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Sample records for superior seedless enxertada

  1. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  2. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

  3. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Every year a significant amount of organic table grapes is lost during postharvest mainly due to the incidence of decay, stem browning and fast alteration of the taste and aroma. The demand for this fresh product with immaculate appearance and high sensory quality in terms of flavor, is a hard challenge considering the difficulties to conserve them, with alternative safe treatments to the sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is not allowed in organic product. The aim of this experiment was to maintain the quality of organic table grapes and extend their shelf-life for medium and long term, in order to reach new distant promising markets, by using safe methods. The effectiveness of the combination of pretreatment with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, physical means and storage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed by using detached organic table grape berries as alternatives to usual industrial SO2 application. The detached organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" berries were pretreated by: i) dipping in ethanol and potassium bicarbonate; ii) massive CO2 concentrations; iii) ozone (O3) fumigation; whereas, untreated berries were included in the trial as control. Moreover, all the samples were packed in thermo-sealed ALPAK bags with MAP of 2% O2:5% CO2:93% N2 and stored at 0°C for 45 days. Initially and after 15, 30 and 45 days of storage, weight loss, decay incidence, berry/skin firmness, pedicel detachment force, skin color parameters, SSC, pH, titratable acidity and sensory evaluation scores, were monitored. After 45 days of storage, the weight loss was higher in the sample pretreated with massive CO2 concentration at 70 - 90 % and the control. The samples pretreated with CO2 at 70% and O3 at 20 ppm maintained the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel, also the berry and skin firmness were statistically higher in samples pretreated with CO2 at 90 - 70% and O3 at 20 ppm in comparison with the control. The skin color parameters and

  4. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE ORANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, hereby releases for propagation the US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE citrus scion selection, formerly tested as USDA 1-10-60. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE resulted from irradiation of Ridge Pineapple seeds by C.J. Hearn in 1970 at the U.S. Horticultu...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See § 52.1846...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same as for Seedless Raisins (See § 52.1846...

  7. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that...

  8. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that have similar varietal characteristics; that have a good typical...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that have similar varietal characteristics; that have a good typical...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that...

  11. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same...

  12. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes of Golden Seedless Raisins are the same...

  13. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of seedless raisins. 52.1846 Section 52.1846... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of seedless raisins that...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes are: (a) Select size raisins means that no more than...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  18. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sizes of golden seedless raisins. 52.1848 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements...

  19. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for...

  20. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sizes of seedless raisins. 52.1845 Section 52.1845... Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations and measurement requirements for the respective sizes are: (a) Select size raisins means that no more than...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of golden seedless raisins. 52.1849 Section 52... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except for color, the grades of Golden...

  4. Grafting increases lycopene in seedless watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although watermelon grafting has been done for years in Asia and Europe, this production method is still novel to the U.S. Fruit from four rootstocks with scions of the seedless watermelons Palomar, TriX313, Matrix, and Petite Perfection were compared for soluble solids content, pH, and carotenoids...

  5. Maturity and Postharvest Performance of US Early Pride Seedless Mandarins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes efforts underway at the US Horticultural Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL to develop seedless versions of seedy, but otherwise high quality citrus scions. Two approaches for development of seedless scions are discussed: 1) irradiation which has resulted in the release of 'US Seedle...

  6. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  7. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  8. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  9. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  10. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  11. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  12. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... week as provided in § 905.52, the committee shall compute the quantity of sizes 48 and 56 red seedless.... (c) The committee shall notify each handler of the quantity of size 48 and 56 red seedless grapefruit... red seedless grapefruit up to 10 percent greater than their allotment. The quantity of...

  13. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Fruit Development in Three Seedy Citrus Genotypes and Their Seedless Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlessness is desirable for most citrus fruit, and identification of spontaneous or irradiated seedless mutants is important in developing citrus cultivars. We conducted a transcriptome analysis in early fruit development of three seedy citrus types (‘Fallglo’, a largely C. reticulata hybrid; ‘Pi...

  15. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  16. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-22

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs. PMID:26954263

  17. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  18. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a portion of sizes 48 and 56 of such variety is restricted. 905... § 905.153 Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a... three seasons. Each handler's average week shall be computed by adding the total volume of red...

  19. Seedless Laser Velocimetry Using Heterodyne Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A need exists for a seedless equivalent of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for use in low-turbulence or supersonic flows or elsewhere where seeding is undesirable or impractical. A compact laser velocimeter using heterodyne non-resonant laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) to measure a single component of velocity is described. Neither molecular (e.g. NO2) nor particulate seed is added to the flow. In non-resonant LITA two beams split from a short-pulse pump laser are crossed; interference produces two counterpropagating sound waves by electrostriction. A CW probe laser incident on the sound waves at the proper angle is directed towards a detector. Measurement of the beating between the Doppler-shifted light and a highly attenuated portion of the probe beam allows determination of one component of flow velocity, speed of sound, and temperature. The sound waves essentially take the place of the particulate seed used in LDV. The velocimeter was used to study the flow behind a rearward-facing step in NASA Langley Research Center's Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel. Comparison is made with pitot-static probe data in the freestream over the range 0 m/s - 55 m/s. Comparison with LDV is made in the recirculation region behind the step and in a well-developed boundary layer in front of the step. Good agreement is found in all cases.

  20. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV–visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  1. Shock-Strength Determination With Seeded and Seedless Laser Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Meyers, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Two nonintrusive laser diagnostics were independently used to demonstrate the measurement of time-averaged and spatially-resolved pressure change across a twodimensional (2-D) shock wave. The first method is Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) which uses water seeding and generates 2-D maps of 3-orthogonal components of velocity. A DGV-measured change in flow direction behind an oblique shock provides an indirect determination of pressure jump across the shock, when used with the known incoming Mach number and ideal shock relations (or Prandtl-Meyer flow equations for an expansion fan). This approach was demonstrated at Mach 2 on 2-D shocks and expansions generated from a flat plate at angles-of-attack approx. equals -2.4deg and +0.6deg, respectively. This technique also works for temperature jump (as well as pressure) and for normal shocks (as well as oblique). The second method, laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), is a seedless approach that was used to generate 1-D spatial profiles of streamwise Mach number, sound speed, pressure, and temperature across the same shock waves. Excellent agreement was obtained between the DGV and LITA methods, suggesting that either technique is viable for noninvasive shock-strength measurements.

  2. Shock-strength determination with seeded and seedless laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, G C; Meyers, James F; Hart, Roger C

    2009-04-01

    Two noninvasive laser diagnostics were independently used to measure time-averaged and spatially resolved pressure change across a two-dimensional (2D) shock wave. The first method is Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) which uses water seeding and generates 2D maps of three-orthogonal components of velocity. A DGV-measured change in flow direction behind an oblique shock provides an indirect determination of pressure change across the shock, when used with the known incoming Mach number and ideal shock relations (or Prandtl-Meyer equations for an expansion fan). This approach was demonstrated at Mach 2 on 2D shock and expansion waves generated from a flat plate. This technique also works for temperature change (as well as pressure) and for normal shocks (as well as oblique). The second method, laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), is a seedless approach that was used to generate 1D spatial profiles of streamwise Mach number, sound speed, pressure and temperature over the same oblique waves. Excellent agreement was obtained between DGV and LITA, suggesting that either technique is viable for shock-strength measurement.

  3. Seedless fruits and the disruption of a conserved genetic pathway in angiosperm ovule development

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María; Gasser, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Although the biological function of fruiting is the production and dissemination of seeds, humans have developed seedless fruits in a number of plant species to facilitate consumption. Here we describe a unique spontaneous seedless mutant (Thai seedless; Ts) of Annona squamosa (sugar apple), a member of the early-divergent magnoliid angiosperm clade. Ovules (seed precursors) of the mutant lack the outer of two normal integuments, a phenocopy of the inner no outer (ino) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Cloning of the INO ortholog from A. squamosa confirmed conservation of the outer integument-specific expression pattern of this gene between the two species. All regions of the gene were detectable in wild-type A. squamosa and in other members of this genus. However, no region of the INO gene could be detected in Ts plants, indicating apparent deletion of the INO locus. These results provide a case of a candidate gene approach revealing the apparent molecular basis of a useful agronomic trait (seedless fruit) in a crop species, and indicate conservation of the role of a critical regulator of ovule development between eudicots and more ancient lineages of angiosperms. The outer integument is one synapomorphy of angiosperms separating them from other extant seed plants, and the results suggest that the evolution of this structure was contemporaneous with the derivation of INO from ancestral YABBY genes. Thus, a unique lateral structure appears to have coevolved with a novel gene family member essential for the structure's formation. PMID:21402944

  4. Grafting Seedless Watermelons, How and Why? Will Grafting Help With Disease Control?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera has gained importance in the United States. Grafting vegetable crops, especially cucurbit’s, is very common in Europe and Asia. In these regions, the practice of crop ...

  5. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-01

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage. PMID:17002453

  6. Searching for gravitational-wave transients with a qualitative signal model: Seedless clustering strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, Eric; Coughlin, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Gravitational-wave bursts are observable as bright clusters of pixels in spectrograms of strain power. Clustering algorithms can be used to identify candidate gravitational-wave events. Clusters are often identified by grouping together seed pixels in which the power exceeds some threshold. If the gravitational-wave signal is long-lived, however, the excess power may be spread out over many pixels, none of which are bright enough to become seeds. Without seeds, the problem of detection through clustering becomes more complicated. In this paper, we investigate seedless clustering algorithms in searches for long-lived narrow-band gravitational-wave bursts. Using four astrophysically motivated test waveforms, we compare a seedless clustering algorithm to two algorithms using seeds. We find that the seedless algorithm can detect gravitational-wave signals (at a fixed false-alarm and false-dismissal rate) at distances between 1.5-2× those achieved with the seed-based clustering algorithms, corresponding to significantly increased detection volumes: 4.2-7.4×. This improvement in sensitivity may extend the reach of second-generation detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo deeper into astrophysically interesting distances.

  7. Effects of ambient oxidant air pollution in the San Joaquin Valley on Thompson seedless grapes

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.; Ashcroft, R.

    1984-01-01

    Mature Thompson seedless grape vines were enclosed in specially constructed plastic covered chambers supplied with carbon filtered and non-filtered (ambient) air from time of bud break through leaf drop. Effects on vegetative growth and fruiting were determined for three seasons. No effects on fruit production were measured the first season after covering but vegetative growth increased 12% in chambers supplied with filtered air. By the third season fruit yields were 27.5% higher in the filtered as compared with ambient chambers. The only visible symptoms associated with exposure to the oxidants was accelerated senescence which appeared 3 weeks to 1 month earlier on vines receiving ambient or nonfiltered air.

  8. Common-Path Heterodyne Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics for Seedless Laser Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, G. C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a novel technique for the detection of heterodyne laser-induced thermal acoustics signals, which allows the construction of a highly stable seedless laser velocimeter. A common-path configuration is combined with quadrature detection to provide flow direction, greatly improve robustness to misalignment and vibration, and give reliable velocity measurement at low flow velocities. Comparison with Pitot tube measurements in the freestream of a wind tunnel shows root-mean-square errors of 0.67 m/s over the velocity range 0.55 m/s.

  9. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. Results An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Conclusion Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future. PMID:22897898

  10. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  11. Developmental, transcriptome, and genetic alterations associated with parthenocarpy in the grapevine seedless somatic variant Corinto bianco.

