. In general, the recoveries ranging from 70% to 110%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) within 15%, were obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) was below 10 mg x kg(-1). Standard addition can be used for low recovery samples. The method is simple, less time-consuming, specific and sensitive. Methods comparison revealed that gas chromatography is better than traditional titration in terms of method operability, accuracy and specificity, showing good application value. PMID:24761623

  15. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Zhang, Yinzhi; Kuchta, Matthew E.; Andresen, John M.; Fauth, Dan J.

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  16. Non aqueous electrolytes for lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Anantaraman, A.V.; Gardiner, C.L.

    1983-10-01

    Mixed organic solvent systems are of considerable interest for use in high energy density batteries. It has been observed that with a proper choice of solvents, one can achieve a drastic increase in cell performance-related properties such as dielectric constant, conductance, and viscosity. This paper presents a detailed investigation of the scope of mixed solvent systems with N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the common solvent. Physical and thermodynamic properties such as density, viscosity, excess volume, and phase equilibria of mixed solvent systems with sulfur dioxide are studied, with a view to improving the performance and safety aspects of lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries.

  17. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  18. LIGNOSULFONATE-MODIFIED CALCIUM HYDROXIDE FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the use of lignosulfonate-modified calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control. The limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process is currently being developed at the U.S. EPA as a low cost retrofittable technology for controlling oxides...

  19. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Indiana submitted a request to redesignate the Lake County sulfur dioxide (SO2) nonattainment area to... maintenance plan update for the Lake County, Indiana SO2 maintenance area. This plan update demonstrates that Lake County will maintain attainment of the 1971 SO2 NAAQS through 2025. This maintenance plan...

  20. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  1. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION: SPECTRORADIOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote measurements of spectral reflectance were made in a laboratory to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants. The relationship between spectral reflectance and foliar injury from SO2 was...

  2. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WOODY PLANTS TO SULFUR DIOXIDE AND PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the result of a detailed review of European and United States literature regarding the sensitivity of woody vegetation to sulfur dioxide, ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), or nitrogen oxides. Reference is made to Russian, Japanese and Austrian literature onl...

  3. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN CLASS I WILDERNESS AREAS, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the state of Washington. Different plot symbols are used for sources which emit less than 100 tons/year, between 100 and 1000 tons/year, and over 1000 tons/year of SO2. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background...

  4. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN WA, OR, AND ID

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: USGS, Nat...

  5. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  6. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  7. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  8. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test is completed... reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions are limited to 520...

  9. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  10. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  11. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  12. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  13. 40 CFR 60.43Da - Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.43Da Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) On and after the date on which... the percent reduction requirement is determined on a 24-hour basis. (d) Sulfur dioxide emissions...

  14. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  15. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  16. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... paragraph (c)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in...

  17. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  18. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  19. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  20. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  1. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source or nitrogen oxide occur at an affected unit during any year, the owners and operators...

  2. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R.

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25 °C. Alkaline leaching with 6 M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30 min at 30 °C using 0.1-1.0 M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1 M to 2 M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide.

  3. THE MECHANISM OF SULFUR DIOXIDE INITIATED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric sulfur oxides exist in chemically complex particulates of the respirable size range. Inhalation of these particulates represents a potential health hazard. This report provides the results of a series of experiments into the uptake of sulfate salts by the lung, the in...

  4. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  5. Coralline algae as a globally significant pool of marine dimethylated sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Heidi L.; Hatton, Angela D.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2015-10-01

    Marine algae are key sources of the biogenic sulfur compound dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a vital component of the marine sulfur cycle. Autotrophic ecosystem engineers such as red coralline algae support highly diverse and biogeochemically active ecosystems and are known to be high DMSP producers, but their importance in the global marine sulfur cycle has not yet been appreciated. Using a global sampling approach, we show that red coralline algae are a globally significant pool of DMSP in the oceans, estimated to be ~110 × 1012 moles worldwide during the summer months. Latitude was a major driver of observed regional-scale variations, with peaks in polar and tropical climate regimes, reflecting the varied cellular functions for DMSP (e.g., as a cryoprotectant and antioxidant). A temperate coralline algal bed was investigated in more detail to also identify local-scale temporal variations. Here, water column DMSP was driven by water temperature, and to a lesser extent, cloud cover; two factors which are also vital in controlling coralline algal growth. This study demonstrates that coralline algae harbor a large pool of dimethylated sulfur, thereby playing a significant role in both the sulfur and carbon marine biogeochemical cycles. However, coralline algal habitats are severely threatened by projected climate change; a loss of this habitat may thus detrimentally impact oceanic sulfur and carbon biogeochemical cycling.

  6. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  7. Io - Longtudinal distribution of sulfur dioxide frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Lane, A. L.; Matson, D. L.; Fanale, F. P.; Nash, D. B.; Johnson, T. V.

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal variation in the distribution of SO2 frost on Io is examined. Twenty spectra of Io (0.26 to 0.33 micrometer) are presented and a strong ultraviolet absorption is found shortward of 0.33 micrometer. The abundance of frost is greatest at orbital longitudes 72 to 137 degrees. Longitudes 250 to 323 degrees are least abundant in SO2. Comparisons are made with a Voyager color relief map, which suggest that SO2 frost is in greatest concentration in the white areas of Io and other sulfurous materials are in greatest concentration in the red areas.

  8. Resistance to injury by sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sekiya, J.; Wilson, L.G.; Filner, P.

    1982-08-01

    In Cucurbitaceae young leaves are resistant to injury from acute exposure to SO/sub 2/, whereas mature leaves are sensitive. After exposure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to SO/sub 2/ at injurious concentrations, illuminated leaves emit volatile sulfur, which is solely H/sub 2/S. Young leaves emit H/sub 2/S many times more rapidly than do mature leaves. Young leaves convert approximately 10% of absorbed (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 2/ to emitted (/sup 35/S)H/sub 2/S, but mature leaves convert less than 2%. These results suggest that a high capability for the reduction of SO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/S and emission of the H/sub 2/S is a part of the biochemical basis of the resistance of young leaves to SO/sub 2/.

  9. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  10. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  11. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  12. Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol. An Introductory Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

    2004-10-01

    Volatile organic sulfur compounds and their degradation products play important environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation. Two important members of this group, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and methanethiol, MT, are formed by living organisms as well as by abiotic processes. DMS is synthesized by various organisms in the marine environment and large quantities of it are released to the atmosphere. One key precursor for DMS synthesis is the sulfonium salt, dimethylsulfoniopropionate. MT, also formed in marine environments, can be further converted to DMS. The chemical reactions responsible for the biosynthesis of DMS and MT are emphasized here, as well as means for their degradation. Since sulfur compounds are often ignored in normal course work, this article provides a basic foundation for an understanding of these interesting and environmentally significant compounds.

  13. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  15. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  17. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  19. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  20. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  2. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  3. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  5. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  6. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.44c - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.44c Section 60.44c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) Except as provided in... operator seeks to demonstrate compliance with the fuel oil sulfur limits under § 60.42c based on...

  9. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  10. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  11. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  12. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  13. Chemistry of sulfur-containing molecules on Au( 1 1 1 ): thiophene, sulfur dioxide, and methanethiol adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Rodriguez, José A.; Dvorak, Joseph; Hrbek, Jan; Jirsak, Tomas

    2002-05-01

    The interactions of three sulfur-containing molecules (C 4H 4S, SO 2, CH 3SH) with a clean Au(1 1 1) surface have been studied with a combination of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and synchrotron-based high-resolution soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption and reactivity of the three molecules on Au(1 1 1) are very different. Thiophene adsorbs molecularly on Au(1 1 1) at 100 K and desorbs completely below 330 K without further decomposition. In the submonolayer range, three different adsorption states for chemisorbed thiophene are identified in TDS. It is suggested that thiophene preferably adsorbs on the defect sites at the lowest exposure. After the defect sites are saturated, the change from a flat-lying geometry to a tilted adsorption configuration follows as the exposure increases. Sulfur dioxide also does not decompose on Au(1 1 1). For SO 2 adsorption at 100 K, in addition to the multilayer desorption feature (˜130 K), only one distinct monolayer peak with a tail extending to higher temperature appears in TDS. The desorption temperature difference between the SO 2 monolayer and multilayer is only 15 K, indicating a weak binding between SO 2 and Au. For methanethiol adsorption on Au(1 1 1) at 100 K, three desorption states appear in the submonolayer range for the parent thiol. All of them appear below 300 K. The only desorption products at higher temperature are methane or methyl radicals (˜540 K), and dimethyl disulfide (˜470 K). Apart from the intact methyl thiol molecule, which exists at low temperatures (⩽150 K), two inequivalent intermediate thiolates, are seen to coexist on Au(1 1 1) in the 150-400 K temperature range, with one of them existing as low as 100 K. Atomic sulfur is present on the surface from 200 to 950 K.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

    2001-12-01

    We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

  15. MARINE SULFUR CYCLE. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-26

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms. PMID:26113722

  16. Dimethyl sulfide air-sea fluxes and biogenic sulfur as a source of new aerosols in the Arctic fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempillo, Ofelia; Seguin, Alison Michelle; Norman, Ann-Lise; Scarratt, Michael; Michaud, Sonia; Chang, Rachel; Sjostedt, Steve; Abbatt, Jon; Else, Brent; Papakyriakou, Tim; Sharma, Sangeeta; Grasby, Steve; Levasseur, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and its oxidation products, which have been proposed to provide a climate feedback mechanism by affecting aerosol and cloud radiative properties, were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard ship Amundsen in sampling campaigns in the Arctic in the fall of 2007 and 2008. DMS flux was calculated based on the surface water measurements and yielded 0.1-2.6 μmol m-2 d-1 along the Northwest Passage in 2007 and 0.2-1.3 μmol m-2 d-1 along Baffin Bay in 2008. DMS oxidation products, sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane sulfonic acid (MSA), and sulfate in aerosols were also measured. The amounts of biogenic SO2 and sulfate were approximated using stable isotope apportionment techniques. Calculating the threshold amount of SO2 needed for significant new particle formation from the formulation by Pirjola et al. (1999), the study suggests that instances of elevated biogenic SO2 concentrations (between 8 and 9 September 2008) derived using conservative assumptions may have been sufficient to form new aerosols in clean air conditions in the Arctic region.

  17. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heggestad, H.E.; Bennett, J.H.

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury. 16 referances, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  19. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries on Mars rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Kindler, A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions, Spirit and Opportunity, have been performing exciting surface exploration studies for the past six months. These two robotic missions were aimed at examining the presence of water and, thus, any evidence of life, and at understanding the geological conditions of Mars, These rovers have been successfully assisted by primary lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries during the critical entry, descent, and landing (EDL) maneuvers. These batteries were located on the petals of the lander, which, unlike in the Mars Pathfinder mission, was designed only to carry the rover. The selection of the lithium-sulfur dioxide battery system for this application was based on its high specific energy and high rate discharge capability, combined with low heat evolution, as dictated by this application. Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries exhibit voltage delay, which tends to increase at low discharge temperatures, especially after extended storage at warm temperatures, In the absence of a depassivation circuit, as provided on earlier missions, e.g., Galileo, we were required to depassivate the lander primary batteries in a unique manner. The batteries were brought onto a shunt-regulated bus set at pre-selected discharge voltages, thus affecting depassivation during constant discharge voltages. Several ground tests were preformed, on cells, cell strings and battery assembly with five parallel strings, to identify optimum shunt voltages and durations of depassivation. We also examined the repassivation of lithium anodes, subsequent to depassivation. In this paper, we will describe these studies, in detail, as well as the depassivation of the lander flight batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity rover prior to the EDL sequence and their performance during landing on Mars.

  20. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  1. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M. ); Sherwood, S.I. )

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO[sub 2] gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  2. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  3. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  4. A sensitive method for measuring atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    A new method for measuring tropospheric sulfur dioxide concentrations is proposed which is based on the mist chamber sampling method. At the present stage of development, the detection limit of the method is approximately 20 parts per trillion for a 45-min sampling time, with lower concentrations detectable with lower precision. The overall reproducibility of the method (+/-95 percent confidence intervals) is estimated at +/-10 percent. The technique is relatively simple, inexpensive, and lightweight, making it ideally suited for numerous field applications in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical studies from both ground-based and airborne platforms.

  5. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  6. Nitrogen fixation rate and chlorophyll content of the lichen Peltigera canina exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksson, E.; Pearson, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    In general, the rate of nitrogen fixation decreased when the lichen Peltigera canina (L.) Willd. was exposed to sulfur dioxide gas at levels from 0.1 to 500 ppm; at 30 ppm, however, nitrogen fixation was stimulated. The chlorophyll content decreased as the level of sulfur dioxide increased.

  7. A four-component reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, sulfur dioxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, and hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Danqing; Kuang, Yunyan; Wu, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A four-component reaction of aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborates, sulfur dioxide, 1,2-dibromoethane, and hydrazines under metal-free conditions is described, providing a novel and efficient approach to 2-arylsulfonyl hydrazones. This transformation proceeds smoothly via insertion of sulfur dioxide under mild conditions with good functional group tolerance. PMID:26324879

  8. Absorption of sulfur dioxide by glycerol-containing hexamethylenetetramine solutions in an airlift apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ennan, A.A.; Gavrilenko, M.I.; Nikitin, V.I.; Kurando, S.V.

    1994-04-10

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide in an airlift apparatus with an external circuit is studied by using the cellular model. The absorption was accomplished using glycerol-containing hexamethylenetetramine solutions. These solutions are shown to be in principle applicable for decontaminating air by removing sulfur dioxide.

  9. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.6 Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1)...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  11. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... AGENCY Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft... draft ecological risk assessment for the registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide, and gas cartridge uses of sulfur, and opens a public comment period on...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2679 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2679 Section 52.2679 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....2679 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Approvals of the following rules are...

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sulfur deposition from international shipping in Asian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Arndt, Richard L.

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide from international shipping in Asian waters have been estimated using information on typical shipping parameters and quantities of goods shipped to and from the major ports. Emissions are estimated to be 236,000 t SO 2 per year in 1988. This represents 11.7% of emissions in Southeast Asia and 0.7% of total continental Asian emissions. Emissions from vessels in transit between ports are estimated to be 226,000 t SO 2 per year, and emissions from port activities are estimated to be 10,200 t SO 2 per year. Deposition of this sulfur was calculated using the ATMOS model of atmospheric transport and deposition. Shipping emissions were found to be the dominant source of sulfur deposition in large areas of the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, and the South China Sea. Land areas most heavily affected are those bordering the Strait of Malacca, where portions of Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore have contributions from shipping in excess of 10% of total sulfur deposition. Observational data in Malaysia are consistent with these findings. It is suggested that emissions from shipping may be contributing to ecological damage in areas surrounding the Strait of Malacca.

  17. Method of recovering elemental sulfur from reactive gases containing sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, A.

    1981-12-01

    Reactive gases containing sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, e.g. reaction gases of the claus process, are passed through a catalyst stage having an inlet side and an outlet side for the gas mixture to produce elemental sulfur and water. According to the invention the gases are cooled between the inlet and discharge sides by heat-exchanger means to a temperature not less than the activation temperature for the reaction and preferably not less than the temperature at which the gases are initially introduced into the catalyst body. The heat exchanger means can be provided in gaps between catalyst beds and/or within the catalyst beds of the body of catalyst.

  18. Differing response of asthmatics to sulfur dioxide exposure with continuous and intermittent exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Roger, L.J.; Hazucha, M.J.; Horstman, D.H.

    1986-08-29

    Ten mild asthmatics were initially exposed in an environmental chamber (26 C, 70% RH) to clean air and 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide while performing three sets of 10 minutes treadmill exercise (ventilation = 41 1/min) and 15 minutes rest. To evaluate the effects of the pattern and duration of exercise on the response to sulfur dioxide exposure, the subjects were then exposed to the same environmental conditions, while exercising continuously for 30 minutes. Specific airways resistance (SRaw) was measured by body plethysmography prior to exposures and after each exercise. All SRaw responses with sulfur dioxide exposure were significantly different than the clean air responses. It appears that asthmatics show an attenuated response to repetitive exercise in a 1.00 ppm sulfur dioxide atmosphere and that the response to sulfur dioxide exposure develops rapidly and is maintained during 30 minutes continuous exercise.

  19. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the 'associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  20. Satellite Mapping of the Earth's Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments are spatially-scanning UV spectrometers that have produced daily global images of total ozone over the last 21 years since the launch of the Nimbus 7 satellite. The instruments use a total ozone retrieval algorithm pioneered by J.V. Dave and C. L. Mateer for the Nimbus 4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument, designed by D.F. Heath. The TOMS ozone maps have revealed the relations between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics, and shown the dramatic losses of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole and the Northern hemisphere. The accepted long-term trends in global, regional, and local ozone are derived from data from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and three successive TOMS flights on Russian, Japanese, and American satellites. The next TOMS flight will be launched in 2000. The contiguous mapping design and fortuitous choice of TOMS wavelengths bands also permitted imaging of a second atmospheric gas, sulfur dioxide, which is transient due to its short lifetime. The importance of this measurement was first realized after the eruption of El Chichon volcano in 1982. The extreme range of sizes of volcanic eruptions and the associated danger require observations from a distant observing platform. The first quantitative time series of the input of sulfur dioxide by explosive volcanic eruptions into the atmosphere thus was developed from the TOMS missions. Finally, the Rayleigh and aerosol scattering spectral characteristic and reflectivity complete the four dominant pieces of information in the near UV albedo of the Earth. The four parameters are derived with a linear algorithm, the absorption coefficients of the gases, and effective paths computed from radiative transfer tables. Absorbing aerosol clouds (smoke, dust, volcanic ash) are readily identified by their deviation from a Rayleigh signature. The greatest shortcoming of the TOMS dataset is the 24 hour time resolution that is produced by the polar orbit of the satellite

  1. Response of radish to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Gray, T.N.

    1981-04-01

    Effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cv. Cherry Belle of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and ozone (O/sub 3/) alone and in combination at 0.2 and 0.4 ppM of each pollutant were studied. There was no difference in foilage or root weight of radish between exposure durations of 3 to 6 hours, and no significant interaction of hours with air pollutant and concentration. Ozone reduced root dry weight more at 0.4 ppM than at 0.2 ppM. Sulfur dioxide depressed the root/shoot ratio at both 0.2 and 0.4 ppM; however, when NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ were both present there was synergistic depression of the root/shoot ratio at 0.4 ppM. The average O/sub 3/-induced reduction in root weight of radish (1.75 g fresh and 101 mg dry, per plant) was additive in the presence of NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/. The weight of the root was reduced even though the foilage was the direct receptor of the pollutant stress.

  2. Sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide in polysulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.H.; Koros, W.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-25

    The sorption and transport of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in polymers is important in areas such as food packaging, polymer degradation, and sensors and monitoring devices. Another possible application is in pollution control for exhaust gases from power plants. Polysulfone is a polymer that is widely used for commercial gas separations with membranes. The authors have investigated the sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in a commercially available Bisphenol A polysulfone near room temperature. The results were interpreted using the dual-mode sorption model with partial immobilization. Although similar data on other polymers have been published in the literature, they are not aware of any studies of sorption and transport of SO[sub 2] in polysulfone.

  3. Sources of sulfur dioxide pollution in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Wing-Sing; Pang, Sik-Wing; Chin, H.C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Sulfur dioxide pollution problem was serious in Hong Kong before the implementation of the fuel restriction regulations in July 1990, which restricted the use of low sulfur content fossil fuels. Since then SO{sub 2} concentrations dropped drastically. There was no exceedance of the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (AQO) in 1991, comparing to 13 exceedance in 1989, and the Hong Kong annual average reduced from 34 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1989 to 21 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1991. However, it doesn`t mean that SO{sub 2} can be neglected. In 1993, there were two exceedances of the 1-hour AQO of 800 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the Hong Kong annual average increased again to 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The major emission sources of SO{sub 2} in Hong Kong are the power stations, which accounted for 84% of the total 185 K tonnes of SO{sub 2} emissions in 1993. Though these stations are at the down-wind side of the territory, the potential impact should not be over looked. Results are given.

  4. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  5. Effects of sulfur dioxide emissions on stream chemistry in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, D.H.; Turk, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A 20-year record of water chemistry for seven headwater streams in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States is compared to estimates of local and regional sulfur dioxide emissions. Emissions from smelters comprise a significant part of sulfur dioxide emissions for the 11 states upwind of acid-sensitive watersheds in the Rocky Mountains, but smelter emissions have steadily decreased since 1970. Analysis of stream chemistry indicates conservative behavior of watershed sulfate, with atmospheric deposition as the dominant source. No relation between regional stream chemistry and smelter or regional sulfur dioxide emissions is detected. Local emissions trends, however, do appear to affect sulfate concentrations in the streams. -from Authors

  6. Environmental sulfur dioxide: toxicity toward the alveolar macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Butenhoff, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if SO/sub 2/ and/or its associated ions in solution (H/sub 3/O/sup +/, HSO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 3//sup =/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/) are cytotoxic to rat PAM cells in primary culture. The indices of cytotoxicity which were evaluated included cell viability uptake of particles and viable bacteria, inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, cell surface morphology and oxygen utilization. For determining effects on cell viability, function and morphology, exposures were conducted for 20 hours at either 30 or 37 deg. C in Leighton culture tubes of polystyrene petri dishes. In both instances, cells were attached to glass. Cell viability dose-response curves were obtained with H/sub 3/O/sup +/ (HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), SO/sub 2/ (dissolved gas), HSO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 3//sup =/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/. Buffer strength and pH were varied to determine the effect of these various molecular species on viability. Sulfur dioxide gas exhibited a weak protentiating effect on H/sub 3/O/sup +/ toxicity below pH 6.4. Significant viability loss did not occur above pH 6.4. Particle uptake was diminished significantly at sulfite concentration greater than or equal to 500 uM, pH 7.2. Sulfite was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of GSH-peroxidase in vitro. A slight yet significant change in cell morphology occurred at sulfite concentrations of 200 uM and 4000 uM and pH 7.2. There was a significant difference in O/sub 2/ utilization between control and 4000 uM exposed cells, indicating a potential diminution in cell-surface mediated respiratory stimulation. Based on these studies, sulfur dioxide gas exposure may have an effect on alveolar macrophage function depending on the ambient concentration of the gas and its accumulation in the airspaces of the lung.

