Science.gov

Sample records for supplemental release limits

  1. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-08-22

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  2. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, RL

    2006-04-07

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  3. [Nutrient supplements - possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply. PMID:23758028

  4. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Wittman, M.

    2011-04-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE Preliminary Data Release, conducted on April 14, 2011, incorporates data covering the first ~57% of the sky surveyed that were processed with initial calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 10,464 sets of calibrated, coadded images, depth-of-coverage and uncertainty maps in the four WISE bands, (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for 257 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include an archive of 754,000 sets of calibrated WISE single-exposure images, uncertainty and bit-mask maps, and a database of 2.2 billion source extractions made from the single-exposure images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the WISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Preliminary Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Detailed descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw WISE data to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the Preliminary Release data products. The WISE Preliminary Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current

  5. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....g., IFR, VFR). (8) For each flight released as an ETOPS flight, the ETOPS diversion time for which... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  6. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....g., IFR, VFR). (8) For each flight released as an ETOPS flight, the ETOPS diversion time for which... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  7. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....g., IFR, VFR). (8) For each flight released as an ETOPS flight, the ETOPS diversion time for which... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  8. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....g., IFR, VFR). (8) For each flight released as an ETOPS flight, the ETOPS diversion time for which... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  9. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Release Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 20l0,that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et aI. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formals of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  10. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  11. Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H. L.; Wheelock, S. L.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Yan, L.; Benford, D.; Harbut, M.; Jarrett, T.; Lake, S.; Leisawitz, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Stanford, S. A.; Tsai, C. W.; Liu, F.; Helou, G.; Mainzer, A.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Hoffman, D.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beck, R. P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2013-11-01

    The AllWISE program builds upon the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) mission by combining data from all WISE and NEOWISE (Mainzer et al. 2011) survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. By combining the data from two complete sky coverage epochs in an advanced data processing system, AllWISE has generated new products that have enhanced photometric sensitivity and accuracy, and improved astrometric precision compared with the earlier WISE All-Sky Data Release. Exploiting the 6 month baseline between the WISE sky coverage epochs enables AllWISE to measure source motions for the first time, and to compute improved flux variability statistics. AllWISE data release products include: a Source Catalog that contains 4-band fluxes, positions, apparent motion measurements, and flux variability statistics for over 747 million objects detected at SNR>5 in the combined exposures; a Multiepoch Photometry Database containing over 42 billion time-tagged, single-exposure fluxes for each object detected on the combined exposures; and an Image Atlas of 18,240 4-band calibrated FITS images, depth-of-coverage and noise maps that cover the sky produced by coadding nearly 7.9 million single-exposure images from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases. The Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the AllWISE data. The Supplement contains detailed descriptions of the format and characteristics of the AllWISE data products, as well as a summary of cautionary notes that describe known limitations. The Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the AllWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allwise/expsup/index.html AllWISE makes use of data from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of

  12. Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Mainzer, A.; Conrow, T.; Masci, F.; Bauer, J.; Dailey, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Harbut, M.; Beck, R.; Wittman, M.; Wright, E. L.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Sonnett, S.; Nugent, C.; Kramer, E.; Stevenson, R.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Fabinsky, B.; Tholen, D.; Papin, M.; Fowler, J.; McCallon, H.

    2015-03-01

    's survey observations. The Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the NEOWISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the NEOWISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the NEOWISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Release products. Instructions for accessing the NEOWISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw NEOWISE images to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the NEOWISE Release data products. The NEOWISE Data Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the NEOWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/neowise/expsup/ NEOWISE is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the Planetary Science Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. Information About the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Release 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information regarding the upcoming data release (DSID-1) of analytically-based dietary supplement nutrient data for products reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will be presented. The food intakes for U.S. population groups determined from this survey are used b...

  14. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  15. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-limiting ADP release

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, D.D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S.A. Kuznetsov and V.I. Gelfand is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin. The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that P/sub i/ release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (K/sub i/ < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by (/sup 14/C)ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  16. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  17. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  18. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  19. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  20. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  1. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2012-03-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 2010, that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single-images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formats of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  2. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  3. Fluoride and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release from fluoride varnishes supplemented with TMP.

    PubMed

    Manarelli, Michele Mauricio; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Percinoto, Célio; Pessan, Juliano Pelim

    2016-05-20

    This study assessed fluoride (F) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release into artificial saliva from varnishes containing 0%, 2.5%, and 5% NaF, supplemented or not with 5% TMP. The varnishes were applied on polyester sheets (n = 8/group), and F and TMP released into artificial saliva were measured for up to 24 hours. The amount of F and TMP released were directly related to NaF and TMP concentrations in the varnishes. The highest F release was seen for 5% NaF and 5% NaF + 5% TMP, whereas 5% TMP released the highest amount of TMP. However, the simultaneous addition of NaF and TMP to varnishes significantly reduced the amount of F and TMP released from the products. PMID:27223137

  4. 77 FR 15098 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to... Supplement to the Settlement should file its intervention or protest with the Federal Energy...

  5. 76 FR 17411 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to... Supplement to the Settlement should file its intervention or protest with the Federal Energy...

  6. 75 FR 32639 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Limitations on Procurements With Non-Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Regulation Supplement; Limitations on Procurements With Non-Defense Agencies (DFARS Case 2009-D027) AGENCY... Federal Bureau of Investigation; the intelligence elements of the Department of Energy; the Bureau...

  7. 78 FR 6091 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement Take notice that on December 12, 2012, Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership (Enbridge Energy), with the support...

  8. Supplemental water releases for fisheries restoration in a Brazilian floodplain River: A conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.; Martinez, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly productive floodplain rivers in Brazil and elsewhere provide livelihood and recreational fishing for millions of people around the world, but damming and controlled water discharge are a threat to these valuable ecosystems. Supplemental water releases (SWRs) at a dam are increasingly used for restoring fisheries productivity in many floodplain rivers. We proposed a conceptual model for a hypothetical water release to enhance fisheries using Tre??s Marias Reservoir (TMR) on the Sa??o Francisco River (SFR), Brazil. The information needed by the model follows: (i) Biologically, what is the best release date? (ii) How much water will be released? (iii) What is the pattern of impoundment and how much impounded water will be released? (iv) What is the lost revenue to the power plant associated with SWR? (v) What is the relationship between river discharge and the area of floodplain that is flooded? (vi) What is the relationship between SWR and fisheries value? Ichthyoplankton studies in the SFR showed a clear positive relationship between fish density and water level (WL). While the relationship between WL and floodplain area flooded and recruitment is not known, we concluded the best date for release is when there is a natural flood, which naturally triggers fish spawning and the SWR will add to the natural flood and cover a greater floodplain area. The released volume will range from 0.302km3 to 2.192 km3, depending on SWR duration. In most years from 1976 to 2003, TMR impounded enough water for SWR only in the second half of the fish-spawning season (January-March). Lost revenue at TMR depended on release volume and ranged from US$ 0.493 million to US$ 3.452 million for the actual power rate. However, SWR could increase commercial fisheries income an estimated US$ 4.468 million. We forecast that SWR can bring fisheries benefits that surpass the lost revenue.

  9. One is okay, more is better? Pharmacological aspects and safe limits of nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Mason, Pamela

    2007-11-01

    The use of vitamins, minerals and other supplements has increased considerably during recent years. In the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of British adults aged 19-64 years 40% of those surveyed were taking supplements. In 2005 sales of dietary supplements in the UK were approximately pound sterling 325.7 x 106 in 'bricks and mortar' shops (excluding health food shops). The physiological effects of vitamins and minerals in amounts approximating to the UK reference nutrient intake or the EU RDA are well understood in terms of reducing the risk of micronutrient deficiency. However, the effects of vitamins, minerals and other supplements in larger amounts have attracted much attention in recent decades, and these effects, some of which may be pharmacological, are not as well categorised. Some of these effects are beneficial, some are not. Although vitamins and minerals and other supplements are generally safe at higher doses, there are some safety issues that are relevant in the context of the wide availability of supplements without a doctor's prescription. Thus, several authorities throughout the world have established upper limits (UL) for the intake of vitamins and minerals, and the EU is in the process of setting maximum permitted levels (MPL) for vitamins and minerals in food supplements. The present paper discusses the potential benefits and safety issues relating to the use of supplements at doses higher than the RDA. The rationale for the establishment of UL is also discussed, explaining the differences between the values set by different authorities and the expected guidance and legislation from the European Commission on MPL for vitamins and minerals in food supplements. PMID:17961270

  10. 76 FR 33170 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion of Option Amounts in Limitations on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 RIN 0750-AH23 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion of Option Amounts in Limitations on Authority of the Department of...

  11. The Benefits and Limitations of Using Ultrasonography to Supplement Anatomical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, Greg M.; Crawford, Gail; Hird, Kathryn; Fear, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical understanding is critical to medical education. With reduced teaching time and limited cadaver availability, it is important to investigate how best to utilize in vivo imaging to supplement anatomical understanding and better prepare medical graduates for the proliferation of point-of-care imaging in the future. To investigate whether…

  12. 76 FR 9680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Limitations on Procurements With Non-Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    .... Background DoD published an interim rule at 75 FR 32639 on June 8, 2010, to implement section 806 of the... Accordingly, the interim rule amending 48 CFR part 217 published at 75 FR 32639 on June 8, 2010, is adopted as... Regulation Supplement; Limitations on Procurements With Non-Defense Agencies (DFARS Case 2009-D027)...

  13. 75 FR 10243 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 19, 2010, Enbridge...

  14. Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl

    PubMed Central

    Wellicome, Troy I; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the nestling stage could influence reproductive performance of this species at the northern extent of their range. Supplemented pairs fledged on average 47% more owlets than unfed pairs, except during a year when natural food was not limiting (i.e., a prey irruption year). The difference in fledgling production resulted from high nestling mortality in unfed broods, with 96% of all nestling deaths being attributed to food shortage. Supplemental feeding during the nestling period also increased fledgling structural size. Pairs fed from the start of laying produced the same number of hatchlings as pairs that received no supplemental food before hatch. Furthermore, pairs supplemented from egg laying to fledging and pairs supplemented during the nestling period alone had the same patterns of nestling survival, equal numbers of fledglings, and similar fledgling mass and structural size. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. The experimental design we introduce here could be used with other altricial species to examine how the timing of food limitation differs among birds with a variety of life-history strategies. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling

  15. Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl.

    PubMed

    Wellicome, Troy I; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J

    2013-08-01

    Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the nestling stage could influence reproductive performance of this species at the northern extent of their range. Supplemented pairs fledged on average 47% more owlets than unfed pairs, except during a year when natural food was not limiting (i.e., a prey irruption year). The difference in fledgling production resulted from high nestling mortality in unfed broods, with 96% of all nestling deaths being attributed to food shortage. Supplemental feeding during the nestling period also increased fledgling structural size. Pairs fed from the start of laying produced the same number of hatchlings as pairs that received no supplemental food before hatch. Furthermore, pairs supplemented from egg laying to fledging and pairs supplemented during the nestling period alone had the same patterns of nestling survival, equal numbers of fledglings, and similar fledgling mass and structural size. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. The experimental design we introduce here could be used with other altricial species to examine how the timing of food limitation differs among birds with a variety of life-history strategies. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is

  16. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  17. Effects of Time-Release Caffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, Glycerol Concentration and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Adam M.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Wells, Adam J.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Wang, Ran; Miramonti, Amelia A.; Pruna, Gabriel J.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Bohner, Jonathan D.; Hoffman, Mattan W.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Fukuda, David H.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared caffeine pharmacokinetics, glycerol concentrations, metabolic rate, and performance measures following ingestion of a time-release caffeine containing supplement (TR-CAF) versus a regular caffeine capsule (CAF) and a placebo (PL). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over design, ten males (25.9 ± 3.2 y) who regularly consume caffeine ingested capsules containing either TR-CAF, CAF, or PL. Blood draws and performance measures occurred at every hour over an 8-hour period. Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in CAF compared to TR-CAF during hours 2-5 and significantly greater (p = 0.042) in TR-CAF compared to CAF at hour 8. There were no significant differences between trials in glycerol concentrations (p = 0.86) or metabolic measures (p = 0.17-0.91). Physical reaction time was significantly improved for CAF at hour 5 (p=0.01) compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was significantly improved for CAF and TR-CAF during hours 1-4 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively) and over the 8-hour period (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively) compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was also significantly improved for TR-CAF compared to PL during hours 5-8 (p = 0.004). TR-CAF and CAF showed distinct pharmacokinetics yielding modest effects on reaction time, yet did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures. Key points Time-release caffeine and regular caffeine showed distinct pharmacokinetics over an 8-hour period following ingestion. Time-release caffeine and regular caffeine yielded modest effects on reaction time over an 8-hour period following ingestion. Time-release caffeine and regular caffeine did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures over an 8-hour period following ingestion. PMID:25983581

  18. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for...