    PubMed

    Royo, Carolina; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Nebish, Anna; Martínez, Óscar; Rey, Manuel; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Ibáñez, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2016-01-01

    Seedlessness is a relevant trait in grapevine cultivars intended for fresh consumption or raisin production. Previous DNA marker analysis indicated that Corinto bianco (CB) is a parthenocarpic somatic variant of the seeded cultivar Pedro Ximenes (PX). This study compared both variant lines to determine the basis of this parthenocarpic phenotype. At maturity, CB seedless berries were 6-fold smaller than PX berries. The macrogametophyte was absent from CB ovules, and CB was also pollen sterile. Occasionally, one seed developed in 1.6% of CB berries. Microsatellite genotyping and flow cytometry analyses of seedlings generated from these seeds showed that most CB viable seeds were formed by fertilization of unreduced gametes generated by meiotic diplospory, a process that has not been described previously in grapevine. Microarray and RNA-sequencing analyses identified 1958 genes that were differentially expressed between CB and PX developing flowers. Genes downregulated in CB were enriched in gametophyte-preferentially expressed transcripts, indicating the absence of regular post-meiotic germline development in CB. RNA-sequencing was also used for genetic variant calling and 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms distinguishing the CB and PX variant lines were detected. Among these, CB-specific polymorphisms were considered as candidate parthenocarpy-responsible mutations, including a putative deleterious substitution in a HAL2-like protein. Collectively, these results revealed that the absence of a mature macrogametophyte, probably due to meiosis arrest, coupled with a process of fertilization-independent fruit growth, caused parthenocarpy in CB. This study provides a number of grapevine parthenocarpy-responsible candidate genes and shows how genomic approaches can shed light on the genetic origin of woody crop somatic variants. PMID:26454283

  12. Study of free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in air-dried raisins from three seedless grape varieties using HS-SPME with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wu, Guang-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Chen, Guang; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-15

    Volatile compounds in air-dried raisins from Turpan, China were analysed, with 77 volatiles identified in Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, and Crimson Seedless raisins, 37 of which had never been reported as raisin volatiles. Odour activity values (OAVs) of these volatiles were calculated; 20 compounds had OAVs above 1. The aroma characters of the three varieties were quite similar except for some differences in the intensity of each aroma character. The main free-form volatiles were ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal and geraniol, with β-damascenone, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal making the highest contribution to the aroma. Fruity and floral were the main characteristics of the free-form aromas in raisins. The main bound-form volatiles were benzyl alcohol and acetoin, with β-damascenone contributing most to the bound-form aromas, enhancing the floral, fruity and fatty aroma. PMID:25660896

  13. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Santos, Rayane C Dos; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-11-14

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development. PMID:25409766

  14. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development. PMID:25590744

  15. Seedless growth of zinc oxide flower-shaped structures on multilayer graphene by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A seedless growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) structures on multilayer (ML) graphene by electrochemical deposition without any pre-deposited ZnO seed layer or metal catalyst was studied. A high density of a mixture of vertically aligned/non-aligned ZnO rods and flower-shaped structures was obtained. ML graphene seems to generate the formation of flower-shaped structures due to the stacking boundaries. The nucleation of ZnO seems to be promoted at the stacking edges of ML graphene with the increase of applied current density, resulting in the formation of flower-shaped structures. The diameters of the rods/flower-shaped structures also increase with the applied current density. ZnO rods/flower-shaped structures with high aspect ratio over 5.0 and good crystallinity were obtained at the applied current densities of −0.5 and −1.0 mA/cm2. The growth mechanism was proposed. The growth involves the formation of ZnO nucleation below 80°C and the enhancement of the growth of vertically non-aligned rods and flower-shaped structures at 80°C. Such ZnO/graphene hybrid structure provides several potential applications in sensing devices. PMID:25024694

  16. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes-whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace-twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  17. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    PubMed Central

    Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo; Acciarri, Nazareno; Sabatini, Emidio; Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Maestrelli, Andrea; Molesini, Barbara; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Scalzo, Jessica; Mezzetti, Bruno; Spena, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM) fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM). Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82) transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH) nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC), when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment. PMID:16371162

  18. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes–whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace–twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  19. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  20. WATER USE OF VITIS VINIFERA L., CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS GROWN IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA. II. WATER USE OF MATURE VINES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use of Thompson Seedless grapevines was measured with a large weighing lysimeter from four to seven years (1990 to 1993) after planting. Above ground drip irrigation was used to water the vines. Vines growing within the lysimeter were pruned to four and six fruiting canes for the 1990 and 19...

  1. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality. PMID:25522520

  2. CONTOURITES IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contour currents influence sedimentation in an area 15 km wide and 65 km long at the base of the slope off the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan. Seismic-reflection profiles (3.5 kHz) from this area show distinct wavy reflectors in a scoured trough at a d...

  3. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  4. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. PMID:23845786

  5. ``Seedless'' vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si and Ge nanowires: The origin of bimodal diameter distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Eric; Drucker, Jeff

    2009-03-01

    We identify a previously uncharacterized vapor-liquid-solid growth mode that can produce small diameter, epitaxial ⟨110⟩ oriented Si and Ge nanowires (NWs). Disilane or digermane pyrolysis evolves H2 causing the monolayer thick Au/Si(111) layer between three dimensional Au seeds to dewet and form small Au islands. Under some conditions, these small islands facilitate "seedless" growth of small diameter NWs distinct from larger NWs that grow from the deposited seeds leading to a bimodal diameter distribution. We identify the precursor pressures and growth temperature regimes for which Si and Ge NW growth occurs in the absence of deposited seeds from the dewetted Au/Si(111) layer.

  6. Seedless Pattern Growth of Quasi-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Cover Glass Substrates in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsanulhaq, Q.; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hahn, Y. B.

    2010-03-01

    A hybrid technique for the selective growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on wanted areas of thin cover glass substrates was developed without the use of seed layer of ZnO. This method utilizes electron-beam lithography for pattern transfer on seedless substrate, followed by solution method for the bottom-up growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on the patterned substrates. The arrays of highly crystalline ZnO nanorods having diameter of 60 ± 10 nm and length of 750 ± 50 nm were selectively grown on different shape patterns and exhibited a remarkable uniformity in terms of diameter, length, and density. The room temperature cathodluminescence measurements showed a strong ultraviolet emission at 381 nm and broad visible emission at 585-610 nm were observed in the spectrum.

  7. Bright superior mirages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.

    2003-01-01

    Superior mirages of unusual brightness are occasionally observed. Two such cases, photographed over the frozen surface of Lake Winnipeg, Canada, are documented. Visually, these mirages appear as featureless bright barriers far out on the lake. They are just images of the lake ice, yet the luminance in one case was 2.5 times (in the other, 1.7 times) the luminance of the ice surface in front of the mirage. The mirage itself can be modeled by means of a conduction inversion, but a proper explanation of the brightness is not yet available.

  8. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs. PMID:25429734

  9. RNA sequencing reveals high resolution expression change of major plant hormone pathway genes after young seedless grape berries treated with gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lijuan; Li, Yanmei; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Zhao, Fengxia; Ma, Huiqin

    2014-12-01

    Seedless varieties are of particular importance to the table-grape and raisin industries. Gibberellin (GA) application is widely used in the early stages of seedless berry development to increase berry size and economic value. However, the underlying mechanism of GA induction of berry enlargement is not well understood. Here, RNA-sequencing analysis of 'Centennial Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) berries treated with GA3 12 days after flowering is reported. Pair-wise comparison of GA3-treated and control samples detected 165, 444, 463 genes with an over two-fold change in expression 1, 3, and 7 days after GA3 treatment, respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes increased with time after GA3 treatment, and the differential expression was dominated by downregulation. Significantly modulated expression included genes encoding synthesis and catabolism to manage plant hormone homeostasis, hormone transporters, receptors and key components in signaling pathways; exogenous GA3 induced multipoint cross talk with auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, ABA and ethylene. The temporal gene-expression patterns of cell-wall-modification enzymes, cytoskeleton and membrane components and transporters revealed a pivotal role for cell-wall-relaxation genes in GA3-induced berry enlargement. Our results provide the first sequential transcriptomic atlas of exogenous GA3-induced berry enlargement and reveal the complexity of GA3's effect on berry sizing. PMID:25443848

  10. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Hiroyuki; Takeshima, Toshikazu; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Heimann, Axel; Kempski, Oliver

    1998-01-01

    Sinus-vein thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a much more frequent neurological disorder than was anticipated before. We examined the pathophysiology of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST) from 19 patients and a rat SSST model. We treated 19 cases with SSST who were diagnosed by angiography. The symptoms of nine patients, who suffered multiple intracerebral hemorrhage, were abrupt. In another ten patients who recovered satisfactorily, the condition progressed slowly and they were treated with heparin and urokinase. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that female, sudden onset (<24 hours) and posterior 1/3 occlusion are related to bad outcome. Experimentally, SSST was induced by ligation and slow injection of kaolin-cephalin suspension into SSS in rats. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Hb Sao2) using a “scanning” technique were measured at 48 locations, and fluorescence angiography was performed before and until 90 min after SSST induction. After 48 hours the animals were sacrificed for histological studies. Decrease of rCBF and tissue Hb SO2 and brain damage were seen in group B (n = 10) with an extension of thrombosis from SSS into cortical veins. Brain injury was not observed in group A (n = 8) with SSS thrombus alone and sham-operated animals (n = 5). In conclusion, a brain with acute extension of thrombus from SSS into cortical veins becomes critical for cerebral blood supply and metabolism. CBF, tissue HbSO2 and repeated angiography can be helpful monitors for the early detection of critical conditions after SSST. As to the therapy, restraint on the ongoing thrombus is essential to protect the brain with SSST, and we encourage the use of combination therapy of heparin and urokinase as early as possible in cases without intracerebral hemorrhage. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171061

  11. Seedless Polyol Synthesis and CO Oxidation Activity of Monodisperse (111) and (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals in Sub-10 nm Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yawen; Grass, Michael E.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-03-15

    Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac){sub 2}]{sub 2} as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twined hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl{sub 3} as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed Br{sup -} ions from alkylammonium bromides, which led to (100)-oriented nanocubes. Monolayer films of the (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra and (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were deposited on silicon wafers in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough to make model 2D nanoarray catalysts. These nanocatalysts were active for CO oxidation by O{sub 2}, and the turnover frequency was independent of nanoparticle shape, consistent with that previously observed for Rh(111) and Rh(100) single crystals.

  12. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test.

  13. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-06-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  14. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications. PMID:26077658

  15. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election...

  16. The letter height superiority illusion.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Cavézian, Céline; Pallier, Christophe; Barra, Julien

    2016-02-01

    Letters are identified better when they are embedded within words rather than within pseudowords, a phenomenon known as the word superiority effect (Reicher in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 275-280, 1969). This effect is, inter alia, accounted for by the interactive-activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart in Psychological Review, 88, 375-407, 1981) through feedback from word to letter nodes. In this study, we investigated whether overactivation of features could lead to perceptual bias, wherein letters would be perceived as being taller than pseudoletters, or words would be perceived as being taller than pseudowords. In two experiments, we investigated the effects of letter and lexical status on the perception of size. Participants who had to compare the heights of letters and pseudoletters, or of words and pseudowords, indeed perceived the former stimuli as being taller than the latter. Possible alternative interpretations of this height superiority effect for letters and words are discussed. PMID:26370216

  17. Writing superiority in cued recall.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Carina; Loescher, Jens; Indefrey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001). In other memory retrieval paradigms, by contrast, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005). In a series of four experiments using a paired associate learning paradigm we tested (a) whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b) whether a possible superior performance for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c) whether the performance in paired associate word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory recall task. We observed better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation for this effect based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for memory retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a paired associate learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written vs. spoken recall cannot be (solely) explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather

  18. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  19. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  20. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  1. The Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher R; Denard, Patrick J; Brady, Paul C; Hartzler, Robert U; Burkhart, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    In a subset of patients with rotator cuff tears, the glenohumeral joint has minimal degenerative changes and the rotator cuff tendon is either irreparable or very poor quality and unlikely to heal. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is often considered for these patients despite the lack of glenohumeral arthritis. However, due to the permanent destruction of the glenohumeral articular surfaces, complication rates, and concerns about implant longevity with RSA, we believe the superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) is a viable alternative. In this article, we describe our technique for the SCR. PMID:27552457

  2. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  3. 76 FR 11193 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The...

  4. 75 FR 65296 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The...

  5. Carbon cycling in Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, N. R.; Auer, M. T.; Green, S. A.; Lu, X.; Apul, D. S.; Powell, K. D.; Bub, L.