  7. Study of a regenerative process for selective sulfur dioxide removal using organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, M.H.H.; Lamine, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    In searching appropriate solvents for selective sulfur dioxide removal it has been found that sulfur dioxide solubility can be well correlated by the Gutmann donor number of the solvent. Two solvents, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), have been selected for experiments. Mixtures of sulfur dioxide and solvent (1:1 mole ratio) have been prepared at low temperature. These mixtures give complexes, stable under the experimental conditions, with a melting point well above the melting point of the separate components. These mixtures have been analyzed by infra red, ultraviolet/visible and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Solubility of sulfur dioxide in NMP and MDEA has been measured at 25{degrees}C in the range of 2000-5000 ppmv using a stirred tank reactor. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Impact of sulfur dioxide oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediate on sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    We revise the Carbon Bond chemical mechanism to explicitly represent three Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (SCIs) and their subsequent reactions with sulfur dioxide, water monomer, and water dimer, and incorporate the reactions into the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Th...

  9. Continuous atomic spectrometric measurement of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in air by mercury displacement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1982-08-01

    The analytical atomic spectrometric technique of mercury displacement detection has been adapted so that sulfur dioxide can be determined at natural background levels in ambient air on a continuous basis with a 90% response time of 1-2 min. Sample air is drawn into the reaction vessel containing mercury (I) ion reagent and any sulfur dioxide present reacts to form elemental mercury which is measured, after being swept out of the solution by the same flow of sample air, by a mercury vapor detector. Reagent is continuously pumped through the analyzer and the instrument is calibrated with a permeation tube calibrator. The apparatus has a linear concentration range up to 100 ppB sulfur dioxide; this is much lower than can be obtained with existing commerical instruments. The apparatus is very precise and 6, 11, and 20 ppB sulfur dioxide can be measured with coefficients of variation of 1-2%.

  10. Chamber exposures of children to mixed ozone, sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Linn, W S; Gong, H; Shamoo, D A; Anderson, K R; Avol, E L

    1997-01-01

    To help assess acute health effects of summer air pollution in the eastern United States, we simulated ambient "acid summer haze" as closely as was practical in a laboratory chamber. We exposed young volunteers who were thought to be sensitive to this pollutant mixture on the basis of previous epidemiologic evidence. Specifically, we exposed 41 subjects aged 9-12 y to mixed ozone (0.10 ppm), sulfur dioxide (0.10 ppm), and 0.6-microm sulfuric acid aerosol (100 +/- 40 microg/m3, mean +/- standard deviation) for 4 h, during which there was intermittent exercise. Fifteen subjects were healthy, and 26 had allergy or mild asthma. The entire group responded nonsignificantly (p > .05) to pollution exposure (relative to clean air), as determined by spirometry, symptoms, and overall discomfort level during exercise. Subjects with allergy/asthma showed a positive association (p = .01) between symptoms and acid dose; in healthy subjects, that association was negative (p = .08). In these chamber-exposure studies, we noted less of an effect than was reported in previous epidemiologic studies of children exposed to ambient "acid summer haze." PMID:9169627

  11. Ambient air concentration of sulfur dioxide affects flight activity in bees

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.; Lane, D.D.; Greenberg, L.

    1980-10-01

    Three long-term (16 to 29 days) low-level (0.14 to 0.28 ppM) sulfur dioxide fumigations showed that exposure tothis gas has deleterious effects on male sweat bees (Lasioglossum zephrum). Although effects on mortality were equivocal, flight activity was definitely reduced. Because flight is necessary for successful mating behavior, the results suggest that sulfur dioxide air pollution could adversely affect this and doubtless other terrestrial insects.

  12. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  13. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  14. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Development of an optimized intermolecular potential for sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ketko, MaryBeth H; Kamath, Ganesh; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2011-05-01

    A new force field for sulfur dioxide, capable of predicting accurately the vapor-liquid equilibria, critical properties, vapor pressure, and heats of vaporization is presented. The new force field reproduces the saturated liquid densities, vapor pressures and heats of vaporization to within 0.5, 2, and 2% of experiment, respectively. The predicted critical properties and the normal boiling point are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Pair distribution functions are calculated for the S-S, S-O, and O-O interactions are in close agreement with neutron and X-ray scattering experiments. In addition to the new force field, similar calculations are performed for four SO(2) intermolecular potentials proposed by Sokolic et al. (Sokolic, F.; Guissani, Y. and Guillot, B. J. Phys. Chem. 1985, 89, 3023], which show that these models work reasonably well near the state point where they were originally parametrized, but large errors in the predicted coexistence properties are displayed at higher and lower temperatures. Comparison of the radial distribution functions show the local structure is only weakly affected by the different force field parameters. PMID:21476503

  16. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  17. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, D.H. Jr.; Benson, L.B.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases in a wet scrubber, wherein an aqueous slurry formed from calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide is contacted in the wet scrubber with the flue gases, and the slurry, after the contact, contains calcium sulfite solids and dissolved magnesium sulfite, and is discharged from the wet scrubber and passed to a thickener wherein a thickened aqueous sludge containing calcium sulfite solids is separated from an overflow liquor. The improvement comprises: returning at least a portion of the overflow liquor to the wet scrubber; concentrating the thickened aqueous sludge by removal of a sulfite solution, comprising water containing dissolved magnesium sulfite, therefrom; returning a first portion of the sulfite solution to the thickener; oxidizing magnesium sulfite in a second portion of the sulfite solution to form a sulfate solution containing magnesium sulfate; adding lime to the sulfate solution following the oxidation, to precipitate calcium sulfate and form an aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension; and separating precipitated calcium sulfate from the aqueous magnesium hydroxide suspension.

  18. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Greene, S A; Wolff, R K; Hahn, F F; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Lundgren, D L

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) for 2 h/d, 5 d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance; and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO2-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO2 for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO2 exposure. PMID:6492210

  19. China's functioning market for sulfur dioxide scrubbing technologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan

    2011-11-01

    Countries' differing positions in technology transfer have been a barrier in climate negotiations. Developed countries want market-based solutions with effective protection of intellectual property rights, whereas developing countries look for external support and nonmarket solutions. Although China has shared common negotiation positions with other developing countries, it has actually relied heavily on markets to acquire foreign technologies. This paper systematically examines the case of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) scrubbing technologies, with first-hand information from the author's field interviews, to explain why such a functioning market for technology could emerge in China. Existing studies focus mainly on technology suppliers or licensors and this paper adds to the understanding of consumers or licensees. Two factors should have made major contributions to the market's emergence: (i) the huge size of the Chinese market of SO(2) scrubbers, and (ii) the knowhow and maturity of the technologies. Market-based solutions of technology transfer might help large developing countries like China and India to efficiently acquire mature environmental technologies and satisfy their rapid development. PMID:21958067

  20. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  1. Data composite of airborne in-situ sulfur dioxide measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Hans; Wissmüller, Katharina; Arnold, Frank; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Reiter, Anja; Roiger, Anke

    2015-04-01

    We present sulfur dioxide (SO2) data summaries from a large number of aircraft campaigns performed during the years 2004 to 2014 covering a geographical range from 83°N to 65°S and 105°W to 135°E. The SO2 data have been sampled from the Falcon and Halo research aircraft by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg using chemical ionization mass spectrometry and cover altitudes up to 15 km. The SO2 measurements were gridded onto a 5° latitude by 5° longitude horizontal grid with a 1-km vertical resolution. For selected regions with sufficient data also averaged vertical profiles were generated. The maps and profiles provide information about the SO2 distribution at mid-latitudes, tropical and polar regions for different seasons and are very valuable for comparison with model and satellite data. Median SO2 mixing ratios measured in the different regions will be presented. We also discuss emission sources and transport pathways for specific observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere with strongly enhanced SO2 mixing ratios.

  2. The abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezard, Bruno; De Bergh, Catherine; Fegley, Bruce; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Crisp, David; Owen, Tobias; Pollack, James B.; Grinspoon, David

    1993-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the abundance of sulfur dioxide below the clouds of Venus. Absorption by the 3nu3 band of SO2 near 2.45 microns has been detected in high-resolution spectra of the night side of Venus recorded at the Canada-France Hawaii telescope in 1989 and 1991. The inferred SO2 abundance is 130 +/- 40 ppm at all observed locations and pertains to the 35-45 km region. These values are comparable to those measured by the Pioneer Venus and Venera 11/12 entry probes in 1978. This stability stands in contrast to the apparent massive decrease in SO2 observed at the cloud tops since these space missions. These results are consistent with laboratory and modeling studies of the SO2 destruction rates in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The new spectroscopic technique presented here allows a remote monitoring of the SO2 abundance below the clouds, a likely tracer of Venusian volcanism.

  3. Acute hematologic and hemorheologic effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Baskurt, O.K.

    1988-09-01

    Fifty male rats were exposed to 0.87 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 24 hr. Hematologic and hemorheologic parameters measured in this group were compared with the results of a control group of 51 male rats. Hematocrit values were found to be higher (p less than .005) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (43.55 +/- 0.41%, mean +/- standard error), when compared to the control group value (41.97 +/- 0.35%). Sulfhemoglobin values were also higher (p less than .0001) in the SO/sub 2/-treated group (0.60 +/- 0.08%) than the control group (0.08 +/- 0.02%). Osmotic hemolysis ratio was slightly increased (p less than .05) in the 0.55% sodium chloride solution. However, whole blood and packed cell viscosities were lower in the SO/sub 2/-treated animals, while there was no significant difference in the plasma viscosities. The mechanism of these effects could not be clarified completely, but structural and functional effects of SO2 inhalation on peripheral erythrocytes were discussed.

  4. Determination of sulfur dioxide in wine using headspace gas chromatography and electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Aberl, A; Coelhan, M

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time. PMID:23176364

  5. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur...

  6. Remote sensing of ammonia, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide emissions from cars and trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel Alexander

    This document describes the development of a remote sensor for mobile source ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) based on an instrument previously developed at the University of Denver. Significant optical upgrades allow for the detection of three new species. Detection and quantification of NH3 and SO 2 use wavelengths deeper into the ultraviolet region than previously possible. Currently NH3 is quantified from three peaks at 209 nm, 213 nm, and 217 nm; SO2 from three peaks at 219 nm, 221 nm, and 222 nm; NO2 using the spectral window 430--446 nm. The instrument was demonstrated in the measurement of emissions from both gasoline and diesel light duty vehicles and heavy duty diesel trucks (HDDT). The remote sensor was used for over 20,000 measurements of NH3 and SO2 emissions from motor vehicles in Denver and Tulsa in the summer of 2005. Nitrogen dioxide emissions were measured at the Denver site only. For the first time, on-road vehicle NH3 and SO2 emission trends versus model year were observed. Ammonia is a larger percentage of the exhaust than previously predicted for newer vehicles and its production reaches a maximum with approximately the 1996 model year. NH3 is the first pollutant observed to have lower emissions from the oldest model year. Sulfur dioxide emissions decrease with newer model year vehicles. Nearly 1200 NH3, SO2, and NO2 emission measurements with valid vehicle identification numbers were collected from in-use HDDTs in Golden and Dumont, CO. The Dumont weigh station site allowed emissions to be correlated with gross vehicle weight. No trends were apparent. The Golden site allowed emissions to be correlated with odometer and a trend of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions was apparent even near one million miles, when some vehicles should show lower emissions due to engine rebuild and computer reflash. For the first time HDDT on-road NO x emissions were shown versus vehicle model year and found to reach a

  7. 78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for NO 2 and SO 2 to be consistent with the NAAQS that...

  8. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

  9. Simultaneous sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide removal by calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids.

    PubMed

    Nelli, C H; Rochelle, G T

    1998-09-01

    At conditions typical of a bag filter exposed to a coal-fired flue gas that has been adiabatically cooled with water, calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate solids were exposed to a dilute, humidified gas stream of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a packed-bed reactor. A prior study found that NO2 reacted readily with surface water of alkaline and non-alkaline solids to produce nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide (NO). With SO2 present in the gas stream, NO2 also reacted with S(IV), a product of SO2 removal, on the exterior of an alkaline solid. The oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by oxygen reduced the availability of S(IV) and lowered removal of NO2. Subsequent acidification of the sorbent by the removal of NO2 and SO2 facilitated the production of NO. However, the conversion of nitrous acid to sulfur-nitrogen compounds reduced NO production and enhanced SO2 removal. A reactor model based on empirical and semi-empirical rate expressions predicted rates of SO2 removal, NO2 removal, and NO production by calcium silicate solids. Rate expressions from the reactor model were inserted into a second program, which predicted the removal of SO2 and NOx by a continuous process, such as the collection of alkaline solids in a baghouse. The continuous process model, depending upon inlet conditions, predicted 30-40% removal for NOx and 50-90% removal for SO2. These results are relevant to dry scrubbing technology for combined SO2 and NOx removal that first oxidizes NO to NO2 by the addition of methanol into the flue duct. PMID:9775761

  10. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  11. Distribution of Hydrogen Peroxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfuric Acid in Europa's Icy Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) detected hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide and a hydrated material on Europa's surface, the latter interpreted as hydrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4*nH2O) or hydrated salts. Related compounds are molecular oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and two chromophores, one that is dark in the ultraviolet(UV) and concentrated on the trailing side, the other brighter in the UV and preferentially distributed in the leading hemisphere. The UV-dark material has been suggested to be sulfur.

  12. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and/or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 3/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present.

  13. Growth of radish and marigold following repeated exposure to nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reinert, R.A.; Sanders, J.S.

    1982-02-01

    Radish and marigold plants were exposed to 0.3 ppM of nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), and /or ozone (O/sub 3/) nine times during a 3-wk period. No interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, and O/sub 3/ were detected in measurement of radish foliage and root dry weight. Treatments containing O/sub 3/ reduced radish foliage and root (hypocotyl) dry weight 356 and 531 mg/plant, respectively. Interactions among NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ occurred in shoots and roots of marigold. SO/sub 2/ alone reduced marigold shoot and root dry weight, but this effect was reversed in the presence of O/sub 3/. The suppressive effect of SO/sub 2/ on root weight was also reversed by NO/sub 2/. Treatments containing SO/sub 2/ reduced dry flower weight 0.17 g/plant, but effects of the pollutant interactions observed in shoots and roots were not present. 8 references, 2 tables.

  14. Process for removing sulfur dioxide from an exhaust gas containing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, T.; Morita, T.; Takaiwa, M.

    1982-05-25

    A method for preventing the accumulation of an alkali sulfate produced as a by-product in the system for removing sulfur dioxide from exhaust gases containing sulfur dioxide is disclosed , the system comprising bringing the exhaust gas into contact with an aqueous solution containing an alkali sulfite to absorb sulfur dioxide into the solution and to convert the absorbed sulfur dioxide to an acidic alkali sulfite, adding calcium carbonate for the double decomposition of acidic alkali sulfite into the thus obtained aqueous solution containing the acidic sulfite and after removing the precipitated calcium sulfite and accompanying calcium sulfate by filtration, circulating the filtrate as aqueous solution for absorption of sulfur dioxide in the above-mentioned exhaust gas, the method being characterized in that the double decomposition is carried out in two stages by adding calcium carbonate of different particle size, respectively and the filtration is carried out, preferably, in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide to prevent the oxidation of sulfite by oxygen in air.

  15. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure reversibly alters parasympathetic regulation of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-08-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation and with their pups after birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and after delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. ECGs were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus on sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6 and returned to basal levels by day 7. ECGs showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. On activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2 to 3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  16. Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2–3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  17. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  19. Effect of mixing conditions on irritant potency of zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide. [Guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Amdur, M.O.; McCarthy, J.F.; Gill, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of mechanics of respiration in guinea pigs was used to assess the irritant potency of zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide mixed under different conditions of temperature and humidity. Concentrations were 1-2 mg/m/sup 3/ zinc oxide and 1 ppm sulfur dioxide. Dry conditions of mixing (Chamber RH 30%) either at 24/sup 0/C in the exposure chamber or at 480/sup 0/C in a dry furnace gave a biological response which could be completely accounted for by responses to zinc oxide and/or sulfur dioxide alone. Chemical examination of the aerosols did not indicate the formation of particulate sulfur species. Zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide mixed dry at 480/sup 0/C and fed into the exposure chamber at 80% RH reacted to produce an irritant aerosol as evidenced by a rapid increase in resistance to levels 29% above control; reversal was rapid when exposure ended. Chemical studies indicated the presence of sulfite on these aerosols. Addition of water vapor to the furnace during mixing at 480/sup 0/C produced a different irritant aerosol. The resistance rose slowly to 19% above control values and remained elevated during the post-exposure hour. Chemical studies indicated the presence of sulfate, sulfite, and adsorbed sulfur trioxide on these aerosols.

  20. Statistical summary and trend evaluation of air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio in 1967 to 1971: Total suspended particulate, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.; Burr, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Air quality data for Cleveland, Ohio, for the period of 1967 to 1971 were collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The total suspended particulate component is lognormally distributed; while sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are reasonably approximated by lognormal distributions. Only sulfur dioxide, in some residential neighborhoods, meets Ohio air quality standards. Air quality has definitely improved in the industrial valley, while in the rest of the city, only sulfur dioxide has shown consistent improvement. A pollution index is introduced which displays directly the degree to which the environmental air conforms to mandated standards.

  1. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  2. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-04-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China

  3. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.

    2010-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China

  4. Effect of water treatment chemicals on limestone/sulfur dioxide reaction in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    A simple laboratory test has been developed which simulates the reaction between limestone/water and sulfur dioxide in flue gas desulfurization systems. By adding various chemicals, in differing concentrations, to the limestone/water mixture, the quantitative impact on the sulfur dioxide/limestone reaction can be qualified and quantified. This paper will present the impact of several water treatment chemicals on the reaction of limestone and sulfur dioxide. An attempt has been made to predict the effect through mathematical correlations. All of the additive chemicals tend to decrease the rate of dissolution of limestone to various degrees. Some of the chemicals retard crystal growth thus adversely impacting solids separation in the thickener. The physical appearance of the crystal growth retarded limestone absorber slurry approaches a colloidal suspension.

  5. Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henríquez, B.; López, D.; Cárdenas, C.; Galle, B.

    2007-12-01

    San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

  6. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  7. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  8. Device for the removal of sulfur dioxide from exhaust gas by pulsed energization of free electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, A.; Clements, J.S.; Davis, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a new device using pulsed streamer corona for the removal of sulfur dioxide from humid air has been evaluated. The pulsed streamer corona produced free electrons which enhance gas-phase chemical reactions, and convert SO/sub 2/ to sulfuric acid mist. The SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency was compared with that of the electron-beam flue-gas treatment process. The comparison demonstrates the advantage of the novel device.

  9. Evidence of Entrainment Impacting Surface Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide in Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haman, C.; Lefer, B. L.; Morris, G. A.; Flynn, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary boundary layer dynamics, such as entrainment of the residual layer, can have profound impacts on gaseous species due to changes in turbulent mixing. The lifetime of sulfur dioxide permits us to measure downward mixing of gases from the residual layer into the mixing layer after sunrise. During the 2009 SHARP campaign, elevated levels of sulfur dioxide were found during the morning hours at the Moody Tower (29.92°, -95.34°, 75 m AGL) measurement site on 19 May (22.9 ppbv), 20 May (35.7 ppbv), and 30 May (double peak: 18.7 and 13.8 ppbv). Easterly to east-southeasterly winds persisted between 1.8 and 3.2 ms-1 during these sulfur dioxide events. The Moody Tower site is west-southwest of the Houston Ship Channel Industrial Complex, a major source of sulfur dioxide. Dual ozone and sulfur dioxide balloon sonde profiles show a peak in sulfur dioxide just above the stable nocturnal inversion on days with similar meteorological conditions (e.g. 64 ppbv at 430 m on 30 May). As the nocturnal inversion begins to erode after sunrise, turbulent mixing increases and entrainment from the residual layer begins. An aerosol lidar used to determine mixing heights indicated the surface inversion breakup at approximately 1000 CDT on 19 May and 0845 CDT on 20 May. Corresponding peaks in sulfur dioxide immediately follow inversion erosion. The entrainment rate of sulfur dioxide can often be used to differentiate between increases in surface ozone due to photochemistry and downward mixing. Twenty-nine morning ozonesondes were launched between 2004 and 2010, fifteen of which were coincident with continuous mixing height measurements. The median integrated morning residual layer ozone was 57.5 ppbv*km for all sondes, which is substantial when compared to 81.0 ppbv*km of integrated afternoon fully developed boundary layer ozone. To reduce the importance of the horizontal ozone advection and ozone production terms, this study focused on the data between 0300 and 1000 CDT. Similarly

  10. Cathodic reduction of sulfur dioxide at porous, phthalocyanine-containing electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shembel', E.M.; Ksenzhek, O.S.; Danilova, N.P.; Shustov, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    Electrodes containing catalysts, particularly electrodes containing metal chelate compounds, were studied for their effect on reducing cathodic sulfur dioxide. The electrodes were prepared with an iron phthalocyanine polymer deposited onto activated carbon. Fluoropolymer dispersions was used as the binder and electrochemical studies were performed in a glove box under dry argon. Lithium perchlorate solution in propylene carbonate was used as the electrolyte solution. The results indicate that materials with high catalytic activity show promise in raising the discharge voltage in power sources of the lithium-sulfur dioxide system.

  11. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  12. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  13. 40 CFR 60.173 - Standard for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Primary Zinc... percent of the sulfur initially contained in the zinc sulfide ore concentrates will be considered as...

  14. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  15. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 50 - Reference Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Sulfur Dioxide in the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method... the Atmosphere (Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method) 1.0Applicability 1.1This ultraviolet fluorescence... Atmospheres containing accurately known concentrations of sulfur dioxide are prepared using a compressed...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors D Appendix D to Part 52 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Pt. 52, App. D Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From... sulfur dioxide by the Reference method and record the results on the example sheet shown in Figure...