  19. Self-limiting supplements fed to cattle grazing native mixed-grass prairie in the northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Schauer, C S; Lardy, G P; Slanger, W D; Bauer, M L; Sedivec, K K

    2004-01-01

    Objectives of this research were to compare animal performance with or without supplementation, compare effectiveness of three intake limiters, and to examine seasonal changes in nutritive value of native range in south-central North Dakota. Treatments included 1) control (CONT; no supplement); 2) hand-fed (HF) supplement, with no chemical limiter; 3) 16% salt (NACL); 4) 5.25% ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate (AS); and 5) 7% calcium hydroxide (CAOH). Supplements were based on wheat middlings, barley malt sprouts, and soybean hulls and were formulated to provide 40% of the CP intake and 32% of the NEm intake of 350-kg steers. Trials 1 and 2 each used 70 yearling steers (370.8 +/- 0.04 and 327.9 +/- 0.76 kg initial BW for Trials 1 and 2, respectively). In each year, four 28-d periods from the latter half of June through mid-October were used. Steers were stratified by weight and allotted randomly to treatments in 1 of 10 16-ha pastures (two pastures per treatment for each trial). In Trial 1, diet sampling began in the first 28-d period, but supplementation did not begin until the second 28-d period. In Trial 2, supplementation and diet collection began in the first 28-d period. Cation-anion differences (DCAD; Na + K - Cl - S) for NACL, AS, CAOH, and HF supplements were 151, -735, 160, and 166 mEq/ kg, respectively. In Trial 1, no treatment, period, or treatment x period effects for supplement intake were detected (P > or = 0.29). In Trial 2, a treatment x period interaction for supplement intake occurred (P = 0.005) because HF steers were offered a constant amount of supplement daily, whereas steers fed AS, CAOH, and NACL were allowed to consume ad libitum quantities of supplement. Average daily gain in Trial 1 was not affected (P = 0.21) by supplementation. In Trial 2, NACL, AS, and HF treatments had higher (P < or = 0.07) ADG than CONT. In Trial 1, final weights were not affected by supplementation (P = 0.23). In Trial 2, final weights of NACL- and HF

  20. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  1. Material Limits Adjusted by a Modified Airborne Release Fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sandvig, Michael Dennis

    2000-04-01

    This paper will discuss the methods used at a depleted uranium facility to develop a hazard categorization and a limiting condition for operation (LCO) for the inventory based on increased Category 2 threshold quantity values (TV) from DOE Standard 1027-92. A revision to the safety analysis report (SAR) for a Category 3 depleted uranium facility was required to meet current methodologies and isotope content. The previous SAR first approved in 1992, allowed an inventory of depleted uranium that exceeded the Category 2 threshold quantity values in the material storage warehouses using an accident analysis methodology for final hazard categorization. New information regarding the isotopic content of the depleted uranium required an updated hazard categorization evaluation. The DOE Standard 1027-92 requires the evaluation to be based on inventory (Reference 1, 3.1, page 5), therefore, the previous method of performing a hazard consequence and probability analysis could not be used. The standard (1027) requires a facility to be designated as a Category 3 Nuclear facility when the inventory levels in the facility, or facility segments, are greater than Category 3 thresholds and below Category 2 thresholds. A Category 2 Nuclear Facility requires a more in depth hazard and accident analysis. Our categorization was based on an inventory, adjusted by a form and containerization analysis.

  2. 100-FR-3 groundwater/soil gas supplemental limited field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, a Limited Field Investigation (LFI) was conducted for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit which identified trichloroethylene (TCE) as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) (DOE-RL 1994). In groundwater samples collected for the LFI, TCE was detected in well 199-177-1 at a concentration exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (5 {mu}g/L) and Washington State groundwater criteria (3 {mu}g/L). With the concurrence of the EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), a supplemental LFI was conducted to determine the extent and potential source of TCE groundwater contamination associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. This report summarizes the activities and results of the groundwater/soil gas supplemental LFI for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the lateral distribution of TCE in shallow (3 to 5 ft below the water table) groundwater associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The second objective was to assess soil gas (3 to 5 concentrations in the study area in an attempt to identify potential sources of TCE and develop a correlation between soil gas and groundwater concentrations). Finally, the third objective of the investigation was to refine the site conceptual model.

  3. First release of the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database: Nutrient estimates and methodology for 18 vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin/minerals (MVMs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federal initiative to provide analytical validation of ingredients in dietary supplements. The first release on vitamins and minerals in adult MVMs is now available. Multiple lots of >100 representative adult MVMs were chemically analyzed for ...

  4. 75 FR 6819 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Limitation on Procurements on Behalf of DoD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-11

    ... FR 34270 on July 15, 2009, to address the new statutory requirements. Statutory limitations in... Regulations System. 0 Accordingly, the interim rule amending 48 CFR part 217, which was published at 74 FR... Regulation Supplement; Limitation on Procurements on Behalf of DoD AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...

  5. 77 FR 71587 - Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Badger Creek Limited's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. 76 FR 44321 - Double “C” Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Double ``C'' Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Double ``C'' Limited's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. S. Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  8. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

  9. Making sense of the Medicare physician payment data release: uses, limitations, and potential.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kavita; Masi, Domitilla; Brandt, Caitlin

    2014-11-01

    In April 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released a data file containing information on Medicare payments made to physicians and other providers. Though an important achievement in promoting greater health system transparency, limitations in the data have hindered key users, including consumers, payers, and providers, from discerning meaningful information from the file. This brief outlines the significance of the data release, the limitations of the dataset, the current uses of the information, and proposals for rendering the file more meaningful for public use. PMID:25470832

  10. ICCS 2009 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 5: ICCS 2009 Released Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk; Jung, Michael; Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Schulz, Wolfram; Zuehlke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This document contains released items used in the ICCS 2009 main survey. Seven clusters of items were used in the study in a rotated booklet design with three clusters per test booklet. Clusters 1 and 7 comprise the released item set. Cluster 1 comprises items that were newly developed for ICCS 2009 and Cluster 7 is drawn from previously secure…

  11. Supplements to the release scenario analyses for the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, F.W.; Merritt, M.L.; Tierney, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of long-term environmental impacts of the WIPP that were made subsequent to the publication of the DEIS in response to agency and public comments. Three supplemental scenarios are described in which activity is transported to the biosphere by groundwater. The scenarios are entitled: brine pocket rupture scenario, effects of water on domestic wells; and agricultural use of the Pecos River Water.

  12. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), as cited in Method TO-15, to ...

  13. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1- dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 ppbv, as cited in Method TO-15, to much lower concentrations. R...

  14. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... time and whose duties include but are not necessarily limited to cabin-safety-related responsibilities... domestic, flag, or supplemental operations must relieve each flight attendant engaged in air...

  15. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  16. Arsenic release metabolically limited to permanently water-saturated soil in Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckey, Jason W.; Schaefer, Michael V.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Microbial reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides in the deltas of South and Southeast Asia produces widespread arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Organic carbon is abundant both at the surface and within aquifers, but the source of organic carbon used by microbes in the reduction and release of arsenic has been debated, as has the wetland type and sedimentary depth where release occurs. Here we present data from fresh-sediment incubations, in situ model sediment incubations and a controlled field experiment with manipulated wetland hydrology and organic carbon inputs. We find that in the minimally disturbed Mekong Delta, arsenic release is limited to near-surface sediments of permanently saturated wetlands where both organic carbon and arsenic-bearing solids are sufficiently reactive for microbial oxidation of organic carbon and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. In contrast, within the deeper aquifer or seasonally saturated sediments, reductive dissolution of iron oxides is observed only when either more reactive exogenous forms of iron oxides or organic carbon are added, revealing a potential thermodynamic restriction to microbial metabolism. We conclude that microbial arsenic release is limited by the reactivity of arsenic-bearing iron oxides with respect to native organic carbon, but equally limited by organic carbon reactivity with respect to the native arsenic-bearing iron oxides.

  17. Fusion Pore Size Limits 5-HT Release From Single Enterochromaffin Cell Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Ravinarayan; Jessup, Claire F; Lumsden, Amanda L; Keating, Damien J

    2016-07-01

    Enterochromaffin cells are the major site of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis and secretion providing ∼95% of the body's total 5-HT. 5-HT can act as a neurotransmitter or hormone and has several important endocrine and paracrine roles. We have previously demonstrated that EC cells release small amounts of 5-HT per exocytosis event compared to other endocrine cells. We utilized a recently developed method to purify EC cells to demonstrate the mechanisms underlying 5-HT packaging and release. Using the fluorescent probe FFN511, we demonstrate that EC cells express VMAT and that VMAT plays a functional role in 5-HT loading into vesicles. Carbon fiber amperometry studies illustrate that the amount of 5-HT released per exocytosis event from EC cells is dependent on both VMAT and the H(+)-ATPase pump, as demonstrated with reserpine or bafilomycin, respectively. We also demonstrate that increasing the amount of 5-HT loaded into EC cell vesicles does not result in an increase in quantal release. As this indicates that fusion pore size may be a limiting factor involved, we compared pore diameter in EC and chromaffin cells by assessing the vesicle capture of different-sized fluorescent probes to measure the extent of fusion pore dilation. This identified that EC cells have a reduced fusion pore expansion that does not exceed 9 nm in diameter. These results demonstrate that the small amounts of 5-HT released per fusion event in EC cells can be explained by a smaller fusion pore that limits 5-HT release capacity from individual vesicles. PMID:26574734

  18. [Release and supplement of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) decomposition in seawater].

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-feng; Song, Jin-ming; Li, Ning; Li, Xue-gang; Yuan, Hua-mao; Duan, Li-qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Jellyfish bloom has been increasing in Chinese seas and decomposition after jellyfish bloom has great influences on marine ecological environment. We conducted the incubation of Nemopilema nomurai decomposing to evaluate its effect on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus recycling of water column by simulated experiments. The results showed that the processes of jellyfish decomposing represented a fast release of biogenic elements, and the release of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus reached the maximum at the beginning of jellyfish decomposing. The release of biogenic elements from jellyfish decomposition was dominated by dissolved matter, which had a much higher level than particulate matter. The highest net release rates of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon reached (103.77 ± 12.60) and (1.52 ± 0.37) mg · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹, respectively. The dissolved nitrogen was dominated by NH₄⁺-N during the whole incubation time, accounting for 69.6%-91.6% of total dissolved nitrogen, whereas the dissolved phosphorus was dominated by dissolved organic phosphorus during the initial stage of decomposition, being 63.9%-86.7% of total dissolved phosphorus and dominated by PO₄³⁻-P during the late stage of decomposition, being 50.4%-60.2%. On the contrary, the particulate nitrogen was mainly in particulate organic nitrogen, accounting for (88.6 ± 6.9) % of total particulate nitrogen, whereas the particulate phosphorus was mainly in particulate. inorganic phosphorus, accounting for (73.9 ±10.5) % of total particulate phosphorus. In addition, jellyfish decomposition decreased the C/N and increased the N/P of water column. These indicated that jellyfish decomposition could result in relative high carbon and nitrogen loads. PMID:27228622

  19. Normal human alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage have a limited capacity to release interleukin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Wewers, M D; Rennard, S I; Hance, A J; Bitterman, P B; Crystal, R G

    1984-01-01

    obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage represents the total in vivo population of alveolar macrophages, although normal human macrophages are capable of IL-1 release, they are relatively limited in this ability, and this limitation seems to be linked to the maturational state of the mononuclear phagocyte. These observations may explain, in part, the ability of alveolar macrophages to clear the airspaces of foreign antigens without extensive activation of other pulmonary inflammatory and immune effector cells. Images PMID:6334697

  20. Torque-Limiting Infinitely-Variable CAM Release Mechanism for a Rotatable Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanism for permitting convenient manual or servo-powered control of a boom assembly, which is rotatably positionable about yaw and pitch axes by means of releasably locking, yaw and pitch torque-limiting mechanisms, each of which may be locked, unlocked, and positioned by respective yaw and pitch levers. The boom may be longitudinally projected and withdrawn by rotating a boom extension/retraction crank. Torque limiting is provided by spring loaded clutch mechanisms, whereby positioning forces applied to the handles are effective to move the boom unless overcome by greater opposing forces, sufficient to overcome the torque applied by the torque limiting clutch mechanisms. In operation, a structure positionable by the invention (e.g., and end-effector or robot arm) may be rotatably moved about yaw and pitch axes by moving a selected one of the three levers.

  1. Restricted Choices, Limited Options: Implementing Choice and Supplemental Educational Services in No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews implementation of the school choice and supplementary educational services provisions contained in the No Child Left Behind Act. School district progress, resistance, and obstacles to implementation are discussed and a number of practical remedies to improve implementation of school choice and supplemental educational services…

  2. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300/sup 0/C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed.