    2005-06-01

    Carbon (C) cycling in Lake Superior was studied within the Keweenaw Interdisciplinary Transport Experiment in Superior (KITES) project to assess (1) whether the lake is net heterotrophic, (2) sources, sinks and residence time for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), (3) importance of terrigenous organic C subsidies, and (4) factors limiting C flow through bacteria. During 3 years of fieldwork, measurements were made of spatial and temporal distributions of C pools and rates of photosynthesis, community respiration, and bacterial production. Measurements were made of the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), rates of DOM photolysis, lability of DOM toward microbial consumption, and river inputs of DOM. All measurements suggest the lake is net heterotrophic. The C:N ratios of DOM suggest that it is primarily of terrigenous origin, but other characteristics (size distribution, UV absorption) point to the presence of autochthonous DOM and to alteration of terrigenous material. The lake mass balance indicates that the residence time (˜8 years) of the DOC pool (17 Tg) is short relative to the hydrologic residence time (170 years). The known flux of terrigenous DOC (˜1 Tg/yr) is too low to support annual bacterial carbon demand (6-38 Tg/yr), but microbial respiration is the major sink for terrigenous DOC. A rapidly cycling, autochthonous DOC pool must exist. Microbial activity was correlated with temperature, phosphorus availability, and DOC concentration but not with photosynthesis rates. Measurements of respiration (˜40 Tg/yr), photosynthesis (2-7 Tg/yr), and bacterial production (0.5-2 Tg/yr) are not all mutually compatible and result in a discrepancy in the organic carbon budget.

  6. Genetically engineered Thompson Seedless grapevine plants designed for fungal tolerance: selection and characterization of the best performing individuals in a field trial.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julia; Montes, Christian; Castro, Álvaro; Álvarez, Catalina; Olmedo, Blanca; Muñoz, Marisol; Tapia, Eduardo; Reyes, Fernando; Ortega, Marcelo; Sánchez, Evelyn; Miccono, María; Dalla Costa, Lorenza; Martinelli, Lucia; Malnoy, Mickael; Prieto, Humberto

    2015-02-01

    The fungi Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator are responsible for gray mold and powdery mildew diseases, respectively, which are among the most devastating diseases of grapes. Two endochitinase (ech42 and ech33) genes and one N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase (nag70) gene from biocontrol agents related to Trichoderma spp. were used to develop a set of 103 genetically modified (GM) 'Thompson Seedless' lines (568 plants) that were established in open field in 2004 and evaluated for fungal tolerance starting in 2006. Statistical analyses were carried out considering transgene, explant origin, and plant response to both fungi in the field and in detached leaf assays. The results allowed for the selection of the 19 consistently most tolerant lines through two consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons). Plants from these lines were grafted onto the rootstock Harmony and established in the field in 2009 for further characterization. Transgene status was shown in most of these lines by Southern blot, real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunostrips; the most tolerant candidates expressed the ech42-nag70 double gene construct and the ech33 gene from a local Hypocrea virens isolate. B. cinerea growth assays in Petri dishes supplemented with berry juices extracted from the most tolerant individuals of the selected population was inhibited. These results demonstrate that improved fungal tolerance can be attributed to transgene expression and support the iterative molecular and physiological phenotyping in order to define selected individuals from a population of GM grapevines. PMID:25011563

  7. Real and potential nickel hydrogen superiority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    Events from the development and orbital flight experience with a nickel hydrogen battery are described. The events highlight characteristics of nickel hydrogen which afford superior capability in overcharge, overdischarge and state of charge evaluation, when compared to the nickel cadmium electrochemical system. Some developments in nickel hydrogen technology that provide the potential of furthering nickel hydrogen superiority for satellite applications are also discussed.

  8. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  9. Rehearsal Characteristics of "Superior" Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Jay; Kelly, Steven N.; Acklin, Amy I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehearsal characteristics of "superior" middle and high school band directors. A total of 131 respondents from Florida, Kentucky, and North Carolina who received a "superior" rating for 4 out of the past 5 years, completed an open-ended essay question online asking them to…

  10. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  11. Graduated recession of the superior oblique muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, J A

    1975-01-01

    Recession of the superior oblique was performed bilaterally in 12 patients with the A phenomenon and unilaterally in four patients with vertical imbalance. The results are discussed. Images PMID:1191613

  12. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Still a killer.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, C L; Rathe, R J

    1988-01-01

    Following treating a case of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, we did an extensive search of the literature, eliciting 795 cases of the disorder. An analysis showed that even after the introduction of antibiotics, the preponderance of these cases have been diagnosed at autopsy. Our findings raise questions about the current methods of diagnosis and management of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: Can the correct diagnosis be made earlier? Does a distinction between partial and complete thrombosis call for a different management? Images PMID:3051676

  13. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. PMID:26864754

  14. Exploring the Superior Colliculus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The superior colliculus plays an important role in the translation of sensory signals that encode the location of objects in space into motor signals that encode vectors of the shifts in gaze direction called saccades. Since the late 1990s, our two laboratories have been applying whole cell patch-clamp techniques to in vitro slice preparations of rodent superior colliculus to analyze the structure and function of its circuitry at the cellular level. This review describes the results of these experiments and discusses their contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus. The experiments analyze vertical interactions between its superficial visuosensory and intermediate premotor layers and propose how they might contribute to express saccades and to saccadic suppression. They also compare and contrast the circuitry within each of these layers and propose how this circuitry might contribute to the selection of the targets for saccades and to the build-up of the premotor commands that precede saccades. Experiments also explore in vitro the roles of extrinsic inputs to the superior colliculus, including cholinergic inputs from the parabigeminal and parabrachial nuclei and GABAergic inputs from the substantia nigra pars reticulata, in modulating the activity of the collicular circuitry. The results extend and clarify our understanding of the multiple roles the superior colliculus plays in sensorimotor integration. PMID:19710376

  15. Differentiation in Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1980-01-01

    Morphological variation in Coregonus zenithicus has long plagued biologists working on Lake Superior ciscoes. Some of this variation is due to allometric growth; earlier workers incorrectly recognized large C. zenithicus as a distinct species, C. nigripinnis cyanopterus. Coregonus reighardi dymondi is a variant of C. zenithicus in northern bays of Lake Superior and Lake Nipigon. The morphological differences between members of spring and fall spawning populations of C. zenithicus in Lake Superior are no greater than those between geographically separate populations. We conclude that spawning time and geographic isolation act similarly in effecting differentiation of coregonine populations, and that populations with different spawning times do not necessarily represent different species.Key words: Coregonus zenithicus, cisco, Great Lakes, multivariate morphometrics, endangered species, taxonomy

  16. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  17. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors that achieve SSS could receive more favorable contract terms and conditions in DoN contracts. In addition to recognition of SSS at the business unit level, multi-business unit corporations, that have several...

  18. Major Histocompatibility Complex Heterozygote Superiority during Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Erin E.; Penn, Dustin J.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2003-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a critical role in immune recognition, and many alleles confer susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases. How these deleterious alleles persist in populations is controversial. One hypothesis postulates that MHC heterozygote superiority emerges over multiple infections because MHC-mediated resistance is generally dominant and many allele-specific susceptibilities to pathogens will be masked by the resistant allele in heterozygotes. We tested this hypothesis by using experimental coinfections with Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium C5TS) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in MHC-congenic mouse strains where one haplotype was resistant to Salmonella and the other was resistant to TMEV. MHC heterozygotes were superior to both homozygotes in 7 out of 8 comparisons (P = 0.0024), and the mean standardized pathogen load of heterozygotes was reduced by 41% over that of homozygotes (P = 0.01). In contrast, no heterozygote superiority was observed when the MHC haplotype combinations had similar susceptibility profiles to the two pathogens. This is the first experimental evidence for MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple pathogens, a mechanism that would contribute to the evolution of MHC diversity and explain the persistence of alleles conferring susceptibility to disease. PMID:12654829

  19. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  20. Ecology of Lake Superior: Preface and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Special Issue of Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management (AEHM) is the first of a two-volume set based on papers presented at a three-day International Conference in Duluth MN held in June 2010, and titled “Ecology of Lake Superior: Integrated Approaches and Challenges for t...

  1. Superior Visual Search in Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riordan, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that children with autism perform better than matched controls on visual search tasks and that this stems from a superior visual discrimination ability. This study assessed whether these findings generalize from children to adults with autism. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that, like children, adults with autism were…

  2. Superior peroneal retinacular injuries in calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Kwaadu, Kwasi Yiadom; Fleming, Justin James; Florek, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal fractures are injuries that occur generally as the result of high-energy mechanisms, and, as such, the presence of concurrent injuries should be suspected. The presence of peroneal tendon and superior retinacular injuries has been underreported. We sought to report the incidence of peroneal tendon pathologic features in our population of patients with calcaneal fractures, with emphasis on the method of identification. Furthermore, we sought to identify whether specific fracture patterns were more commonly associated with this pathologic finding. Of the 97 cases, 13 (13.4%) required repair of the superior peroneal retinaculum, 11 of which demonstrated the Sanders A fracture line. Our findings have demonstrated an incidence of pathologic features, in particular, with the presence of the Sanders A fracture line, that warrants attention to potentially help improve the outcome of these devastating injuries. PMID:25726126

  3. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  4. Birds of Isle Royale in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krefting, L.W.; Lee, F.B.; Shelton, P.C.; Gilbert, K.T.

    1966-01-01

    This report constitutes an annotated list of 197 species of birds reported from Isle Royale National Park, a 210-square-mile archipelago in northwestern Lake Superior including some 200 islets and rock outcrops. The island is 45 miles long and 8 miles wide at its widest point. Bird distribution and habitats are described, along with geography and vegetation; 62 species are known to have bred at least once, 26 are thought to be breeders, and the rest are migrants.

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop.

    PubMed

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345

  6. A Genome-Wide Association Study on the Seedless Phenotype in Banana (Musa spp.) Reveals the Potential of a Selected Panel to Detect Candidate Genes in a Vegetatively Propagated Crop

    PubMed Central

    Sardos, Julie; Rouard, Mathieu; Hueber, Yann; Cenci, Alberto; Hyma, Katie E.; van den Houwe, Ines; Hribova, Eva; Courtois, Brigitte; Roux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa sp.) is a vegetatively propagated, low fertility, potentially hybrid and polyploid crop. These qualities make the breeding and targeted genetic improvement of this crop a difficult and long process. The Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach is becoming widely used in crop plants and has proven efficient to detecting candidate genes for traits of interest, especially in cereals. GWAS has not been applied yet to a vegetatively propagated crop. However, successful GWAS in banana would considerably help unravel the genomic basis of traits of interest and therefore speed up this crop improvement. We present here a dedicated panel of 105 accessions of banana, freely available upon request, and their corresponding GBS data. A set of 5,544 highly reliable markers revealed high levels of admixture in most accessions, except for a subset of 33 individuals from Papua. A GWAS on the seedless phenotype was then successfully applied to the panel. By applying the Mixed Linear Model corrected for both kinship and structure as implemented in TASSEL, we detected 13 candidate genomic regions in which we found a number of genes potentially linked with the seedless phenotype (i.e. parthenocarpy combined with female sterility). An additional GWAS performed on the unstructured Papuan subset composed of 33 accessions confirmed six of these regions as candidate. Out of both sets of analyses, one strong candidate gene for female sterility, a putative orthologous gene to Histidine Kinase CKI1, was identified. The results presented here confirmed the feasibility and potential of GWAS when applied to small sets of banana accessions, at least for traits underpinned by a few loci. As phenotyping in banana is extremely space and time-consuming, this latest finding is of particular importance in the context of banana improvement. PMID:27144345