  1. Biological production and spatial variation of dimethylated sulfur compounds and their relation with plankton in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of dimethylated sulfur compounds and chlorophyll a, as well as biological production and consumption rates of dimethylsulfide (DMS), were measured in the surface water of the North Yellow Sea (NYS, 37-40°N to 121-124°E) in winter 2007. Surface DMS, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) concentrations in the study area increased significantly from offshore to inshore sites, with the average values of 2.00, 4.52 and 7.21 nM, respectively. The biological production and consumption rates of DMS were estimated, with the average values of 5.41 and 3.84 nM d-1, respectively. The spatial variation of chlorophyll a was consistent with that of DMS and DMSP, as well as with that of DMS biological production, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMS and DMSP in the study area. According to the collective data of dimethylated sulfur compounds and DMS biological conversion in China Seas, the dimethylated sulfur compounds concentrations in the NYS during winter were a factor of 2 and 1.3 higher than those in the East China Sea and South China Sea, respectively. Less DMS (DMSP) in NYS was released in winter than that in spring and summer, which could be attributed to the shift in phytoplankton community composition dominated by diatoms to non-diatoms from winter to summer. Quantitative comparison analysis pointed to DMSPp rather than DMSPd as an important precursor of DMS in the surface water. The estimated sea-to-air fluxes of DMS using Liss and Merlivat (LM86), Wanninkhof (W92) and Nightingale (N2000) formulae were 2.72, 5.12 and 4.28 μmol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the surface water, the biological turnover time of DMS varied from 0.21 to 1.73 d with an average of 0.83 d, which was about 5.43-fold faster than the mean DMS sea-air turnover time (3.12 d), implying that microbial consumption was a main sink of DMS in the surface water.

  2. Simple spectrophotometry method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in an alcohol-thionyl chloride reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinjian; Tan, Feng; Hartman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thionyl chloride is often used to convert alcohols into more reactive alkyl chloride, which can be easily converted to many compounds that are not possible from alcohols directly. One important reaction of alkyl chloride is nucleophilic substitution, which is typically conducted under basic conditions. Sulfur dioxide, the by-product from alcohol-thionyl chloride reactions, often reacts with alkyl chloride to form a sulfonyl acid impurity, resulting in yield loss. Therefore, the alkyl chloride is typically isolated to remove the by-products including sulfur dioxide. However, in our laboratory, the alkyl chloride formed from alcohol and thionyl chloride was found to be a potential mutagenic impurity, and isolation of this compound would require extensive safety measures. As a result, a flow-through process was developed, and the sulfur dioxide was purged using a combination of vacuum degassing and nitrogen gas sweeping. An analytical method that can quickly and accurately quantitate residual levels of sulfur dioxide in the reaction mixture is desired for in-process monitoring. We report here a simple ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry method for this measurement. This method takes advantage of the dramatic change in the UV absorbance of sulfur dioxide with respect to pH, which allows for accurate quantitation of sulfur dioxide in the presence of the strong UV-absorbing matrix. Each sample solution was prepared using 2 different diluents: 1) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% v/v hydrochloric acid, pH 1.3, and 2) 50 mM ammonium acetate in methanol +1% glacial acetic acid, pH 4.0. The buffer solutions were carefully selected so that the UV absorbance of the sample matrix (excluding sulfur dioxide) at 276 nm remains constant. In the pH 1.3 buffer system, sulfur dioxide shows strong UV absorbance at 276 nm. Therefore, the UV absorbance of sample solution is the sum of sulfur dioxide and sample matrix. While in the pH 4.0 buffer system, sulfur dioxide has

  3. Accurate prototype remote sensing of correlated carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions at Mt.Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solvejg Dinger, Anna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Butz, André; Fischerkeller, Marie-Constanze; Giudice, Gaetano; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Kuhn, Jonas; Liuzzo, Marco; Lübcke, Peter; Tirpitz, Lukas; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have a direct as well as indirect impact on climate and air quality. Moreover these two gases, and in particular their ratio, are tracers for dynamic processes inside volcanoes. Hence they can give direct information about volcanic activity. Semi-continuous in-situ measurements of CO2 and SO2 have been conducted for only a decade, demonstrating the great potential of such data. More than once it could be shown that the CO2/SO2 ratio increases and then drops before an eruption. However, in-situ measurements are linked with great effort and risk due to the difficult environment, which might also result in sheer impossibility. Remote sensing of volcanic emissions allows for monitoring a volcano's activity from a safe distance to the volcano and thus generally under less difficult ambient conditions. This means in turn less effort and cost, even employing a more cost intense instrument. Further, remote sensing enables sampling of cross sections of the entire plume thus, suffering less from representativeness errors than the in-situ technique. Remote sensing of SO2 is already well developed, whereas the measurement of CO2 is challenged by the high background concentration and therefore required high accuracy in order to measure little concentration enhancements in the volcanic plume. To overcome this challenge, we employed combined direct sunlight spectroscopy for SO2 and CO2. Two spectrometers (a UV-spectrometer for SO2 and a FTIR-spectrometer for CO2) were coupled into the beam of a common sun tracker. The whole setup was installed on a mobile platform, which allowed for sampling plume cross sections in a stop-and-go pattern. Measurements were conducted during a three-week campaign at Mt.Etna, Sicily. We measured enhancements of the averaged CO2 mixing ratio up to 0.5-1 ppm (2.5x1019 molec cm‑2 CO2 column enhancement) and SO2 column enhancements up to 4x1018 molec cm‑2. CO2 and SO2 emissions showed a

  4. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  5. Identification of the algal dimethyl sulfide-releasing enzyme: A missing link in the marine sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolombri, Uria; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Feldmesser, Ester; Levin, Yishai; Tawfik, Dan S.; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-06-01

    Algal blooms produce large amounts of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a volatile with a diverse signaling role in marine food webs that is emitted to the atmosphere, where it can affect cloud formation. The algal enzymes responsible for forming DMS from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) remain unidentified despite their critical role in the global sulfur cycle. We identified and characterized Alma1, a DMSP lyase from the bloom-forming algae Emiliania huxleyi. Alma1 is a tetrameric, redox-sensitive enzyme of the aspartate racemase superfamily. Recombinant Alma1 exhibits biochemical features identical to the DMSP lyase in E. huxleyi, and DMS released by various E. huxleyi isolates correlates with their Alma1 levels. Sequence homology searches suggest that Alma1 represents a gene family present in major, globally distributed phytoplankton taxa and in other marine organisms.

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF REACTIVITY IN SURFACTANT-MODIFIED SORBENTS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Injection of calcium-based sorbents into the postflame zone of utility boilers is capable of achieving sulfur dioxide (SO2) captures of 50-60% at a stoichiometry of 2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] appears to be the most effective commercially available sorbent. Recent attempts to ...

  7. Acute effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on the middle ear mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Esaki, Y.

    1989-04-01

    A variety of atmospheric pollutants are known to depress mucociliary function in the respiratory system. Since the mucociliary function in the middle ear is similar, and the middle ear may be invaded by atmospheric pollutants, we decided to investigate the possible contribution of sulfur dioxide to middle ear effusion. Guinea pigs were exposed for 24 hours to 300 ppm of sulfur dioxide or air. Immediately after exposure, ciliary activity and epithelial structure were examined close to the tympanic orifice (proximal site) and more distal to it (distal site). In the animals exposed to sulfur dioxide, no effusion was found in the tympanic cavity. Ciliary activity was reduced only in the distal site. Electron microscopy demonstrated hypersecretion in the proximal site and severe pathologic changes in the distal site. Although the normally functioning cilia in the proximal site may prevent retention of surplus secretions in the ear, sulfur dioxide may promote middle ear effusion when combined with other detrimental factors, because it stimulates mucus secretion in the proximal site and impairs ciliary function in the distal site.

  8. PORE DISTRIBUTION CHANGES OF CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS REACTING WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a determination of changes in the pore structure of calcium oxide sorbents derived from calcium carbonate (termed c-CaO) and calcium hydroxide (termed h-CaO) reacting with sulfur dioxide (SO2). Results show that the pore shape of c-CaO approximates a cy...

  9. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  10. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  11. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  12. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  14. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  16. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  17. 40 CFR 60.42c - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42c Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... bed combustion steam generating unit shall neither: (i) Cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... part of a combined cycle system where 30 percent (0.30) or less of the heat entering the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.42b - Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.42b Standard for sulfur dioxide (SO2). (a) Except as... in a fluidized bed combustion steam generating unit shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere... the heat entering the steam generating unit is from combustion of coal and oil in the duct burner...

  19. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. VOLUME I. SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO2) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and computer ana...

  20. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION. FINAL REPORT. VOLUME I: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three techniques for detecting and mapping sulfur dioxide (SO sub 2 ) effects on the foliage of sensitive crops and trees near large, coal-fired power plants were tested and evaluated. These techniques were spectroradiometry, photometric analysis of aerial photographs, and comput...

  1. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS OVER THE EASTERN U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission reductions were mandated in the Clean Air Art Amendments of 1990 with the expectation that they would result in corresponding reductions in air pollution. The 1990 amendments include new requirements that appreciably reduced sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in two phases o...

  2. PHYSIOLOGY OF ECOTYPIC PLANT RESPONSE TO SULFUR DIOXIDE IN 'GERANIUM CAROLINIANUM' L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of Geranium carolinianum, winter annual plant common in disturbed habitats vary in their folair response to sulfur dioxide and pollution resistance is characteristic of populations sampled from areas in which SO2 has been a prominent stress. The physiological basis of...

  3. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  4. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.6 Penalties for excess emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.5 Deduction of allowances to...

  6. COMBINED EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON BEAN AND TOBACCO PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris and one cultivar of Nicotiana tabacum were exposed to a replicated series of concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (03), and combinations of these two air pollutants for single four-hour periods. Experiments were performed in ...

  7. COST COMPARISONS OF SELECTED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONTROL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM COPPER SMELTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. nonferrous metals production industry is a significant contributor of sulfur dioxide, trace metal, and particulate air emissions. Most of the domestic copper smelting capacity is based on obsolescent technology that is both capital-and energy-intensive and hampered by co...

  8. The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

  9. Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide in the United States: Can the Standards be Justified or Afforded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megonnell, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent reviews have concluded that there is no basis for changing the standards set by the EPA in 1971, even though the data base was insufficient then for a quantifiable, scientific definition of clean air. Examination of data shows that the United States does not have a sulfur dioxide problem. (Author/BT)

  10. 78 FR 17915 - EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... availability published February 15, 2013 (78 FR 11124) must be received on or before April 8, 2013. Please... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 EPA Responses to State and Tribal 2010 Sulfur Dioxide Designation Recommendations... comment period for the EPA's responses to state and tribal designation recommendations for the 2010...

  11. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AIRWAY DISEASE INDUCED BY SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent models of chronic pulmonary diseases induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2), elastase or tobacco smoke have limited utility because of their lack of chronicity of inflammation, and they demonstrate limited sensitivity to a given experimental manipulation. We hypothesized that dis...

  12. OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN ATMOSPHERIC SULFATES, SULFUR DIOXIDE, AND WATER VAPORS FIELD MEASUREMENTS, JULY 1975

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen isotope ratios were determined for atmospheric samples of sulfate aerosols, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor collected simultaneously during a six-day period in July, 1975, at St. Louis, MO; Auburn, IL; and Glasgow, IL. The collection sites were located about 100km apart. C...

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE DURATION AND SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine the shortest duration of exposure to 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) sufficient to induce bronchoconstriction significantly greater than that observed with exposure to clean air (CA) in exercising SO2 sensitive asthmatics. Asymptomatic, nonm...

  14. Initial interaction of sulfur dioxide with water covered metal surfaces: An in situ IRAS study

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, D.; Leygraf, C.

    1995-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the most important stimulators of atmospheric corrosion in outdoor environments and numerous investigations have been made to understand its role. Despite clear evidence of the corrosion accelerating effect of SO{sub 2} there is still a lack in detailed knowledge on a molecular level of how SO{sub 2} interacts with metal surfaces during conditions of atmospheric corrosion. In situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) has been used to study the initial interaction of sulfur dioxide with water adlayer covered copper, nickel, and zinc surfaces. Each metal was exposed to 0.21 ppm SO{sub 2} in flowing air at 80% relative humidity and the formation of sulfite was followed from submonolayer thickness to layers of corrosion products of a few manometers thickness. From the positions of sulfite bonds in the experimentally obtained IRAS spectra and from considerations of optically induced band shifts in calculated IRAS spectra, it is suggested that the sulfite ions are coordinated with sulfur or sulfur and oxygen to the copper surface and with oxygen to the nickel and zinc surfaces. A fast initial growth rate was observed for the sulfite layer, which was followed by a slower growth rate after a few hours of exposure. A reaction sequence is suggested where bisulfite ions, formed by hydrolysis of sulfur dioxide in the water adlayer, generate surface metal-sulfite complexes at the oxide covered metal surface which subsequently detach from the surface and precipitate as thin layers of corrosion products.

  15. EQUILIBRIUM PARTIAL PRESSURE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE IN ALKALINE SCRUBBING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of IERL-RTP in-house studies in which equilibrium partial pressure of SO2 was measured as a function of pH, temperature, and concentration of sulfur (IV) on various scrubber liquors. These studies were done for potassium-, sodium-, and citrate-based scrub...

  16. THE CARBON DIOXIDE LEAKAGE FROM CHAMBERS MEASURED USING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In plant chamber studies, if Co2 leaking from a chamber is not quantified, it can lead to an overestimate of assimilation rates and an underestimate of respiration rates: consequently, it is critical that Co2 leakage be determined. Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) was introduced into t...

  17. Advances in Monitoring of Global Sulfur Dioxide Sources with Aura/OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Arlin; Krotkov, Nick; Yang, Kai; Carn, Simon

    Sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanoes, smelters, and from combustion of fossil fuels. It is rapidly oxidized to sulfate aerosols, which affect climate by reflecting sunlight. Volcanic eruption sulfur dioxide masses have been measured for nearly 30 years with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments. Smaller sources were immeasurable because the TOMS selection of six discrete wavelengths was far from optimal for discriminating sulfur dioxide from ozone, thus limiting the observations to large column amounts (˜10 Dobson Units (DU)). With full UV spectrum data from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and OMI, the sulfur dioxide amounts are retrieved with twenty times greater precision. The daily global coverage and the high spatial resolution of OMI provides a wealth of new geophysical information. The OMI SO2 algorithm uses residuals generated by the GSFC total ozone algorithm at TOMS wavelengths, augmented by wavelengths in the SO2 bands near 310 nm. Effective cloud top pressures derived from UV rotational Raman scattering have further reduced errors in ozone retrievals due to clouds. Thus, the sulfur dioxide retrieval noise level is reduced to 0.2 - 1.5 DU depending on altitude. In addition to volcanic eruptions, we are now able to monitor passive degassing of volcanoes, which is diagnostic for magma movements. In addition, we have daily monitoring of sulfate ore smelters and the major sources of fossil fuel combustion. These emissions in the planetary boundary layer are the largest global source of sulfate but are difficult to detect because of the low altitude. Nevertheless, large air pollution sulfur dioxide clouds appear in OMI data nearly every day, particularly over China. Finally, volcanic ash is a hazard to aviation that is accompanied by sulfur dioxide in explosive magmatic eruption clouds. A near real-time OMI SO2 data production capability has been developed using KNMI/ GSFC facilities. NOAA/NESDIS distributes data products via Internet to decision support

  18. Laboratory Measurements of the Millimeter-Wavelength Sulfur Dioxide Absorption Spectrum under Simulated Venus Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2014-11-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 millimeter wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308-343 K and pressures between 0.03- 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Icarus, 2014, in press) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd and Steffes Icarus 97, 1992 and Suleiman et al. JGR 101, E2 1996). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, et al. JQSRT 60, 1998) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This model was implemented in the new Georgia Tech Venus Radiative Transfer Model (GT-VRTM) which is capable of computing both disk-averaged and localized brightness temperatures of Venus. These are compared to observations. This work will improve retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from observations of the Venus atmosphere. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under Grant NNX11AD66G.

  19. The millimeter-wavelength sulfur dioxide absorption spectra measured under simulated Venus conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, Amadeo; Steffes, Paul G.

    2015-07-01

    Over 130 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm wavelength opacity of sulfur dioxide in a carbon dioxide atmosphere under simulated conditions for the upper Venus troposphere (temperatures between 308 and 343 K and pressures between 0.03 and 2 bar) have been made. These measurements along with the centimeter wavelength measurements by Steffes et al. (Steffes, P.G. et al. [2015]. Icarus 245, 153-161) have been used to empirically assess existing formalisms for sulfur dioxide opacity in a carbon dioxide atmosphere (Fahd, A.K., Steffes, P.G. [1992]. Icarus 97(2), 200-210; Suleiman, S.H. et al. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res.: Planets 101(E2), 4623-4635). The Van Vleck and Weisskopf Model (VVW) used by Fahd and Steffes with the JPL rotational line catalog (Pickett, H. et al. [1998]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 499-890) was found to fit 85.88% of all 500 measurements within the 2-sigma uncertainty. This work will improve the confidence in retrievals of the atmospheric abundance of sulfur dioxide from millimeter-wavelength observations of the Venus atmosphere.

  20. Utilization of Dimethyl Sulfide as a Sulfur Source with the Aid of Light by Marinobacterium sp. Strain DMS-S1

    PubMed Central

    Fuse, Hiroyuki; Takimura, Osamu; Murakami, Katsuji; Yamaoka, Yukiho; Omori, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Strain DMS-S1 isolated from seawater was able to utilize dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as a sulfur source only in the presence of light in a sulfur-lacking medium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S ribosomal DNA genes indicated that the strain was closely related to Marinobacterium georgiense. The strain produced dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was a main metabolite, and small amounts of formate and formaldehyde when grown on DMS as the sole sulfur source. The cells of the strain grown with succinate as a carbon source were able to use methyl mercaptan or methanesulfonate besides DMS but not DMSO or dimethyl sulfone as a sole sulfur source. DMS was transformed to DMSO primarily at wavelengths between 380 and 480 nm by heat-stable photosensitizers released by the strain. DMS was also degraded to formaldehyde in the presence of light by unidentified heat-stable factors released by the strain, and it appeared that strain DMS-S1 used the degradation products, which should be sulfite, sulfate, or methanesulfonate, as sulfur sources. PMID:11097944

  1. Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Mt. Etna Eruption 2002 as Detected with AIRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Mt. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, 2002. Preliminary analysis of data taken by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 28 shows the instrument can provide an excellent means to study the evolution and structure of the sulfur dioxide plume emitted from volcanoes. These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of sulfur dioxide injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future.

    The image clearly shows the sulfur dioxide plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to sulfur dioxide. By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the sulfur dioxide feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  3. Hydrolysis of Sulfur Dioxide in Small Clusters of Sulfuric Acid: Mechanistic and Kinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Fang, Sheng; Wang, Zhixiu; Yi, Wencai; Tao, Fu-Ming; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2015-11-17

    The deposition and hydrolysis reaction of SO2 + H2O in small clusters of sulfuric acid and water are studied by theoretical calculations of the molecular clusters SO2-(H2SO4)n-(H2O)m (m = 1,2; n = 1,2). Sulfuric acid exhibits a dramatic catalytic effect on the hydrolysis reaction of SO2 as it lowers the energy barrier by over 20 kcal/mol. The reaction with monohydrated sulfuric acid (SO2 + H2O + H2SO4 - H2O) has the lowest energy barrier of 3.83 kcal/mol, in which the cluster H2SO4-(H2O)2 forms initially at the entrance channel. The energy barriers for the three hydrolysis reactions are in the order SO2 + (H2SO4)-H2O > SO2 + (H2SO4)2-H2O > SO2 + H2SO4-H2O. Furthermore, sulfurous acid is more strongly bonded to the hydrated sulfuric acid (or dimer) clusters than the corresponding reactant (monohydrated SO2). Consequently, sulfuric acid promotes the hydrolysis of SO2 both kinetically and thermodynamically. Kinetics simulations have been performed to study the importance of these reactions in the reduction of atmospheric SO2. The results will give a new insight on how the pre-existing aerosols catalyze the hydrolysis of SO2, leading to the formation and growth of new particles. PMID:26450714

  4. High carbon dioxide solubilities in imidazolium-based ionic liquids and in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Revelli, Anne-Laure; Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2010-10-14

    This work is focused on the possible capture of carbon dioxide using ionic liquids (ILs). Such solvents are gaining special attention because the efficiency of many processes can be enhanced by the judicious manipulation of their properties. The absorption of greenhouse gases can be enhanced by the basic character of the IL. In this work, these characteristics are evaluated through the study of the gas-liquid equilibrium of four imidazolium-based ILs: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM][BF(4)], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM][SCN], 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylphosphonate [DMIM][MP], and 1,3-diethoxyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [(ETO)(2)IM][Tf(2)N] with CO(2) at temperatures up to 373 K and pressures up to 300 bar. Solubility of carbon dioxide in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether, component of selexol, was also measured to evaluate the capture's efficiency of ionic liquids. Experimental data indicate that 67 to 123 g of CO(2) can be absorbed per kg of ionic liquid and 198 g per kg of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether. PMID:20853857

  5. Thiol activated prodrugs of sulfur dioxide (SO2) as MRSA inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, Kundansingh A; Malwal, Satish R; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2015-07-01

    Drug resistant infections are becoming common worldwide and new strategies for drug development are necessary. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of 2,4-dinitrophenylsulfonamides, which are donors of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a reactive sulfur species, as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) inhibitors. N-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dinitro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide (5e) was found to have excellent in vitro MRSA inhibitory potency. This compound is cell permeable and treatment of MRSA cells with 5e depleted intracellular thiols and enhanced oxidative species both results consistent with a mechanism involving thiol activation to produce SO2. PMID:25981687

  6. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in

  7. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D....0 × 10 6 BTU per hour total rated capacity of heat input, the emission rate in pounds of sulfur....4307 where Q m is the total rated capacity of heat input in million BTU per hour and EL is...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 52.1870: (i) Rules as effective in Ohio on December 28, 1979: OAC 3745-18-04(A), (B), (C), (D... sulfur oxides. (iii) Fossil fuel means natural gas, refinery fuel gas, coke oven gas, petroleum, coal and any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such materials. (iv) Fossil fuel-fired...

  9. Passive samplers for ambient ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide: Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E.