  3. Calcium channel dynamics limit synaptic release in response to prosthetic stimulation with sinusoidal waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Jeng, Jed S.; Kelly, Shawn K.; Hartveit, Espen; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular electric stimulation with sinusoidal waveforms has been shown to allow preferential activation of individual types of retinal neurons by varying stimulus frequency. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying this frequency dependence as a step towards improving methods of preferential activation. In order to elucidate these mechanisms, we implemented a morphologically realistic model of a retinal bipolar cell and measured the response to extracellular stimulation with sinusoidal waveforms. We compared the frequency response of a passive membrane model to the kinetics of voltage-gated calcium channels that mediate synaptic release. The passive electrical properties of the membrane exhibited lowpass filtering with a relatively high cutoff frequency (nominal value = 717 Hz). This cutoff frequency was dependent on intra-axonal resistance, with shorter and wider axons yielding higher cutoff frequencies. However, we found that the cutoff frequency of bipolar cell synaptic release was primarily limited by the relatively slow opening kinetics of Land T-type calcium channels. The cutoff frequency of calcium currents depended nonlinearly on stimulus amplitude, but remained lower than the cutoff frequency of the passive membrane model for a large range of membrane potential fluctuations. These results suggest that while it may be possible to modulate the membrane potential of bipolar cells over a wide range of stimulus frequencies, synaptic release will only be initiated at the lower end of this range. PMID:21628768

  4. Space charge limited release of charged inverse micelles in non-polar liquids.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Manoj; Strubbe, Filip; Beunis, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2016-07-28

    Charged inverse micelles (CIMs) generated during a continuous polarizing voltage between electrodes in the model system of polyisobutylene succinimide in dodecane do not populate a diffuse double layer like CIMs present in equilibrium (regular CIMs), but instead end up in interface layers. When the applied voltage is reversed abruptly after a continuous polarizing voltage step, two peaks are observed in the transient current. The first peak is due to the release of regular CIMs from the diffuse double layers formed during the polarizing voltage step, which is understood on the basis of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. The second peak is due to the release of a small fraction of generated negative CIMs from the interface layer. A model based on space charge limited release of the generated negative CIMs from the interface layer is presented and the results of the model are compared with several types of measurements. For the situation in which the bulk is deprived of regular CIMs and neutral inverse micelles, the results of the model are in agreement with the experimental results. However, for the situation in which regular CIMs and neutral inverse micelles are present, the model shows discrepancies with the experiment for high voltages and high charge contents. These discrepancies are attributed to electrohydrodynamic flow caused by local variations in the electric field at the vicinity of the electrodes, which occur during the reversal voltage. Also the long term decrease of the amount of released generated CIMs is studied and it is found that the presence of regular CIMs and neutral inverse micelles speeds up the decrease. This study provides a deeper insight in the electrodynamics of CIMs and is relevant for various applications in non-polar liquids. PMID:27374418

  5. Limited capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia for the treatment of frozen shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Bidwai, Amit S; Nielsen, Maryke; Brownson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background In light of recent interest in the cost-effectiveness of the treatment options available for frozen shoulder, we aimed to determine the results of limited anterior capsular release and controlled manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) in the treatment of primary frozen shoulder in terms of patient-related outcomes measure, range of motion and re-intervention rates. Methods This single-surgeon series included prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing capsular release with MUA from March 2011 until June 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months from the index procedure. Outcome measures included pre- and postoperative Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), range of motion and need for re-intervention. Results Fifty-four procedures were performed in 52 patients. Mean age 50 years (range 42 years to 59 years); male: female ratio = 11: 41. There was a highly statistically significant improvement in both pain and function modules of the OSS (p < 0.005) and range of motion (p < 0.005) at 6 months. The median postoperative score was 41 from a maximum of 48 points, with an average mean improvement of 24 points. Seventeen patients were diabetics. There was no significant difference in pre-operative and postoperative OSS or range of motion between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic groups. No patients required surgical re-intervention. Conclusions A combination of limited capsular release and MUA for the treatment of primary frozen shoulder is a safe and effective procedure resulting in marked improvement in pain, function and range of motion. PMID:27582995

  6. Limited Amount of Formula May Facilitate Breastfeeding: Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Standard Clinical Practice versus Limited Supplemental Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Straňák, Zbyněk; Feyereislova, Simona; Černá, Marcela; Kollárová, Jana; Feyereisl, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age. Material and Methods We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing). Results Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants’ age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002). Conclusion The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183 PMID:26918700

  7. Supplementation of Slow-Release Melatonin Improves Recovery of Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception in Summer Anoestrous Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Maurya, V P; Narayanan, K; Mahla, A S; Chaudhari, R K; Singh, M; Soni, Y K; Kumawat, B L; Dabas, S K; Srivastava, N

    2016-02-01

    The role of melatonin as a protective neurohormone against restoring cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals in photoperiod species has gained wider acceptance. This study was designed to uncover the evidence the slow-release melatonin (MLT) has on initiation of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate (CR) in summer anoestrous buffaloes. Thus, buffaloes diagnosed as summer anoestrous (absence of overt signs of oestrus, concurrent rectal examination and radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone at 10 days interval) were grouped as untreated (Group I, sterilized corn oil, n = 8) and treated (Group II, single subcutaneous injection of MLT @18 mg/50 kg bwt in sterilized corn oil, n = 20). Animals treated and detected in oestrus were artificially inseminated (AI) followed by division into Group III (second dose of MLT on 5th day post-AI, n = 8) and Group IV (no melatonin administration, n = 10). Blood samples were collected at 4 days interval for estimation of serum MLT, progesterone and oestrogen using radioimmunoassay kit. Mean oestrous induction rate (OIR), oestrous induction interval (OII), interoestrous interval (IOI) and CR were estimated. Compared to control, concentration of melatonin was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treated group ranging from 14.34 ± 1.72 to 412.31 ± 14.47 pg/ml whereas other two hormones did not show any concentration difference. Melatonin-administered buffaloes showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher (90%) OIR with OII of 18.06 ± 1.57 days. Results showed improvement in conception rate in buffaloes administered with post-insemination melatonin. It can be concluded from the study that slow-release melatonin supplementation restored cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals resulting in improvement in conception rate in buffaloes. PMID:26566713

  8. Standardized Electrolyte Supplementation and Fluid Management Improves Survival During Amphotericin Therapy for Cryptococcal Meningitis in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C.; Rolfes, Melissa A.; Musubire, Abdu; Nabeta, Henry; Williams, Darlisha A.; Rhein, Joshua; Kambugu, Andrew; Meya, David B.; Boulware, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background  Amphotericin B is the preferred treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, but it has cumulative severe side effects, including nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. Amphotericin-induced severe hypokalemia may predispose the patient to cardiac arrhythmias and death, and there is very little data available regarding these toxicities in resource-limited settings. We hypothesized that standardized electrolyte management during amphotericin therapy is essential to minimize toxicity and optimize survival in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods  Human immunodeficiency virus-infected, antiretroviral therapy naive adults with cryptococcal meningitis were prospectively enrolled at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda in 3 sequential cohorts with amphotericin B deoxycholate induction treatment. Intravenous fluid use was intermittent in 2001–2002, and universal in 2006–2012. In 2001–2009, serum potassium (K+) was monitored on days 1, 7, and 14 of treatment with replacement (K+, Mg2+) per clinician discretion. In 2011–2012, K+ was measured on days 1, 5, and approximately every 48 hours thereafter with universal electrolyte (K+, Mg2+) supplementation and standardized replacement. Clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between fluid and electrolyte management strategies. Results  With limited intravenous fluids, the 14-day survival was 49% in 2001–2002. With universal intravenous fluids, the 30-day survival improved to 62% in 2006–2010 (P = .003). In 2011–2012, with universal supplementation of fluids and electrolytes, 30-day cumulative survival improved to 78% (P = .021 vs 2006–2010 cohort). The cumulative incidence of severe hypokalemia (<2.5 mEq/L) decreased from 38% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2011–2012 with universal supplementation (P < .001). Conclusions  Improved survival was seen in a resource-limited setting with proactive fluid and electrolyte management (K+, Mg2+), as part of comprehensive amphotericin-based cryptococcal therapy

  9. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  10. Taurine supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats: Advantages and limitations for human applications

    PubMed Central

    Suwanich, Atchariya; Wyss, J Michael; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a β-amino acid found in many tissues particularly brain, myocardium, and kidney. It plays several physiological roles including cardiac contraction, antioxidation, and blunting of hypertension. Though several lines of evidence indicate that dietary taurine can reduce hypertension in humans and in animal models, evidence that taurine supplementation reduces hypertension in humans has not been conclusive. One reason for the inconclusive nature of past studies may be that taurine having both positive and negative effects on cardiovascular system depending on when it is assessed, some effects may occur early, while others only appear later. Further, other consideration may play a role, e.g., taurine supplementation improves hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats on a low salt diet but fails to attenuate hypertension on a high salt diet. In humans, some epidemiologic studies indicate that people with high taurine and low salt diets display lower arterial pressure than those with low taurine and high salt diets. Differences in techniques for measuring arterial pressure, duration of treatment, and animal models likely affect the response in different studies. This review considers both the positive and negative effects of taurine on blood pressure in animal models and their applications for human interventions. PMID:24340138

  11. Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tian, Chuanhuan; Zhu, Yongwen; Zhang, Liyang; Lu, Lin; Luo, Xugang

    2014-04-01

    Manganese is an essential microelement. Manganese deficiency affects reproduction performance and reproductive hormones in layers. However, little is known about its effects and the possible mechanism in regulating reproduction in broiler breeder hens. In the current study, broiler breeder hens at peak production were fed with diets supplemented with 0, 120, or 240 mg of Mn/kg as MnSO4 or Mn proteinate for 13 wk. Manganese supplementation did not alter egg laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, or hatchling weight over a 13-wk trial period. However, 240 mg of Mn/kg supplementation significantly increased serum Mn (P < 0.05). Manganese supplements increased the eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05) without affecting the eggshell thickness. There was no difference in serum cholesterol and estradiol. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) genes was significantly elevated by 240 mg of Mn/kg (P < 0.05). Furthermore, inorganic Mn supplementation doubled GnRH-I expression compared with supplementation with the organic form (P < 0.05), although serum Mn was comparable between these 2 supplements. No obvious difference was shown in gene expression of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, GnRH-I receptor, inducible NO synthase, and dopamine receptor D1 in the pituitary as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and inducible NO synthase in the hypothalamus. This suggests that dietary Mn supplementation could improve eggshell quality in the long term. The central mechanism of nontoxic high doses of Mn suggested the transcriptional activation of GnRH-I and follicle-stimulating hormone genes. The central effect of inorganic Mn activating GnRH-I genes compared with the reduced effect by organic Mn could possibly be due to a decreased capacity of the latter passing through the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24706974

  12. Derived release limits for the greek research reactor site based on a diagnostic atmospheric modeling system for irregular terrain.

    PubMed

    Varvayanni, M; Catsaros, N; Antonopoulos-Domis, M

    2005-04-01

    The upper limits for the rate of release of radionuclides into the atmosphere, i.e., the "derived release limits," are calculated for the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1) in order to determine possible operational schemes compatible with the effective dose limits for the general population. GRR-1 is located at the northwestern foot of Hymettos Mountain and at the eastern border of the urbanized area of Athens basin. Due to the topographic complexity of the region, the meteorological and atmospheric dispersion calculations were based on a numerical modeling system that is especially designed to work over irregular terrains by using a prismatic unstructured grid. The calculation of derived release limits was made using guidelines and methods that conform to the system of dose limits prescribed by the European radiation protection regulations. PMID:15761295

  13. The role of limited proteolysis of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in thermoregulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, C.

    1982-01-01

    Cyclo (His-Pro) is a biologiclly active cyclic dipeptide derived from thyrotropin-releasing hormone by its limited proteolysis. We have developed a specific radioimmunoassay for this cyclic peptide and shown its presence throughout rat and monkey brains. The normal rat brain concentration of cyclo (His-Pro) ranged from 35-61 pmols/brain. The elution profiles of rat brain cyclo (His-Pro)-like immunoreactivity and synthetic radioactive cyclo (His-Pro) following gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography were similar. An analysis of the regional distribution of cyclo (His-Pro) and TRH in rat and monkey brains exhibited no apparent precursor-product relationship. Studies on the neuroanatomic sites for the thermoregulatory effects of cyclo (His-Pro) suggested that the neural loci responsible for cyclo (His-Pro)-induced hypothermia resides within POA/AHA. The endogenous levels of brain cyclo (His-Pro) were elevated when rats were made either hypothyroid by surgical thyroidectomy or forced to drink alcohol for six weeks. These studies demonstrate that cyclo (His-Pro) is present throughout the central nervous system in physiologically relevant concentrations which can be modified by appropriate physiological and pharamacological manipulations. These data in conjunction with earlier reports of multiple biological activities of exogenous cyclo (His-Pro), suggest that endogenous cyclo (His-Pro) is a biological active peptide and it may play a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role in the central nervous system.

  14. Limited beneficial effects of piceatannol supplementation on obesity complications in the obese Zucker rat: gut microbiota, metabolic, endocrine, and cardiac aspects.