  7. The Holocene Paleolimnology of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    This study describes contributions of glacial meltwater to Lake Superior over the last 11,000 cal BP. Rhythmites (interpreted as varves), lithological and mineralogical variations, and radiocarbon dating were used to establish chronostratigraphic correlation among four sediment cores from Lake Superior (Duluth, Caribou and Ile Parisienne basins, Thunder Bay Trough). Glacial sediments were deposited between 10,850 and 8,800 cal BP. The oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracodes record the presence of glacial meltwater in ancient Lake Superior as the Laurentide Ice Sheet waxed and waned. Glacial meltwater was increasingly dominant between ~10,850 and ~9,250 cal BP, particularly as thick varves formed in northern portions of the Lake Superior Basin (10,400-10,200, 9,900 and 9,300-9,200 cal BP). Glacial meltwater supply was reduced in the Thunder Bay Trough between 9,250 and 8,950 cal BP, but returned from 8,950 to 8,800 cal BP. Glacial meltwater flow from the Lake Superior Basin probably bypassed the Huron Basin several times during this period. Final termination of glacial meltwater supply occurred at 8,800 cal BP - coincident with cessation of varve formation and inception of ancient Lakes Agassiz-Ojibway and Houghton. Primary productivity was very low and algal growth occurred under conditions of extreme nitrogen deficiency - as determined using TOC, TN and C/N ratios - until glacial meltwater supply to the Basin was ended. The postglacial sediments are non-calcareous. The diatom silica proxy record shows that oxygen-isotope compositions of water rapidly increased after glacial meltwater termination, reaching -10 per mil during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The oxygen-isotope compositions of water decreased at 3,000 cal BP in response to the Holocene Neoglacial Interval before gradually rising to Lake Superior’s modern value of -8.7 per mil. Aquatic primary productivity, inferred using TOC, TN, and the carbon- and nitrogen isotope compositions, has increased

  8. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Aaron; Um, David; Laselle, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. PMID:25247051

  9. Motor Functions of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Neeraj J.; Katnani, Husam A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) and its nonmammalian homolog, the optic tectum, constitute a major node in processing sensory information, incorporating cognitive factors, and issuing motor commands. The resulting action—to orient toward or away from a stimulus—can be accomplished as an integrated movement across oculomotor, cephalomotor, and skeletomotor effectors. The SC also participates in preserving fixation during intersaccadic intervals. This review highlights the repertoire of movements attributed to SC function and analyzes the significance of results obtained from causality-based experiments (microstimulation and inactivation). The mechanisms potentially used to decode the population activity in the SC into an appropriate movement command are also discussed. PMID:21456962

  10. Management of superior subperiosteal orbital abscess.

    PubMed

    Gavriel, Haim; Jabrin, Basel; Eviatar, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    A superior subperiosteal orbital abscess (SSPOA) is a collection of purulent material between the periorbit and the superior bony orbital wall, and is typically a complication of frontal sinusitis. SSPOA is characteristically managed by classic external surgical drainage. The aim of our study was to assess the role of surgical intervention in SSPOA. A retrospective medical chart review of patients diagnosed with SSPOA secondary to rhinosinusitis between the year 2005 and 2013 was conducted. Collected data included age, gender, co-morbidity, clinical presentation, prior antibiotic management, CT scans, surgical approach, outcome and complications. Six patients were included in our study, three males and three females with a mean age of 22.8 (range 9-58). Two patients were treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid for 3 days prior to admission. Only the youngest patient with the smallest abscess responded successfully to conservative treatment, while the rest were managed surgically: three patients were treated successfully by the endonasal endoscopic approach and two patients were treated by utilizing the combined endonasal endoscopic and external approach. In patients who underwent the combined approach, the abscess was located in a more antero-lateral position than those treated endonasal endoscopically only. The location of a SSPOA dictates the surgical approach. The most antero-lateral SSPOAs should be drained by the combined approach, while more posterior abscesses should be approached endoscopically. Furthermore, a small SSPOA is first to be reported to resolve with conservative treatment. Level 4 (case series). PMID:25700832

  11. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  12. 18. Detroit Superior Bridge, Foundation for west pier of river ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detroit Superior Bridge, Foundation for west pier of river span, dated 2/4/14. Drawing courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer, Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Monitoring Land Cover Change in the Lake Superior Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world by area and the third largest by volume. It is also the most pristine of the Great Lakes (Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan 2006). Even still, Lake Superior is not without its threats ranging from chemical contamina...

  15. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  16. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  17. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  18. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  19. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  20. Feeling superior is a bipartisan issue: extremity (not direction) of political views predicts perceived belief superiority.

    PubMed

    Toner, Kaitlin; Leary, Mark R; Asher, Michael W; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P

    2013-12-01

    Accusations of entrenched political partisanship have been launched against both conservatives and liberals. But is feeling superior about one's beliefs a partisan issue? Two competing hypotheses exist: the rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis (i.e., conservatives are dogmatic) and the ideological-extremism hypothesis (i.e., extreme views on both sides predict dogmatism). We measured 527 Americans' attitudes about nine contentious political issues, the degree to which they thought their beliefs were superior to other people's, and their level of dogmatism. Dogmatism was higher for people endorsing conservative views than for people endorsing liberal views, which replicates the rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis. However, curvilinear effects of ideological attitude on belief superiority (i.e., belief that one's position is more correct than another's) supported the ideological-extremism hypothesis. Furthermore, responses reflecting the greatest belief superiority were obtained on conservative attitudes for three issues and liberal attitudes for another three issues. These findings capture nuances in the relationship between political beliefs and attitude entrenchment that have not been revealed previously. PMID:24096379

  1. Hemodialysis through persistent left superior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Vanikar, A. V.; Gumber, M. R.; Shah, P. R.; Goplani, K. R.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of end stage renal disease patient who displayed a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) after placement of hemodialysis (HD) catheter through left internal jugular vein, as revealed by routine post-procedure X-ray chest. The diagnosis of PLSVC was confirmed by arterial blood gas, two-dimensional echocardiography, computed tomography thorax and angiographic examination. This anomaly is rather rare; few studies on safety of PLSVC for HD have been reported. The catheter was uneventfully used for HD for 2 months with careful continuous monitoring and removed after arteriovenous fistula was successfully cannulated. Physicians who place HD catheters in the left jugular/subclavian vein should be aware of the existence of PLSVC. PMID:21633545

  2. Lightning Activity During the 1999 Superior Derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. G.; Murphy, B. P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  3. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  4. Binocular interaction in the cat's superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N; Blakemore, C; Cynader, M

    1975-01-01

    1. Binocularly driven neurones with small receptive fields near the area centralis were recorded in the cat's superior colliculus. 2. Binocular interaction was tested by stimulating both eyes simultaneously with a single moving stimulus at various retinal disparities. 3. Collicular cells in general showed strong summation or even facilitation when the images of the stimulus were in exact correspondence on the receptive fields, sometimes with occlusion when they were out of register. The range of retinal disparity over which there was additive interaction could be as little as 1 or 2 deg, almost as narrow as for the most precisely tuned neurones in the visual cortex. Even cells with large receptive fields sometimes showed a narrow range of binocular interaction. 4. Non-directional cells generally exhibited weaker summation and broader disparity selectivity than did direction-selective cells. 5. Some neurones with virtually no response to a stimulus in one of the eyes can exhibit marked binocular interaction. Other apparently monocular cells show little or no binocular interaction. 6. The disparity of the centres of the receptive fields was measured after correcting for small eye movements, which were assessed by two different techniques. For 132 cells the measured distribution of horizontal disparity (range 4.5 deg; S.D. 0.93 deg) was significantly broader than that of vertical disparity (range 2.2 deg; S.D. 0.52 deg). Sources of error in these measurements are considered. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the known connexions between visual cortex and superior colliculus and the possible role of the latter in the regulation of eye movements. PMID:1133788

  5. [When and how to perform the superior oblique tucking surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Either superior oblique weakening or strengthening surgery is the most complicated and most difficult to perform in the field of strabismus surgery. The effect of superior oblique surgery is also unpredictable. In addition, improper superior oblique strengthening surgery may produce limited elevation in adduction (iatrogenic Brown syndrome). In this article, we reviewed the history of superior oblique surgery, especially on when and how to perform the superior oblique strengthening surgery for providing reference to the clinicians in the field of strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 565-567). PMID:27562275

  6. Classification of persistent left superior vena cava considering presence and development of both superior venae cavae, the anastomotic ramus between superior venae cavae, and the azygos venous system.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Mamoru; Suwa, Fumihiko; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Morishita, Ayaka

    2012-12-01

    Subjects with persistent left superior vena cava were classified on the basis of the presence and thickness of both superior venae cavae, the anastomotic ramus between the superior venae cavae (anastomotic ramus), and the presence of both azygos veins. Among subjects with persistent left superior vena cava, the percentage of those with weak development of the anastomotic ramus (41.5 %) or absence of an anastomotic ramus (35.8 %) was 77.3 %. In addition, 54.7 % of subjects had a left azygos vein. However, 88.7 % of subjects had a right azygos vein. In this classification, the most frequently observed types included the presence of both superior venae cavae, an anastomotic ramus, and both azygos veins (20.8 %). During student dissection practice sessions performed on 337 cadavers that were carried out from 2002 through 2010, a subject having a left superior vena cava (in 2002) and a subject having both superior venae cavae (in 2003) were detected. The former case was reported previously. The latter case is reported in this paper. The incidence of persistent left superior vena cava was 0.59 % (2/337 cadavers). PMID:22948517

  7. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2016-04-28

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:27067002

  8. Morphological characteristics of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Dodevski, A; Tosovska Lazarova, D; Zhivadinovik, J; Lazareska, M; Stojovska-Jovanovska, E

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of new techniques in diagnostic and interventional radiology and progress in micro neurosurgery, accurate knowledge of the brain blood vessels is essential for daily clinical work. The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of the superior cerebellar artery and to emphasize their clinical significance. In this study we examined radiographs of 109 patients who had CT angiography at the University Clinic for Radiology in Skopje, R. Macedonia. This study included 49 females and 60 males, ranging in age from 27 to 83 years; mean age 57.4 ± 11.8 years. In 105 patients SCA arose from the basilar artery on both sides as a single vessel. In two patients SCA arose as a duplicate trunk from the basilar artery. We found unilateral duplication on the right SCA in one patient, and bilateral duplication in one patient. In two patients was noticed origin of the SCA from PCA as a single trunk from adult type of the PCA. Through knowledge of the anatomy and variations of SCA is important for clinicians as well as basic scientists who deal with problems related to intracranial vasculature in daily basis for save performance of diagnostic and interventional procedures. PMID:26076777

  9. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability. PMID:16553067

  10. Left-Sided Persistent Superior Vena Cava with Superior Hemiazygos Arch

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Huban R.; Das, Aswin; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Left-side Superior Vena Cava (PLSVC) is the congenital central venous anomaly draining into the right atrium in 82-90% of cases via coronary sinus produce no haemodynamically significant consequences. In few cases it may drain into the left atrium directly or through the pulmonary veins resulting in right to left shunt. During routine undergraduate dissection, we found a PLSVC formed by the union of left subclavian and left internal jugular veins behind the left sternoclavicular joint was terminated into the right atrium through a larger coronary sinus ostium. Before its termination, PLSVC received a left hemiazygos vein formed by the continuation of the superior and inferior hemiazygos veins. A larger but thin communicating vein was noted between the right superior vena cava and PLSVC. Prior knowledge about such variations is essential in all the intervention procedures on right atrium through the left subclavian approach and also like in our case, the larger coronary sinus ostium if found during transthoracic echocardiography should be considered as an indication for the diagnosis of PLSVC.

  11. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  12. Multi-Objective Lake Superior Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.

    2011-12-01

    At the direction of the International Joint Commission (IJC) the International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS) Board is investigating possible changes to the present method of regulating the outflows of Lake Superior (SUP) to better meet the contemporary needs of the stakeholders. In this study, a new plan in the form of a rule curve that is directly interpretable for regulation of SUP is proposed. The proposed rule curve has 18 parameters that should be optimized. The IUGLS Board is also interested in a regulation strategy that considers potential effects of climate uncertainty. Therefore, the quality of the rule curve is assessed simultaneously for multiple supply sequences that represent various future climate scenarios. The rule curve parameters are obtained by solving a computationally intensive bi-objective simulation-optimization problem that maximizes the total increase in navigation and hydropower benefits of the new regulation plan and minimizes the sum of all normalized constraint violations. The objective and constraint values are obtained from a Microsoft Excel based Shared Vision Model (SVM) that compares any new SUP regulation plan with the current regulation policy. The underlying optimization problem is solved by a recently developed, highly efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm called Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS). To further improve the computational efficiency of the simulation-optimization problem, the model pre-emption strategy is used in a novel way to avoid the complete evaluation of regulation plans with low quality in both objectives. Results show that the generated rule curve is robust and typically more reliable when facing unpredictable climate conditions compared to other SUP regulation plans.