    1994-12-31

    Time-integrated measurements of air pollutants have many applications in the context of regulations pertaining to indoor air quality, outdoor (ambient) monitoring, and personal exposure assessment. For several years, the passive samplers developed at DGA have been applied to cost-effective measurements of parts per billion levels of ozone, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide. Examples of applications will be described. These include (a) formaldehyde measurements in indoor settings including museums, public buildings and personal exposure; (b) ozone measurements indoor (museums, cultural heritage buildings) and outdoor (Class 1 Wilderness areas; air quality surveys in Europe, Canada and Latin America, long-term monitoring of ozone exposure in forests) and (c) surveys of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in several eastern European countries.

  10. Systematization of published spectral data on sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, S. S.; Akhlestin, A. Yu.; Kozodoev, A. V.; Lavrentiev, N. A.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents a description of properties of published spectral data on spectral lines' parameters of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues. These data were acquired from more than 150 publications for a period of 50 years. Data properties as well as data sources classification according to validity and trust criteria are presented in a form of an ontological knowledge base on information resources. Data source properties values are computed during the assessment of validity and trust1. Published ro-vibrational transitions, energy levels, spectral lines' parameters, knowledge base on information resources of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues are available in the Internet accessible information system W@DIS (http://wadis.saga.iao.ru/).

  11. Implementing a market-based environmental policy: Utility behavior in the sulfur dioxide allowance trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Lober, D.J.; Bailey, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study examines the variables which influenced utility participation in the 1994 spot and forward auctions of the sulfur dioxide allowance trading program. The method is a survey of the attitudes of managers at 142 utilities. The results indicate that utility management uncertainty over the treatment of allowances by its public utility commission is an important determinant of a utility`s participation in the allowance auctions. The relative costs of the allowances compared to other sulfur dioxide control strategies also were correlated with bidding behavior. A number of other variables, such as public opinion in the utility`s region, demand growth, innovativeness of the utility, and participation in the 1993 auctions, were also determinants of utility participation in the allowance trading program.

  12. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Kīlauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at Kīlauea Volcano for the interval 2007–2010.

  13. Infrared spectra, photochemistry, and ab initio calculations of matrix isolated methanethiol/sulfur dioxide complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Kurtz, H.; Korambath, P.; Li, Y.-S.

    2000-09-01

    Intermolecular complexes of methanethiol with sulfur dioxide have been prepared by condensing the reagents diluted in argon and in nitrogen at 12-14 K. The 1:1 CH 3SH/SO 2 complexes were identified from the infrared spectra of the mixtures of methanethiol with sulfur dioxide in argon and nitrogen matrices. Perturbations to the vibrational energy spaces of some vibrational modes were identified and assigned. Ab initio calculations with the 6-311G ∗∗ basis set have been performed to get some information about the structure, binding energy, dipole moment, and potential function governing the internal rotation of SO 2 for the complex. The calculated results have suggested that the dipole/dipole interaction held the constituent species together to form the complex. Photochemical reactions were performed by exposing the matrix mixtures to UV irradiation. The appearance of new bands indicated the presence of more than one photochemical reaction product.

  14. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation. PMID:26304316

  15. The Distribution of Sulfur Dioxide and Other Infrared Adsorbers on the Surface of Io from Galileo NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. W.; Carlson, W. D.; Smythe, R. M. C.; Davies, L. W.; Kamp, J. A.; Mosher, J. A.; Soderblom, F. E.; Leader, R.; Mehlman, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) was used to investigate the distribution and relative particle size variations of sulfur dioxide over one hemisphere of Io, centered at 210(deg)W.

  16. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 °C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

  17. CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 2. ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROL OF WEAK SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the second phase of a three phase effort evaluating (1) characterization of particulate control of a molybdenum sulfide roasters, (2) assessment of sulfur dioxide abatement alternatives for nonferrous smelting and, in particular, for molybdenum roasting, and (3...

  18. 77 FR 46295 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2010 Primary Sulfur Dioxide National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...The EPA is announcing that it is using its authority under the Clean Air Act (CAA) to extend by up to 1 year the deadline for promulgating initial area designations for the primary sulfur dioxide (SO2) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) that was promulgated in June 2010. With this extension, the EPA is now required to complete initial designations for this NAAQS by June......

  19. Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marina, G.D.; Kekuda, T.R Prashith; Sudarshan, S.J

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. PMID:22557276

  20. Extraction of polychlorinated biphenyl with supercritical carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Pross, S; Gau, W; Wenclawiak, B W

    2000-05-01

    In the extraction of spiked PCB from soil, three extracting fluids were investigated: supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2), supercritical sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and subcritical water. Among the tested fluids SF6 appeared to be appropriate especially for the extraction of low polar PCB. CO2 and water were found to be suitable for the quantitative extraction of all PCB. Water was judged as the best because of its low price, good availability and environmental safety. PMID:11227442

  1. Effects of sulfur dioxide on resistance to bacterial infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Bouley, G.; Blayo, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    Continuous exposure to approximately a 10-ppm concentration of sulfur dioxide for periods of up to 3 weeks reduced the resistance of female mice to infection by aerosol inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate rose and survival time shortened in SO/sub 2/-exposed animals compared to controls. Insofar as these results can be extrapolated to humans, the SO/sub 2/ concentration used in this work is only found on certain industrial premises.

  2. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  3. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on virus growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, G A

    1977-01-01

    Inhalation of ozone and sulfur dioxide inhibited influenza virus growth in the nose of mice. Ozone inhalation caused the more pronounced inhibition of influenza virus growth: 0.6 ppm ozone for 3 hours post-virus exposure almost completely inhibited influenza virus growth in the nose, whereas sulfur dioxide (6 ppm for 7 days) causes only partial inhibition of influenza growth in the nose. Neither gas altered the propagation of influenza virus in the lungs of mice. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) growth was either unaffected by exposure to ozone (0.9 ppm for 3 hours) or, when ozone exposure preceeded VSV exposure, the virus may have grown to slightly higher titer. The inhibitory effect of ozone and sulfur dioxide on influenza virus growth in nasal epithelium suggests a competitive interaction between the chemical inhalant, the virus, and host tissues, with net consequences for the pathogenesis of this disease. If the effcts of these inhalants are to be properly interpreted, they should be determined for all major regions of virus growth and inhalant deposition. PMID:189703

  4. Accurate thermochemistry and spectroscopy of the oxygen-protonated sulfur dioxide isomers.

    PubMed

    Puzzarini, Cristina

    2011-12-28

    Despite the promising relevance of protonated sulfur dioxide in astrophysical and atmospheric fields, its thermochemical and spectroscopic characterization is very limited. High-level quantum-chemical calculations have shown that the most stable isomer is the cis oxygen-protonated sulfur dioxide, HOSO(+), while the trans form is about 2 kcal mol(-1) less stable; even less stable (by about 42 kcal mol(-1)) is the S-protonated isomer [V. Lattanzi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 194305]. The enthalpy of formation for the cis- and trans-HOSO(+) is presented, based on the well tested HEAT protocol [A. Tajti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 11599]. Systematically extrapolated ab initio energies, accounting for electron correlation through coupled cluster theory, including up to single, double, triple and quadruple excitations, have been corrected for core-electron correlation, anharmonic zero-point vibrational energy, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer and scalar relativistic effects. As a byproduct, proton affinity of sulfur dioxide and atomization energies have also been obtained at the same levels of theory. Vibrational and rotational spectroscopic properties have been investigated by means of composite schemes that allow us to account for truncation of basis set as well as core correlation. Where available, for both thermochemistry and spectroscopy, very good agreement with experimental data has been observed. PMID:22033629

  5. Study of a QCM Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sensor Based on a ZnO-Modified Nanowire-Structured Manganese Dioxide Film

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO2) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO2 nanofibers and pure MnO2 nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO2 film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO2 nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  6. Study of a QCM dimethyl methylphosphonate sensor based on a ZnO-modified nanowire-structured manganese dioxide film.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhifu; Ma, Xingfa; Ding, Pengfei; Zhang, Wuming; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive, selective and fast detection of chemical warfare agents is necessary for anti-terrorism purposes. In our search for functional materials sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of sarin and other toxic organophosphorus compounds, we found that zinc oxide (ZnO) modification potentially enhances the absorption of DMMP on a manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) surface. The adsorption behavior of DMMP was evaluated through the detection of tiny organophosphonate compounds with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors coated with ZnO-modified MnO(2) nanofibers and pure MnO(2) nanofibers. Experimental results indicated that the QCM sensor coated with ZnO-modified nanostructured MnO(2) film exhibited much higher sensitivity and better selectivity in comparison with the one coated with pure MnO(2) nanofiber film. Therefore, the DMMP sensor developed with this composite nanostructured material should possess excellent selectivity and reasonable sensitivity towards the tiny gaseous DMMP species. PMID:22163653

  7. SOA FORMATION FROM THE IRRADIATION OF A-PINENE-NOX IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is an important constituent in the polluted atmosphere. It is emitted from combustion sources using fuels that contain sulfur. Emissions of SO2 in the United States were reportedly 17 Tg in 1996 with most coming from coal and petroleum combustion. The pr...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  13. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-06-01

    This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

  14. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

    Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1° × 1° grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, ˜ 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their

  15. Ion Clusters in Nucleation Experiments in the CERN Cloud Chamber: Sulfuric Acid + Ammonia + Dimethyl Amine + Oxidized Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, D. R.; Schobesberger, S.; Bianchi, F.; Ehrhart, S.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Nucleation from gaseous precursors is an important source of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The CLOUD experiment at CERN provides exceptionally clean and well-defined experimental conditions for studies of atmospheric nucleation and initial growth, in a 26 m3 stainless-steel chamber. In addition, the influence of cosmic rays on nucleation and nanoparticle growth can be simulated by exposing the chamber to a pion beam produced by the CERN Proton Synchrotron. A key to understanding the mechanism by which nucleation proceeds in the CLOUD chamber is the use of state-of-the-art instrumentation, including the Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-Of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. The APi-TOF is developed by Tofwerk AG, and Aerodyne Research, Inc., and typically obtains resolutions between 4000 and 6000 Th/Th and mass accuracies < 10 ppm. Sampling occurs directly from atmospheric pressure through a critical orifice. Ions are then focused and guided to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, while passing through differentially pumped chambers. No ionization of the sampled aerosol is performed; only ions charged in the chamber are detected in the current configuration. For all studied chemical systems, the APi-TOF detected ion clusters that could directly be linked to nucleation. The composition of these ion clusters could be determined based on their exact masses and isotopic patterns. Aided by the chamber's cleanliness and the possibility of enhancing ion concentrations by using CERN's pion beam, a remarkably large fraction of the ion spectra could be identified, even for more complex chemical systems studied. For the ammonia-sulfuric acid-water system, for instance, growing clusters containing ammonia (NH3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) were observed up to 3300 Th. Adding dimethyl amine and/or pinanediol into the CLOUD chamber, altered the chemical compositions of the observed ion clusters accordingly. Cluster growth then included mixtures of sulfuric acid and

  16. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  17. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  18. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  19. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  20. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on ammonia-treated activated carbon fibers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangun, C.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Economy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A series of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) and ammonia-treated ACFs prepared from phenolic fiber precursors have been studied to elucidate the role of pore size, pore volume, and pore surface chemistry on adsorption of sulfur dioxide and its catalytic conversion to sulfuric acid. As expected, the incorporation of basic functional groups into the ACFs was shown as an effective method for increasing adsorption of sulfur dioxide. The adsorption capacity for dry SO2 did not follow specific trends; however the adsorption energies calculated from the DR equation were found to increase linearly with nitrogen content for each series of ACFs. Much higher adsorption capacities were achieved for SO2 in the presence of oxygen and water due to its catalytic conversion to H2SO4. The dominant factor for increasing adsorption of SO2 from simulated flue gas for each series of fibers studied was the weight percent of basic nitrogen groups present. In addition, the adsorption energies calculated for dry SO2 were shown to be linearly related to the adsorption capacity of H2SO4 from this flue gas for all fibers. It was shown that optimization of this parameter along with the pore volume results in higher adsorption capacities for removal of SO2 from flue gases. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Daniel A.; Dalton, Thomas R.; Bishop, Gary A.; Starkey, John R.; Stedman, Donald H.

    2006-01-01

    A remote sensor for measuring on-road vehicles passing the sensor in real time is described. This sensor expands upon previous technology that measured carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and exhaust hydrocarbons in the IR and nitric oxide in the UV. The design adds the capability to measure nitrogen dioxide in the UV with one spectrometer and to measure SO2 and NH3 along with NO in a second UV spectrometer. With these units operating side by side, the major mobile source precursors to secondary aerosol production can be measured simultaneously and in real time. Detection limits for NO2, SO2, and NH3 are 1.2, 0.72, and 0.78 g pollutant per kilogram of fuel, respectively.

  2. Stomatal Conductance and Sulfur Uptake of Five Clones of Populus tremuloides Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Kozlowski, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    Plants of five clones of Populus tremuloides Michx. were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 for 8 hours in controlled environment chambers. In the absence of the pollutant, two pollution-resistant clones maintained consistently lower daytime diffusive conductance (LDC) than did a highly susceptible clone or two moderately resistant clones. Differences in LDC among the latter three clones were not significant. At 0.2 microliter per liter SO2, LDC decreased in the susceptible clone after 8 hours fumigation while the LDC of the other clones was not affected. Fumigation with 0.5 microliter per liter SO2 decreased LDC of all five clones during the fumigation. Rates of recovery following fumigation varied with the clone, but the LDC of all clones had returned to control values by the beginning of the night following fumigation. Night LDC was higher in the susceptible clone than in the other clones. Fumigation for 16 hours (14 hours day + 2 hours night) with 0.4 microliter per liter SO2 decreased night LDC by half. Sulfur uptake studies generally confirmed the results of the conductance measurements. The results show that stomatal conductance is important in determining relative susceptibility of the clones to pollution stress. PMID:16661807

  3. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  4. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  5. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  6. Evaluation of proton-conducting membranes for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvington, Mark C.; Colón-Mercado, Héctor; McCatty, Steve; Stone, Simon G.; Hobbs, David T.

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDEs function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur-based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 °C in 60 wt% H 2SO 4 for 24 h. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO 2 transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO 2 was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO 2 transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H 2SO 4 at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO 2 flux and SO 2 transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO 2 transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density vs. a constant cell voltage (1 V, 80 °C in SO 2 saturated 30 wt% H 2SO 4). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO 2 flux, SO 2 transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  7. Mass-spectrometric study of the electron-beam-stimulated conversion of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruev, N. N.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Petrov, M. I.; Polyanskii, A. M.; Polyanskii, V. A.; Tyukal'Tsev, R. V.; Fedichkin, I. L.

    2009-07-01

    The dynamics of electron-beam-stimulated conversion of sulfur dioxide into ammonium sulfate has been studied using a highly sensitive, fast-response time-of-flight mass spectrometer of the reflectron type. The conversion of various gas mixtures containing SO2, CO2, O2, N2, and Ar in the presence of an ammonia and water vapor was carried out in a reactor with a volume of 0.04 m3. Optimum conditions for the electron-beam-stimulated conversion of SO2 are determined. The reaction product ((NH4)2SO4) is a valuable nitrogenous fertilizer.

  8. Safety hazards associated with the charging of lithium/sulfur dioxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Lawson, D. D.; Barnes, J. A.; Bis, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A continuing research program to assess the responses of spirally wound, lithium/sulfur dioxide cells to charging as functions of charging current, temperature, and cell condition prior to charging is described. Partially discharged cells that are charged at currents greater than one ampere explode with the time to explosion inversely proportional to the charging current. Cells charged at currents of less than one ampere may fail in one of several modes. The data allows an empirical prediction of when certain cells will fail given a constant charging current.

  9. Design and construction of a simple, continuous flow sulfur dioxide exposure chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Leetham, J.W.; Ferguson, W.; Dodd, J.L.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    For experimental purposes, a reasonably large capacity, low cost, low maintenance chamber was needed to study the long-term (2-4 months) effects of sulfur dioxide on developmental rates of grasshoppers and decomposition rates of plant litter. Internal temperature, humidity, and light controls were not required since the chamber would be used in externally controlled environments. The controlled exposure chamber herein described has proved to be adequate for such studies and satisfied most of the conditions discussed by Heagle and Philbeck. Its utility could be increased by use within an environmentally controlled greenhouse. It is comparatively simple and inexpensive to contruct and maintain.

  10. Study of ozone and sulfur dioxide using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumrid

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a vertical column of the atmosphere in Thailand were obtained from the Brewers#121 and #120. There are similarities between the O3 patterns obtained from the two sites, which are higher in the summer and rainy season compared with winter, although the magnitude of the change in Bangkok is greater than that in Songkhla. SO2 values showed the summer months provide the higher SO2 values in Bangkok, in contrast to Songkhla where the summer months give lower SO2 values.

  11. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, P.J. ); Gerlach, T.M. )

    1994-07-22

    Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO[sub 2] released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO[sub 2] is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO[sub 2]-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO[sub 2] that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  12. Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, P.J.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO2 released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO2 is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO2-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO2 that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

  13. The distribution of sulfur dioxide and other infrared absorbers on the surface of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Lopes-Gautier, R. M. C.; Davies, A.G.; Kamp, L.W.; Mosher, J.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Leader, F.E.; Mehlman, R.; Clark, R.N.; Fanale, F.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution and properties of sulfur dioxide over the surface of Io, and qualitative results for the anti-Jove hemisphere are presented here. SO2, existing as a frost, is found almost everywhere, but with spatially variable concentration. The exceptions are volcanic hot spots, where high surface temperatures promote rapid vaporization and can produce SO2-free areas. The pervasive frost, if fully covering the cold surface, has characteristic grain sizes of 30 to 100 Urn, or greater. Regions of greater sulfur dioxide concentrations are found. The equatorial Colchis Regio area exhibits extensive snowfields with large particles (250 to 500 ??m diameter, or greater) beneath smaller particles. A weak feature at 3.15 ??m is observed and is perhaps due to hydroxides, hydrates, or water. A broad absorption in the 1 ??m region, which could be caused by iron-containing minerals, shows a concentration in Io'S southern polar region, with an absence in the Pele plume deposition ring. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. New analytical reagents for the determination of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four solid reagent methods were developed for the determination of sulfur dioxide in air, and one method was developed to measure carbon monoxide. When applied to filter paper with acetamide as the humectant and 4-phenylcyclohexanone as a bisulfite absorbent, oxohydroxybis(8-hydroxyquinolinyl-) vanadium (V) changes from yellow to black in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The three other methods, also on a filter paper support, utilized the reduction of bromate to bromine which then changed 3-,3'-, 5-,5'-tetramethylbenzidine from yellow to blue, phenothiazine from white to green, and 4-dimethylamino-4'-,4/double prime/-dimethoxytriphenylmethanol from colorless to red-purple. Quantitative measurements were made by reflectance spectroscopy. The method for carbon monoxide involved the use of tetrakis (acetamide-) Pd(II) ditetrafluoroborate, sodium iodate, and leuco crystal violet all together on a filter paper support. Carbon monoxide reduced the Pd(II)-acetamide complex to metallic palladium. The metallic palladium then reduced iodate to hypoiodous acid, HOI, which, in turn, oxidized leuco crystal violet to crystal violet. The crystal violet color was then measured by reflectance.

  15. Influence of sulfur dioxide on the selective catalytic reduction of NO by decane on Cu catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Figueras, F.; Coq, B.; Tachon, D.

    1996-12-31

    The selective catalytic removal of NO in oxygen rich atmospheres has been investigated in the presence of sulfur dioxide on a series of Cu catalysts. The reactivities correlated with the reducibility of Cu species determined by temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen. Without sulfur dioxide in the feed, the activity is related to the reducibility of Cu species. The addition of SO{sub 2} to the solid shifts the TPR peaks to higher temperatures. The magnitude of this effect is lower for acid zeolites such as MFI and BEA. Sulfation results in a small inhibition of the reactivity for deNOx in the case of Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, no or little change in the case of Cu/zeolites, and a promotion of activity in the case of Cu/TiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation of decane on Cu/TiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZrO{sub 2} is inhibited by SO{sub 2} at low temperatures, but remains close to 100% in presence or absence of SO{sub 2} on Cu/TiO{sub 2} above 600K. In the case of Cu/ZrO{sub 2} the addition Of SO{sub 2} increases the rate of oxidation above 640 K The positive effect of SO{sub 2} on deNOx is attributed to the promotion of a bifunctional mechanism in presence of strong acid sites.

  16. Assessment of the UV camera sulfur dioxide retrieval for point source plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, M.P.; Watson, I.M.; Nadeau, P.A.; Werner, C.; Morrow, W.; Shannon, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, sensitive to specific regions of the ultra-violet (UV) spectrum, have been employed for quantifying sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in recent years. The instruments make use of the selective absorption of UV light by SO2 molecules to determine pathlength concentration. Many monitoring advantages are gained by using this technique, but the accuracy and limitations have not been thoroughly investigated. The effect of some user-controlled parameters, including image exposure duration, the diameter of the lens aperture, the frequency of calibration cell imaging, and the use of the single or paired bandpass filters, have not yet been addressed. In order to clarify methodological consequences and quantify accuracy, laboratory and field experiments were conducted. Images were collected of calibration cells under varying observational conditions, and our conclusions provide guidance for enhanced image collection. Results indicate that the calibration cell response is reliably linear below 1500 ppm m, but that the response is significantly affected by changing light conditions. Exposure durations that produced maximum image digital numbers above 32 500 counts can reduce noise in plume images. Sulfur dioxide retrieval results from a coal-fired power plant plume were compared to direct sampling measurements and the results indicate that the accuracy of the UV camera retrieval method is within the range of current spectrometric methods. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of metaproterenol sulfate on mild asthmatics' response to sulfur dioxide exposure and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Avol, E.L.; Shamoo, D.A.; Peng, R.C.; Spier, C.E.; Smith, M.N.; Hackney, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Twenty asthmatic volunteers, most with mild disease, underwent dose-response studies with sulfur dioxide (SO2) under three pretreatment conditions: (1) drug (metaproterenol sulfate in aerosolized saline solution), (2) placebo (aerosolized saline only), and (3) no pretreatment. Sulfur dioxide exposure concentrations were 0.0, 0.3, and 0.6 ppm. Experimental conditions were presented in random order at 1-wk intervals. Exposures lasted 10 min with heavy continuous exercise. Lung function was measured at baseline, after pretreatment (immediately pre-exposure), immediately post-exposure, and during a 2-hr follow-up. Subjects could elect to take bronchodilators during follow-up. Symptoms were monitored before, during, and for 1 wk after exposure. With no pretreatment, subjects exhibited typical exercise-induced bronchospasm at 0.0 ppm, slightly increased responses at 0.3 ppm, and more marked increases at 0.6 ppm. Seven subjects took bronchodilator after 0.6-ppm exposures, compared to 2 at lower concentrations. Within 30 min post-exposure, most subjects' symptoms and lung function had returned to near pre-exposure levels. A similar sequence was observed when subjects received placebo. Drug pretreatment improved lung function relative to baseline, prevented bronchoconstrictive responses at 0.0 and 0.3 ppm, and greatly mitigated responses at 0.6 ppm. Thus, typical bronchodilator usage by asthmatics is likely to reduce their response to ambient SO2 pollution.