    PubMed

    Hijona, E; Aguirre, L; Pérez-Matute, P; Villanueva-Millán, M J; Mosqueda-Solis, A; Hasnaoui, M; Nepveu, F; Senard, J M; Bujanda, L; Aldámiz-Echevarría, L; Llarena, M; Andrade, F; Perio, P; Leboulanger, F; Hijona, L; Arbones-Mainar, J M; Portillo, M P; Carpéné, C

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is beneficial in obese and diabetic rodents. However, its low bioavailability raises questions about its therapeutic relevance for treating or preventing obesity complications. In this context, many related natural polyphenols are being tested for their putative antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects. This prompted us to study the influence of piceatannol, a polyhydroxylated stilbene, on the prevention of obesity complications in Zucker obese rats. A 6-week supplementation was followed by the determination of various markers in plasma, liver, adipose tissue and heart, together with a large-scale analysis of gut microbiota composition. When given in doses of 15 or 45 mg/kg body weight/day, piceatannol did not reduce either hyperphagia or fat accumulation. It did not modify the profusion of the most abundant phyla in gut, though slight changes were observed in the abundance of several Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacteroides species belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. This was accompanied by a tendency to reduce plasma lipopolysaccharides by 30 %, and by a decrease of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, LDL-cholesterol, and lactate. While piceatannol tended to improve lipid handling, it did not mitigate hyperinsulinemia and cardiac hypertrophy. However, it increased cardiac expression of ephrin-B1, a membrane protein that contributes to maintaining cardiomyocyte architecture. Lastly, ascorbyl radical plasma levels and hydrogen peroxide release by adipose tissue were similar in control and treated groups. Thus, piceatannol did not exhibit strong slimming capacities but did limit several obesity complications. PMID:26792656

  15. Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.

    PubMed

    Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise. PMID:20967458

  16. Inhibitors of adriamycin-induced histamine release in vitro limit adriamycin cardiotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Klugmann, F. B.; Decorti, G.; Candussio, L.; Grill, V.; Mallardi, F.; Baldini, L.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of theophylline and disodium cromoglycate was tested on adriamycin-induced histamine release in vitro and on adriamycin cardiotoxicity in vivo. Both substances significantly inhibited the release of histamine induced by 100 micrograms ml-1 of adriamycin on rat peritoneal cells and produced significant protection against adriamycin-mediated acute and chronic cardiotoxicity in mice. N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger, successfully used in the prevention of the cardiomyopathy, was also found to be an inhibitor of histamine release induced by adriamycin and compound 48/80 on rat peritoneal cells. This study further supports the hypothesis that the release of histamine may be involved in the pathogenesis of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2432914

  17. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... domestic, flag, or supplemental operations. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  18. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... domestic, flag, or supplemental operations. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  19. Antioxidant modulation of oxidant-stimulated uptake and release of arachidonic acid in eicosapentaenoic acid-supplemented human lymphoma U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Obajimi, Oluwakemi; Black, Kenneth D; Glen, Iain; Ross, Brian M

    2007-02-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are increasingly finding use as treatments for a variety of medical conditions. PUFA supplementation can, however, result in increased oxidative stress causing elevated turnover rate of membrane phospholipids, impairment of membrane integrity and increased formation of inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to determine which antioxidant compounds were most effective in ameliorating the stimulation of phospholipid turnover by oxidative stress. U937 cells were supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid and either ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene or astaxanthin prior to being challenged with oxidant. Although all antioxidants were found to be effective in decreasing oxidant-stimulated peroxide formation, only alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased oxidant-stimulated release of 3H-labeled arachidonic acid (AA), while ascorbic acid markedly increased release. All antioxidants except alpha-tocopherol decreased oxidant-stimulated 3H-AA uptake. Our data suggest that antioxidants are not equally effective in combating the effects of oxidative stress upon membrane phospholipid turnover, and that optimal protection will require mixtures of antioxidants. PMID:17198751

  20. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge.

    PubMed

    Buntyn, J O; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Schmidt, T B; Erickson, G E; Sieren, S E; Jones, S J; Carroll, J A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), no ZH supplementation, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL), supplemented with ZH at 8.33 mg/kg (DM basis). The ZIL group was supplemented ZH for 20 d, with a 3-d withdrawal period. On d 24, heifers received an intravenous bolus of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for serum and 60-min intervals for plasma and whole blood, from -2 to 8 h relative to the challenge at 0 h (1000 h). Samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and complete blood cell counts. Following the challenge, cattle were harvested over a 3-d period. Liver, LM, and biceps femoris (BF) samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, lactate, and glycolytic potential (GP). There was a treatment ( ≤ 0.001) effect for vaginal temperature (VT), with ZIL having a 0.1°C decrease in VT when compared with CON. A treatment × time effect ( = 0.002) was observed for NEFA. A treatment effect was observed for BUN; ZIL had decreased BUN concentrations compared with CON ( < 0.001) prior to the challenge; however, no treatment × time effect was observed. There was also a treatment effect for cortisol ( ≤ 0.01) and epinephrine ( = 0.003); ZIL had decreased cortisol and epinephrine during the CRH/VP challenge when compared with CON. There was a time effect for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes; each variable increased ( ≤ 0.01) 2 h postchallenge. Additionally, neutrophil counts decreased ( ≤ 0.01) in response to CRH/VP challenge in both treatment groups. Glucose concentrations within the LM were

  1. Intracellular Hmgb1 Inhibits Inflammatory Nucleosome Release and Limits Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Rui; Zhang, Qiuhong; Hou, Wen; Yan, Zhenwen; Chen, Ruochan; Bonaroti, Jillian; Bansal, Preeti; Billiar, Timothy R.; Tsung, Allan; Wang, Qingde; Bartlett, David L.; Whitcomb, David C; Chang, Eugene B.; Zhu, Xiaorong; Wang, Haichao; Lu, Ben; Tracey, Kevin J.; Cao, Lizhi; Fan, Xue-Gong; Lotze, Michael T.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant protein that regulates chromosome architecture and also functions as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule. Little is known about its intracellular roles in response to tissue injury or during subsequent local and systemic inflammatory responses. We investigated the function of Hmgb1 in mice following induction of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We utilized a Cre/LoxP system to create mice with pancreas-specific disruption in Hmbg1 (Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice). Acute pancreatitis was induced in these mice (HMGB1flox/flox mice served as controls) following injection of L-arginine or cerulein. Pancreatic tissues and acinar cells were collected and analyzed by histologic, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: Following injection of L-arginine or cerulein, Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice developed acute pancreatitis more rapidly than controls, with increased mortality. Pancreatic tissues of these mice also had higher levels of serum amylase, acinar cell death, leukocyte infiltration, and interstitial edema than controls. Pancreatic tissues and acinar cells collected from the Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice following L-arginine- or cerulein injection demonstrated nuclear catastrophe with greater nucleosome release when compared with controls, along with increased phosphorylation/activation of RELA Nfκb, degradation of Iκb, and phosphorylation of Mapk. Inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) blocked L-arginine–induced DNA damage, necrosis, apoptosis, release of nucleosomes, and activation of Nfκb in pancreatic tissues and acinar cells from Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox and control mice. Exogenous genomic DNA and recombinant histone H3 proteins significantly induced release of HMGB1 from mouse macrophages; administration of antibodies against H3 to mice reduced serum levels of HMGB1 and increased survival following L-arginine injection. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 mouse

  2. Limited agreement exists between rationale and practice in athletes' supplement use for maintenance of health: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Mazanov, Jason; Holloway, Allison; Bingham, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Background The widespread use of nutritional supplements among athletes is poorly understood. The prevalence of supplement intake and users' knowledge have been researched independently leading to useful, but disconnected, information on supplement use. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [φ], to discover observed incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results are given for test pairs between 'motive for use' [doctor's advice, avoiding sickness, overcoming injuries and enhancement of diet] and each supplement used and these were categorized as strong (φ > .7), intermediate (7 < φ > .3) and weak (φ < .3). Results The use of selected supplements varied widely as follows: multivitamin (72.7%), vitamin C (70.4%), echinacea (30.8%), iron (29.8%), magnesium (11.0%) and ginseng (8.3%). Associations with motive were found in 8 of the 10 test pairs which were expected from literature precedents, however only weak associations exist. Of these, four were associated with avoidance of sickness [iron (χ2 = 11.94, p < .001; φ = .15, p = .001), multivitamin (χ2 = 6.43, p < .001; φ = .11, p = .011), vitamin C (χ2 = 54.67, p < .001; φ = .32, p < .001) and echinacea (χ2 = 40.34, p < .001; φ = .28, p < .001)]. The remaining 4 associations were: no time to prepare meals with ginseng (χ2 = 7.64, p = .006; φ = .12, p = .006) and multivitamin (χ2 = 9.103, p = .003; φ = .13, p = .003); overcoming injuries with magnesium (χ2 = 6.99, p = .008; φ = .11, p = .008); doctors' advice and iron (χ2 = 35.00, p < .001; φ = .25, p = .001). Conclusion These results suggest a lack of understanding regarding supplements and health maintenance, except for vitamin C and echinacea. Furthermore, supplement use is apparently independent of physicians/dieticians' advice, except for iron. This may suggest a widespread circumvention of expert advice in

  3. Diffusion-limited Kinetic Pathway for Hydrogen Release from LiNH2/LiH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolih, Biljana; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2011-03-01

    From experimental work on decomposition of hydrogen storage materials it has been suggested that bulk diffusion of metal species is the bottleneck for hydrogen release. In this work we study the underlying mechanism for diffusion reactions in the dehydrogenation of Li NH2 . Using first-principle, density functional theory methods we have calculated concentration gradients and diffusivities of neutral and charged defects in Li NH2 and Li 2 NH phases. The overall activation energy is obtained from these calculations. The calculated activation energies are found to agree well with experimental work on the kinetics of Li NH2 decomposition, suggesting that diffusion of metal species is a possible method for dehydrogenation of Lithium Amide.

  4. Evidence That the Pi Release Event Is the Rate-Limiting Step in the Nitrogenase Catalytic Cycle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Ledbetter, Rhesa; Shaw, Sudipta; Pence, Natasha; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Eilers, Brian; Guo, Qingjuan; Pokhrel, Nilisha; Cash, Valerie L; Dean, Dennis R; Antony, Edwin; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogenase reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) involves a sequence of events that occur upon the transient association of the reduced Fe protein containing two ATP molecules with the MoFe protein that includes electron transfer, ATP hydrolysis, Pi release, and dissociation of the oxidized, ADP-containing Fe protein from the reduced MoFe protein. Numerous kinetic studies using the nonphysiological electron donor dithionite have suggested that the rate-limiting step in this reaction cycle is the dissociation of the Fe protein from the MoFe protein. Here, we have established the rate constants for each of the key steps in the catalytic cycle using the physiological reductant flavodoxin protein in its hydroquinone state. The findings indicate that with this reductant, the rate-limiting step in the reaction cycle is not protein-protein dissociation or reduction of the oxidized Fe protein, but rather events associated with the Pi release step. Further, it is demonstrated that (i) Fe protein transfers only one electron to MoFe protein in each Fe protein cycle coupled with hydrolysis of two ATP molecules, (ii) the oxidized Fe protein is not reduced when bound to MoFe protein, and (iii) the Fe protein interacts with flavodoxin using the same binding interface that is used with the MoFe protein. These findings allow a revision of the rate-limiting step in the nitrogenase Fe protein cycle. PMID:27295169

  5. Solvent and viscosity effects on the rate-limiting product release step of glucoamylase during maltose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sierks, M R; Sico, C; Zaw, M

    1997-01-01

    Release of product from the active site is the rate-limiting step in a number of enzymatic reactions, including maltose hydrolysis by glucoamylase (GA). With GA, an enzymatic conformational change has been associated with the product release step. Solvent characteristics such as viscosity can strongly influence protein conformational changes. Here we show that the rate-limiting step of GA has a rather complex dependence on solvent characteristics. Seven different cosolvents were added to the GA/maltose reaction solution. Five of the cosolvents, all having an ethylene glycol base, resulted in an increase in activity at low concentration of cosolvent and variable decreases in activity at higher concentrations. The increase in enzyme activity was dependent on polymer length of the cosolvent; the longer the polymer, the lower the concentration needed. The maximum increase in catalytic activity at 45 degrees C (40-45%) was obtained with the three longest polymers (degree of polymerization from 200 to 8000). A further increase in activity to 60-65% was obtained at 60 degrees C. The linear relationship between ln(kcat) and (viscosity)2 obtained with all the cosolvents provides further evidence that product release is the rate-limiting step in the GA catalytic mechanism. A substantial increase in the turnover rate of GA by addition of relatively small amounts of a cosolvent has potential applications for the food industry where high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is one of the primary products produced with GA. Since maltodextrin hydrolysis by GA is by far the slowest step in the production of HFCS, increasing the catalytic rate of GA can substantially reduce the process time. PMID:9336980

  6. Review of Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum Measurements:Limits on Distortions, Energy Release, and Cosmological Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the three major cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measurement programs conducted and published since the last (XVII) IAU General Assembly. The results are consistent with a Planckian spectrum with temperature 2.72 {+-} 0.03 K spanning a wavelength range of 0.1 to 12 cm. Limits on possible distortions and implications are outlined. Ongoing and future measurements are discussed.