  13. Vocal premotor activity in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shiva R; Moss, Cynthia F

    2007-01-01

    Chronic neural recordings were taken from the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of echolocating bats while they were engaged in one of two distinct behavioral tasks: virtual target amplitude discrimination (VTAD) and real oscillating target tracking (ROTT). In the VTAD task, bats used a limited range of sonar call features to discriminate the amplitude category of echoes, whereas in the ROTT task, the bat produced dynamically modulated sonar calls to track a moving target. Newly developed methods for chronic recordings in unrestrained, behaving bats reveal two consistent bouts of SC neural activity preceding the onset of sonar vocalizations in both tasks. A short lead bout occurs tightly coupled to vocal onset (VTAD, -5.1 to -2.2 ms range, -3.6 +/- 0.7 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -3.0 to + 0.4 ms range, -1.2 +/- 1.3 ms mean lead time), and this activity may play a role in marking the time of each sonar emission. A long lead bout in SC activity occurs earlier and spreads over a longer interval (VTAD, -40.6 to -8.4 ms range, -22.2 +/- 3.9 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -29.8 to -7.1 ms range, -17.5 +/- 9.1 ms mean lead time) when compared with short lead events. In the goal-directed ROTT task, the timing of long lead event times vary with the bat's sonar call duration. This finding, along with behavioral studies demonstrating that bats adjust sonar call duration as they track targets at changing distance, suggests the bat SC contributes to range-dependent adjustments of sonar call duration. PMID:17202477

  14. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  15. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by

  16. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  17. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  20. 77 FR 50079 - Meeting of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Meeting of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The... review, selection, prioritization and recommendation projects submitted by August 27, 2012, under...

  1. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior program achievement. 2.60 Section 2.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.60 Superior program achievement. (a)...

  2. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  3. 45 CFR 73.735-504 - Gifts to official superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gifts to official superiors. 73.735-504 Section 73.735-504 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors § 73.735-504 Gifts to official superiors. An employee shall...

  4. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  5. Word superiority, pseudoword superiority, and learning to read: a comparison of dyslexic and normal readers.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Jonathan; Bouttevin, Sébastien; Truc, Cathy; Bastien, Mireille; Ziegler, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    Identification of letters embedded in briefly presented words (e.g., TABLE), pseudowords (e.g., TOBLE), and illegal nonwords (e.g., TPBFE) was measured using the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm. Children diagnosed as dyslexic and showing a clear disadvantage in recognizing and reading aloud words and pseudowords (compared to chronological age-matched controls) showed a pattern of results that was qualitatively identical to both reading age and chronological age control children. In all three groups a small nonsignificant advantage was obtained for letter identification in words compared to pseudowords, and a massive advantage for letter identification in pseudowords compared to illegal nonwords. A group of adult participants tested with the same materials showed the classic word superiority effect as well as a pseudoword advantage over illegal nonwords. These results suggest that the pseudoword superiority effect is subtended by regularities operating at the level of sublexical orthographic representations (orthotactic constraints). This phenomenon could provide a useful tool for future investigations of the development of orthotactic constraints during reading acquisition. PMID:14642545

  6. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  7. LIMNOLOGY OF MICHIGAN'S NEARSHORE WATERS OF LAKES SUPERIOR AND HURON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limnological assessments, including water and sediment chemistry, bacterial densities, zoo- and phyto-plankton and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, and fish contaminants, were performed at 24 locations in Michigan's nearshore waters of Lakes Superior and Huron in 19...

  8. FISH ASSEMBLAGES AS INDICATORS OF LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages associated with coastal wetlands in Lake Superior are poorly described. Understanding the environmental factors structuring the biota in these habitats is essential to developing robust indicators of their condition. To identify key environmental influences struc...

  9. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  10. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  11. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  12. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  13. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substance abuse program of at least 500 hours will be given prompt review by the Commission for a possible... or a case with both superior program achievement and minor disciplinary infraction(s))....

  14. Sonographically guided superior laryngeal nerve block during awake fiberoptic intubation.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Andrew; Tang, Raymond; Vaghadia, Himat

    2015-04-15

    We report 5 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block before awake intubation and general anesthesia. We used a 8- to 15-MHz hockey stick-shaped ultrasound transducer (HST15-8/20 linear probe, Ultrasonix) to visualize the superior laryngeal nerve. A 3.8-cm 25-G needle was inserted in real time and directed toward the superior laryngeal nerve followed by circumferential placement of local anesthetic. All 5 patients tolerated subsequent awake fiberoptic intubation with either minimal or no sedation. Sonographically guided superior laryngeal nerve block may be useful in patients where identification of landmarks in the neck is difficult as a result of patient anatomy. PMID:25867195

  15. 2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High Level bridge (1914-1917). Pier #3 and #4 support the steel rive span. They are 116 feet by 80 feet at the base and rest on stiff blue clay 45 feet below the surface of the river. Cast-steel bolsters of the three-hinge steel arch are anchored by structural steel grillage to the masory piers. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism Treated with Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-02-15

    A case of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism treated with percutaneous thrombus aspiration is described. A 63-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to the hospital with progressive abdominal pain. Computed tomography angiography revealed an occlusion of the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was effectively treated using transaxillary percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using a 6F Aspirex thrombectomy catheter.

  17. Superior vena cava syndrome: A radiation oncologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, Kaustav; Panda, Soumadip; Goyle, Sandeep; Bhadra, Kallol; Mistry, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is referred to as a constellation of symptoms and signs caused by obstruction of superior vena cava. It can occur due to both benign and malignant causes with the latter being the predominant. There is a paradigm shift in the approach to manage this condition. It is no longer considered a medical emergency and histological diagnosis is necessary before treatment. This article reviews the causes, symptoms, pathophysiology, and overall management policy which have changed over decades. PMID:27461602

  18. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  19. Achieving success with the silicone expander for overacting superior obliques.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Z F; Greenberg, M

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report the results of and complications with silicone expander surgery for the overacting superior oblique. METHODS: A total of 26 patients with bilateral overaction of the superior oblique and A-pattern strabismus and 5 patients with unilateral overacting superior oblique secondary to inferior oblique palsy were treated with a 7 mm silicone expander. Care was taken not to enter the sub-Tenon's space. RESULTS: The group that underwent bilateral superior oblique surgery had an average preoperative pattern of 37.42 diopters (D) and an average correction of 35.37 D. Three patients had a severe unilateral postoperative inflammatory incident that was successfully treated with oral and topical corticosteroids. One of these patient developed Brown's syndrome. Another patient, who had no postoperative inflammatory incident, also developed Brown's syndrome. In these 4 patients, the sub-Tenon's space was inadvertently entered during surgery. CONCLUSION: The silicone expander surgery has a very high success rate in treating the A-pattern associated with the bilateral overacting superior oblique. This procedure also works well for the unilateral superior oblique that overacts owing to an inferior oblique palsy. No cyclotorsion symptoms occurred after this surgery. However, 4 patients had complications because the sub-Tenon's space was exposed during surgery. With this procedure, there is a learning curve to obtain the skill not to enter the sub-Tenon's space. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10703132

  20. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  1. Specialization along the Left Superior Temporal Sulcus for Auditory Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rutvik; Ellingson, Michael M.; Ramachandran, Brinda; Desai, Anjali; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    The affinity and temporal course of functional fields in middle and posterior superior temporal cortex for the categorization of complex sounds was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded simultaneously. Data were compared before and after subjects were trained to categorize a continuum of unfamiliar nonphonemic auditory patterns with speech-like properties (NP) and a continuum of familiar phonemic patterns (P). fMRI activation for NP increased after training in left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). The ERP P2 response to NP also increased with training, and its scalp topography was consistent with left posterior superior temporal generators. In contrast, the left middle superior temporal sulcus (mSTS) showed fMRI activation only for P, and this response was not affected by training. The P2 response to P was also independent of training, and its estimated source was more anterior in left superior temporal cortex. Results are consistent with a role for left pSTS in short-term representation of relevant sound features that provide the basis for identifying newly acquired sound categories. Categorization of highly familiar phonemic patterns is mediated by long-term representations in left mSTS. Results provide new insight regarding the function of ventral and dorsal auditory streams. PMID:20382643

  2. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  3. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  4. Revealing the superior perceptibility of words in Arabic.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Almabruk, Abubaker A A

    2010-01-01

    When alphabetic stimuli are presented very briefly, people perceive real words better than nonwords. It is generally accepted that this word superiority effect reflects the efficiency of visual word perception. However, much of what is known about this effect comes from research conducted in languages using the Latin alphabet (eg English, French, Italian), and little is known about whether alphabetic languages with visual properties fundamentally different from Latinate languages also produce word superiority effects. We report an experiment in which stimuli (words, illegal nonwords, and pseudowords) were presented in Arabic, which is a cursive script, read from right to left. The findings revealed advantages for words over pseudowords and illegal nonwords, and for pseudowords over illegal nonwords, indicating that the superiority effects reported for Latinate languages are also observed in Arabic. Implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in word recognition are discussed. PMID:20465177

  5. Do high functioning persons with autism present superior spatial abilities?

    PubMed

    Caron, M-J; Mottron, L; Rainville, C; Chouinard, S

    2004-01-01

    This series of experiments was aimed at assessing spatial abilities in high functioning individuals with autism (HFA), using a human-size labyrinth. In the context of recent findings that the performance of individuals with HFA was superior to typically developing individuals in several non-social cognitive operations, it was expected that the HFA group would outperform a typically developing comparison group matched on full-scale IQ. Results showed that individuals with autism performed all spatial tasks at a level at least equivalent to the typically developing comparison group. No differences between groups were found in route and survey tasks. Superior performance for individuals with HFA was found in tasks involving maps, in the form of superior accuracy in graphic cued recall of a path, and shorter learning times in a map learning task. We propose that a superior ability to detect [Human Perception and Performance 27 (3) (2001) 719], match [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34 (1993) 1351] and reproduce [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40 (5) (1999) 743] simple visual elements yields superior performance in tasks relying on the detection and graphic reproduction of the visual elements composing a map. Enhanced discrimination, detection, and memory for visually simple patterns in autism may account for the superior performance of persons with autism on visuo-spatial tasks that heavily involve pattern recognition, either in the form of recognizing and memorizing landmarks or in detecting the similarity between map and landscape features. At a neuro-anatomical level, these findings suggest an intact dorso-lateral pathway, and enhanced performance in non social tasks relying on the infero-temporal pathway. PMID:14728920

  6. Is Automated Weaning Superior to Manual Spontaneous Breathing Trials?

    PubMed

    Holets, Steven R; Marini, John J

    2016-06-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation involves the reduction or withdrawal of ventilatory support in proportion to the patient's ability to sustain spontaneous ventilation. Protocolized weaning has been shown to reduce weaning duration; however, its weakness lies in the reliance on human intervention. Automated weaning is theoretically superior to manual weaning because of its ability to rapidly recognize deviations from desired behavior and enforce compliance with a standardized weaning strategy unencumbered by external influences. Whether currently available methods for automated weaning fulfill that potential to achieve superiority depends on patient type, care environment, and cause of ventilator dependence. PMID:27235311

  7. Large hemangioma in a persistent left superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Wang, Xiang; Tan, Sichuang; Fan, Songqing; Liu, Jun; Yu, Fenglei; Tang, Jingqun

    2012-12-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas represent 1 to 2% of all detected benign heart tumors. Tumors in the coronary sinus have been reported; however, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of masses in a persistent left superior vena cava. We report here the first case of a 58-year-old man with a rare huge unicamerate cardiac hemangiomas in a persistent left superior vena cava. A communication vein between the coronary sinus and hemangiomas could be identified, and thrombus formation was found in the hemangiomas as well. PMID:23180384

  8. Endoscopic-Assisted Repair of Superior Canal Dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yew Song; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a bony defect of the superior canal that can cause vestibular and/or auditory symptoms. Surgical repair of SCD provides effective relief from symptoms, and the middle fossa craniotomy approach with binocular microscopy offers direct visualization and surgical access to the arcuate eminence. However, for SCDs located along the downsloping tegmen medial to the peak of the arcuate eminence, a direct light of sight may be obscured, rendering visualization with traditional microscopy difficult. The endoscope is the ideal adjunct in middle fossa craniotomy approach SCD surgery and offers a safe, effective means to identify and repair arcuate eminence defects hidden from microscopic view. PMID:27565386

  9. Fatal Pericardial Tamponade After Superior Vena Cava Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Ploegmakers, Marieke J. M. Rutten, Matthieu J. C. M.