  18. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Mahesh; Oro, Inês; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD) trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables) in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v)/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v)/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v)/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20–32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v) or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence. PMID:26107389

  19. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1980 PROFICIENCY SURVEY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on authority granted by provisions of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C 7410, et seq.), the Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC administers periodic surveys of analytical proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitroge...

  20. Trend analysis of monthly sulfur dioxide emissions in the conterminous United States, 1975-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great Plains States, in several New England States, and in Georgia; and no trends frequently occurring in proximity to the upward trending emissions in the Plains States. A time-series decomposition of the monthly values indicates that one distinct emissions pattern commonly occurred through the period of record. This pattern is characterized by an initial emissions increase that peaks between 1977 and 1978, followed by a shallow and undulating decrease though the end of 1984. It is suggested that this signature represents the 'national' trend for the period. In addition, five regions of coherent sulfur dioxide emissions behavior are defined on the basis of seasonal occurrence of maximum and minimum emission loadings. A winter-summer, latitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions maxima, whereas an equinox-summer, longitudinal opposition is apparent in the timing of emissions minima.Trends in monthly sulfur dioxide emissions for the 48 conterminous United States during the decade 1975-1984 are identified using a robust nonparametric procedure. Statistically significant downward trends are indicated in 32 States, upward trends appear in 10 States, and no significant trend is apparent in six States. Geographically, a distinct regional pattern of emission increases and decreases is evident with declines dominating the Eastern and Western States; increases aligning longitudinally from border to border in most of the Great

  1. Limestone treatment for sulfur dioxide removal. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of limestone for the control of sulfur dioxide emmisions in flue gases. The various designs for flue gas desulfurization are discussed, including dry fluidized beds and wet scrubbers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. SULFUR DIOXIDE-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED FOR SHORT DURATIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS: A SELECTED REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to 1980, essentially no health related effects had been observed for short-term ( < 1 hr) exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels similar to those found in the ambient environment (= or < 1 ppm). In 1980 and 81, the results from several studies indicated that asthmatics' a...

  3. Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

  4. Effect of sulfur dioxide fumigation on survival of foodborne pathogens on table grapes under standard storage temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Thompson inoculated on freshly-harvested table grapes under standard cold storage with initial and weekly sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation. L. monocytogenes and S. enterica Thompson were much more...

  5. Developing an Alternative to Sulfur Dioxide for Maintaining Quality and Reducing Decay of Table Grapes during Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decay and rachis browning are major problems that limit the shelf life of fresh table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and are often controlled by the application of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to maintain quality. However, SO2 is dangerous to people who are allergic to sulfites and its application has been rest...

  6. UTILIZATION OF A RESPONSE-SURFACE TECHNIQUE IN THE STUDY OF PLANT RESPONSES TO OZONE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A second order rotatable design was used to obtain polynomial equations describing the effects of combinations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) on foliar injury and plant growth. The response surfaces derived from these equations were displayed as contour or isometric (3-di...

  7. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  8. FLUX DETERMINATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN THE EXPOSURE OF RED SPRUCE TO GASEOUS HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, OZONE, AND SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on the 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. ozone, and sulfur dioxide. he exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H2O2, O3, and SO2 that have been observed du...

  9. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  10. NiO/CeO2-ZnO nano-catalysts for direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Dong Baek; Jang, Boknam; Song, In Kyu

    2014-11-01

    XNiO/CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) (X = 0, 1, 5, 10, and 15) nano-catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method with a variation of NiO content (X, wt%). The prepared catalysts were then applied to the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. Successful formation of XNiO/CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) nano-catalysts was confirmed by XRD and ICP-AES analyses. Acidity and basicity of XNiO/CeO2-ZnO were measured by NH3-TPD (temperature-programmed desorption) and CO2-TPD experiments, respectively, with an aim of elucidating the effect of acidity and basicity of the catalysts on the catalytic performance in the reaction. It was revealed that the catalytic activity of XNiO/CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) was closely related to both acidity and basicity of the catalysts. The amount of dimethyl carbonate produced over XNiO/CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) increased with increasing acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Thus, both acidity and basicity of the catalysts played important roles in determining the catalytic performance in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. PMID:25958586

  11. Direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide over CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Hyuk; Joe, Wangrae; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Mieock; Kim, Dong Baek; Jang, Boknam; Song, In Kyu

    2013-12-01

    CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) (X = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.0) nano-catalysts were prepared by a co-precipitation method with a variation of CeO2 content (X, mol%), and they were applied to the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. Successful formation of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts was well confirmed by XRD analysis. The amount of DMC produced over CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) catalysts exhibited a volcano-shaped curve with respect to CeO2 content. Acidity and basicity of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts were measured by NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD experiments, respectively, to elucidate the effect of acidity and basicity on the catalytic performance in the reaction. It was revealed that the catalytic performance of CeO2(X)-ZnO(1-X) nano-catalysts was closely related to the acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Amount of dimethyl carbonate increased with increasing both acidity and basicity of the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, CeO2(0.7)-ZnO(0.3) with the largest acidity and basicity showed the best catalytic performance in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. PMID:24266202

  12. Improving volcanic sulfur dioxide cloud dispersal forecasts by progressive assimilation of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, Marie; Clarisse, Lieven; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2014-04-01

    Forecasting the dispersal of volcanic clouds during an eruption is of primary importance, especially for ensuring aviation safety. As volcanic emissions are characterized by rapid variations of emission rate and height, the (generally) high level of uncertainty in the emission parameters represents a critical issue that limits the robustness of volcanic cloud dispersal forecasts. An inverse modeling scheme, combining satellite observations of the volcanic cloud with a regional chemistry-transport model, allows reconstructing this source term at high temporal resolution. We demonstrate here how a progressive assimilation of freshly acquired satellite observations, via such an inverse modeling procedure, allows for delivering robust sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud dispersal forecasts during the eruption. This approach provides a computationally cheap estimate of the expected location and mass loading of volcanic clouds, including the identification of SO2-rich parts.

  13. Benzothiazole Sulfinate: a Water-Soluble and Slow-Releasing Sulfur Dioxide Donor.

    PubMed

    Day, Jacob J; Yang, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei; Pacheco, Armando; Xian, Ming

    2016-06-17

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has long been considered a toxic environmental pollutant and byproduct of industrial processing. Recently it has become evident that SO2 may also have regulatory functions in mammalian pulmonary systems. However, the study of these effects has proven to be challenging due to the difficulty in administering SO2 in a reliable manner. In this work, we report the discovery of a new pH-dependent and water-soluble SO2 donor, benzothiazole sulfinate (BTS). We have found BTS to have slow and sustained SO2 release at physiological pH. Additionally, we have explored its vasorelaxation properties as compared to the authentic SO2 gas solutions. The slow release of BTS should make it a useful tool for the study of endogenously generated SO2. PMID:27031093

  14. The impact of sulfur dioxide on plant sexual reproduction: in vivo and in vitro effects compared

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.; Murdy, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In Lepidium virginicum L., exposure of pollen to 0.6 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 4 h reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control, whereas exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 2, 4, and 8 h during flowering reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but did not affect seed set.An interaction between SO/sub 2/ and water may have caused the inhibition of pollen germination in a liquid culture medium, as well as on the moist surface of an intact stigma. However, the results suggest that the use of pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in vitro to asses the direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on plant sexual reproduction in vivo is not valid.

  15. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

  16. The importance of ozone in the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in nonurban tropospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, H. G.

    1982-01-01

    In studies of the various possible mechanisms which contribute to the conversion of atmospheric sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, oxidation within the aqueous, droplet phase of tropospheric clouds has been identified as a major contributor. It has appeared that possibly much of this oxidation is by hydrogen peroxide, with the contribution from ozone being only minimal. The present investigation is concerned with the relative importance of O3 and H2O2 oxidation as a function of pH. The results of a new experimental study of the O3-S(IV) reaction in aqueous solution are presented, and potential S(IV) oxidation rates by O3 in cloud water are compared with those predicted for H2O2. The investigation indicates the potential importance of O3 as a contributor to the overall oxidative conversion of SO2 within typical nonpolluted tropospheric clouds.

  17. The effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorine dioxide in the clinical reduction of volatile sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Soares, Leo Guimaraes; Guaitolini, Roberto Luiz; Weyne, Sergio de Carvalho; Falabella, Marcio Eduardo Vieira; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto; da Silva, Denise Gomes

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate the clinical effect of a mouthrinse containing 0.3% chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in reducing oral volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Halitosis was induced by L-cysteine in 11 volunteers, and 4 solutions were compared: a test solution containing 0.3% ClO2, 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 0.05% sodium fluoride; a placebo; a solution containing 0.05% CPC; and a control solution of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX). VSC levels were assessed using a Halimeter, and 6 measurements were made from baseline to 3 hours postrinse. The VSC reduction rate of the test mouthrinse was superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. There was no difference between the test solution and the CHX solution in VSC reduction rates immediately postrinse, or at 2 and 3 hours postrinse; both solutions were statistically superior to the placebo and the CPC solution. PMID:23823344

  18. Sulfur dioxide retrievals from OMI and GOME-2 in preparation of TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; van Gent, Jeroen; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) will be launched in 2016 onboard the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) platform and will provide global observations of atmospheric trace gases, with unprecedented spatial resolution. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from S5P will significantly improve the current capabilities for anthropogenic and volcanic emissions monitoring, and will extend the long-term datasets from past and existing UV sensors (TOMS, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). This work presents the SO2 retrieval schemes performed at BIRA-IASB as part of level-2 algorithm prototyping activities for S5P and tested on OMI and GOME-2. With a focus on anthropogenic sources, we show comparisons between OMI and GOME-2 as well as ground-based measurements, and discuss the possible reasons for the differences.

  19. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P < 0.01). In the meantime, more than 90% of hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P < 0.01). Those disappeared hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications. PMID:25404540

  20. Bacterial Synthesis of Unusual Sulfonamide and Sulfone Antibiotics by Flavoenzyme-Mediated Sulfur Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Martin; Ding, Ling; Willing, Karsten; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Sulfa drugs, such as sulfonilamide and dapsone, are classical antibiotics that have been in clinical use worldwide. Despite the relatively simple architectures, practically no natural products are known to feature such aromatic sulfonamide or diarylsulfone substructures. We report the unexpected discovery of three fully unprecedented, sulfonyl-bridged alkaloid dimers (sulfadixiamycins A-C) from recombinant Streptomyces species harboring the entire xiamycin biosynthesis gene cluster. Sulfadixiamycins exhibit moderate antimycobacterial activities and potent antibiotic activities even against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Gene inactivation, complementation, and biotransformation experiments revealed that a flavin-dependent enzyme (XiaH) plays a key role in sulfadixiamycin biosynthesis. XiaH mediates a radical-based, three-component reaction involving two equivalents of xiamycin and sulfur dioxide, which is reminiscent of radical styrene/SO2 copolymerization. PMID:26366473

  1. Chemical transformations and disproportionation of sulfur dioxide on transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kubas, G.J.

    1994-07-01

    Aside from its renown as a source of acid precipitation, sulfur dioxide is remarkable in possessing physicochemical and coordination properties that are more diverse than those of any other small molecule. SO{sub 2} is amphoteric, behaving as a Lewis acid or base, mild oxidant or reductant, or oxygen donor or acceptor. It is an excellent nonaqueous solvent when liquefied at -10{degrees}C and coordinates to many types of compounds, including metal complexes at both metal and ligand sites, strong Lewis acids, and virtually all nucleophiles, even halide ion. SO{sub 2} can bind strongly to low-valent metals like CO or NO or completely reversibly like O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The diversity of metal-SO{sub 2} bonding geometries is unmatched and has been reviewed. This Account will focus on the reactivity of SO{sub 2} e.g. SO double bond cleavage. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  3. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  4. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures on forest vegetation of the southern Sierra Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O.C.; Miller, P.R.; Page, A.L.; Lund, L.J.

    1986-03-01

    In 1981 and 1982, a multidisciplinary study was conducted within a 32-mile zone from Oildale, CA eastward to points in the southern Sierra Nevada. Concentrations of sulfur in pine needles and lichens along transects tended to decrease with increasing elevation. Stable isotope ratios in soils and plant tissue ran counter to expectations because natural isotopic composition at greater distances is similiar to the source area. Recently germinated pine seedlings exposed to ozone and sulfur dioxide mixtures showed significant differences in root dry weight, suggesting that pollutant mixtures may affect seedling establishment. Surveys of the study area showed increased ozone damage to pines between 1977 and 1981. Sulfur dioxide did not appear to be acting jointly with ozone to cause existing injury.

  5. Effects of sulfur dioxide and ozone on yield and quality of potatoes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pell, E.J.; Pearson, N.S.; Vinten-Johansen, C.; McGruer, G.; Yang, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop an outdoor fumigation facility designed to expose plants to ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and to conduct experiments that would examine the impact of the two gases alone and in combination on field grown potato plants. Two systems of dispensing and monitoring pollutants were contrasted, one using miniature solenoid valves and the other using critical orifices. Both systems provided excellent pollutant control. The orifices were relatively inexpensive and required less maintenance than did the solenoid valve system. Two field experiments were conducted, one in 1985 and and the other in 1986. Potato plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air, nonfiltered air, nonfiltered air supplemented with O3 at levels which resulted in 1.33, 1.66 or 1.99 times ambient O3 concentrations or charcoal filtered air plus 0.14, 0.28 or 0.56 ppM SO2. There were additional treatments combining the two pollutant regimes. Ozone induced a linear reduction in yield reflected by decreases in weight and number of tubers > 6.35 cm in diameter. In general effects on number and weight of smaller tubers were not detected. Ozone also induced a decrease in the percent dry matter and reducing sugar content of potato tubers. Sulfur dioxide affected number of Grade One tubers in both years and percent dry matter and sucrose content in 1986 only. While dose-response curves for all SO2 effects fit quadratic curves the impact of SO2 doses used in these experiments were stimulatory. No important interactions were observed between O3 and SO2. 36 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Ozone and sulfur dioxide effects on tall fescue. II. Alteration of quality constituents. [Festuca arundinacea

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Youngner, V.B.

    1985-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine whether ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) might alter forage quality parameters of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Alta). Plants were exposed weekly to four O/sub 3/ treatments, 0, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 ..mu..L L/sup -1/; with or without 0.10 ..mu..L L/sup -1/ SO/sub 2/, 6 h d/sup -1/ for 12 weeks. Ozone had a much greater impact on forage quality than did SO/sub 2/. Ozone increased protein content on a g kg/sup -1/ basis and decreased protein on a weight per plant basis. Ozone reduced crude fat, crude fiber, and total nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the forage. Crude ash content increased due to O/sub 3/ exposure. On a weight per plant basis, O/sub 3/ decreased the forage concentration of Ca, Mg, and P. Ozone increased Ca concentration of herbage. Sulfur dioxide increased ash content of the forage. Phosphorus concentration and weight per plant of Mg and P were all reduced by SO/sub 2/ Significant pollutant interactions occurred for crude fiber, crude ash, total Mg, and total P contents of forage. While treatments resulted in some apparent increases in forage quality, these were at the expense of yield. The most adverse effects on forage quality were an increase in ash content which resulted from an interaction of SO/sub 2/ with O/sub 3/, and a reduction in soluble carbohydrate content of shoots due to O/sub 3/.

  7. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  8. Improvements and Validation of Sulfur Dioxide Retrievals from Aura/OMI Observations of Anthropogenic Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, C.

    2011-12-01

    Both natural and anthropogenic sources can release the trace gas, sulfur dioxide (SO2), into the atmosphere, in which it is usually oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, affecting the environment and climate. The largest contributions to the total annual sulfur budget are anthropogenic emissions from combustions of fossil fuels and smelting of metal ores. While these sources emit SO2 into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions, the pollutants are sometimes lifted into the free troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. It is therefore important to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. This can be accomplished with satellite UV remote sensing, as exemplified by the SO2 data derived from the global daily observations made by the Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board NASA's Aura spacecraft launched in July 2004. In this presentation, we describe the recent progress in developing an advanced algorithm to improve detection and quantification of anthropogenic SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements in China in 2005 - 2008 and during DISCOVER-AQ field experiment in Maryland in July 2011, to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

  9. Conjugated processes of the chemical transformation of sulfur dioxide under the effect of chain gas-phase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantashyan, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect sulfur dioxide has on the dynamics of the spontaneous ignition of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures is studied. Additives of SO2 have no negative effect on spontaneous ignition and undergo chemical conversion to form elemental sulfur. The results are analyzed using the theory of branched chain reactions along with data on SO2 conversion under the action of chain reactions of hydrocarbon oxidation and slow hydrogen oxidation. The transformations classified as parallel reactions from the viewpoint of formal kinetics could actually be conjugated radical-chain processes.

  10. Relating summer ambient particulate sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and light scattering to gaseous tracer emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, V A; Farber, R J

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-north-east of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur, and light scattering to evaluate whether MPP's emissions could be transported to the GCNP and then impact haze levels there. Spatial analyses indicated that particulate sulfur levels were strongly correlated across the monitoring network, regardless of whether the monitoring stations were upwind or downwind of MPP. This indicates that particulate sulfur levels in this region were influenced by distant regional emission sources. A significant particulate sulfur contribution from a point source such as MPP would result in a non-uniform pattern downwind. There was no suggestion of this in the data. Furthermore, correlations between the MPP tracer and ambient particulate sulfur and light scattering at locations in the park were virtually zero for averaging times ranging from 24 hr to 1 hr. Hour-by-hour MPP tracer levels and light scattering were individually examined, and still no positive correlations were detected. Finally, agreement between tracer and particulate sulfur did not improve as a function of meteorological regime, implying that, even during cloudy monsoon days when more rapid conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfur would be expected, there was no evidence for downwind particulate sulfur impacts. Despite the fact that MPP was a large source of SO2 and tracer, neither time series nor correlation analyses were able to detect any meaningful relationship between MPP's SO2 and tracer emission "signals" to particulate sulfur or light scattering. PMID:10842939

  11. Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Marlize Z; Smith, Mark E; Smith, Paul A; Wilkes, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    The combined synergistic effects of copper (Cu(2+)) and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) on the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) in Verdelho and Shiraz wine samples post-bottling was studied over a 12-month period. The combined treatment of Cu(2+) and SO₂ significantly increased H₂S formation in Verdelho wines samples that were not previously treated with either Cu(2+) or SO₂. The formation of H₂S produced through Cu(2+) mediated reactions was likely either: (a) directly through the interaction of SO₂ with either Cu(2+) or H₂S; or (b) indirectly through the interaction of SO₂ with other wine matrix compounds. To gain better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the significant increases in H₂S concentration in the Verdelho samples, the interaction between Cu(2+) and SO₂ was studied in a model wine matrix with and without the presence of a representative thiol quenching compound (4-methylbenzoquinone, 4MBQ). In these model studies, the importance of naturally occurring wine compounds and wine additives, such as quinones, SO₂, and metal ions, in modulating the formation of H₂S post-bottling was demonstrated. When present in equimolar concentrations a 1:1 ratio of H₂S- and SO₂-catechol adducts were produced. At wine relevant concentrations, however, only SO₂-adducts were produced, reinforcing that the competition reactions of sulfur nucleophiles, such as H₂S and SO₂, with wine matrix compounds play a critical role in modulating final H₂S concentrations in wines. PMID:27626394

  12. Investigation of the sensitivity, selectivity, and reversibility of the chemically-sensitive field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) to detect nitrogen dioxide, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and boron trifluoride. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, N.T.

    1993-09-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity, selectivity, and reversibility of a chemically-sensitive field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) gas microsensor. Various physical operating parameters were tested to determine which produced the most significant sensitivity, selectivity, and reversibility which were computed from response changes generated from electrical conductivity modulations when exposed to challenge gases. The variable operating parameters included: thinfilm material, film thickness, challenge gas specie, challenge gas concentration, and operating temperature. Copper phthalocyanine and lead phthalocyanine were used as thin films to detect the following challenge gases: nitrogen dioxide, dimethyl methylphosphonate, boron trifluoride, methanol, carbon monoxide, vinyl chloride, and trichloroethylene. Tests revealed that copper phthalocyanine was the most sensitive to dimethyl methylphosphonate and boron trifluoride, whereas lead phthalocyanine was the most sensitive to the remaining challenge gases. The CHEMFET was selective to the binary challenge gas combinations. The films were most selective for nitrogen dioxide. The CHEMFET was fully reversibly, and the time duration for full reversibility increased with increasing challenge gas concentrations and increasing time of exposure.

  13. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  14. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl2. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO2 supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO2/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO2 treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO2 significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  15. Satellite measurements oversee China’s sulfur dioxide emission reductions from coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Martin, Randall V.; Philip, Sajeev; Liu, Fei; Li, Meng; Jiang, Xujia; He, Kebin

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the real reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in China, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing SO2 columns were used to inversely model the SO2 emission burdens surrounding 26 isolated power plants before and after the effective operation of their flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. An improved two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method was developed to estimate SO2 burdens under complex background conditions, by using the accurate local background columns and the customized fitting domains for each target source. The OMI-derived SO2 burdens before effective FGD operation were correlated well with the bottom-up emission estimates (R = 0.92), showing the reliability of the OMI-derived SO2 burdens as a linear indicator of the associated source strength. OMI observations indicated that the average lag time period between installation and effective operation of FGD facilities at these 26 power plants was around 2 years, and no FGD facilities have actually operated before the year 2008. The OMI estimated average SO2 removal equivalence (56.0%) was substantially lower than the official report (74.6%) for these 26 power plants. Therefore, it has been concluded that the real reductions of SO2 emissions in China associated with the FGD facilities at coal-fired power plants were considerably diminished in the context of the current weak supervision measures.