  7. Review of cosmic background radiation spectrum measurements: limits on distortions, energy release, and cosmological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the three major cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measurement programs conducted and published since the last (XVII) IAU General Assembly. The results are consistent with a Planckian spectrum with temperature 2.72 +- 0.03 K spanning a wavelength range of 0.1 to 12 cm. Limits on possible distortions and implications are outlined. Ongoing and future measurements are discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight... Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight attendant means an individual, other..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  9. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight... Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight attendant means an individual, other..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  10. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Vejvar, Eva; Kitzmüller, Claudia; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Nagl, Birgit; Vrtala, Susanne; Briza, Peter; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Bohle, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. The mediator-releasing activity of bGST was analysed with IgE-loaded rat basophil leukaemia cells (RBL) expressing human FcεRI. BALB/c mice were immunized with bGST or Bet v 1. Antibody and T cell responses to either protein were assessed. IgE-cross-reactivity between bGST with GST from house dust mite, Der p 8, was studied with murine and human sera in ELISA. The release kinetics of bGST and Bet v 1 from birch pollen were assessed in water, simulated lung fluid, 0.9% NaCl and PBS. Eluted proteins were quantified by ELISA and analysed by immunoblotting. Principle findings Only 13% of 217 birch pollen-allergic patients showed IgE-reactivity to bGST. In RBL assays bGST induced mediator release. Immunization of mice with bGST induced specific IgE and a Th2-dominated cellular immune response comparably to immunization with Bet v 1. bGST did not cross-react with Der p 8. In contrast to Bet v 1, only low amounts of bGST were released from pollen grains upon incubation in water and the different physiological solutions. Conclusion/Significance Although bGST is abundant in birch pollen, immunogenic in mice and able to induce mediator release from effector cells passively loaded with specific IgE, it is a minor allergen for birch pollen-allergic patients. We refer this discrepancy to its limited release from hydrated pollen. Hence, bGST is an example demonstrating that allergenicity depends mainly on rapid elution from airborne particles. PMID:25275548

  11. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  12. Deposition of fluoride on enamel surfaces released from varnishes is limited to vicinity of fluoridation site

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, A. M.; Yakin, M.; Becker, K.; Buchalla, W.; Attin, R.; Wiegand, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the in-situ study was to determine fluoride uptake in non-fluoridated, demineralized enamel after application of fluoride varnishes on enamel samples located at various distances from the non-fluoridated samples. All enamel samples used were demineralized with acidic hydroxyethylcellulose before the experiment. Intra-oral appliances were worn by ten volunteers in three series: (1, Mirafluorid, 0.15% F; 2, Duraphat, 2.3% F and 3, unfluoridated controls) of 6 days each. Each two enamel samples were prepared from 30 bovine incisors. One sample was used for the determination of baseline fluoride content (BFC); the other was treated according to the respective series and fixed in the intra-oral appliance for 6 days. Additionally, from 120 incisors, each four enamel samples were prepared (one for BFC). Three samples (a–c) were placed into each appliance at different sites: (a) directly neighboured to the fluoridated specimen (=next), (b) at 1-cm distance (=1 cm) and (c) in the opposite buccal aspect of the appliance (=opposite). At these sites, new unfluoridated samples were placed at days 1, 3 and 5, which were left in place for 1 day. The volunteers brushed their teeth and the samples with fluoridated toothpaste twice per day. Both the KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride were determined in all samples to determine fluoride uptake and were statistically analyzed. One day, after fluoridation with Duraphat, KOH-soluble fluoride uptake in specimen a (=next) was significantly higher compared to the corresponding samples of both the control and Mirafluorid series, which in turn were not significantly different from each other. At all other sites and time points, fluoride uptake in the enamel samples were not different from controls for both fluoride varnishes. Within the first day after application, intra-oral-fluoride release from the tested fluoride varnish Duraphat leads to KOH-soluble fluoride uptake only in enamel samples located in close

  13. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Perutka, Libor; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Kraus, Petra; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2011-06-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 ± 100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl(2). Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900°C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 ms(-1). Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl(2) from CaCl(2); diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl(2) out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit. PMID:21333519

  14. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Benedikt

    2011-06-15

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

  15. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of zilpateral hydrochloride supplementation on catecholamin response and other blood metabolites following a combined corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stress response of cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has become a topic due to anecdotal claims of supplemented cattle responding poorly to stress. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the catecholamine and blood metabolite response of ZH-supplemente...

  17. [Use of intravenous iron supplementation in chronic kidney disease: Interests, limits, and recommendations for a better practice].

    PubMed

    Rottembourg, Jacques; Rostoker, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency is an important clinical concern in chronic kidney disease (CKD), giving rise to iron-deficiency anaemia, and various impaired cellular functions. Oral supplementation, in particular with ferrous salts, is associated with a high rate of gastro-intestinal side effects and is poorly absorbed, a problem that is avoided with intravenous (IV) irons. Recently, with the approval of the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, the French Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM) took adequate measures to minimize the risk of allergic reactions, by correction on the summary of intravenous iron products characteristics. All IV iron products should be prescribed, administered and injected, inside public or private hospitals exclusively, and a clinical follow-up after the infusion for at least 30 minutes is mandatory. The most stable intravenous iron complexes (low molecular weight iron dextran, ferric carboxymaltose, and iron isomaltoside 1000 [under agreement]) can be given in higher single doses and more rapidly than less recent preparations such as iron sucrose (originator or similars). Test doses are advisable for conventional low molecular weight iron dextrans, but are no more mandatory. Iron supplementation is recommended for all CKD patients with iron-deficiency anaemia and those who receive erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, whether or not they require dialysis. Intravenous iron is the preferred route of administration in haemodialysis patients, with randomized trials showing a significantly greater increase in haemoglobin levels for intravenous versus oral iron and a low rate of treatment-related adverse events during these trials. According ANSM, physicians should apply the product's label recommendations especially the posology. In the non-dialysis CKD population, the erythropoietic response is also significantly higher using intravenous versus oral iron, and tolerability is at

  18. Development of an Alternative Release Limit for a Former Uranium and Thorium Processing Plant in Cushing Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, A.H.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation will be to describe how, through dose modeling and analysis, a complex site was able to obtain an Alternative Release Limit (ARL) that adequately protected the environment, met regulatory approval, and saved money in the process. The Kerr-McGee Refinery Site in Cushing, OK supported an experimental facility that processed nuclear fuel materials from 1963 to 1966. Radiological contaminants at the site as a result of operations consist of natural thorium and isotopes of uranium (Th-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235 and U-238). Site contamination existed in both surface and sub-surface soils and within a shallow aquifer. After the soil was remediated to acceptable regulatory limits, however, the potential existed for residual groundwater contamination to result in exposure to individuals following site closure. Traditional exposure pathway analysis for the resident farmer seemed to indicate that this exposure was excessive. A closer look at the exposure pathways present in this rural location showed that groundwater contamination existed in a shallow aquifer insufficient to support significant irrigation activities and was of sufficiently poor water quality that it could not be used for drinking water. Through the determination of aquifer yield pumping tests, agreement from the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques, it was shown that the average member of the critical population was adequately protected in the current site configuration without further remediation. This paper describes the analytical methods and models used to apply the general dose limit of 0.25 mSv yr{sup -1} (25 mrem yr{sup -1}) to the particulars of the Cushing Site, and demonstrates how these methods achieved a much higher ARL for total uranium in groundwater that was accepted by the regulators and achieved significant savings for the Licensee. (authors)

  19. Primer release is the rate-limiting event in lagging-strand synthesis mediated by the T7 replisome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alfredo J; Lee, Seung-Joo; Richardson, Charles C

    2016-05-24

    DNA replication occurs semidiscontinuously due to the antiparallel DNA strands and polarity of enzymatic DNA synthesis. Although the leading strand is synthesized continuously, the lagging strand is synthesized in small segments designated Okazaki fragments. Lagging-strand synthesis is a complex event requiring repeated cycles of RNA primer synthesis, transfer to the lagging-strand polymerase, and extension effected by cooperation between DNA primase and the lagging-strand polymerase. We examined events controlling Okazaki fragment initiation using the bacteriophage T7 replication system. Primer utilization by T7 DNA polymerase is slower than primer formation. Slow primer release from DNA primase allows the polymerase to engage the complex and is followed by a slow primer handoff step. The T7 single-stranded DNA binding protein increases primer formation and extension efficiency but promotes limited rounds of primer extension. We present a model describing Okazaki fragment initiation, the regulation of fragment length, and their implications for coordinated leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis. PMID:27162371

  20. The Double Solid Reactant Method for modeling the release of trace elements from dissolving solid phases: I. Outline and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accornero, Marina; Marini, Luigi

    2008-10-01

    A Double Solid Reactant Method was elaborated from a suggestion of Marini (Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide: Thermodynamics, kinetics, and reaction path modeling. Developments in Geochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007) to simulate the release of trace elements during the progressive dissolution of solid phases. The method is based on the definition, for each dissolving solid, of both an entity whose thermodynamic and kinetic properties are known (either a pure mineral or a solid mixture) and a special reactant, that is, a material of known stoichiometry and unknown thermodynamic and kinetic properties. The special reactant is utilised to take into account the concentrations of trace elements in the dissolving solid phase. In this communication, the influence of several trace elements on the Δ G f o, Δ G r o and log K of the minerals considered by Lelli et al. (Environ Geol, 2007) and Accornero and Marini (Geobasi, 2007a; Proceedings of IMWA symposium, Cagliari, 27 31 May 2007b) was evaluated assuming ideal mixing in the solid state. These effects were found to be negligible for albite and the leucite latitic glass, limited for muscovites and chlorites, and slightly more important for apatites. These influences become progressively higher with increasing concentration of trace elements in these minerals. Based on these deviations in thermodynamic parameters, special reactants should not include oxide components with molar fractions higher than 0.003.

  1. Quantitative sustainability and qualitative concerns in an irrigations system using recycled water to supplement limited groundwater supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, John; Alataway, Abed

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation in a country facing water scarcity depends upon adoption of best management practices to deliver 'more crop per drop' together with use of recycled waste-water from urban sewage systems. Saudi Arabia is a country facing extreme water scarcity and in this paper we report on research conducted at an extensive irrigation system where a concerted effort over several years has been devoted to achieving a high level of water productivity. Al-Ahsa oasis is located about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf and has been inhabited since prehistoric times, due to the abundance of water in an otherwise arid region. It is one of the largest oases in the world with 12,000 hectares of irrigated land and more than 2 million palm trees. Historically the oasis was watered by over 60 artesian springs, but water is now pumped from the aquifer. To supplement this groundwater source, treated waste-water reuse has been practiced since 1992 and now comprises 30% of total supply. In addition, a comparable amount of agricultural drainage water is collected and recycled, so that the 'first-use' water represents only 40% of total irrigation supply. While this re-use system permits sustained irrigation with greatly reduced groundwater abstraction, there is a potential down-side in that fertilizers and contaminants applied with irrigation water move through the soil and return to the irrigation supply enhancing the risk for human and animal health. We investigated this problem using E coli and helminth eggs as indicators of human health risk. We sampled each of the three sources which are delivered separately to the head of the main irrigation canal where they are blended. The groundwater was free from E coli and helminths and the treated wastewater source was generally within designated quality standards. The recycled drainage water was delivered untreated into the canal system and was found to be contaminated with both E coli and helminths above acceptable

  2. A Scoping Review of Interventions to Supplement Spoken Communication for Children with Limited Speech or Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Maria Antonella; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is used for treating children with severe disorders of speech-language production and/or comprehension. Various strategies are used, but research and debate on their efficacy have remained limited to a specific area and have rarely reached the general medical community. Objective To systematically evaluate outcomes of AAC interventions in children with limited speech or language skills. Methods Searches were conducted (up to December 2012) in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DARE, and Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, relevant journals were searched by hand. References from identified studies were examined. Only RCTs were considered. Trial quality was assessed according to a standardized and validated set of criteria. Results Fourteen of 1661 retrieved papers met inclusion criteria. A total of 666 children were included in the review and 7 papers involved only children <5 years old. Papers were of average quality and all but one had been published during the previous 10 years by one of 8 research groups, 5 of which from the United States. Seven studies directly addressed AAC use by children with different disabilities. Seven studies enrolled typically developing children: 5 evaluated the use of AAC technologies by children without disabilities in order to obtain results that could be used to improve interventions in peers with disabilities, and 2 evaluated peers’ attitudes towards children who used AAC. Both interventions and outcome measures varied widely between studies. Overall findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the AAC interventions considered, but the focus on RCTs alone appears too restrictive. Conclusions Solid evidence of the positive effects of AAC interventions in children with severe communication disorders must be generated, and different methods are needed besides RCTs. Moreover, it is important that knowledge, research, and debate extend to the medical community in order

  3. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  4. An alkaline follicular fluid fraction induces capacitation and limited release of oviduct epithelium-bound stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2015-09-01

    Induction of hyperactivated motility is considered essential for triggering the release of oviduct-bound mammalian spermatozoa in preparation for fertilization. In this study, oviduct-bound stallion spermatozoa were exposed for 2 h to: i) pre-ovulatory and ii) post-ovulatory oviductal fluid; iii) 100% and iv) 10% follicular fluid (FF); v) cumulus cells, vi) mature equine oocytes, vii) capacitating and viii) non-capacitating medium. None of these triggered sperm release or hyperactivated motility. Interestingly, native FF was detrimental to sperm viability, an effect that was negated by heat inactivation, charcoal treatment and 30 kDa filtration alone or in combination. Moreover, sperm suspensions exposed to treated FF at pH 7.9 but not pH 7.4 showed Ca(2+)-dependent hypermotility. Fluo-4 AM staining of sperm showed elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in hyperactivated stallion spermatozoa exposed to treated FF at pH 7.9 compared to a modest response in defined capacitating conditions at pH 7.9 and no response in treated FF at pH 7.4. Moreover, 1 h incubation in alkaline, treated FF induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in 20% of spermatozoa. None of the conditions tested induced widespread release of sperm pre-bound to oviduct epithelium. However, the hyperactivating conditions did induce release of 70-120 spermatozoa per oviduct explant, of which 48% showed protein tyrosine phosphorylation and all were acrosome-intact, but capable of acrosomal exocytosis in response to calcium ionophore. We conclude that, in the presence of elevated pH and extracellular Ca(2+), a heat-resistant, hydrophilic, <30 kDa component of FF can trigger protein tyrosine phosphorylation, elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and hyperactivated motility in stallion sperm, but infrequent release of sperm pre-bound to oviduct epithelium. PMID:26242588

  5. Sediment-water exchange of nutrients in the Marsdiep basin, western Wadden Sea: Phosphorus limitation induced by a controlled release?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leote, Catarina; Epping, Eric H. G.