    2009-05-15

    We discuss a fatal complication of percutaneous superior vena cava (SVC) self-expandable stent placement in a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). The SVCS was caused by a malignant mediastinal mass with total occlusion of the SVC. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, the patient died of a hemopericardial tamponade. In the literature, only seven cases have been described with this life-threatening complication. Patients with a necrotic tumor mass are more likely to develop this complication. Knowledge of this complication may increase patient survival.

  10. Ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock: Case report.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Kerem Seref; Aksel, Gokhan; Yildiz, Altan

    2016-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery (SGA) is very rare and the most common causes are blunt or penetrating pelvic traumas. Although pseudoaneurysm can be asymptomatic at the time of initial trauma, it can be symptomatic weeks, months, even years after initial trauma. We present a case of a ruptured superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm with hemorrhagic shock twenty days after a bomb injury in the Syria civil war. In addition, we review the anatomy of the SGA, clinical presentation and pitfalls of pseudoaneurysm, and imaging and treatment options. PMID:27239635

  11. ZOOBENTHOS ASSEMBLAGES AS INDICATORS OF LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the diversity or structure of zoobenthos assemblages in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of a comparative study in western Lake Superior we wanted to investigate whether these assemblages might be useful as indicators of wetland condition. We also wante...

  12. 7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County Land Records, Book 2G, p. 299) John McKinnon (County Surveyor), delineator 11 January 1817 PLAT OF SITE, SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF BUILDING - William Taylor Store, 204 West Bay Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. Early detection of non-indigenous fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the ecological stability of the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as “high risk” for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, M...

  14. Early detection of invasive fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as "high risk" for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, MN, Upper St. Marys River near S...

  15. Water resources of the Lake Superior watershed, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olcott, Perry G.; Ericson, D.W.; Felsheim, P.E.; Broussard, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Nemadji River and tributaries drain the Nemadji Basin, the southern detached part of the watershed. Topographically, the Nemadji Basin is roughly spoon shaped with maximum total relief in Minnesota of about 800 ft (244 m). More than half of the approximately 55-mi (88-km) long river flows northeastward through Wisconsin before reaching Lake Superior.

  16. Cationic amphiphilic non-hemolytic polyacrylates with superior antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Punia, Ashish; He, Edward; Lee, Kevin; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Acrylic copolymers with appropriate compositions of counits having cationic charge with 2-carbon and 6-carbon spacer arms can show superior antibacterial activities with concomitant very low hemolytic effect. These amphiphilic copolymers represent one of the most promising synthetic polymer antibacterial systems reported. PMID:24854366

  17. Protein tyrosine phosphatases expression during development of mouse superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Horvat-Bröcker, Andrea; Illes, Sebastian; Zaremba, Angelika; Knyazev, Piotr; Ullrich, Axel; Faissner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of different processes during development of the central nervous system. However, expression patterns and potential roles of PTPs in the developing superior colliculus remain poorly investigated. In this study, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used to isolate seven different intracellular PTPs and nine different receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) from embryonic E15 mouse superior colliculus. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 11 PTPs (TC-PTP, PTP1C, PTP1D, PTP-MEG2, PTP-PEST, RPTPJ, RPTPε, RPTPRR, RPTPσ, RPTPκ and RPTPγ) were further analyzed in detail in superior colliculus from embryonic E13 to postnatal P20 stages by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Each of the 11 PTPs exhibits distinct spatiotemporal regulation of mRNAs and proteins in the developing superior colliculus suggesting their versatile roles in genesis of neuronal and glial cells and retinocollicular topographic mapping. At E13, additional double-immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PTPs in collicular nestin-positive neural progenitor cells and RC-2-immunoreactive radial glia cells, indicating the potential functional importance of PTPs in neurogenesis and gliogenesis. PMID:19727691

  18. Depth-specific Analyses of the Lake Superior Food Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristics of large, deep aquatic systems include depth gradients in community composition, in the quality and distribution of food resources, and in the strategies that organisms use to obtain their nutrition. In Lake Superior, nearshore communities that rely upon a combina...

  19. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  20. Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

  1. Why Is Visual Search Superior in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Robert M.; Keehn, Brandon; Connolly, Christine; Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that enhanced memory for rejected distractor locations underlies the superior visual search skills exhibited by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We compared the performance of 21 children with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children in a standard static search task…

  2. Pushing the Limits: Achieving Superior Arabic Fluency in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the current situation of Arabic education in the United States with an overarching question of, "What is the best way for a student of Arabic in the United States to achieve Superior proficiency?" This study focuses on two elite institutions of Arabic education in the United States. This study is based on 3 sources of…

  3. Denitrification Rates in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen to the Nation’s aquatic ecosystems have increased substantially over the past several decades. Nitrogen inputs to Lake Superior since about 1900 have increased at a rate of about 2% per year, doubling about every 35 years (Bennett, 1986), althoug...

  4. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure for two time periods separated by 5 years. The data consisted of water analyzed on a Coulter counter for algae, in situ measurements with a laser optical pl...

  5. SUPERIOR COLLICULUS LESIONS AND FLASH EVOKED POTENTIALS FROM RAT CORTEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally assumed that the primary response of the rat flash evoked potential (FEP) is activated by a retino-geniculate pathway, and that the second response reflects input to the cortex by way of the superior colliculus (SC) or other brainstem structures. In the present st...

  6. A thermal scanning study of coastal upwelling in Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Green, T., III; Madding, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a thermal scanner to monitor the time evolution of the thermal structure of the coastal waters in Lake Superior during an upwelling event is described. Mosaics of thermal imagery from ten different times are described. Qualitative descriptions of the imagery give insight into the upwelling event. Recommendations for future use of a thermal scanner to monitor an upwelling event are discussed.

  7. LAND USE ACTIVITIES AND WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographic Information Systems (GlS), computer systems which can analyze mapped information, can help reduce nonpoint source pollution in the Lake Superior basin by providing researchers and managers with a tool for predicting the consequences of land use change. n an EPA-funded ...

  8. Mesenteric castleman disease mimicking superior mesenteric artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Yang Jin; Kim, Young-Wook

    2015-02-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is known as a lymphoproliferative disorder, which is most commonly located in the mediastinum. CD occurring in the mesentery is very rare. We report a case of CD in the mesentery, which is mimicking a superior mesenteric artery aneurysm on computed tomography image. PMID:25463333

  9. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  10. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  11. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zone; Superior Bay, Duluth, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... spectators during the Superior Man Triathlon. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. on... Triathlon, which are discussed further below. Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3), the Coast Guard finds that...

  12. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  13. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Other cold-water fishes–cottids, ninespine sticklebacks, smelt, and four species of coregonines–were the most frequent associates of the pygmy whitefish. Lake trout and trout-perch were also taken with it at the same stations or in the same trawl hauls. Its closest relative in Lake Superior, the round whitefish, was not an ecological associate.

  14. Exchange Between Superiors and Subordinates in Large Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Philip M.; House, James S.

    1973-01-01

    Social exchange theory is used to formulate hypotheses about superior-subordinate relations in large complex organizations. Data from self-administered questionnaires are used to support the hypotheses derived from the theoretical model and suggest the utility of further research using social exchange theory. (Author)

  15. Visuospatial Superiority in Developmental Dyslexia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Marzano, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that dyslexia is positively associated with superior visuospatial ability but empirical evidence is inconsistent. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that dyslexia is associated with visuospatial advantage in 20 dyslexic and 21 unimpaired adult readers using paper-and-pencil measures and tests of "everyday"…

  16. Word and pseudoword superiority effects reflected in the ERP waveform.

    PubMed

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya

    2010-05-01

    A variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task was used to determine when in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform indices of word and pseudoword superiority effects might be present, and whether ERP measures of superiority effects correlated with standardized behavioral measures of orthographic fluency and single word reading. ERPs were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real words (DARK/PARK), pseudowords (DARL/PARL), nonwords (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli. Participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in the string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Behaviorally, both word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline conditions) superiority effects were observed. Electrophysiologically, effects of orthographic regularity and familiarity were apparent as early as the P150 time window (100-160ms), an effect of lexicality was observed as early as the N200 time window (160-200ms), and peak amplitude of the N300 and N400 also differentiated word and pseudoword as compared to baseline stimuli. Further, the size of the P150 and N400 ERP word superiority effects was related to standardized behavioral measures of fluency and reading. Results suggest that orthographic fluency is reflected in both lower-level, sublexical, perceptual processing and higher-level, lexical processing in fluently reading adults. PMID:20211607

  17. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  18. A Developmental, Interactive Activation Model of the Word Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Christopher H.; Tallal, Paula

    1990-01-01

    Examined effects of orthographic context on the letter recognition skills of dyslexic children, comparing their performance to that of adults and of chronological and reading age-matched groups. Results showed that the two matched groups showed strong word superiority effect (WSE) for words and pseudowords over nonwords. Dyslexic readers did not…

  19. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  20. Superiority of Vicarious over Direct Experience in Interpersonal Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braver, Sanford L.; Rohrer, Van

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory experiment compared the relative effects of observing and participating in a first Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) on subsequent PDG encounters by the original observer and participant. Concludes that vicarious experience is superior to direct experience in producing responses that reduce interpersonal conflict. Available from: Sage…

  1. AIRBORNE MERCURY IN PRECIPITATION IN THE LAKE SUPERIOR REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury was measured in accumulated snow (March 1982) sampled from around Lake Superior and in rainfall from Duluth, Minnesota (June-September 1982 and March-November 1983), Forbes Township, and Dorset in northwestern and central Ontario, respectively (May-September 1983). Method...

  2. Lake Superior Phytoplankton Characterization from the 2006 Probability Based Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a late summer probability based survey of Lake Superior in 2006 which consisted of 52 sites stratified across 3 depth zones. As part of this effort, we collected composite phytoplankton samples from the epilimnion and the fluorescence maxima (Fmax) at 29 of the site...

  3. Total variation superiorization schemes in proton computed tomography image reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Penfold, S. N.; Schulte, R. W.; Censor, Y.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative projection reconstruction algorithms are currently the preferred reconstruction method in proton computed tomography (pCT). However, due to inconsistencies in the measured data arising from proton energy straggling and multiple Coulomb scattering, the noise in the reconstructed image increases with successive iterations. In the current work, the authors investigated the use of total variation superiorization (TVS) schemes that can be applied as an algorithmic add-on to perturbation-resilient iterative projection algorithms for pCT image reconstruction. Methods: The block-iterative diagonally relaxed orthogonal projections (DROP) algorithm was used for reconstructing GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulated pCT data sets. Two TVS schemes added on to DROP were investigated; the first carried out the superiorization steps once per cycle and the second once per block. Simplifications of these schemes, involving the elimination of the computationally expensive feasibility proximity checking step of the TVS framework, were also investigated. The modulation transfer function and contrast discrimination function were used to quantify spatial and density resolution, respectively. Results: With both TVS schemes, superior spatial and density resolution was achieved compared to the standard DROP algorithm. Eliminating the feasibility proximity check improved the image quality, in particular image noise, in the once-per-block superiorization, while also halving image reconstruction time. Overall, the greatest image quality was observed when carrying out the superiorization once per block and eliminating the feasibility proximity check. Conclusions: The low-contrast imaging made possible with TVS holds a promise for its incorporation into future pCT studies. PMID:21158301

  4. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  5. [Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Necessitating Resection of Superior Vena Cava].