  16. Influence of relative humidity on direct sulfur dioxide damage to plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Murdy, W.H.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1980-07-01

    Results of in vivo experiments with Geranium carolinianum L. showed that sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) damaged sexual reproduction (in terms of decreased seed set) when relative humdity (RH) was 80% or above but not when RH was 70% or below. Relative humidity alone, if 80% or higher, damaged sexual reproduction; the addition of SO/sub 2/ increased the damage. A high SO/sub 2/ dosage of 1.5 ppM/7 hours at 50% RH caused leaf injury, but decreased percent seed set <5%, whereas a low SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.2 ppM/7 hours at 90% RH decreased percent seed set by 32% without visible leaf injury. At an SO/sub 2/ dosage of 0.4 ppM/7 hours administered during anthesis, percent seed set was virtually identical with the control at 70% RH, 35% below the control at 80% RH, and 68% below the control at 90% RH.

  17. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO/sub 2/, but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO/sub 2/ on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO/sub 2/, at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO/sub 2/ on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO/sub 2/ on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid.

  18. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  19. Time course of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, J.D.; Linn, W.S.; Bailey, R.M.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.

    1984-08-01

    Young adult asthmatic volunteers (N = 17) were exposed to 0.75 ppM sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 3-hr periods, exercising vigorously for the first 10 min and resting thereafter. Specific airway resistance (SR/sub aw/) and symptoms were recorded preexposure, immediately postexercise, and after 1, 2, and 3 hr of exposure. Symptoms and SR/sub aw/ were significantly increased after exercise, relative to preexposure measurements. Group mean SR/sub aw/ and symptom increases were no longer significant at 1 hr. In a few individuals, effects may have persisted for 2 hr or more. On separate occasions, comparable exposures were conducted, and forced expiratory spirometry was performed preexposure and postexercise, in addition to the other tests. Inclusion of spirometry did no significantly affect the other results. Spirometry and SR/sub aw/ showed nearly equal significance in changes postexercise. Thus, in general, asthmatics bronchoconstriction induced by exercise in SO/sub 2/ seems to reverse quickly with rest, even if SO/sub 2/ exposure continues. Spirometry may be useful for studying pollution-induced bronchoconstriction when SR/sub aw/ measurements are impractical.

  20. Continuous measurement of particulate and sulfur dioxide concentrations in Junk Bay, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, T. Steven

    As part of an environmental impact assessment for building a new town in Junk Bay, continuous measurement of SO 2 and particulate concentrations was carried out from October 1981 to June 1982 at three sites in Junk Bay to study the air quality in the area. Flame photometric SO 2 analyzers were used to measure ambient SO 2 level, whereas tape monitors were used to measure the ambient suspended particulate level (in terms of soiling index, or coefficient of haze per 1000 feet). It was found that the mean SO 2 concentrations at the three monitoring sites ranged from 5μg m -3 to 35μg m -3. Maximum daily values up to about 250 μg m -3 and hourly values up to 800 μg m -3 had been recorded on occasion. Comparison of the hourly meteorological data and the hourly SO 2 concentrations in four high-SO 2-level days suggested that the 'sulfur dioxide episodes' were all associated with very light wind speeds and local sources. The mean coefficient of haze level in Junk Bay was less than one, which corresponded to very slight particulate pollution.

  1. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Balya, D R

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride. PMID:1927909

  2. Ion chromatographic measurement of fluoride and sulfur dioxide in samples collected at aluminum smelters

    SciTech Connect

    Balya, D.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Measurement of airborne fluoride and sulfur dioxide in aluminum smelting plants is important for both industrial hygiene and environmental reasons. The traditional analytical techniques employed have been ion-selective electrodes (ISE) for fluoride and barium/thorin titration for SO2. In this study, ion chromatography (IC) was evaluated as a substitute for these two techniques. Dust for particulate fluoride was collected on membrane filters with carbonate-treated backup pads to collect HF and SO2. Gaseous fluoride and SO2 were ultrasonically extracted from the treated pad, but particulate fluoride required a borate/carbonate fusion. Collection efficiency and recovery of the analytes, along with the acceptable working ranges and instrument conditions used with IC, are discussed. IC is a desirable substitute for the electrode and titration methods because it is easily automated and the two determinations may be performed simultaneously. Organic compounds may cause interference in low-level fluoride measurement. Comparison of the techniques for field samples indicates that IC is an adequate substitute for the traditional measurement methods for full-shift samples of fluoride.

  3. Core localization and {sigma}* delocalization in the O 1s core-excited sulfur dioxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Andreas; Kivimaeki, Antti; Sorensen, Stacey L.; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Burmeister, Florian; Naves de Brito, Arnaldo

    2008-03-21

    Electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements of sulfur dioxide at discrete resonances near the O 1s ionization edge are reported. The spectra are analyzed using a model based upon molecular symmetry and on the geometry of the molecule. We find clear evidence for molecular alignment that can be ascribed to symmetry properties of the ground and core-excited states. Configuration interaction (CI) calculations indicate geometry changes in accord with the measured spectra. For the SO{sub 2} molecule, however, we find that the localized core hole does not produce measurable evidence for valence localization, since the transition dipole moment is not parallel to a breaking {sigma}* O-S bond, in contrast to the case of ozone. The dissociation behavior based upon the CI calculations using symmetry-broken orbitals while fixing a localized core-hole site is found to be nearly equivalent to that using symmetry-adapted orbitals. This implies that the core-localization effect is not strong enough to localize the {sigma}* valence orbital.

  4. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). A compilation of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 1997 is available as Open-File Report 98-462 (Elias and others, 1998) and on the web at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/products/OF98462/. The purpose of this report is to update the existing database through 2001. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (fig. 1), as described in previous reports (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). These two distinct sources are quantified independently. The summit and east rift zone emission rates reported here were derived using vehicle-based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements as described in Elias and others (1998). In 1998 and 1999, these measurements were augmented with airborne and tripod-based surveys.

  5. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1979-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the volcano. Beginning in 1983, the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu`u `O`o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.

  6. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  7. Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Beth L

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

  8. The pollution status of sulfur dioxide in major urban areas of Korea between 1989 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    The pollution status of sulfur dioxide was analyzed using the datasets collected from seven major cities in Korea for the period of 1989-2010. Although there were moderate differences in SO2 levels between the cities, the temporal trends were seen to be rather distinctive between seasons or across the years. The SO2 levels consistently exhibited relative dominance during winter due to the combined effects of domestic heating and meteorological conditions. In contrast, the annual datasets underwent an abrupt decrease until the late 90s. As such, if the data are divided into two periods I (1989-1999) and II (2000-2010), the mean values were reduced considerably from a few tens of ppb (period I) to a few ppb levels (period II). This notable change is suspected to reflect the effect of gradual shift in fuel consumption patterns (e.g., from conventional fuels to cleaner renewal sources of energy). The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that emissions of SO2 are affected by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. According to the health risk assessment, the SO2 exposure to infants and adults should have decreased significantly from period I to period II (e.g., by 5-7 times).

  9. Analysis of airway secretions in a model of sulfur dioxide induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Ulrich; Staats, Petra; Fehmann, Hans-Christoph; Fischer, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Groneberg, David A

    2006-01-01

    Hypersecretion and chronic phlegm are major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but animal models of COPD with a defined functional hypersecretion have not been established so far. To identify an animal model of combined morphological signs of airway inflammation and functional hypersecretion, rats were continuously exposed to different levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2, 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 80 ppm) for 3 (short-term) or 20–25 (long-term) days. Histology revealed a dose-dependent increase in edema formation and inflammatory cell infiltration in short-term-exposed animals. The submucosal edema was replaced by fibrosis after long-term-exposure. The basal secretory activity was only significantly increased in the 20 ppm group. Also, stimulated secretion was significantly increased only after exposure to 20 ppm. BrdU-assays and AgNOR-analysis demonstrated cellular metaplasia and glandular hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia as the underlying morphological correlate of the hypersecretion. In summary, SO2-exposure can lead to characteristic airway remodeling and changes in mucus secretion in rats. As only long-term exposure to 20 ppm leads to a combination of hypersecretion and airway inflammation, only this mode of exposure should be used to mimic human COPD. Concentrations less or higher than 20 ppm or short term exposure do not induce the respiratory symptom of hypersecretion. The present model may be used to characterize the effects of new compounds on mucus secretion in the background of experimental COPD. PMID:16759388

  10. Detecting sulfur dioxide stress in red maple foliage by changes in membrane permeability and ethylene evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, J.H. ); Roberts, B.R.; Schnipke, V.M.

    1989-04-01

    Two-yr-old seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) pollution at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 ppm 8 hr daily for two 3-day periods spaced 3 days apart. Alterations in membrane permeability caused by SO{sub 2} stress were measured by electrolyte leakage of incubated leaf discs, and changes in ethylene biosynthesis were determined by gas chromatography using intact leaves. Ethylene increased 62% as SO{sub 2} concentration changed from 0 to 0.5 ppm, suggesting that ethylene may be a useful indicator for determining the onset of acute SO{sub 2} stress in maple. Membrane permeability was not as sensitive to the onset of SO{sub 2} stress but exhibited incremental changes associated with increasing levels of SO{sub 2}. These data suggest that membrane permeability may serve as a useful index for monitoring changes caused by SO{sub 2} at the cellular level.

  11. Adsorption and reaction of sulfur dioxide on alumina and sodium-impregnated alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; Sheinker, V.N.; White, M.G.

    1996-05-02

    The adsorption and oxidation of SO{sub 2} on alumina and sodium-impregnated alumina has been examined using thermogravimetric analysis and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Sulfur dioxide chemisorbs initially at basic sites to form an adsorbed sulfite, which is quantitatively converted to sulfate on oxidation. It has been observed that at low coverages, nearly 2.6 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}, sodium acts as a promoter for the formation of an adsorbed sulfite and sulfate which have structures similar to those of aluminum sulfite and sulfate, respectively. At higher sodium loadings, a second type of adsorbed SO{sub 2} is formed, similar to sodium sulfite and sulfate. The species with the aluminum sulfate structure appears to be more easily decomposed than does the sodium sulfate species and accounts for the regenerable adsorption capacity. Formation of the sodium sulfate species appears to account for the loss of adsorption capacity as the number of adsorption/regeneration cycles increases. Oxidation of the sulfite form to the sulfate form can occur in the absence of added oxygen, but it is an activated process and begins to occur in measurable amounts at temperatures between 150 and 300{degree}C. Partitioning of adsorbed SO{sub 2} between aluminum and sodium forms is not a function of temperature and depends on only sodium loading. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas using the sludge sodium humate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m(3)/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g(-1) SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  13. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  14. Exploring the Capabilities of Satellite Observation of Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) in the Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; He, H.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as fuel combustion, oil refining, and metal smelting, emit sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL), leading to air quality degradation near the source regions. SO2 in the air is oxidized to form sulfate aerosols, which may have a significant impact on regional air quality and climate. Sulfate aerosols are usually removed from the atmosphere through acid deposition, which can damage the environment and ecosystems. SO2 and sulfate aerosols are sometimes lifted into the middle or upper troposphere and subsequently transported over long distances, affecting remote regions. Space-borne UV instruments, such as Aura/OMI, MetOp/GOME-2, and NPP/OMPS, provide a unique perspective on the spatial and temporal distribution of SO2 over the globe. In this presentation, we will describe the recent advances in retrieval algorithm that provide improved detection and quantification of PBL SO2, and compare the new retrievals with the operational OMI SO2 products to show significant reduction in noise and bias. We will also present validation results obtained by the comparisons with co-located in-situ aircraft measurements to illustrate improved accuracy achieved with the advanced algorithm.

  15. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Inhibits Vascular Calcification in Association with the TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenzhen; Huang, Yaqian; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO₂) plays a role in vascular calcification (VC) in rats and its possible mechanisms. In vivo medial vascular calcification was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine for four weeks. In vitro calcification of cultured A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was induced by calcifying media containing 5 mmol/L CaCl₂. Aortic smooth muscle (SM) α-actin, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and Smad expression was measured. VC rats showed dispersed calcified nodules among the elastic fibers in calcified aorta with increased aortic calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. SM α-actin was markedly decreased, but the osteochondrogenic marker Runx2 concomitantly increased and TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated, in association with the downregulated SO₂/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway. However, SO₂ supplementation successfully ameliorated vascular calcification, and increased SM α-actin expression, but inhibited Runx2 and TGF-β/Smad expression. In calcified A7r5 VSMCs, the endogenous SO₂/AAT pathway was significantly downregulated. SO₂ treatment reduced the calcium deposits, calcium content, ALP activity and Runx2 expression and downregulated the TGF-β/Smad pathway in A7r5 cells but increased SM α-actin expression. In brief, SO₂ significantly ameliorated vascular calcification in association with downregulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. PMID:26907267

  16. Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries. Technical report, Jan 89-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  17. Genotoxicity of hydrated sulfur dioxide on root tips of Allium sativum and Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huilan; Meng, Ziqiang

    2003-05-01

    Genotoxicity of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and its hydrates (bisulfite and sulfite) in human lymphocytes and other mammalian cells have been found earlier in our laboratory. In the present studies, we used Allium stavium and Vicia faba cytogenetic tests, which are the highly sensitive and simple plant bioassays. A mixture of sodium bisulfite and sodium sulfite (1:3), at various concentrations from 1 x 10(-4) to 2 x 10(-3)M was used for the treatment. Genotoxicity was expressed in terms of anaphase aberration (AA) frequencies in the Vicia-AA test and in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequencies in both Vicia-MCN test and Alllium-MCN test. On average, the results showed a 1.7-3.9-fold increase of AA frequencies and a 3.5-4.5-fold increase of MCN frequencies in Vicia root tips as compared with the negative control. Similarly, results of Allium-MCN test also showed a significant increase in MCN frequencies in the treated samples. In addition, pycnotic cells (PNC) appeared in Allium root tips of treated groups. The frequencies of MCN, AA and PNC increased dose-dependently and the cell cycle delayed at the same time in bisulfite treated samples. Results of the present study suggest that the Vicia and Allium cytogenetic bioassays are efficient, simple and reproducible in genotoxicity studies of bisulfite. PMID:12742512

  18. Using pollution roses to assess sulfur dioxide impacts in a township downwind of a petrochemical complex.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-06-01

    This study used pollution roses to assess sulfur dioxide (SO) pollution in a township downwind of a large petrochemical complex based on data collected from a single air quality monitoring station. The pollution roses summarized hourly SO2 concentrations at the Taishi air quality monitoring station, located approximately 7.8-13.0 km south of the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex in Taiwan, according to 36 sectors of wind direction during the preoperational period (1995-1999) and two postoperational periods (2000-2004 and 2005-2009). The 99th percentile of hourly SO2 concentrations 350 degrees downwind from the complex increased from 28.9 ppb in the preoperational period to 86.2-324.2 ppb in the two postoperational periods. Downwind SO2 concentrations were particularly high during 2005-2009 at wind speeds of 6-8 m/sec. Hourly SO2 levels exceeded the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health-based standard of 75 ppb only in the postoperational periods, with 65 exceedances from 0-10 degrees and 330-350 degrees downwind directions during 2001-2009. This study concluded that pollution roses based on a single monitoring station can be used to investigate source contributions to air pollution surrounding industrial complexes, and that it is useful to combine such directional methods with analyses of how pollution varies between different wind speeds, times of day, and periods of industrial development. PMID:23858996

  19. Evaluation of some regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for flue gas desulfurization. [Diethylenetriamine, ethylenediamine, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Schwartz, C.H.; Wildman, D.J.; Gasior, S.J.

    1982-07-01

    The vapor pressure of sulfur dioxide above aqueous solutions of citric acid (2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid), glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic acid), 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, ethylenediamine (1,2 diaminoethane), and diethylenetriamine (2,2' diaminodiethylamine), as well as above pure tri-n-butyl phosphate, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and water, were measured for temperatures from 46.2/sup 0/C to 91.1/sup 0/C for possible application to regenerable flue gas desulfurization systems. Sulfur dioxide loadings in the absorbent ranged from 3.1 x 10/sup -5/ to 5.27 x 10/sup -1/ g/g. Measurements were made in a laboratory apparatus using N/sub 2//SO/sub 2/ mixtures. Results were used to estimate the steam rate and principal costs of processes for 11 of the absorbents. For sulfur dioxide absorption followed by indirect steam stripping, a 9.75% ethylenediamine solution had the lowest steam rate. The ethylenediamine steam rate was 25% of the next lowest steam rate, which was for 100% 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. However, cost of losses of ethylenediamine vapor up the stack were excessive, indicating that a higher-boiling-point amine would be preferable.

  20. Pulmonary response to threshold levels of sulfur dioxide (1. 0 ppm) and ozone (0. 3 ppm) (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Folinsbee, L.J.; Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors exposed 22 healthy adult non-smoking men for 2 hours to either filtered air, 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide, 0.30 ppm ozone, or the combination of 1.0 ppm sulfur dioxide plus 0.30 ppm ozone. It was hypothesized that exposure to near-threshold concentrations of these pollutants would show any interaction between the two pollutants that might have been masked by the more-obvious response to the higher concentrations of ozone used in previous studies. Each subject alternated 30-minute treadmill exercise with 10-minute rest periods for the 2 hours. Following ozone exposure alone, forced expiratory measurements (FVC, FEV-1, and FEF25-75%) were significantly decreased. The combined exposure to SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ produced similar but smaller decreases in these measures. There were small but significant differences between the ozone and the ozone plus sulfur dioxide exposure for FVC, FEV-1,-2,-3, and FEF25-75% at the end of the 2-hour exposure. It was concluded that, with these pollutant concentrations, there is no additive or synergistic effect of the two pollutants on pulmonary function.

  1. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.; Williams, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  2. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1993-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2} formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  3. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  4. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    Elemental sulfur recovery from S0{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multistage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of S0{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of S0{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of S0{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for S0{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of S0{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  5. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1993-06-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650{degree}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams, The potential cost and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  6. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range (400-650{degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach cannot be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

  7. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals

  8. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream is highly attractive as it produces a salable product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plant (reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project will investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified in recent work at MIT as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400-650 {degrees}C). The detailed kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned in this work over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a very simplified process, namely that of a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. The potential cost- and energy-efficiency benefits from this approach can not be overstated. A first apparent application is treatment of a regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought {open_quotes}Claus-alternative{close_quotes} for coal-fired power plant applications.

  9. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products. PMID:19063591

  10. Effects of sulfur dioxide fumigation on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content of selected lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Beekley, P.K.; Hoffman, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Four lichens - Parmelia bolliana Mull. Arg., Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl., Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arn., and Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt - listed in order of decreasing mesophytism, were fumigated for 4 hr at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 2.5 ppm sulfur dioxide to determine the effects on photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis decreased after fumigation at 1.0 and 2.5 ppm, but significant decreases occurred only after fumigation at 2.5 ppm. Expressed on the basis of per unit weight chlorophyll content, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by that of Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana. Expressed on the basis of per unit dry weight of lichen sample, photosynthesis of Physconia grisea was most sensitive followed by Xanthoria fallax, Physcia stellaris, and Parmelia bolliana. In both cases, the more xerophytic species were more sensitive. Chlorophyll content in these species was not measurably altered by fumigation. Comparison of chlorophyll a and b absorption spectra peaks for fumigated and control samples indicated that no phaeophytinisation occurred. Insignificant and inconsistent differences in chlorophyll a/b ratios were observed. Respiration of Physcia stellaris and Parmelia bolliana decreased significantly following fumigation with 2.5 ppm SO/sub 2/; both species were more sensitive than Xanthoria fallax. Physconia grisea was not tested for respiratory response. The effects of SO/sub 2/ fumigation on measured metabolic rates differed with the species. Photosynthetic rates of the xerophytic Xanthoria fallax and Physconia gresea were more sensitive than the more mesophytic Parmelia bolliana and Physcia stellaris. In contrast, respiratory sensitivities to SO/sub 2/ fumigation were greater for P. bolliana and P. stellaris.

  11. Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: Impact of meteorological data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Rößler, T.; Griessbach, S.; Heng, Y.; Stein, O.