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the release of inorganic phosphorus from the sediments and assess its contribution to present primary production, a basin-wide study of the Marsdiep (western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) was performed. Two distinct sedimentary zones were identified: a depositional area characterized by a high content of silt and organic carbon and a small grain size and the majority of the area, composed of fine/medium sand and a low organic carbon content. The sediment-water exchange was higher in the fine grained depositional area and based on a relationship found between the release of inorganic phosphorus and the silt content, a total annual release of 1.0×107 mol P was estimated for the whole Marsdiep basin. A spatial variability in the processes controlling the nutrient release was found. The exchange in the depositional area resulted mainly from molecular diffusive transport, with mineralization and sorption determining the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the porewater. For the coarser sediment stations the activity of macrofauna clearly enhanced the fluxes. Given the relative demand of nutrients (N:P:Si) for phytoplankton growth, the release was phosphorus deficient during most of the year. Nevertheless, it increased from February until September, in parallel with the increase in temperature and light, thus having the potential to fuel primary production during their seasonal growth period. In terms of absolute values, our results show that the present exchange, enhanced by the activity of macrofauna has the potential to fuel a significant fraction of the recent levels of primary productivity.

  6. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  7. Evaluation of the effects of zilpateral hydrochloride supplementation on catecholamine response and other blood metabolites following a combined corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®) to cattle has been implicated as having a negative impact on the well-being of cattle. However, there is no data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the serum metabolic profile and m...

  8. Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride to crossbred Angus heifers does not increase stress responsiveness or homeostatic metabolic parameters after a combined corticoptropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anecdotal claims suggest that feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) alters the stress response in cattle; however, there is no scientific data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the stress response of ZH-supplemented cattle when exposed to...

  9. The release of dipicolinic acid--the rate-limiting step of Bacillus endospore inactivation during the high pressure thermal sterilization process.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Kai; Schlumbach, Karl; Baier, Daniel; Mathys, Alexander; Knorr, Dietrich

    2013-03-01

    High pressure combined with elevated temperatures can produce low acid, commercially sterile and shelf-stable foods. Depending on the temperature and pressure levels applied, bacterial endospores pass through different pathways, which can lead to a pressure-induced germination or inactivation. Regardless of the pathway, Bacillus endospores first release pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), which contributes to the low amount of free water in the spore core and is consequently responsible for the spore's high resistance against wet and dry heat. This is therefore the rate-limiting step in the high pressure sterilization process. To evaluate the impact of a broad pressure, temperature and time domain on the DPA release, Bacillus subtilis spores were pressure treated between 0.1 and 900 MPa at between 30 and 80 °C under isothermal isobaric conditions during dwell time. DPA quantification was assessed using HPLC, and samples were taken both immediately and 2 h after the pressure treatment. To obtain a release kinetic for some pressure-temperature conditions, samples were collected between 1s and 60 min after decompression. A multiresponse kinetic model was then used to derive a model covering all kinetic data. The isorate lines modeled for the DPA release in the chosen pressure-temperature landscape enabled the determination of three distinct zones. (I) For pressures <600 MPa and temperatures >50 °C, a 90% DPA release was achievable in less than 5 min and no difference in the amount of DPA was found immediately 2 h after pressurization. This may indicate irreversible damage to the inner spore membrane or membrane proteins. (II) Above 600 MPa the synergism between pressure and temperature diminished, and the treatment temperature alone dominated DPA release. (III) Pressures <600 MPa and temperatures <50 °C resulted in a retarded release of DPA, with strong increased differences in the amount of DPA released after 2 h, which implies a pressure-induced physiological

  10. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577–587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture–mark–recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture–mark–recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and

  11. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation.

    PubMed

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577-587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture-mark-recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture-mark-recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and less precise

  12. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  13. P(I) Release Limits the Intrinsic and RNA-Stimulated ATPase Cycles of DEAD-Box Protein 5 (Dbp5).

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily V; Cao, Wenxiang; Vörös, Judit; Merchant, Monique; Modis, Yorgo; Hackney, David D; Montpetit, Ben; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2016-01-29

    mRNA export from the nucleus depends on the ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5/DDX19. Although Dbp5 has measurable ATPase activity alone, several regulatory factors (e.g., RNA, nucleoporin proteins, and the endogenous small molecule InsP6) modulate catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo to facilitate mRNA export. An analysis of the intrinsic and regulator-activated Dbp5 ATPase cycle is necessary to define how these factors control Dbp5 and mRNA export. Here, we report a kinetic and equilibrium analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbp5 ATPase cycle, including the influence of RNA on Dbp5 activity. These data show that ATP binds Dbp5 weakly in rapid equilibrium with a binding affinity (KT~4 mM) comparable to the KM for steady-state cycling, while ADP binds an order of magnitude more tightly (KD~0.4 mM). The overall intrinsic steady-state cycling rate constant (kcat) is limited by slow, near-irreversible ATP hydrolysis and even slower subsequent phosphate release. RNA increases kcat and rate-limiting Pi release 20-fold, although Pi release continues to limit steady-state cycling in the presence of RNA, in conjunction with RNA binding. Together, this work identifies RNA binding and Pi release as important biochemical transitions within the Dbp5 ATPase cycle and provides a framework for investigating the means by which Dbp5 and mRNA export is modulated by regulatory factors. PMID:26730886

  14. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate. PMID:24619858

  15. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  16. Limitations of SRTM, Logan graphical method, and equilibrium analysis for measuring transient dopamine release with [(11)C]raclopride PET.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jenna M; Kim, Su Jin; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Morris, Evan D

    2013-01-01

    Conventional PET methods to estimate [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP ND) assume that endogenous dopamine concentration does not change during the scan time. However, this assumption is purposely violated in studies using pharmacological or behavioral stimuli to invoke acute dopamine release. When the assumption of steady-state dopamine is violated, conventional analysis methods may produce biased or even unusable estimates of BP ND. To illustrate this problem, we examined the effect of scan duration on ΔBP ND estimated by three common analysis methods (simplified reference tissue model, Logan graphical reference method, and equilibrium analysis) applied to simulated and experimental single-scan activation studies. The activation - dopamine release - in both the simulated and experimental studies was brief. Simulations showed ΔBP ND to be highly dependent on the window of data used to determine BP ND in the activation state. A similar pattern was seen in the data from human smoking studies. No such pattern of ΔBP ND dependence on the window of data used was apparent in simulations where dopamine was held constant. The dependence of ΔBP ND on the duration of data analyzed illustrates the inability of conventional methods to reliably quantify short-lived increases in endogenous dopamine. PMID:23638336

  17. Limits on the release of Rb isotopes from a zeolite based 83mKr calibration source for the XENON project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannen, V.; Aprile, E.; Arneodo, F.; Baudis, L.; Beck, M.; Bokeloh, K.; Ferella, A. D.; Giboni, K.; Lang, R. F.; Lebeda, O.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Schumann, M.; Spalek, A.; Venos, D.; Weinheimer, C.

    2011-10-01

    The isomer 83mKr with its half-life of 1.83 h is an ideal calibration source for a liquid noble gas dark matter experiment like the XENON project. However, the risk of contamination of the detector with traces of the much longer lived mother isotope 83Rb(T½ = 86.2 d) has to be ruled out. In this work the release of 83Rb atoms from a 1.8 MBq 83Rb source embedded in zeolite beads has been investigated. To do so, a cryogenic trap has been connected to the source for about 10 days, after which it was removed and probed for the strongest 83Rbγ-rays with an ultra-sensitive Germanium detector. No signal has been found. The corresponding upper limit on the released 83Rb activity means that the investigated type of source can be used in the XENON project and similar low-background experiments as 83mKr generator without a significant risk of contaminating the detector. The measurements also allow to set upper limits on the possible release of the isotopes 84Rb and 86Rb, traces of which were created alongside the production of 83Rb at the Rez cyclotron.

  18. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  19. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  20. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 4: TEDS-M Released Mathematics and Mathematics Pedagogy Knowledge Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…

  1. The intracellular sensor NOD2 induces microRNA-29 expression in human dendritic cells to limit IL-23 release.

    PubMed

    Brain, Oliver; Owens, Benjamin M J; Pichulik, Tica; Allan, Philip; Khatamzas, Elham; Leslie, Alasdair; Steevels, Tessa; Sharma, Sameer; Mayer, Alice; Catuneanu, Ana Maria; Morton, Victoria; Sun, Mei-Yi; Jewell, Derek; Coccia, Margherita; Harrison, Oliver; Maloy, Kevin; Schönefeldt, Susann; Bornschein, Simon; Liston, Adrian; Simmons, Alison

    2013-09-19

    NOD2 is an intracellular sensor that contributes to immune defense and inflammation. Here we investigated whether NOD2 mediates its effects through control of microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-29 expression was upregulated in human dendritic cells (DCs) in response to NOD2 signals, and miR-29 regulated the expression of multiple immune mediators. In particular, miR-29 downregulated interleukin-23 (IL-23) by targeting IL-12p40 directly and IL-23p19 indirectly, likely via reduction of ATF2. DSS-induced colitis was worse in miR-29-deficient mice and was associated with elevated IL-23 and T helper 17 signature cytokines in the intestinal mucosa. Crohn's disease (CD) patient DCs expressing NOD2 polymorphisms failed to induce miR-29 upon pattern recognition receptor stimulation and showed enhanced release of IL-12p40 on exposure to adherent invasive E. coli. Therefore, we suggest that loss of miR-29-mediated immunoregulation in CD DCs might contribute to elevated IL-23 in this disease. PMID:24054330

  2. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Signaling Plays a Limited and Subtle Role in Amygdala Physiology and Aversive Memory

    PubMed Central

    Chaperon, Frederique; Fendt, Markus; Kelly, Peter H.; Lingenhoehl, Kurt; Mosbacher, Johannes; Olpe, Hans-Rudolf; Schmid, Peter; Sturchler, Christine; McAllister, Kevin H.; van der Putten, P. Herman; Gee, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA) and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO) show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA) pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe6, Leu-NHEt13, des-Met14)-Bombesin (6–14) did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders. PMID:22509372

  3. Review of the EPA's radionuclide release analyses from LLW disposal trenches used in support of proposed dose limits in 40 CFR 193

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-11-01

    The April 1989 draft EPA standard for low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 40 CFR 193, would require disposal site performance to satisfy very stringent dose-limit criteria. The EPA suggests that these limits can be achieved by relying extensively on waste solidification before disposal. The EPA justifies the achievability of the proposed criteria based on performance assessment analyses in the general context of trench burial of the LLW. The core models implemented in those analyses are codified in the EPA's PRESTO family of codes. Because a key set of models for predicting potential releases are the leach-and-transport models from a disposal trench, these have been reviewed for completeness and applicability to trench disposal methods. The overall conclusion of this review is that the generic analyses performed by the EPA are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the proposed version of 40 CFR 193. More rigorous analyses may find the draft standard criteria to be unattainable.

  4. Review of the EPA`s radionuclide release analyses from LLW disposal trenches used in support of proposed dose limits in 40 CFR 193

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1991-11-01

    The April 1989 draft EPA standard for low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 40 CFR 193, would require disposal site performance to satisfy very stringent dose-limit criteria. The EPA suggests that these limits can be achieved by relying extensively on waste solidification before disposal. The EPA justifies the achievability of the proposed criteria based on performance assessment analyses in the general context of trench burial of the LLW. The core models implemented in those analyses are codified in the EPA`s PRESTO family of codes. Because a key set of models for predicting potential releases are the leach-and-transport models from a disposal trench, these have been reviewed for completeness and applicability to trench disposal methods. The overall conclusion of this review is that the generic analyses performed by the EPA are not sufficiently comprehensive to support the proposed version of 40 CFR 193. More rigorous analyses may find the draft standard criteria to be unattainable.