    PubMed

    Aragaki, Masato; Iimura, Yasuaki; Hasegawa, Naoto; Kaga, Kichizo

    2015-09-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. Computed tomography revealed a tumor with calcification of 9.8 cm in size at the anterior mediastinum. The infiltration into the left brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava by tumor was suspected. Surgery was performed under a diagnosis of mature teratoma. The tumor was found to adhere firmly to superior vena cava (SVC), left brachiocephalic vein, right phrenic nerve, and the arch of the azygos vein. To ensure the blood flow, an artificial blood vessel was placed between left brachiocephalic vein and right atrium. Then SVC was clamped and the tumor was resected with the part of SVC. PMID:26329629

  6. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  7. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  8. Habitat change in a perched dune system along Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Walter L.; McEachern, A. Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    Episodes of habitat change, driven by changes in levels of the Great Lakes, must be considered when assessing human effects upon coastal vegetation and rare species. Paleoecological studies, baseline inventories, and long-term monitoring programs within the Grand Sable Dunes, a perched-dune system along Lake Superior, provide a window on vegetation change at different spatial and temporal scales and also provide an illustrative case study.

  9. What else is hiding behind superior mesenteric artery syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Paola; Iacobelli, Barbara Daniela; Torroni, Filippo; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Bagolan, Pietro; Fusaro, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is an uncommon condition in children. We describe a case of a 7-year-old boy with SMAS that occurred 3 years after a Deloyers' procedure for subtotal colonic Hirschsprung who was admitted for bilious vomit, abdominal pain and diarrhea due to unrecognized celiac disease. This case emphasize that SMAS in children needs a close medical and surgical follow-up to avoid an underestimation of early clinical signs unrelated to surgery. PMID:25972411

  10. Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula embolisation complicated by bowel ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Maher; Issa, Ghada; Muhsen, Shirin; Haydar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistulas are rare, especially when iatrogenic in origin. Management of these fistulas can be surgical or endovascular. Endovascular embolisation is the preferred modality with a low rate of complications. Among the reported complications, bowel ischaemia is considered an unlikely occurrence. We report a case of a complex iatrogenic arterioportal fistula that was managed by endovascular embolisation and controlled through both its inflow and outflow, and was later complicated by bowel ischaemia. PMID:23682091

  11. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  12. Superior Labral Anterior Posterior Lesions of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Malal, Joby Jacob George; Khan, Yousaf; Farrar, Graville; Waseem, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Superior labrum anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesion is of fairly recent description and its understanding is rapidly evolving. Its incidence and need for surgical treatment has increased exponentially in line with the increase in shoulder arthroscopies. It is of particular importance in the elite over head athlete and the young. A range of arthroscopic techniques and devices have been described with good functional results. The ability to return to pre injury level of sports remains a concern. PMID:24082975

  13. Bilateral mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery.

    PubMed

    Bouarhroum, Abdellatif; El Khloufi, Samir; El Hassani, Rachid; Bensaid, Younes

    2009-01-01

    Gluteal artery aneurysms are rare and mostly secondary to blunt or penetrating trauma. As an absolute rarity, we report an exceptional presentation of bilateral mycotic aneurysm of the superior gluteal artery in a 16-year-old boy associated with bacterial endocarditis. The left pseudoaneurysm was ruptured and treated using open surgery; 1 week later, the right location was successfully treated by embolization. PMID:19540714

  14. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  15. Delayed Superior Orbital Fissure Syndrome After Reconstruction of Blowout Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Joon; Choi, Woong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) has been known to be a condition caused by impairment of the nerves that cross the superior orbital fissure. Traumatic SOFS is an uncommon complication which occurs usually within 48 hours after a facial injury. A 25-year-old male sustained facial trauma following an altercation. Clinical findings on presentation included swelling, ecchymosis, hyphema, subretinal hemorrhage, and mild extraocular movement limitation upon lateral gaze on his right eyelids. Facial computed tomography scan confirmed fractures of the medial walls of the right orbit and herniation of orbital soft tissue without the incarceration of medial rectus muscle. Ten days after the trauma, the operation was performed. On postoperative day 16, the patient showed ptosis of the right upper eyelid with a fixed pupil, and there was a hypoesthesia over the distribution of the right supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves. The authors diagnosed as a delayed SOFS and prescribed 4 mg of methylprednisolone q.i.d. for 30 days. After steroid therapy, extraocular movement limitations improved progressively. After 8 months, movement was completely restored. The authors experienced delayed SOFS on posttrauma day 27, and it was treated by steroid therapy. Surgical intervention is required when there is an evident etiology such as underlying hematoma or plate migration. If the reason is not clear like our case, steroid therapy can be considered as one of the options. Particularly, the authors should give special attention to the patient who has congenitally narrow superior orbital fissure, like Fujiwara et al suggested. PMID:26674904

  16. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed. PMID:3157769

  17. Ideomotor Apraxia Due to Injury of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Jang, Woo Hyuk

    2016-08-01

    We report on a patient who showed ideomotor apraxia due to injury of the superior longitudinal fasciculus following brain tumor and tumor bleeding, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 60-yr-old, right-handed male patient underwent removal of brain meningioma and drainage of intraventricular hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-parietal lobe. At the time of DTT scanning (5 wk after onset), he was able to move the right upper extremity against gravity. The patient exhibited an intact ideational plan for motor performance. In addition, he was able to use actual objects (scissors, eraser) using his right wrist and hand. However, he had difficulty in using his right upper extremity for pantomime of object use, imitating gestures (meaningless or meaningful), and movement of his right upper extremity proximal. Score on the ideomotor apraxia test for the right side was 4 (cut-off score < 32). DTTs for the left superior longitudinal fasciculus to the left premotor cortex and left inferior parietal lobule showed partial injury, compared with the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. These injuries appeared to be the reason for ideomotor apraxia in this patient. PMID:27003199

  18. Controlled movement processing: superior colliculus activity associated with countermanded saccades.

    PubMed

    Paré, Martin; Hanes, Doug P

    2003-07-23

    We investigated whether the monkey superior colliculus (SC), an important midbrain structure for the regulation of saccadic eye movements, contains neurons with activity patterns sufficient to control both the cancellation and the production of saccades. We used a countermanding task to manipulate the probability that, after the presentation of a stop signal, the monkeys canceled a saccade that was planned in response to an eccentric visual stimulus. By modeling each animal's behavioral responses, with a race between GO and STOP processes leading up to either saccade initiation or cancellation, we estimated that saccade cancellation took on average 110 msec. Neurons recorded in the superior colliculus intermediate layers during this task exhibited the discharge properties expected from neurons closely involved in behavioral control. Both saccade- and fixation-related discharged differently when saccades were counter-manded instead of executed, and the time at which they changed their activity preceded the behavioral estimate of saccade cancellation obtained from the same trials by 10 and 13 msec, respectively. Furthermore, these intervals exceed the minimal amount of time needed for SC activity to influence eye movements. The additional observation that saccade-related neurons discharged significantly less when saccades were countermanded instead of executed suggests that saccades are triggered when these neurons reach a critical activation level. Altogether, these findings provide solid evidence that the superior colliculus contains the necessary neural signals to be directly involved in the decision process that regulates whether a saccade is to be produced. PMID:12878689

  19. Prey selection by the Lake Superior fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.

  20. Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Lee, Thay Q.; Itami, Yasuo; HASEGAWA, Akihiko; Ohue, Mutsumi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: An arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction, in which the fascia lata autograft attached medially to the superior glenoid and laterally to the greater tuberosity, restores shoulder stability and muscle balance in patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears; consequently, it improves shoulder function specifically deltoid muscle function and relieves pain. We assessed the clinical outcome of arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (Figure 1) in 100 consecutive patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears. Specifically, we focused on the rates of return to sport and work. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, we performed arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction on 107 consecutive patients (mean 66.7 years; range, 43 to 82) with irreparable rotator cuff tears that had failed conservative treatment. Seven patients were lost to follow-up because of other medical problems or reasons. In the remaining 100 patients there were 56 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears; 39 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears; 3 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis tears; and 2 supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor tears. Physical examination, radiography, and MRI were performed before surgery; at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and yearly thereafter. Rates of return to sport and work were also investigated in those patients who had been employed (34 patients: 21 manual workers, 10 farmers, 1 butcher, 1 cook, and 1 athletic trainer) or played sport (26 patients: 6 golf, 4 table tennis, 4 swimming, 3 martial arts, 2 baseball, 2 yoga, 1 tennis, 1 badminton, 1 skiing, 1 mountain-climbing, and 1 ground golf) before injury. Results: The average preoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score was 31.6 points (range, 3.3 to 63.3 points) and the average Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score was 51.6 points (26.5 to 68.5 points). Average postoperative clinical outcome scores all improved significantly at final

  1. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. PMID:25086308

  2. The Building of the Archean Superior Craton: Thermal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The building of a craton involves the extraction of continental crust from the Earth's mantle and the lateral accretion of juvenile volcanic terranes. Ascertaining which conditions allow a newborn continental assemblage to survive requires information on its mechanical strength, which depends on the amount and vertical distribution of radioactive elements in the crust. There is thus a connection between crust formation mechanisms and a successful amalgamation process. To address outstanding questions concerning Archean cratons, the Superior province in Canada is the perfect region because it contains a well preserved geological record of accretion that provides compelling evidence for plate tectonic processes at 2.7 Ga. At almost the same time, the rate of continental growth decreased significantly, which may result from either slower crust formation or enhanced destruction through erosion and subduction. These issues are linked to the strength of the newborn continent. The extensive heat flow data set now available in the Superior Province reveals a clear demarcation between a chemically depleted and differentiated craton core and weakly differentiated enriched juvenile accreted terranes. The Superior craton was thus made of a strong core surrounded by weak terranes. This dichotomy implies that the accretion process could not involve complex imbrication of the accreted belts into the craton core. Subsequently, the craton may have been protected from convective disruption or delamination by its weak margins. Differences between the craton core and accreted terranes may be due to different crustal extraction processes, such as melting in a mantle plume or magmatism in a subduction zone. If subduction started at about 3 Ga, as advocated by several authors, the assembly and survival of large cratons may well be a consequence of this key shift in mantle activity. Alternatively, the chemical depletion of the craton core may be due to a prolonged history of internal

  3. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers. PMID:8911930

  4. Compartmental Innervation of the Superior Oblique Muscle in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Le, Alan; Poukens, Vadims; Ying, Howard; Rootman, Daniel; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intramuscular innervation of mammalian horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is compartmental. We sought evidence of similar compartmental innervation of the superior oblique (SO) muscle. Methods Three fresh bovine orbits and one human orbit were dissected to trace continuity of SO muscle and tendon fibers to the scleral insertions. Whole orbits were also obtained from four humans (two adults, a 17-month-old child, and a 33-week stillborn fetus), two rhesus monkeys, one rabbit, and one cow. Orbits were formalin fixed, embedded whole in paraffin, serially sectioned in the coronal plane at 10-μm thickness, and stained with Masson trichrome. Extraocular muscle fibers and branches of the trochlear nerve (CN4) were traced in serial sections and reconstructed in three dimensions. Results In the human, the lateral SO belly is in continuity with tendon fibers inserting more posteriorly on the sclera for infraducting mechanical advantage, while the medial belly is continuous with anteriorly inserting fibers having mechanical advantage for incycloduction. Fibers in the monkey superior SO insert more posteriorly on the sclera to favor infraduction, while the inferior portion inserts more anteriorly to favor incycloduction. In all species, CN4 bifurcates prior to penetrating the SO belly. Each branch innervates a nonoverlapping compartment of EOM fibers, consisting of medial and lateral compartments in humans and monkeys, and superior and inferior compartments in cows and rabbits. Conclusions The SO muscle of humans and other mammals is compartmentally innervated in a manner that could permit separate CN4 branches to selectively influence vertical versus torsional action. PMID:26426404

  5. Radiological Management of Superior Vena Caval Stent Migration and Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Srinathan, Sadeesh McCafferty, Ian; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-15

    We report a case of venous obstruction secondary to Hodgkin's lymphoma. Multiple Wallstents were inserted into the superior vena cava to relieve obstructive symptoms secondary to tumor. This procedure was complicated by stent migration into the right ventricle and a presumed stent infection. We describe the percutaneous management of these complications and discuss the issues surrounding the use of stents in this setting. We conclude that these complications can be managed percutaneously. However, the technical details of stent placement are essential in minimizing complications of this type.