    2016-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from strong volcanic eruptions are an important natural cause for climate variations. We applied our new Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations to perform simulations for three case studies of volcanic eruption events. The case studies cover the eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, and Nabro, Eritrea, in May and June 2011. We used SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS/Aqua) and a backward trajectory approach to initialize the simulations. Besides validation of the new model, the main goal of our study was a comparison of simulations with different meteorological data products. We considered three reanalyses, i.e., ERA-Interim, Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Reanalysis Project as well as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis. Qualitatively, the SO2 distributions from the simulations compare well not only with the AIRS data but also with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding aerosol observations. Transport deviations and the critical success index (CSI) are analyzed to evaluate the simulations quantitatively. During the first 5 or 10 days after the eruptions we found the best performance for the ECMWF analysis (CSI range of 0.25-0.31), followed by ERA-Interim (0.25-0.29), MERRA (0.23-0.27), and NCAR/NCEP (0.21-0.23). High temporal and spatial resolution of the meteorological data does lead to improved performance of Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  12. Endogenous sulfur dioxide is a novel adipocyte-derived inflammatory inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Huang, Yaqian; Bu, Dingfang; Chen, Selena; Tang, Chaoshu; Wang, Guang; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether sulfur dioxide (SO2) could be endogenously produced in adipocyte and served as a novel adipocyte-derived inflammatory inhibitor. SO2 was detected in adipose tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT1 and AAT2) mRNA and protein expressions in adipose tissues were measured. For in vitro study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured, infected with adenovirus carrying AAT1 gene or lentivirus carrying shRNA to AAT1, and then treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We found that endogenous SO2/AAT pathway existed in adipose tissues including perivascular, perirenal, epididymal, subcutaneous and brown adipose tissue. AAT1 overexpression significantly increased SO2 production and inhibited TNF-α-induced inflammatory factors, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. By contrast, AAT1 knockdown decreased SO2 production and exacerbated TNF-α-stimulated MCP-1 and IL-8 secretion. Mechanistically, AAT1 overexpression attenuated TNF-α-induced IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation, while AAT1 knockdown aggravated TNF-α-activated NF-κB pathway, which was blocked by SO2. NF-κB inhibitors, PDTC or Bay 11-7082, abolished excessive p65 phosphorylation and adipocyte inflammation induced by AAT1 knockdown. This is the first report to suggest that endogenous SO2 is a novel adipocyte-derived inflammatory inhibitor. PMID:27246393

  13. Effects of ozone and sulfur dioxide on tuber yield and quality of potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.W.; Timm, H.; Labanauskas, C.K.; Oshima, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Air pollution injury of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) has been documented previously, but potato yield losses have not been estimated in replicated experiments having controlled exposures to ozone (O/sub 3/) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). A controlled-environment study involving the speckle-leaf-sensitive cultivar 'Centennial Russet' was conducted to examine the effects of chronic exposure to O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ on plant growth and tuber yield and quality. Ozone, at the highest seasonal dose (44.2 ppm-h), reduced leaf dry weight 48%, root dry weight 58%, tuber number 38%, and total tuber yield 45%. Lower exposures affected these parameters in linear proportion to the O/sub 3/ dose. Mean stem (minus leaves) dry weight, tuber dry weight, tuber dry matter percentage, partitioning of dry matter to tubers, and tuber sugar concentrations were not affected. Tuber N concentration increased linearly by up to 21% as the O/sub 3/ dose increased. Plants grown outside of chambers in ambient air showed effects consistent with results obtained within the chambers. The plants grown outside received a total seasonal O/sub 3/ dose of 50.4 ppm-h and produced 58% less tuber yield than filtered air control plants.Plant responses to SO/sub 2/ exposure were much less pronounced than their responses to exposure to O/sub 3/. However, leaf symptom development in O/sub 3/-treated plants was markedly intensified by the presence of SO/sub 2/. Small reductions in tuber yield and mean tuber size, but not in tuber number, were observed in SO/sub 2/-treated plants. Tuber N concentration increased slightly in SO/sub 2/-treated plants. A significant O/sub 3/ X SO/sub 2/ interaction was observed in the case of tuber N concentration only; SO/sub 2/ accentuated the O/sub 3/-induced increase in N content.

  14. Leaf nitrogen dioxide uptake coupling apoplastic chemistry, carbon/sulfur assimilation, and plant nitrogen status.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanbo; Sun, Guangyu

    2010-10-01

    Emission and plant uptake of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO + NO(2)) significantly influence regional climate change by regulating the oxidative chemistry of the lower atmosphere, species composition and the recycling of carbon and nutrients, etc. Plant uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) is concentration-dependent and species-specific, and covaries with environmental factors. An important factor determining NO(2) influx into leaves is the replenishment of the substomatal cavity. The apoplastic chemistry of the substomatal cavity plays crucial roles in NO(2) deposition rates and the tolerance to NO(2), involving the reactions between NO(2) and apoplastic antioxidants, NO(2)-responsive germin-like proteins, apoplastic acidification, and nitrite-dependent NO synthesis, etc. Moreover, leaf apoplast is a favorable site for the colonization by microbes, which disturbs nitrogen metabolism of host plants. For most plant species, NO(2) assimilation in a leaf primarily depends on the nitrate (NO(3) (-)) assimilation pathway. NO(2)-N assimilation is coupled with carbon and sulfur (sulfate and SO(2)) assimilation as indicated by the mutual needs for metabolic intermediates (or metabolites) and the NO(2)-caused changes of key metabolic enzymes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase, organic acids, and photorespiration. Moreover, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization improves the tolerance of host plants to NO(2) by enhancing the efficiency of nutrient absorption and translocation and influencing foliar chemistry. Further progress is proposed to gain a better understanding of the coordination between NO(2)-N, S and C assimilation, especially the investigation of metabolic checkpoints, and the effects of photorespiratory nitrogen cycle, diverse PEPc and the metabolites such as cysteine, O-acetylserine (OAS) and glutathione. PMID:20628880

  15. Differences in airway reactivity in normal and allergic sheep after exposure to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.M.; Oliver, W. Jr.; Welker, M.J.; King, M.M.; Wanner, A.; Sackner, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of breathing 5 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) on airway reactivity was studied in both normal and allergic conscious sheep. Allergic sheep were defined as animals in which inhalation of Axcaris suum extract resulted in bronchospasm as evidenced by an increase in mean pulmonary flow resistance (RL), hyperinflation, and a fall in dynamic compliance. Airway reactivity was assessed by measuring the increase of RL after 18 breaths of 0.25% carbachol (c), from an initial RL value obtained after 18 breaths of buffered saline (s) (RL(c-s)). RL and RL(c-s) were determined prior to, immediately after, and 24 h after exposure to 5 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 4 h. In both groups RL remained unchanged after SO/sub 2/ exposure. Prior to exposure, RL(c-s) was not significantly different in seven normal (0.3 +/- 0.1) and seven allergic sheep (0.4 +/- 0.2 (SD) cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s), and there was no significant change in RL (c-s) immediately after SO/sub 2/ exposure in either group. Twenty-four h later, RL(c-s) RL(c-s) increased to 0.7 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.2) in normal and to 1.8 +/- 0.9 cmH/sub 2/O.l/sup -1/.s (P < 0.01) in allergic sheep. Because the increase in RL(c-s) after 24 h was greater (P < 0.01) in allergic than in normal sheep, we conclude that SO/sub 2/ exposure increased airway reactivity more in the former than in the latter.

  16. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  17. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  18. Prior exposure to ozone potentiates subsequent response to sulfur dioxide in adolescent asthmatic subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.Q.; Covert, D.S.; Hanley, Q.S.; van Belle, G.; Pierson, W.E. )

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether prior exposure to a low concentration of ozone (120 ppb) would condition airways in asthmatic subjects to respond to a subthreshold concentration of sulfur dioxide (100 ppb). Eight male and five female subjects 12 to 18 yr of age participated. They all had allergic asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm. Subjects were exposed to three test atmosphere sequences during intermittent moderate exercise (a 45-min exposure to one pollutant followed by a 15-min exposure to the second pollutant). The sequences were: air followed by 100 ppb SO2, 120 ppb O3 followed by 120 ppb O3, and 120 ppb O3 followed by 100 ppb SO2. The pulmonary function measurements assessed were FEV1, total respiratory resistance (RT), and maximal flow (Vmax50). Air-SO2 and O3-O3 exposures did not cause significant changes in pulmonary function. On the other hand, exposure to 100 ppb SO2 after a 45-min exposure to 120 ppb O3 caused a significant (8%) decrease in FEV1 (p = 0.046), a significant (19%) increase in RT (p = 0.048), and a significant (15%) decrease in Vmax50 (p = 0.008). It is concluded that prior O3 exposure increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness in these subjects such that they responded to an ordinarily subthreshold concentration of SO2. These data suggest that assessment of pulmonary changes to single pollutant challenges overlooks the interactive effects of common coexisting or sequentially occurring air pollutants.

  19. Sulfur Dioxide Contributes to the Cardiac and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Wu, Meiqiong; Wang, Jiaoxia; Xu, Zhifang; Xia, Jin; Sang, Nan

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between sulfur dioxide (SO2) and an increase of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. Mitochondrion is the most sensitive organelle in myocardium of animals exposed to SO2 Here we study the molecular characterization of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac muscles of rat after SO2 exposure. We found that the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP contents, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and mRNA expression of complexes IV and V subunits encoded by mtDNA were decreased after NaHSO3 treatment in vitro or SO2 inhalation in vivo The mitochondrial dysfunctions were accompanied by depressions of co-activator of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) mRNA and protein. We observed swollen mitochondria and lower amounts of cristae in hearts of rats after 3.5 mg/m(3) SO2 inhalation for 30 days. Interestingly, NaHSO3 induced mitochondrial dysfunctions marked by ΔΨm and ATP reduction could be inhibited by an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC), accompanied by the restoration of transcriptional factors expressions. The cardiac mitochondrial dysfunctions could also be alleviated by overexpression of TFAM. SO2 induced abnormal left ventricular function was restored by NALC in vivo Our findings demonstrate that SO2 induces cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction. And inhibition of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the transcriptional network controlling mitochondrial biogenesis can mitigate the SO2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26980303

  20. Endogenous sulfur dioxide is a novel adipocyte-derived inflammatory inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Huang, Yaqian; Bu, Dingfang; Chen, Selena; Tang, Chaoshu; Wang, Guang; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether sulfur dioxide (SO2) could be endogenously produced in adipocyte and served as a novel adipocyte-derived inflammatory inhibitor. SO2 was detected in adipose tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. SO2 synthase aspartate aminotransferase (AAT1 and AAT2) mRNA and protein expressions in adipose tissues were measured. For in vitro study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured, infected with adenovirus carrying AAT1 gene or lentivirus carrying shRNA to AAT1, and then treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We found that endogenous SO2/AAT pathway existed in adipose tissues including perivascular, perirenal, epididymal, subcutaneous and brown adipose tissue. AAT1 overexpression significantly increased SO2 production and inhibited TNF-α-induced inflammatory factors, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. By contrast, AAT1 knockdown decreased SO2 production and exacerbated TNF-α-stimulated MCP-1 and IL-8 secretion. Mechanistically, AAT1 overexpression attenuated TNF-α-induced IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation, while AAT1 knockdown aggravated TNF-α-activated NF-κB pathway, which was blocked by SO2. NF-κB inhibitors, PDTC or Bay 11-7082, abolished excessive p65 phosphorylation and adipocyte inflammation induced by AAT1 knockdown. This is the first report to suggest that endogenous SO2 is a novel adipocyte-derived inflammatory inhibitor. PMID:27246393

  1. Combined nitrogen oxides/sulfur dioxide control in dry scrubber systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J. B.L.; Gorski, A. J.; Huang, H. S.

    1989-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative control concepts that involve modifying existing SO{sub 2}-removal processes and sorbents, with the objective of achieving simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Laboratory-scale research conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and a spray-dryer/fabric-filter system has been paralleled by field tests at ANL's commercial-scale (20-MW electric equivalent) dry scrubber. In the fixed-bed experiments, a range of chemical reagents was surveyed, and the best-performing additives were studied in detail. Sodium chloride, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and Fe(II)*EDTA were found to increase both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals; the additives did not appear to increase NO{sub x} removal directly, but they interacted strongly with the other primary variables to improve sorbent performance. The laboratory spray-dryer system was used to study the effects on combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} removal of the best-performing fixed-bed additives and certain process modifications. The tests showed that sodium chloride increased NO{sub x} removal at all temperatures; sodium bisulfite was generally less effective, and calcium chloride was effective only at 65{degree}C. Up to 80{degree}C, all three additives significantly improved SO{sub 2} removal, but improvement ceased at higher temperatures. This report discusses the experimental results in terms of the effects the additives and principal process variables had on NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removals and the mechanistic implications. 14 refs., 74 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. In-situ sulfur dioxide capture by flame-injected sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Y.L.

    1985-01-01

    The author has burned 52 coal-volatiles-like (doped with sulfur dioxide) float flames that simulate well the early stages of coal combustion, as well as provided good times/temperature resolution. The experimental and theoretical research program of SO/sub 2/ capture lead to the following findings. (1) Significant (20-50%) SO/sub 2/ capture occurs rapidly (2.5 milliseconds) in the early zones of coal volatiles-like flames. (2) Increasing residence time did not necessarily increase the SO/sub 2/ capture efficiency. (3) For non-precalcined sorbents, SO/sub 2/ capture was proportional to (Ca/5)/sup x/, x = 0.21-0.43. For the partly-precalcined sorbents, capture was proportional to (Ca/S)/sup y/, y = 0.60-0.77. (4) SO/sub 2/ capture doubled when N/sub 2/ replaced CO/sub 2/ as the inert component of the oxidant. (5) At lower temperatures (1279-1383 K) in CO/sub 2/-containing flames, no significant effect of equivalence ratio on SO/sub 2/ capture was observed for all sorbents. In N/sub 2/-containing flames (1369-1417 K), fuel-lean (0 = 0.8) conditions favored SO/sub 2/ capture over fuel-rich ( 0 = 1.2) conditions for all sorbents. SO/sub 2/ capture for the stoichiometric condition was randomly above, between, or below that for either fuel-lean or fuel-rich conditions. (5) For all equivalence ratios, one sorbent exhibited the most efficient capture of SO/sub 2/ because of its having the highest porosity, the smallest mean-volume diameter, some pre-calcination, and considerably high surface area. (7) SO/sub 2/ capture data from experiments could be predicted quite successfully using a modified pore tree model and by adjusting the global rate coefficient and global reaction exponent of SO/sub 2/ concentration.

  3. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  4. Foliage responses of spruce trees to long-term low-grade sulfur dioxide deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, F R; Bourque, C P; Belczewski, R F; Whitney, N J; Arp, P A

    1995-01-01

    Foliage on spruce trees (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing on dry SO(2) deposition zones (dry SO(2) deposition ranging from 0.5 and 8.5 S kg ha(-1) year(-1)) downwind from a SO(2) emission source was analyzed to assess chronic effects of long-term low-grade SO(2) deposition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, dark respiration, stomatal antechamber wax structures, elemental concentrations in and on foliage (bulk and surficial concentrations), and types of epiphytic fungi that reside in the phylloplane. Elemental distributions on stomatal antechambers, on fungal colonies, and on smooth surfaces between stomates and fungus colonies were determined with a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) by way of X-ray scanning. It was found that net photosynthesis of newly developed spruce foliage (current-year, and 1-year-old) was not significantly affected by the local SO(2) deposition rates. Sulfur dioxide deposition, however, may have contributed to the gradual decrease in net photosynthesis with increasing needle age. Dark respiration rates were significantly higher on foliage taken from high SO(2) deposition zones. Stomatal rod-web structures deteriorated to flakes with increasing needle age and increasing SO(2) deposition. Further inspection of the needle surfaces revealed an increasing abundance of fungal colonies with increasing needle age. Many fungal taxa were isolated and identified. It was found that black yeasts responded positively, and Xylohypha pinicola responded negatively to high rates of SO(2) deposition. Surficial concentrations of elements such as P, S, K, Cl, Ca were about 10 times higher on fungal colonies than on smooth needle surfaces. Surficial Ca contents on 4 or 5-year-old needles decreased with increasing SO(2) deposition, but surficial S concentrations remained the same. In contrast, bulk foliar Ca and S concentrations increased with increasing SO(2) deposition. PMID:15091479

  5. Hydrogen peroxide maintains the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on mineral dust proxy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-09-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on α-Al2O3 particles was investigated using a flow reactor coupled with a transmission-Fourier transform infrared (T-FTIR) spectrometer at different relative humidities (RH) in the absence or presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), with an emphasis on the saturation coverage of SO2 and the timescale on which the reaction reaches saturation. It is found that the saturation coverage of SO2 in the absence of H2O2 increases with rising RH due to the hydrolysis of SO2 by surface adsorbed water. However, the reaction ultimately reaches saturation since the produced sulfite/bisulfite cannot be further converted to sulfate/bisulfate in the absence of oxidants. In addition, the presence of H2O2 can significantly increase the saturation coverage of SO2 by efficiently oxidizing sulfite/bisulfite to sulfate/bisulfate. Under humid conditions, adsorbed water facilitates the hydrolysis of SO2 and mitigates the increase of surface acidity, which can inhibit the hydrolysis of SO2. Hence, in the presence of H2O2, the saturation coverage of SO2 as well as the time of reaction reaching saturation increases with rising RH and the surface is not saturated on the timescale of the experiments (40 h) at 60% RH. Furthermore, the increase of saturation coverage of SO2 in the presence of H2O2 was observed on chemically inactive SiO2 particles, indicating that the hydrolysis of SO2 and subsequent oxidation by H2O2 likely occurs on other types of particles. Our findings are of importance for understanding the role of water vapor and trace gases (e.g., H2O2) in the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 in the atmosphere.

  6. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale ensemble simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Y.; Hoffmann, L.; Griessbach, S.; Rößler, T.; Stein, O.

    2015-10-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often can not be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i. e., large-scale ensemble simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final transport simulations. The transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final transport simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. The SO2 column densities from the simulations are in good qualitative agreement with the AIRS observations. Our new inverse modeling and simulation system is expected to become a useful tool to also study other volcanic

  7. Sulfur Dioxide Plume During the Continuing Eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows the sulfur dioxide plume (in purple) originating form the summit, drifting over the city of Catania, and continuing over the Ionian Sea. ASTER's unique combination of multiple thermal infrared channels and high spatial resolution allows the determination of the thickness and position of the SO2 plume. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km.

    The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions related to volcanic activity at Asama volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwada, Michiko; Kazahaya, Kohei; Mori, Toshiya; Kazahaya, Ryunosuke; Hirabayashi, Jun-ichi; Miyashita, Makoto; Onizawa, Shin'ya; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-12-01

    A 40-year-long record of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of Asama volcano, Japan, is presented including high-temporal-resolution data since the 2004 eruption. The 2004 and 2008-2009 eruptive activities were associated with high SO2 emission, and SO2 emission rates markedly fluctuated. In contrast, stable and weak SO2 emissions have been observed for the rest of the investigated interval. The fluctuation of the SO2 emission rates is correlated with the number of shallow low-frequency B-type earthquakes, implying that increased flows of gas and/or magma induced the B-type earthquakes along the shallow conduit. The total volumes of outgassed magma during the 2004 and 2008-2009 eruptive activities are estimated to be 1.9 × 108 and 1.5 × 108 m3, respectively. These volumes are about 100-200 times larger than those of the erupted magma, indicating that the large volumes of the magma were outgassed without being erupted (i.e., excess degassing/outgassing). Degassing and outgassing driven by magma convection rather than by permeable gas flow in the conduit is concluded as the probable degassing/outgassing process of Asama volcano based on model examinations, and is thought to occur regardless of the outgassing intensity. Production rates of outgassed magma related to the 2004 and 2008-2009 eruptive periods are estimated to have been 7.4 × 103 and 6.7 × 103 kg/s, respectively. These values are one order of magnitude higher than the average production rate of 0.92 × 103 kg/s for the inactive periods. Increased supply of fresh magma is thought to activate magma convection in the conduit and to thereby increase magma degassing/outgassing.

  9. Effects of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on Phyllosphere Fungi from Three Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Mark E.; Dunn, Paul H.; Durall, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    Short-term effects of ozone (O3) on phyllosphere fungi were studied by examining fungal populations from leaves of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz) and California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.). Chronic effects of both O3 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were studied by isolating fungi from leaves of mature Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L.) trees. In this chronic-exposure experiment, mature orange trees were fumigated in open-top chambers at the University of California, Riverside, for 4 years with filtered air, ambient air plus filtered air (1:1), ambient air, or filtered air plus SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million. Populations of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler and Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries, two of the four most common fungi isolated from orange leaves, were significantly reduced by chronic exposure to ambient air. In the short-term experiments, seedlings of giant sequoia or California black oak were fumigated in open-top chambers in Sequoia National Park for 9 to 11 weeks with filtered air, ambient air, or ambient air plus O3. These short-term fumigations did not significantly affect the numbers of phyllosphere fungi. Exposure of Valencia orange trees to SO2 at 9.3 parts per hundred million for 4 years reduced the number of phyllosphere fungi isolated by 75% compared with the number from the filtered-air treatment and reduced the Simpson diversity index value from 3.3 to 2.5. A significant chamber effect was evident since leaves of giant sequoia and California black oak located outside of chambers had more phyllosphere fungi than did seedlings within chambers. Results suggest that chronic exposure to ambient ozone or SO2 in polluted areas can affect phyllosphere fungal communities, while short-term exposures may not significantly disturb phyllosphere fungi. PMID:16347849

  10. Sulfur Dioxide-Pyridine Dimer. FTIR and Theoretical Evidence for a Low-Symmetry Structure.

    PubMed

    Keller, John W

    2015-10-15

    Sulfur dioxide-pyridine complex formation was reinvestigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and computational methods. The SO2-pyridine dimer has been proposed to have a v-shaped, Cs-symmetric structure based on the microwave spectrum; however, recent research showing the occurrence of X···H-C hydrogen bonds in noncovalent complexes suggested that the structure of the complex should be re-examined. The FTIR spectrum of the dimer was obtained by numerical analysis of the spectra of pyridine-SO2 mixtures in CCl4. The spectrum showed ortho C-H stretching modes consistent with a C1-symmetric structure containing a S-O bond oriented approximately coplanar with the pyridine ring and adjacent to an ortho C-H moiety. The C1 structure, which was identified as the global minimum by various density functional theory and correlated ab initio calculations, is also consistent with the out-of-plane second moment (Pbb) value previously determined by microwave spectroscopy. The complex is converted to its mirror image via three possible Cs-symmetric transition states: v-shaped, bisected, and flat. At the M06-2X/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory, the rotational barriers (ΔG(o‡)) are 1.40, 1.87, and 3.63 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Natural bond order analysis indicated the asymmetric complex is stabilized both by N→S donation and back-donation from O to antibonding orbitals on pyridine. Atoms in molecules calculations identified a bond critical point within the O···H-C gap consistent with a normal, albeit weak, hydrogen bond. Theoretical studies also identified a high-energy sandwich-type dimer with Cs symmetry, and a C2-symmetric SO2-pyridine2 trimer. PMID:26401726

  11. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide on mercury oxidation and reduction under homogeneous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yongxin Zhao; Michael D. Mann; Edwin S. Olson; John H. Pavlish; Grant E. Dunham

    2006-05-15

    This paper is particularly related to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation and divalent mercury (Hg{sup 2+} reduction under simulated flue gas conditions in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). As a powerful oxidant and chlorinating reagent, Cl{sub 2} has the potential for Hg oxidation. However, the detailed mechanism for the interactions, especially among chlorine (Cl)-containing species, SO{sub 2}, NO, as well as H{sub 2}O, remains ambiguous. Research described in this paper therefore focused on the impacts of SO{sub 2} and NO on Hg{sup 0} oxidation and Hg{sup 2+} reduction with the intent of unraveling unrecognized interactions among Cl species, SO{sub 2}, and NO most importantly in the presence of H{sub 2}O. The experimental results demonstrated that SO{sub 2} and NO had pronounced inhibitory effects on Hg{sup 0} oxidation at high temperatures when H{sub 2}O was also present in the gas blend. Such a demonstration was further confirmed by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} back into its elemental form. Data revealed that SO{sub 2} and NO were capable of promoting homogeneous reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0} with H{sub 2}O being present. However, the above inhibition or promotion disappeared under homogeneous conditions when H{sub 2}O was removed from the gas blend. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Absorption removal of sulfur dioxide by falling water droplets in the presence of inert solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-Hung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Liu, Su-Chin; Chang, I.-Cheng; Shih, Shin-Min

    An experimental analysis of the absorption removal of sulfur dioxide by the free falling water droplets containing the inert solid particles is presented. The wheat flour powder is introduced as the inert solid particles. Tests with and without the flour powder in the water droplets are examined. The mass fluxes and mass transfer coefficients of SO 2 for the cases with and without the flour powder are compared to elucidate the effects of the inert solid particles contained in the water droplets on the gas absorption. The results indicate aignificant difference between the two cases for the concentrations of the flour powder in the absorbent droplets ( Cs) within the ranges of the experimental conditions, namely 0.1 to 10 wt% flour powder in the absorbent droplets. In general, the inert solid particles of the flour powder as the impurities in the water droplets tend to decrease the SO 2 absorption rate for the experimental absorption system under investigation. Various values of Cs cause various levels of the interfacial resistance and affect the gas absorption rate. The interfacial resistance is recognized by introducing an interfacial mass transfer coefficient ks with its reciprocal being proportional to the magnitude of the interfacial resistance. The values of 1/ ks may be computed by the use of the equation 1/ ks=(1/ KOLs-1/ KOL), where KOLs and KOL are the overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients with and without the inert solid particles, respectively. The values of ks with Cs of 0.1 to 10 wt% are about 0.295-0.032 cms -1 for absorbing 1000-3000 ppmv SO 2 with the water droplets. This kind of information is useful for the SO 2 removal and the information of acid rain that the impurities of the inert solid particles contaminate the water droplets.