  5. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  6. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  7. Increased belowground C release during initial plant development of Populus deltoides x nigra grown under light and C reserve limited conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Plants might be a key factor for the long-term stabilisation of carbon (C) in the soil, e.g. through enhanced physical protection of root-derived C against microbial decomposition in soil aggregates. On the other hand C released by the plants into the soil might promote the decomposition of native soil organic matter (SOM) through the stimulation of microbial activity. We measured the C budget of developing plant-soil systems (Populus deltoides x nigra, Cambisol soil) in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. In order to distinguish plant-derived from native C in the SOM and the soil CO2 efflux, we labelled the poplar shoots continuously with 13C-CO2 from first emergence of leaves (sprouting from stem cuttings). Throughout the experiment the CO2 fluxes (photosynthetic assimilation, dark respiratory loss, soil CO2 efflux) were measured frequently (every 30 min) and the 13C was traced in the soil CO2 efflux (1-2 times a week). After 10 weeks the plant-soil systems were destructively harvested and the distribution of the 13C distribution was analysed. The plants developed slowly (compared to previous experiments), most likely due to limitation in C reserves (long term cutting storage) and C supply (low light intensities). The amount of 13C recovered in the roots, microbial biomass and soil CO2 efflux was directly correlated with the leaf area of the different plant individuals. After 3-4 weeks of plant development we observed a high peak in the total soil CO2 efflux. During this time the relative belowground C release was increased massively over the basal rate of 17 % of net C assimilated, whereby the variability between the plant individuals was large. The smallest plants, i.e. the plants that were most resource limited, obtained the highest belowground C release accounting at the peak time for up to 57 % of net assimilated C. We hypothesize that the plants released specific compounds, which either directly (enzymatically) or indirectly (priming

  8. Smac/DIABLO release from mitochondria and XIAP inhibition are essential to limit clonogenicity of Type I tumor cells after TRAIL receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maas, C; Verbrugge, I; de Vries, E; Savich, G; van de Kooij, L W; Tait, S W G; Borst, J

    2010-10-01

    Death receptors, such as Fas/CD95 and TRAIL receptors, engage the extrinsic pathway for caspase activation, but also couple to the intrinsic mitochondrial route. In so-called Type II cells, death receptors require the mitochondrial pathway for apoptotic execution, whereas in Type I cells they reportedly do not. For established tumor cell lines, the Type I/Type II distinction is based on short-term apoptosis assays. We report here that the mitochondrial pathway is essential for apoptotic execution of Type I tumor cells by death receptors, when long-term clonogenicity is taken into account. A blockade of the mitochondrial pathway in Type I tumor cells - by RNA interference for Bid or Bcl-2 overexpression - reduced effector caspase activity and mediated significant clonogenic resistance to TRAIL. Downstream from the mitochondria, Caspase-9 did not contribute to clonogenic death of TRAIL-treated Type I cells. Rather, the release of Smac/DIABLO and the inhibition of XIAP activity proved to be crucial for full effector caspase activity and clonogenic execution. Thus, in Type I cells the intrinsic pathway downstream from death receptors is not redundant, but limits clonogenicity by virtue of Smac/DIABLO release and XIAP inhibition. This finding is relevant for cancer therapy using death receptor agonists. PMID:20395960

  9. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. PMID:26871553

  11. Fluxes and fate of dissolved methane released at the seafloor at the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone offshore western Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Carolyn A.; Steinle, Lea; Rehder, Gregor; Niemann, Helge; Connelly, Douglas P.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Stott, Andrew W.; Sahling, Heiko; James, Rachael H.

    2015-09-01

    Widespread seepage of methane from seafloor sediments offshore Svalbard close to the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) may, in part, be driven by hydrate destabilization due to bottom water warming. To assess whether this methane reaches the atmosphere where it may contribute to further warming, we have undertaken comprehensive surveys of methane in seawater and air on the upper slope and shelf region. Near the GHSZ limit at ˜400 m water depth, methane concentrations are highest close to the seabed, reaching 825 nM. A simple box model of dissolved methane removal from bottom waters by horizontal and vertical mixing and microbially mediated oxidation indicates that ˜60% of methane released at the seafloor is oxidized at depth before it mixes with overlying surface waters. Deep waters are therefore not a significant source of methane to intermediate and surface waters; rather, relatively high methane concentrations in these waters (up to 50 nM) are attributed to isopycnal turbulent mixing with shelf waters. On the shelf, extensive seafloor seepage at <100 m water depth produces methane concentrations of up to 615 nM. The diffusive flux of methane from sea to air in the vicinity of the landward limit of the GHSZ is ˜4-20 μmol m-2 d-1, which is small relative to other Arctic sources. In support of this, analyses of mole fractions and the carbon isotope signature of atmospheric methane above the seeps do not indicate a significant local contribution from the seafloor source.

  12. Plasma progesterone profile and conception rate following exogenous supplementation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device in repeat-breeder crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, N. K. J.; Gupta, H. P.; Prasad, Shiv; Sheetal, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 µg i.m, n=8), Group 3 (hCG at 1500 IU i.m., n=8), and Group 4 (progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device at 958 mg, n=8). All the treatme nts were given on 5th daypostbreeding and in Group 4 intra-vaginally implanted device was withdrawn on 9th day (i.e., implant inserted for total 4 days) of the estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 5, 10, 15, and day 20 of estrous cycle, and plasma was separated for progesterone estimation. Results: Accessory corpus luteum was not formed in crossbred cows of Group4 and control group. However, total 6 and 8 accessory corpora lutea were found in Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. In pregnant cows, the plasma progesterone concentration increased continuously from day 0 to day 20. In non-pregnant cows, it increased from day 0 to day 15 and then declined. The conception rate on day 60 in Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 was 37.5%, 50%, 75%, and 37.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Treating repeat-breeder cows with hCG is effective in increasing conception rate by developing accessory corpora lutea and higher progesterone level. PMID:27397976

  13. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  14. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  15. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... take these supplements off the market. The Federal Trade Commission looks into reports of ads that might ... 504-5414 http://fnic.nal.usda.gov Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20580 ...

  16. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  17. 27 CFR 70.73 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental assessments... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Assessment § 70.73 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is... period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing...

  18. 27 CFR 70.73 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental assessments... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Assessment § 70.73 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is... period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing...

  19. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. PMID:25576140

  20. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Yang, Robert Alexander (Inventor); Brown, Christopher William (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a pyrotechnic actuated release mechanism which is mechanically two fault tolerant for effecting release. It is particularly well suited for releasably connecting structures to be used in the space environment or in other aerospace applications. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each attachable to either one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and the body are fastenable by a toggle supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end, which is received in a central opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein, the toggle is restrained by three retractable latching pins. Each pin is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge. While retraction of all three pins releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt is mounted on the fastener plate as a support for the socket mounting of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for pre-loading the toggle.

  1. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-04-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). PMID:10753088

  2. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  3. Driver Education. Supplemental Lessons and Activities for Use with Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students Enrolled in ESL or Special Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    A curriculum for use with limited English proficient students in English-as-a-second-language or special education classes who are enrolled in the driver education course is described. The 14 lessons require a basic proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing English. The lessons cover such topics as vocabulary and idioms related…

  4. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  5. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  6. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  7. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca2+ current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 ± 31% of control, Ca2+ current facilitation was 113 ± 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca2+]i was 252 ± 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the ‘local’[Ca2+]i transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca2+ current facilitation contributes to ∼40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca2+]i, but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca2+]i, and the back-calculated ‘local’[Ca2+]i signal, which only accounts for ∼10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca2+ current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca2+ current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca2+ current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca2+ current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca2+]i. PMID:18832426

  8. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-11-15

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca(2+) current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 +/- 31% of control, Ca(2+) current facilitation was 113 +/- 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca(2+)](i) was 252 +/- 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca(2+) current facilitation contributes to approximately 40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), and the back-calculated 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) signal, which only accounts for approximately 10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca(2+) current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca(2+) current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca(2+) current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:18832426

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  10. 75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Bureau of the Census Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department... Bureau) issues this notice to request comments on the approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty... on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which was recently released by the...

  11. Supplemental development document for effluent-limitations guidelines and standards for the leather tanning and finishing. Point source category. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gile, R.R.

    1988-02-01

    EPA amended 40 CFR Part 425 which limits effluent discharges to waters of the U.S. and the introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works (POTW) by existing and new sources engaged in leather tanning and finishing. EPA agreed to promulgate these amendments in a settlement agreement with the Tanners' Council of America, Inc. The agreement settles a dispute between the Council and EPA that was the subject of a petition for judicial review of the final leather tanning and finishing regulation promulgated by EPA on November 23, 1982 (47 FR 52848). The document describes the technical development of these amendments which include: (1) a new analytical method for the determination of the presence of sulfide in wastewater for use in the Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory; (2) clarification of procedural requirements for POTW to follow in determining whether sulfide pretreatment standards are applicable; (3) revisions to certain of the effluent limitations guidelines for best practicable control technology currently available (BPT) and new source performance standards (NSPS).

  12. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  13. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  14. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  15. Long-term reindeer grazing limits warming-induced increases in CO2 released by tundra heath soil: potential role of soil C quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Maria; Sjögersten, Sofie; Large, David; Drage, Trevor; Stark, Sari

    2015-09-01

    The current climate warming in the Arctic may increase the microbial degradation of vast pools of soil carbon (C); however, the temperature sensitivity of decomposition is often highly dependent on the quality of accumulated soil C. Grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) substantially affects the dominant vegetation and often increases graminoids in relation to dwarf shrubs in ecosystems, but the effect of this vegetation shift on the soil C quality has not been previously investigated. We analyzed the soil C quality and rate of microbially mediated CO2 release at different temperatures in long-term laboratory incubations using soils from lightly grazed dwarf shrub-dominated and heavily grazed graminoid-dominated tundra ecosystem. The soil C quality was characterized by solid-state cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy, which showed a higher relative proportion of carbohydrate C under light grazing and higher relative proportion of aliphatic not-O-substituted C under heavy grazing. Initial measurements showed lower temperature sensitivity of the CO2 release in soils under light grazing compared with soil under heavy grazing, but the overall CO2 release rate and its temperature sensitivity increased under light grazing as the soil incubation progressed. At the end of incubation, significantly more carbohydrate C had been lost in soils under light grazing compared with heavy grazing. These findings indicate that there may be a link between the grazer-induced effects on soil C quality and the potential of soils to release CO2 to atmosphere. We suggest that vegetation shifts induced by grazing could influence the proportion of accumulated soil C that is vulnerable to microbial degradation under warming climate.

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  17. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  18. Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Neville D.; Knowles, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms. PMID:23316417

  19. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 Promotes Arabidopsis Mucilage Release by Limiting Methylesterification of Homogalacturonan in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype. PMID:23362209

  20. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  1. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  2. The Multi-Lingual Supplement to the Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. M.

    The compilers and translators of the recently released IAU "Astronomy Thesaurus" (affectionately known as TREX), are pleased to announce the availability of the new multi-lingual supplement (ML-TREX) in French, German, Italian and Spanish. The primary terms as well as the non-preferred terms have been translated in the supplement and it is designed enhance the main thesaurus as an online reference tool. Some review copies have been sent out on a limited distribution basis. Although much of current scientific research is reported in English there is a need by librarians to have a reference resource of terminology in a variety of languages. Librarians are aware of the amount of literature in their libraries in all languages both current and historical which must be dealt with and few of us have the multi-lingual skills to cope with it. The supplement is designed to be used as an online reference resource and therefore has been made available via the World Wide Web and an anonymous ftp account at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The files can be down- loaded directly into any preferred word processor or into a computer system as a "knowledge base" together with the main thesaurus. For more information: LIB@aaoepp.aao.gov.au or http://www.aao.gov.au or the thesaurus directory via anonymous ftp access.

  3. Does phosphate release limit the ATPases of soleus myofibrils? Evidence that (A)M. ADP.Pi states predominate on the cross-bridge cycle.

    PubMed

    Iorga, Bogdan; Candau, Robin; Travers, Franck; Barman, Tom; Lionne, Corinne

    2004-01-01

    The ATPases (+/-Ca2+) of myofibrils from rabbit soleus (a slow muscle) and psoas (a fast muscle) have different Ea: -Ca2+, 78 and 60 kJ/mol and +Ca2+, 155 and 71 kJ/mol, respectively. At physiological temperatures, the two types of myofibrillar ATPase are very similar and yet the mechanical properties of the muscles are different (Candau et al. (2003) Biophys J 85: 3132-3141). Muscle contraction relies on specific interactions of the different chemical states on the myosin head ATPase pathway with the thin filament. An explanation for the Ea data is that different states populate the pathways of the two types of myofibril because the rate limiting steps are different. Here, we put this to the test by a comparison of the transient kinetics of the initial steps of the ATPases of the two types of myofibril at 4 degrees C. We used two methods: rapid flow quench ('cold ATP chase': titration of active sites, ATP binding kinetics, k(cat); 'Pi burst': ATP cleavage kinetics) and fluorescence stopped-flow (MDCC-phosphate binding protein for free Pi; myofibrillar tryptophan fluorescence for myosin head-thin filament detachment and ATP cleavage kinetics). We find that, as with psoas myofibrils, the most populated state on the cross-bridge cycle of soleus myofibrils, whether relaxed or activated, is (A)M.ADP.Pi. We propose a reaction pathway that includes several (A)M.ADP.Pi sub-states that are either 'weak' or 'strong', depending on the mechanical condition. PMID:15548866

  4. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  5. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  6. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-09-01

    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  7. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  8. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  9. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final... which it relates. (e) News releases stating the availability and place for obtaining or inspecting...