  6. Clipping of ipsilateral posterior communicating and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Welch, Babu G

    2015-01-01

    The case is a 55-year-old female who presented with dizziness as the chief complaint. She has a family history of two relatives with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the presence of a left-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm. Due to the smaller nature of the SCA, a decision was made to proceed with surgical clipping of both lesions through a pterional approach. A narrated video with illustrations depicts the intraoperative management of these lesions with postoperative angiography results. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/HCHToSsXv-4 . PMID:25554845

  7. Superior vena cava reconstruction using bovine jugular vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei Dong; Yu, Feng Lei; Wu, Zhong Shi

    2007-11-01

    The glutaraldehyde-treated bovine jugular vein conduit (BJVC) is a xenograft conduit initially used for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and has never been used for reconstruction of superior vena cava (SVC). In September 2003, a patient with SVC obstruction underwent SVC reconstruction using BJVC. He has been alive for 42 months and free from signs and symptoms of SVC obstruction except that metastasis was found in the vertebrae. The radionuclide venography showed the graft tube was patent and only slight stenosis was found in the proximal anastomosis. The initial result supports BJVC as an acceptable alternative for SVC reconstruction. PMID:17768061

  8. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-05-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm‑1K‑1(+141 Wm‑1K‑1/ ‑24 Wm‑1K‑1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN.

  9. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. PMID:26929222

  10. Current Understandings of Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) has been known as a rare vascular disease. However it is increasingly reported in these days with the development of advanced imaging technology. Underlying etiology, natural course or an optimal management strategy of SISMAD is not exactly known at the moment. During the past 10 years, we have had an interest in this rare vascular disease and collected clinical and image data in 100 or more patients with SISMAD. In this review article, I would like to describe my current understanding of SISMAD on the base of our recent publications in the major vascular surgery journals. PMID:27386450

  11. Superior labrum anterior to posterior tears in throwing athletes.

    PubMed

    Lintner, David M

    2013-01-01

    Superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears and partial undersurface tears of the rotator cuff are common in experienced throwers, may be adaptive, and are only occasionally symptomatic. Pain in the shoulder of a throwing athlete with an MRI-documented SLAP tear or partial undersurface tear of the rotator cuff can be managed nonsurgically, with attention to posterior capsular contracture, scapular dyskinesia, and rotator cuff strength. The results of the surgical repair of SLAP lesions in the throwing athlete, with or without rotator cuff repair, are inferior to those of nonsurgical treatment. The cause of pain in the throwing athlete must be accurately diagnosed without reliance on MRI findings. PMID:23395053

  12. [A rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lepida, A; Berghmans, T; Sculier, J-P; Meert, A-P

    2011-01-01

    A 85-year old patient with an history of low grade follicular lymphoma was admitted in the hospital with a superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. The computed tomography scan of the thorax and the trans-esophageal echocardiography revealed a voluminous mass in the right atrium, extending to the origin of the SVC. A transvenous biopsy was done under echocardiographic control. The immunohistology showed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma. He received chemotherapy associating rituximab, doxorubicine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone. The clinical response after the second cycle was remarkable with a near complete regression of the SVC syndrome. The tumor was no longer visible in imaging after four cycles of treatment. PMID:22165527

  13. Current Understandings of Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) has been known as a rare vascular disease. However it is increasingly reported in these days with the development of advanced imaging technology. Underlying etiology, natural course or an optimal management strategy of SISMAD is not exactly known at the moment. During the past 10 years, we have had an interest in this rare vascular disease and collected clinical and image data in 100 or more patients with SISMAD. In this review article, I would like to describe my current understanding of SISMAD on the base of our recent publications in the major vascular surgery journals. PMID:27386450

  14. Life history of lake herring in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph

    1964-01-01

    The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.

  15. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  16. Ruptured and unruptured mycotic superior mesenteric artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Semel, Marcus E; McGillicuddy, Edward A; Ho, Karen J; Menard, Matthew T; Gates, Jonathan D

    2014-11-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and branches thereof are uncommon but have a high rate of rupture and mortality relative to other visceral artery aneurysms. Historically, the predominant etiology has been infectious; with a renewed rise in intravenous drug abuse rates in the last decade, we hypothesize a resurgence in septic embolic complications may occur in the coming years. Here, we describe the presentation and management of 2 cases of intravenous drug users presenting with infectious endocarditis and SMA main trunk and branch aneurysms, one of which was ruptured. In addition, we review the literature on these rare clinical entities. PMID:25017769

  17. Neural underpinnings of superior action prediction abilities in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form anticipatory representations of ongoing actions is crucial for effective interactions in dynamic environments. In sports, elite athletes exhibit greater ability than novices in predicting other players’ actions, mainly based on reading their body kinematics. This superior perceptual ability has been associated with a modulation of visual and motor areas by visual and motor expertise. Here, we investigated the causative role of visual and motor action representations in experts’ ability to predict the outcome of soccer actions. We asked expert soccer players (outfield players and goalkeepers) and novices to predict the direction of the ball after perceiving the initial phases of penalty kicks that contained or not incongruent body kinematics. During the task, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Results showed that STS-rTMS disrupted performance in both experts and novices, especially in those with greater visual expertise (i.e. goalkeepers). Conversely, PMd-rTMS impaired performance only in expert players (i.e. outfield players and goalkeepers), who exhibit strong motor expertise into facing domain-specific actions in soccer games. These results provide causative evidence of the complimentary functional role of visual and motor action representations in experts’ action prediction. PMID:24771282

  18. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  19. Visual Sensitivity of Deepwater Fishes in Lake Superior

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kelly A.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented. PMID:25646781

  20. Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-jie; Zhang, Denzil

    2011-01-01

    Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidlines for designing FGM with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (Eb/Es) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15 < n < 0.5), coupled with a relatively small modulus ratio (3 < Eb/Es < 6), is most desirable for reducing the maximum stress and transferring it into the interior, while keeping the surface stress low. Experimentally, we demonstrate that elastically graded materials with various n values and Eb/Es ratios can be fabricated by infiltrating alumina and zirconia with a low-modulus glass. Flexural tests show that graded alumina and zirconia with suitable values of these parameters exhibit superior load-bearing capacity, 20% to 50% higher than their homogeneous counterparts. Improving load-bearing capacity of ceramic materials could have broad impacts on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications. PMID:22178651

  1. Douglass Houghton and the Precambrian of Lake Superior

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chronological subdivision of Precambrian rocks in the Lake Superior area was made in 1841 by Douglass Houghton for the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In spite of the fact that the then prevailing philosophy of geologic history was quite different from that of today, Houghton's chronological subdivision became the commonly accepted framework for Precambrian studies on the south shore of Lake Superior. Using only megascopic rock analyses and the physical stratigraphic criteria of relative age, Houghton and his assistants recognized these division, in ascending order: the Primary (granite-gneiss-greenstone); the Metamorphic (slates, iron ore, quartz rock); and on the Keweenaw Peninsula, the Trap (with copper ore); the Trap Conglomerate; and the Red Sandrock. This Pioneer study demanded heroic effort and imagination because the swampy, forested terrain was barely penetrable, the outcrops are discontinuous, the rocks are often deformed, and the lithology changes locally within the formations. Houghton was aided in these accomplishments by William A. Burt, a US Linear Surveyor and the inventor of the solar compass, a sextant-like device used to supplement the surveyors compass. Together, Houghton and Burt formed the first combined geological-linear survey in the US. The combined survey was completed by the assistants Houghton had trained so well, William Burt and Bela Hubbard. Their reports (1846, 1847) supplemented Houghton's report of 1841 by showing the areal distribution of the exposed Precambrian rocks in the region thus facilitating future research, prospecting, and development.

  2. Phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kosuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Toba, Takahito; Yamada, Akihiro; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Osamu; Hoteya, Shu; Inoshita, Naoko; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery. PMID:27489695

  3. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kelly A; Hrabik, Thomas R; Mensinger, Allen F

    2015-01-01

    The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented. PMID:25646781

  4. Neural underpinnings of superior action prediction abilities in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Makris, Stergios; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-03-01

    The ability to form anticipatory representations of ongoing actions is crucial for effective interactions in dynamic environments. In sports, elite athletes exhibit greater ability than novices in predicting other players' actions, mainly based on reading their body kinematics. This superior perceptual ability has been associated with a modulation of visual and motor areas by visual and motor expertise. Here, we investigated the causative role of visual and motor action representations in experts' ability to predict the outcome of soccer actions. We asked expert soccer players (outfield players and goalkeepers) and novices to predict the direction of the ball after perceiving the initial phases of penalty kicks that contained or not incongruent body kinematics. During the task, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Results showed that STS-rTMS disrupted performance in both experts and novices, especially in those with greater visual expertise (i.e. goalkeepers). Conversely, PMd-rTMS impaired performance only in expert players (i.e. outfield players and goalkeepers), who exhibit strong motor expertise into facing domain-specific actions in soccer games. These results provide causative evidence of the complimentary functional role of visual and motor action representations in experts' action prediction. PMID:24771282

  5. The word-superiority effect and phonological recoding.

    PubMed

    Krueger, L E

    1992-11-01

    Previous work indicates that the locus of the word-superiority effect in letter detection is nonvisual and that letter names, but not letter shapes, are more accessible in words than in nonwords, that is, scrambled collections of letters (e.g., Krueger & Shapiro, 1979; Krueger & Stadtlander, 1991; Massaro, 1979). The nonvisual (verbal or lexical) coding may be phonological, or it may be more abstract. In the present study, a word advantage in the speed of letter detection was found even when the target letter was silent in the six-letter test word (e.g., s in island). Other test words varied in their frequency of occurrence in English and number of syllables (1, 2, or 3). The word advantage was larger for higher frequency words but was not affected by syllable length. The presence of unpronounceable nonwords and silent letters in the words discouraged reliance upon the phonological code but did not thereby eliminate the word advantage. Thus, the word-superiority effect with free viewing is not based entirely upon phonological recoding. PMID:1435271

  6. An auditory analog of the picture superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds. PMID:21264626

  7. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yurista, Peder M.; Yule, Daniel L.; Balge, Matt; VanAlstine, Jon D.; Thompson, Jo A.; Gamble, Allison E.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Kelly, John R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Vinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure. Data consisted of Coulter counts for phytoplankton, optical plankton counts for zooplankton, and acoustic surveys for pelagic prey fish. The size spectrum was stable across two time periods separated by 5 years. The primary scaling or overall slope of the normalized biomass size spectra for the combined years was −1.113, consistent with a previous estimate for Lake Superior (−1.10). Periodic dome structures within the overall biomass size structure were fit to polynomial regressions based on the observed sub-domes within the classical taxonomic positions (algae, zooplankton, and fish). This interpretation of periodic dome delineation was aligned more closely with predator–prey size relationships that exist within the zooplankton (herbivorous, predacious) and fish (planktivorous, piscivorous) taxonomic positions. Domes were spaced approximately every 3.78 log10 units along the axis and with a decreasing peak magnitude of −4.1 log10 units. The relative position of the algal and herbivorous zooplankton domes predicted well the subsequent biomass domes for larger predatory zooplankton and planktivorous prey fish.

  8. Case report of fatal complication of superior vena cava tear from balloon dilatation of iatrogenic superior vena cava narrowing

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Nivash; Thimmarayappa, Ashwini; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment options for superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction depends on the cause and severity of SVC narrowing. It ranges from conservative medical management to more elaborate endovascular and surgical repair of obstruction. There has always been a concern regarding the possibility of rupture of SVC during balloon dilatation, if the obstruction is secondary to the surgical cause. Very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a case of fatal complication of SVC tear in a 2-month-old child who had iatrogenic SVC narrowing. PMID:26440251

  9. 40 CFR 81.60 - Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.60 Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Duluth (Minnesota)-Superior (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control...

  10. Quality Assurance Guidelines for Superior Vena Cava Stenting in Malignant Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Uberoi, Raman

    2006-06-15

    Superior vena cava stenting for the treatment of malignant superior vena cava obstruction is now well established. It offers simple, rapid, and safe palliation of a distressing and potentially fatal complication of mediastinal malignant disease and compares very favorably with standard therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The following are quality assurance guidelines for superior vena cava stenting.