  13. Advances in the Validation of Satellite-Based Maps of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Acharya, P. K.; Kennett, R.

    2013-12-01

    The monitoring of volcanic gas emissions with gas cameras, spectrometer arrays, tethersondes, and UAVs presents new opportunities for the validation of satellite-based retrievals of gas concentrations. Gas cameras and spectrometer arrays provide instantaneous observations of the gas burden, or concentration along an optical path, over broad sections of a plume, similar to the observations acquired by nadir-viewing satellites. Tethersondes and UAVs provide us with direct measurements of the vertical profiles of gas concentrations within plumes. This presentation will focus on our current efforts to validate ASTER-based maps of sulfur dioxide plumes at Turrialba and Kilauea Volcanoes (located in Costa Rica and Hawaii, respectively). These volcanoes, which are the subjects of comprehensive monitoring programs, are challenging targets for thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing due the warm and humid atmospheric conditions. The high spatial resolution of ASTER in the TIR (90 meters) allows us to map the plumes back to their source vents, but also requires us to pay close attention to the temperature and emissivity of the surfaces beneath the plumes. Our knowledge of the surface and atmospheric conditions is never perfect, and we employ interactive mapping techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To accomplish this interactive mapping we have developed the Plume Tracker tool kit, which integrates retrieval procedures, visualization tools, and a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer (RT) model under a single graphics user interface (GUI). We are in the process of porting the RT calculations to graphics processing units (GPUs) with the goal of achieving a 100-fold increase in the speed of computation relative to conventional CPU-based processing. We will report on our progress with this evolution of Plume Tracker. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  14. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-07-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual

  15. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and

  16. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of detectable sulfur-organic compounds: Ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senent, M. L.; Puzzarini, C.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.; Carvajal, M.; Hochlaf, M.

    2014-03-01

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used for the spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH232SH, ETSH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH332SCH3, DMS), considering them on the vibrational ground and excited torsional states. Since both molecules show non-rigid properties, torsional energy barriers and splittings are provided. Equilibrium geometries and the corresponding rotational constants are calculated by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and core-correlation effects. The ground and excited states rotational constants are then determined using vibrational corrections obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ force-field calculations, which are also employed to determine anharmonic frequencies for all vibrational modes. CCSD(T) and CCSD force fields are employed to predict quartic and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. Equilibrium rotational constants are also calculated using CCSD(T)-F12. The full-dimensional anharmonic analysis does not predict displacements of the lowest torsional excited states due to Fermi resonances with the remaining vibrational modes. Thus, very accurate torsional transitions are calculated by solving variationally two-dimensional Hamiltonians depending on the CH3 and SH torsional coordinates of ethyl mercaptan or on the two methyl groups torsions of dimethyl-sulfide. For this purpose, vibrationally corrected potential energy surfaces are computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For ethyl mercaptan, calculations show large differences between the gauche (g) and trans (t) conformer spectral features. Interactions between rotating groups are responsible for the displacements of the g-bands with respect to the t-bands that cannot therefore be described with one-dimensional models. For DMS, the CCSD(T) potential energy surface has been semi-empirically adjusted to reproduce experimental data. New assignments are suggested for

  17. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of detectable sulfur-organic compounds: ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Senent, M L; Puzzarini, C; Domínguez-Gómez, R; Carvajal, M; Hochlaf, M

    2014-03-28

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are used for the spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2 (32)SH, ETSH) and dimethyl sulfide (CH3 (32)SCH3, DMS), considering them on the vibrational ground and excited torsional states. Since both molecules show non-rigid properties, torsional energy barriers and splittings are provided. Equilibrium geometries and the corresponding rotational constants are calculated by means of a composite scheme based on CCSD(T) calculations that accounts for the extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and core-correlation effects. The ground and excited states rotational constants are then determined using vibrational corrections obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ force-field calculations, which are also employed to determine anharmonic frequencies for all vibrational modes. CCSD(T) and CCSD force fields are employed to predict quartic and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. Equilibrium rotational constants are also calculated using CCSD(T)-F12. The full-dimensional anharmonic analysis does not predict displacements of the lowest torsional excited states due to Fermi resonances with the remaining vibrational modes. Thus, very accurate torsional transitions are calculated by solving variationally two-dimensional Hamiltonians depending on the CH3 and SH torsional coordinates of ethyl mercaptan or on the two methyl groups torsions of dimethyl-sulfide. For this purpose, vibrationally corrected potential energy surfaces are computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For ethyl mercaptan, calculations show large differences between the gauche (g) and trans (t) conformer spectral features. Interactions between rotating groups are responsible for the displacements of the g-bands with respect to the t-bands that cannot therefore be described with one-dimensional models. For DMS, the CCSD(T) potential energy surface has been semi-empirically adjusted to reproduce experimental data. New assignments are

  18. Titanium-dioxide-grafted carbon paper with immobilized sulfur as a flexible free-standing cathode for superior lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Wei; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Titanium-dioxide-grafted carbon paper (CP@TiO2) has been synthesized by pyrolysis of tetrabutyl-titanate-treated filter paper, which is a simple, large-scale, and green method, while the product is a superior material for immobilising sulfur as a flexible free-standing electrode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The as-synthesised CP@TiO2 membrane is constructed of interlaced circuitous carbon fibers and TiO2 nanoparticles distributed on/in the void among the carbon fibers. The CP@TiO2-S membrane retains the robust and flexible structure of the CP membrane after infiltrating the sulfur, and the sulfur particles are homogeneously distributed within the CP@TiO2. As a free-standing cathode, the CP@TiO2-S membrane exhibits superior electrochemical performance than the CP-S membrane, displaying a reversible discharge capacity of 850 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 0.5C and a specific capacity of 660 mAh g-1 at 5C. The superior electrochemical performance of the CP@TiO2-S membrane is ascribed to the synergetic effect between the interlaced carbon fibers of the CP membrane, which provides electronic conduction pathways and works as mechanical support, and the TiO2 nanoparticles with relatively high surface area and pore volume, which could physically/chemically trap polysulfides. The results indicate that the CP@TiO2 membrane owns potential suitability for efficient, free-standing, and high-performance batteries.

  19. Sulfur dioxide oxidation induced mechanistic branching and particle formation during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and 2-butene.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Philip T M; Keunecke, Claudia; Krüger, Bastian C; Maaß, Mona-C; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the reaction of stabilised Criegee Intermediates (CIs) with sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), leading to the formation of a carbonyl compound and sulfur trioxide, is a relevant atmospheric source of sulfuric acid. Here, the significance of this pathway has been examined by studying the formation of gas phase products and aerosol during the ozonolysis of β-pinene and 2-butene in the presence of SO(2) in the pressure range of 10 to 1000 mbar. For β-pinene at atmospheric pressure, the addition of SO(2) suppresses the formation of the secondary ozonide and leads to highly increased nopinone yields. A complete consumption of SO(2) is observed at initial SO(2) concentrations below the yield of stabilised CIs. In experiments using 2-butene a significant consumption of SO(2) and additional formation of acetaldehyde are observed at 1 bar. A consistent kinetic simulation of the experimental findings is possible when a fast CI + SO(2) reaction rate in the range of recent direct measurements [Welz et al., Science, 2012, 335, 204] is used. For 2-butene the addition of SO(2) drastically increases the observed aerosol yields at higher pressures. Below 60 mbar the SO(2) oxidation induced particle formation becomes inefficient pointing to the critical role of collisional stabilisation for sulfuric acid controlled nucleation at low pressures. PMID:23090096

  20. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol. PMID:26000788

  1. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, John E

    2007-08-01

    Comprehensive surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals were used to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO,) and nitrogen oxides (NO.) emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Over the 25-yr period, paper production increased by 50%, whereas total SO, emissions declined by 60% to 340,000 short tons (t) and total NO, emissions decreased approximately 15% to 230,000 t. The downward emission trends resulted from a combination of factors, including reductions in oil and coal use, steadily declining fuel sulfur content, lower pulp and paper production in recent years, increased use of flue gas desulfurization systems on boilers, growing use of combustion modifications and add-on control systems to reduce boiler and gas turbine NO, emissions, and improvements in kraft recovery furnace operations. PMID:17824280

  2. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  3. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  4. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  5. Oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the absence and in the presence of carbon monoxide on complex vanadium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chashechnikova, I.T.; Stukanovskaya, N.A.; Korneichuk, G.P.; Golodets, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of sulfur dioxide on a vanadium oxide catalyst with and without additions of palladium was studied. It was suggested that in the joint oxidation of SO/sub 2/ and CO on the palladium catalyst there is a competition of the molecules being oxidized for the surface oxygen, which leads to an appreciable inhibition of both reactions. In the oxidation of a mixture of CO and SO/sub 2/ on a catalyst containing no palladium, carbon monoxide is oxidized at a low rate and does not affect the oxidation process.

  6. Chemiluminescence determination of sulfur dioxide in air using tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium-KIO{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Wu, F.; Meng, H.; Yuan, L.; Luo, Q.; Zeng, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The emission produced by sulfite in its oxidation by periodate in acidic solution in the presence of Ru(phen){sub 3}{sup 2+} is used to determine 1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/L sulfite. The limit of detection is 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} mol/L and the relative standard deviation is 2.3% for a 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/L sulfite solution (n = 9). The method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of sulfur dioxide in air by using triethanolamine (TEA) as absorbent material.

  7. A simple inversion method for determining optimal dispersion model parameters from satellite detections of volcanic sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidikheri, Meelis J.; Potts, Rodney J.

    2015-09-01

    A simple inversion scheme for optimizing volcanic emission dispersion model parameters with respect to satellite detections is presented in this paper. In this scheme, multiple dispersion model simulations, obtained by varying relevant model parameters, are created and compared against satellite detections using pattern correlation as a measure of model agreement with observations. It is shown that the scheme is successful in inferring emission source parameters such as those describing the vertical extent of the nascent sulfur dioxide emissions in the November 2010 Mount Merapi eruption in Java, Indonesia. These optimal parameter values then become a basis for improved forecasts of the transport of volcanic emissions.

  8. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities, and complex refractive indices derived from infra-red spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi; Ospina, M. J.; Pearl, J. C.

    The infra-red absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700-450 cm -1 region. The observed multiplicity of the bands in the regions of fundamental modes is attributed to crystal field effects, including factor group and LO—TO splittings, and naturally present minor 34S, 36S and 18O substituted isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers—Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  9. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Yi; Hoffmann, Lars; Griessbach, Sabine; Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf

    2016-05-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often cannot be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i.e., unit simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final forward simulations. Both types of transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final forward simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. By using the critical success index (CSI), the simulation results are evaluated with the AIRS observations. Compared to the results with an assumption of a constant flux of SO2 emissions, our inversion approach leads to an improvement

  10. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, M.; Boone, C. D.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Günther, A.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Roiger, A.; Stiller, G.; Schlager, H.; von Clarmann, T.; Wissmüller, K.

    2015-02-01

    Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~ 20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70-100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3-5 km. Comparison with ACE-FTS observations revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of -20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS dataset in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within -10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10-20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS dataset with in-situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than thirty volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period - Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 - derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10-14, 14-18, and 18-22 km are 13.3±2.1, 23.6±1.2, and 32.3±5.5 d, respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual cycle at northern mid- and high latitudes with maximum values in summer and an amplitude of about 30 pptv. At

  11. Dynamics of Sulfur Dioxide in the Marine Boundary During Trace P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D. C.; Tu, F.; Bandy, A. R.; Kim, M.; Thornhill, L.; Barrick, J. D.; Anderson, B.

    2002-12-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS) was employed to obtain 25 Hz sulfur dioxide (SO2) meausrements during the NASA Trace P field experiment. The APIMS was deployed on the NASA Wallops P-3B, which was equiped with the total air motion measurement system (TAMMS). The APIMS SO2 signal was recorded on the TAMMS data system to insure that the data was recorded on the same time base to allow processing of the data for eddy correlation measurements of SO2 with the vertical wind velocity from TAMMS. A preliminary estimate of the SO2 deposition velocity will be presented. At the high data sampling rates the dynamics of boundary layer could be studied for the effects on the SO2 distribution in conjunction with high data rate water vapor and temperature data from TAMMS. The turbulence data showed that the well mixed layer (within the planetary boundary layer) often was approximately 500 m with an intermittently turbulent layer above. The vertical distribution of SO2 was often constrained by the dynamics of these layers. In some cases the highest SO2 concentrations were in the well mixed layer and at other times the highest SO2 concentrations were in the less well mixed layer above. This partitioning could also be seen for water vapor and sometimes for carbon monoxide. In some cases it appeared that the continental boundary layer air had overrun the marine mixed layer during frontal progress through the experiment area. This partitioning can greatly affect the loss rates and mechanisms of SO2 in the absence of convection. When SO2 is predominantly above the well mixed layer, SO2 loss to the sea surface is primarily controlled by entraiment into the well mixed layer, which is a relatively slow process. When the SO2 is primarily in the well mixed layer its lifetime during transport can be much shorter than during transport aloft unless convection through the boundary layer occurs. The transport of SO2 in and around clouds was also observed during Trace P

  12. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpfner, M.; Boone, C. D.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Günther, A.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Roiger, A.; Stiller, G.; Schlager, H.; von Clarmann, T.; Wissmüller, K.

    2015-06-01

    Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70-100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3 to 5 km. Comparison with observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of -20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS data set in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within -10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10-20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS data set with in situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period - Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 - derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10-14, 14-18 and 18-22 km are 13.3 ± 2.1, 23.6 ± 1.2 and 32.3 ± 5.5 days respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual cycle at northern mid- and high

  13. 75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Sulfur Dioxide SIP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Dioxide SIP Revision for Marathon Petroleum St. Paul Park AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... revision request for Marathon Petroleum in St. Paul Park, Minnesota. This submittal updates the...

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of low-temperature carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide capture from coal-burning power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Charles E.; Elzey, John W.; Hershberger, Robert E.; Donnelly, Russell J.; Pfotenhauer, John

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired electrical power plant by cryogenically desublimating the carbon dioxide and then preparing it for transport in a pipeline to a sequestration site. Various other means have been proposed to accomplish the same goal. The problem discussed here is to estimate the “energy penalty” or “parasitic energy loss,' defined as the fraction of electrical output that will be needed to provide the refrigeration and that will then not be deliverable. We compute the energy loss (7.9-9.2% at 1 atm) based on perfect Carnot efficiency and estimate the achievable parasitic energy loss (22-26% at 1 atm) by incorporating the published coefficient of performance values for appropriately sized refrigeration or liquefaction cycles at the relevant temperatures. The analyses at 1 atm represent a starting point for future analyses using elevated pressures.

  15. Knudsen cell and smog chamber study of the heterogeneous uptake of sulfur dioxide on Chinese mineral dust.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Weigang; Gai, Yanbo; Ge, Maofa

    2014-12-01

    The heterogeneous uptake processes of sulfur dioxide on two types of Chinese mineral dust (Inner Mongolia desert dust and Xinjiang sierozem) were investigated using both Knudsen cell and smog chamber system. The temperature dependence of the uptake coefficients was studied over a range from 253 to 313 K using the Knudsen cell reactor, the initial uptake coefficients decreased with the increasing of temperature for these two mineral dust samples, whereas the steady state uptake coefficients of the Xinjiang sierozem increased with the temperature increasing, and these temperature dependence functions were obtained for the first time. In the smog chamber experiments at room temperature, the steady state uptake coefficients of SO2 decreased evidently with the increasing of sulfur dioxide initial concentration from 1.72 × 10¹² to 6.15 × 10¹² mol/cm³. Humid air had effect on the steady state uptake coefficients of SO₂onto Inner Mongolia desert dust. Consequences about the understanding of the uptake processes onto mineral dust samples and the environmental implication were also discussed. PMID:25499490

  16. Photoproduction of glyoxylic acid in model wine: Impact of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Barril, Celia; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-01-15

    Glyoxylic acid is a tartaric acid degradation product formed in model wine solutions containing iron and its production is greatly increased by exposure to UV-visible light. In this study, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide, caffeic acid, pH and temperature on the light-induced (⩾300nm) production of glyoxylic acid in model wine containing tartaric acid and iron was investigated using a Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). Glyoxylic acid produced in the irradiated model wine was present in free and hydrogen sulfite adduct forms and the measured total, free and percentage free glyoxylic acid values were modeled using RSM. Sulfur dioxide significantly decreased the total amount of glyoxylic acid produced, but could not prevent its production, while caffeic acid showed no significant impact. The interaction between pH and temperature was significant, with low pH values and low temperatures giving rise to higher levels of total glyoxylic acid. PMID:27542478

  17. Mercury displacement detection for the determination of picogram amounts of sulfite ion or sulfur dioxide by atomic spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1981-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed that can determine picogram amounts of sulfite in aqueous solution or sulfur dioxide in solution. The technique is based on the reaction of sulfite ion in solution with mercury(I) ion to promote its disproportionation to metallic mercury and mercury(II) ions. By monitoring the Hg/sup 0/ released it is possible to determine the concentration of sulfite added. The method gives a linear calibration over the range tested (0 to 5 ng of sulfite) and the within-batch cefficients of variation for the determination of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 ng of sulfite are 4, 3, 2.5, and 1.8%, respectively. Fifteen analyses can be carried out each hour. The limit of detection is 30 pg of sulfite, which is several orders of magnitude lower than can be obtained by other manual methods of sulfite determination. The method is very selective. Sulfate ion does not interfere, which is especially important in the determination of atmospheric sulfur dioxide.

  18. Alteration of extracellular enzymes in pinto bean leaves upon exposure to air pollutants, ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, J.L.; Castillo, F.J.; Heath, R.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Diamine oxidase and peroxidase, associated with the wall in pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Pinto) leaves, can be washed out by vacuum infiltration and assayed without grinding the leaf. The diamine oxidase activity is inhibited in vivo by exposure of the plants to ozone (dose of 0.6 microliters per liter {times} hour), whereas the peroxidase activity associated with the wall space is stimulated. This dose does not cause obvious necrosis or chlorosis of the leaf. These alterations are greater when the dose of ozone exposure is given as a triangular pulse (a slow rise to a peak of 0.24 microliters per liter followed by a slow fall) compared to that given as a constant square wave pulse of 0.15 microliters per liter for the same 4 hour period. Exposure of the plants to sulfur dioxide (at a concentration of 0.4 microliters per liter for 4 hours) does not result in any change in the diamine oxidase or peroxidase activities, yet the total sulfhydryl content of the leaf is increased, demonstrating the entry of sulfur dioxide. These two pollutants, with different chemical reactivities, affect the activities of the extracellular enzymes in different manners. In the case of ozone exposure, the inhibition of extracellular diamine oxidase could profoundly alter the movements of polyamines from cell to cell.

  19. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  20. Sulfur dioxide estimations in the planetary boundary layer using dispersion models and satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarauz, Jorge V.

    The health and environmental conditions in the Central Andes city La Oroya, Peru, have been seriously damaged by the heavy metal mining activities in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the complex topography, which prevents proper mixing and dissolution of particles and gases released into the atmosphere. Understanding how pollutants are dispersed in populated regions, especially in complex terrain, would help to create mitigation strategies. The present study uses CALPUFF and HYSPLIT dispersion/deposition models to estimate sulfur dioxide (SO2) dispersion from the main stack of the La Oroya metallurgical plant. Due to the lack of meteorological data in the area, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used with observational nudging for temperature, relative humidity, and wind fields of three surface meteorological stations specifically installed for the study. The pollutant dispersion models are sensitive to a precise estimation of the turbulent vertical transport of mass, energy and moisture in the low atmosphere; therefore, two planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are tested, the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic and Yonsei University models. The dispersion models are run and results compared with field measurements at La Oroya, and Huancayo. The observation-nudging and YSU scheme considerably improved the prognostic variables. CALPUFF and HYSPLIT models showed similar patterns; however, HYSPLIT overestimated SO2 concentrations for low PBLs. Moreover, recent enhancements on spectral, spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric scanning sensors of chemical constituents from the space, have led to detecting trace gases of anthropogenic origin in the lower troposphere. This contribution also explores the SO2 level 2 dataset from Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), in conjunction with atmospheric optical depth and Angstrom coefficient data products, extracted from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate SO2 loads in the PBL