  10. 20 CFR 668.410 - What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... supplemental youth services funding? 668.410 Section 668.410 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... ACT Supplemental Youth Services § 668.410 What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding? Eligible recipients for supplemental youth services funding are limited to those...

  11. 20 CFR 668.410 - What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... supplemental youth services funding? 668.410 Section 668.410 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... ACT Supplemental Youth Services § 668.410 What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding? Eligible recipients for supplemental youth services funding are limited to those...

  12. 20 CFR 668.410 - What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... supplemental youth services funding? 668.410 Section 668.410 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supplemental Youth Services § 668.410 What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding? Eligible recipients for supplemental youth services funding are limited...

  13. 20 CFR 668.410 - What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... supplemental youth services funding? 668.410 Section 668.410 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supplemental Youth Services § 668.410 What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding? Eligible recipients for supplemental youth services funding are limited...

  14. 20 CFR 668.410 - What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... supplemental youth services funding? 668.410 Section 668.410 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Supplemental Youth Services § 668.410 What entities are eligible to receive supplemental youth services funding? Eligible recipients for supplemental youth services funding are limited...

  15. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  16. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; McCallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-05-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  17. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  18. Effect of β-alanine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Harris, Roger C; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide of β-alanine and L-histidine found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle. Combined with β-alanine, the pKa of the histidine imidazole ring is raised to ∼6.8, placing it within the muscle intracellular pH high-intensity exercise transit range. Combination with β-alanine renders the dipeptide inert to intracellular enzymic hydrolysis and blocks the histidinyl residue from participation in proteogenesis, thus making it an ideal, stable intracellular buffer. For vegetarians, synthesis is limited by β-alanine availability; for meat-eaters, hepatic synthesis is supplemented with β-alanine from the hydrolysis of dietary carnosine. Direct oral β-alanine supplementation will compensate for low meat and fish intake, significantly raising the muscle carnosine concentration. This is best achieved with a sustained-release formulation of β-alanine to avoid paresthesia symptoms and decreasing urinary spillover. In humans, increased levels of carnosine through β-alanine supplementation have been shown to increase exercise capacity and performance of several types, particularly where the high-intensity exercise range is 1-4 min. β-Alanine supplementation is used by athletes competing in high-intensity track and field cycling, rowing, swimming events and other competitions. PMID:23899755

  19. Micronutrient supplementation and T-cell mediated immune responses in patients with tuberculosis in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited studies exist regarding whether incorporating micronutrient supplements during tuberculosis (TB) treatment may improve cell-mediated immune response. We examine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on lymphocyte proliferation response to mycobacteria or T cell mitogens in a randomize...

  20. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  1. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  2. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Why take a prenatal supplement? You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms-to-Be / Dietary Supplements Why take a prenatal supplement? Print Share During pregnancy, your needs increase ...

  3. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  4. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  5. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  6. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  7. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  8. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  9. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  10. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... as diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease. Sources of Science-Based Information It’s important to look for reliable ... e-mail Email Address Related Topics Know the Science: How Medications and Supplements Can Interact Safe Use ...

  11. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  12. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  13. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  14. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  15. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  16. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  17. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  18. Evaluation of metal and microbial contamination in botanical supplements.

    PubMed

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Patino, Lina C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-12-29

    The sale of botanical dietary supplements in the United States is on the rise. However, limited studies have been conducted on the safety of these supplements. There are reports on the presence of undesired metals in some of the botanical dietary supplements. In this study, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort supplements manufactured by Nature's Way, Meijer, GNC, Nutrilite, Solaray, Sundown and Natrol, have been analyzed for lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, uranium, chromium, vanadium, copper, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, tin, antimony, thallium, and tungsten using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All samples were devoid of mercury contamination. Results indicated that the botanical supplements analyzed did not contain unacceptable concentrations of these metals. These supplements were also evaluated for microbial contamination, and most samples analyzed showed the presence of bacteria or fungi or both. Microbes were not counted nor were microbial counts determined in these samples. PMID:15612762

  19. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  20. Critical appraisal of extended-release hydrocodone for chronic pain: patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Harry J; Paul, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Opioid analgesics are currently the most effective pharmacologic option for the management of both acute and chronic forms of moderate-to-severe pain. Although the “as-needed” use of immediate-release formulations is considered optimum for treating acute, painful episodes of limited duration, the scheduled dosing of extended-release formulations with immediate-release supplementation for breakthrough pain is regarded to be most effective for managing chronic conditions requiring around-the-clock treatment. The recent introduction of extended-release formulations of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone potentially broadened the possibility of providing pain relief for individuals for whom current formulations are either ineffective or not tolerated. However, reaction to the approval of the new formulations has fueled controversy over the general safety and need for opioid medications, in light of their potential for misuse, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Here, we discuss how the approval of extended-release formulations of hydrocodone and the emotionally charged controversy over their release may affect physician prescribing and the care available to patients in need of chronic opioid therapy for the management of pain. PMID:26543371

  1. Supplementation during pregnancy: beliefs and science.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Cetin, Irene; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2016-07-01

    Pregnancy represents a challenge from a nutritional perspective, because micronutrient intake during the periconceptional period and in pregnancy affects fetal organ development and the mother's health. Inappropriate diet/nutrition in pregnancy can lead to numerous deficiencies including iron deficiency and may impair placental function and play a role in miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and preeclampsia. This article reviews the risks associated with nutrient deficiencies in pregnant women and presents an overview of recommendations for dietary supplementation in pregnancy, focusing on oral iron supplementation. Risk factor detection, including dietary patterns and comorbidities, is paramount in optimal pregnancy management. Dietary habits, which can lead to deficiencies (e.g., iron, folate, vitamin D, and calcium) and result in negative health consequences for the mother and fetus/newborn, need to be investigated. Prenatal care should be personalized, accounting for ethnicity, culture, education, information level about pregnancy, and dietary and physical habits. Clinicians should make a plan for appropriate supplementation and prophylaxis/treatment of nutritional and other needs, and consider adequate intake of calcium, iodine, vitamin D, folate, and iron. Among the available oral iron supplements, prolonged-released ferrous sulfate (ferrous sulfate-polymeric complex) presents the lowest incidence of overall and gastrointestinal adverse events, with positive implications for compliance. PMID:26956254

  2. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder...

  3. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder...

  4. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  5. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  6. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals. PMID:24323888

  7. 78 FR 69873 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision and Final Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 40496). The release of the Draft Supplemental EIS initiated a formal 45-day public comment... Environmental Impact Statement for the Ruby Pipeline Project in Oregon, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau... (ROD) and Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Ruby Pipeline...

  8. 76 FR 57957 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La... availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA announces the public release of the Draft SEIS in accordance with the National...

  9. 77 FR 31326 - Notice of Availability of a Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Replacement of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Southwest... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS); Opportunity for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA announces the public release of the Final SEIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969,...

  10. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This report is a companion document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94), (DOE/EIA-0383(94)), released in Jan. 1994. Part I of the Supplement presents the key quantitative assumptions underlying the AEO94 projections, responding to requests by energy analysts for additional information on the forecasts. In Part II, the Supplement provides regional projections and other underlying details of the reference case projections in the AEO94. The AEO94 presents national forecasts of energy production, demand and prices through 2010 for five scenarios, including a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. These forecasts are used by Federal, State, and local governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers in the public and private sectors.

  11. The Importance of Carotenoid Dose in Supplementation Studies with Songbirds.

    PubMed

    Koch, Rebecca E; Wilson, Alan E; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoid coloration is the one of the most frequently studied ornamental traits in animals. Many studies of carotenoid coloration test the associations between carotenoid coloration and measures of performance, such as immunocompetence and oxidative state, proceeding from the premise that carotenoids are limited resources. Such studies commonly involve supplementing the diets of captive birds with carotenoids. In many cases, however, the amount of carotenoid administered is poorly justified, and even supposedly carotenoid-limited diets may saturate birds' systems. To quantify the relationships among the amount of carotenoids administered in experiments, levels of circulating carotenoids, and quantities of carotenoids deposited into colored ornaments, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies that supplemented carotenoids to one of seven songbird species. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate the per-gram carotenoid consumption of each study's subjects, and we used meta-regression to evaluate the effects of this carotenoid dose on differences in coloration and plasma carotenoid levels between supplemented and control groups of birds. After accounting for supplementation duration and species, we observed a significant positive correlation between carotenoid intake and response of plasma carotenoid level to supplementation. The presence of supplemental carotenoids also tended to increase the expression of ornamental coloration, but the magnitude of the carotenoid dose did not significantly affect how strongly coloration changed with supplementation. Further, coloration effect sizes had no significant relationship with plasma carotenoid effect sizes. We also found significant heterogeneity in responses among studies and species, and the parameters used to measure color significantly affected response to supplementation. Our results emphasize the importance of performing dosage trials to determine what supplementation levels provide limited

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  13. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  14. Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

  15. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  16. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. Objectives To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group’s Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search: 08 October 2014. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Main results Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a crossover design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration

  17. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of bruising and bleeding. Supplement: Goldenseal Root Possible drug-supplement interaction with: Cyclosporine. Can decrease ... using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Goldenseal root may decrease how quickly the liver breaks down ...

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  20. Supplemental tooth in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2014-01-01

    An extra tooth causing numerical excess in dentition is described as supernumerary tooth, and the resultant condition is termed as hyperdontia. Hyperdontia is more commonly seen in the permanent dentition than primary one. Supernumerary tooth which resembles tooth shape and supplements for occlusion is called as supplemental tooth. We present a case with supplemental tooth in primary dentition. PMID:24913075

  1. Effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Jyoti, Uma; Sharma, Samridhi; Kaura, Arun; Deshmukh, Rahul; Goyal, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Hyperlipidemia attenuates the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The present study investigated the effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rat by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then the serum lipid profile was observed. In experiment, the isolated Langendorff rat heart preparation was subjected to 4 cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), then 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was elaborated morphologically by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and biochemically by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release from coronary effluent and left ventricular collagen content. However, the effect of zinc supplement, i.e., zinc pyrithione (10 μM) perfused during reperfusion for 120 min, significantly abrogated the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart whereas administration of chelator of this zinc ionophore, i.e., N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylene diamine (TPEN; 10 μM), perfused during reperfusion 2 min before the perfusion of zinc pyrithione abrogated the cardioprotective effect of zinc supplement during experiment in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Thus, the administration of zinc supplements limits the infarct size, LDH, and CK-MB and enhanced the collagen level which suggests that the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat is due to zinc loss during reperfusion caused by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25743572

  2. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  3. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to

  4. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality. PMID:27544991

  5. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  6. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  7. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  8. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  9. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  10. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  11. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  12. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release. PMID:26276252

  13. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Wortham, G.R.

    1997-10-13

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. The concentration data is supported by climatological data taken during and immediately after the releases. In six cases, the release data is supplemented with meteorological data taken at seven towers scattered throughout the immediate area of the releases and data from a single television tower instrumented at eight heights. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected is valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04 percent of the natural background dose to the population in the path of the release.

  14. Vitamin supplementation and megadoses.

    PubMed

    Blair, K A

    1986-07-01

    Almost one-third of American adults regularly take vitamins and supplements. If taken incorrectly or in excess, these vitamins may be a potential health hazard. Vitamins are essential nutrients which, in combination with other nutrients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates and proteins), foster normal metabolism. Vitamins also interact with each other. For example, vitamin C participates in the metabolism of folic acid, and vitamin E facilitates the absorption and storage of vitamin A. Because the biological functions of vitamins are interrelated, a diet poor in vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and proteins is not necessarily enhanced by vitamin supplementation. When vitamins are taken in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the individual's needs, the vitamins no longer function as vitamins but instead act as drugs, with such pharmacological effects as clinical toxicities and the abnormal utilization of vitamins. There are six categories that require vitamin supplements and, in some cases, megadoses. These will be discussed in detail. In addition, a brief table showing the Recommended Dietary Allowances will be given which the nurse practitioner can use in assessing nutritional needs of the client so that necessary adjustments can be made. Finally, a brief review of the potential risks and benefits of megadoses in normal, healthy adults will be given. PMID:3737019

  15. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  16. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  17. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be... impact statement to which it relates. (d) News releases stating the availability for comment and...

  18. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Environmental Releases Report for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    1999-08-27

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. It presents summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar-year 1998 from facilities and activities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). Besides the summaries, the report also has extensive data on those releases and the radioactive and hazardous substances they contained. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimations deriving from approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER, PNNL-12088), which gives a yearly accounting of the major activities and environmental status of the Hanford Site. The HSER documents the Hanford Site's state of compliance with applicable environmental regulations as well as describing the impacts of activities on the Site to the surrounding populace and environment.

  20. Multivitamin/mineral Calculator for Assessing Nutrient Intake Using the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analytically-based Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database-Release One (DSID-1) was recently released to the scientific community and made publicly available through a web site hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Complete information on nutrient intake from both foods and dietary supplem...

  1. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  2. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  3. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  4. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  5. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and...

  6. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation.

  7. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  8. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  9. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  10. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....